Sample records for microgrid reliability modeling

  1. Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE) Microgrid: Models & Tools (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure describes Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE), a trademarked process NREL employs to produce conceptual microgrid designs. This systems-based process enables designs to be optimized for economic value, energy surety, and sustainability. Capabilities NREL offers in support of microgrid design are explained.

  2. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  3. Reliability of islanded microgrids with stochastic generation and prioritized load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marden, Mirjana Milosevic

    The potential to improve distribution system reliability is a primary motivation behind the development and deployment of microgrids. Previous studies have illustrated substantial reliability benefits of dispatchable ...

  4. Microgrids and Heterogeneous Power Quality and Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes two stylized alternative visions of how the power system might evolve to meet future requirements for the high quality electricity service that modern digital economies demand, a supergrids paradigm and a dispersed paradigm. Some of the economics of the dispersed vision are explored, and perspectives are presented on both the choice of homogeneous universal power quality upstream in the electricity supply chain and on the extremely heterogeneous requirements of end-use loads. It is argued that meeting the demanding requirements of sensitive loads by local provision of high quality power may be more cost effective than increasing the quality of universal homogeneous supply upstream in the legacy grid. Finally, the potential role of microgrids in delivering heterogeneous power quality is demonstrated by reference to two ongoing microgrid tests in the U.S. and Japan.

  5. Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model is used to estimate the value an Oakland nursing home, a Riverside high school, and a Sunnyvale data center would need to put on higher electricity service reliability for them to adopt a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Microgrid (CM) based on economics alone. A fraction of each building's load is deemed critical based on its mission, and the added cost of CM capability to meet it added to on-site generation options. The three sites are analyzed with various resources available as microgrid components. Results show that the value placed on higher reliability often does not have to be significant for CM to appear attractive, about 25 $/kWcdota and up, but the carbon footprint consequences are mixed because storage is often used to shift cheaper off-peak electricity to use during afternoon hours in competition with the solar sources.

  6. DOD/NREL Model Integrates Vehicles, Renewables & Microgrid (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet on microgrid model created by the Electric Vehicle Grid Integration program at the Fort Carson Army facility.

  7. Introduction to the model-free control of microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Loïc

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter presents the application of the model-free control approach to the microgrid control. We show in simulation that the method allows to control, with a simple controller, voltage, current and power of inverter-based microgrids.

  8. Microgrids

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312),Microgrid Workshop Report August 2011 Microgrid

  9. Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert H. Lasseter

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can cause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to realize the emerging potential of distributed generation is to take a system approach which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a “microgrid”. The sources can

  10. Microgrids and Heterogeneous Security, Quality, Reliability, andAvailability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes two stylized alternative visions inpopular currencyof how the power system might evolve to meet futurerequirements for the high quality electricity service that modern digitaleconomies demand, a supergrids paradigm and a dispersed paradigm. Some ofthe economics of the dispersed vision are explored. Economic perspectivesare presented on both the choice of homogeneous universal power qualityupstream in the electricity supply, and also on the extremelyheterogeneous require-ments of end-use loads. Finally, the potential roleof microgrids in delivering heterogeneous power quality is demonstratedby reference to two ongoing microgrid tests in the U.S. andJapan.

  11. Microgrids and Heterogeneous Security, Quality, Reliability, and Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integrationand Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integration

  12. Microgrids and Heterogeneous Security, Quality, Reliability, and Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quality, reliability, and availability,” IEEE Power & EnergyReliability, and Availability Chris Marnay EnvironmentalQuality, Reliability, and Availability C. Marnay Ernest

  13. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

  14. Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids with Droop Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    the validity of the proposed models. Index Terms--Droop control, microgrids, power systems stability, power systems modeling. I. INTRODUCTION Microgrids consist of interconnected distributed storages and energy1 Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids with Droop Control V

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Microgrid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security, Microgrid, News, News & Events, Partnership, Research & Capabilities, SMART Grid The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security...

  16. New modeling and control solutions for integrated microgrid system with respect to thermodynamics properties of generation and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fang-Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates microgrid control stability with respect to thermodynamics behaviors of generation and demand. First, a new integrated microgrid model is introduced. This model consists of a combined cycle power ...

  17. Abstract--Increasing concerns about energy security and reliability are intensifying the interest in microgrid and vehicle-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    , frequency, and voltage control algorithms for the inverters that connect microsources to the microgrid of PEVs on the microgrid at different penetration levels and for different control parameters on microgrid performance. Index Terms--Electric vehicles; frequency control; microgrid; vehicle

  18. PSCAD/EMTDC-Based Modeling and Analysis of a Microgrid with Renewable Energy Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Zhengguo

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . The proposed microgrid system includes fundamental power system component models, two renewable energy source models (wind and solar) and one energy storage source model. Different case studies were conducted. The results from the simulation case studies...

  19. PSCAD/EMTDC-Based Modeling and Analysis of a Microgrid with Renewable Energy Sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Zhengguo

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . The proposed microgrid system includes fundamental power system component models, two renewable energy source models (wind and solar) and one energy storage source model. Different case studies were conducted. The results from the simulation case studies...

  20. Making Microgrids Work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Lasseter, R.; Ise, T.; Morozumi, S.; Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources including distributed generation and distributed storage are sources of energy located near local loads and can provide a variety of benefits including improved reliability if they are properly operated in the electrical distribution system. Microgrids are systems that have at least one distributed energy resource and associated loads and can form intentional islands in the electrical distribution systems. This paper gives an overview of the microgrid operation. Microgrid testing experiences from different counties was also provided.

  1. DC Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ability of microgrids to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are...

  2. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage; and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of PQR into the capabilities of DER-CAM.

  3. Facility Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  4. Vehicle to Micro-Grid: Leveraging Existing Assets for Reliable Energy Management (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.; O'Keefe, M.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fort Carson, a United States Army installation located south of Colorado Springs, Colorado, is seeking to be a net-zero energy facility. As part of this initiative, the base will be constructing a micro-grid that ties to various forms of renewable energy. To reduce petroleum consumption, Fort Carson is considering grid-connected vehicles (GCVs) such as pure electric trucks to replace some of its on-base truck fleet. As the availability and affordability of distributed renewable energy generation options increase, so will the GCV options (currently, three all-electric trucks are available on the GSA schedule). The presence of GCVs on-base opens up the possibility to utilize these vehicles to provide stability to the base micro-grid. This poster summarizes work to estimate the potential impacts of three electric vehicle grid interactions between the electric truck fleet and the Fort Carson micro-grid: 1) full-power charging without management, 2) full-power charging capability controlled by the local grid authority, and 3) full-power charge and discharge capability controlled by the local grid authority. We found that even at relatively small adoption rates, the control of electric vehicle charging at Fort Carson will aid in regulation of variable renewable generation loads and help stabilize the micro-grid.

  5. 2012 Microgrid Workshop Summary Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has released the summary report from the July 30-31, 2012 Microgrid Workshop presented by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. The workshop was held in response to discussions at the preceding DOE Microgrid Workshop, held in August 2011, which called for sharing lessons learned and best practices for system integration from existing projects in the U.S. (including military microgrids) and internationally.

  6. A Micro-Grid Simulator Tool (SGridSim) using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udhay Ravishankar; Milos manic

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a micro-grid simulator tool useful for implementing and testing multi-agent controllers (SGridSim). As a common engineering practice it is important to have a tool that simplifies the modeling of the salient features of a desired system. In electric micro-grids, these salient features are the voltage and power distributions within the micro-grid. Current simplified electric power grid simulator tools such as PowerWorld, PowerSim, Gridlab, etc, model only the power distribution features of a desired micro-grid. Other power grid simulators such as Simulink, Modelica, etc, use detailed modeling to accommodate the voltage distribution features. This paper presents a SGridSim micro-grid simulator tool that simplifies the modeling of both the voltage and power distribution features in a desired micro-grid. The SGridSim tool accomplishes this simplified modeling by using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) models of components that typically make-up a micro-grid. The term EN2NCI models means that the impedance based components of a micro-grid are modeled as single impedances tied between their respective voltage nodes on the micro-grid. Hence the benefit of the presented SGridSim tool are 1) simulation of a micro-grid is performed strictly in the complex-domain; 2) faster simulation of a micro-grid by avoiding the simulation of detailed transients. An example micro-grid model was built using the SGridSim tool and tested to simulate both the voltage and power distribution features with a total absolute relative error of less than 6%.

  7. Phase Locked Loop Control of Inverters in a Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    an inverter to interface with the microgrid [4], [5], [6]. Such sources include photovoltaic panels, fuel reliability through their ability to island. Islanding means that the microgrid continues to operate autonomously when disconnected from the grid. Islanding provides microgrid customers with greater reliability

  8. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or more of the CERTS Microgrid concepts. Future planned microgrid work involves unattended continuous operation of the microgrid for 30 to 60 days to determine how utility faults impact the operation of the microgrid and to gage the power quality and reliability improvements offered by microgrids.

  9. 1 A Centralized Optimal Energy Management System for Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel E. Olivares; Claudio A. Cañizares; Mehrdad Kazerani; Senior Member

    Abstract — The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources into microgrids and large power grids has recently gained considerable attention. The microgrid concept, which basically corresponds to the coordinated operation of a cluster of loads, distributed generators

  10. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Goncalo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significant impact on both energy and demand costs, althoughtariffs for both energy and power demand incurs significant0) = 4 Total energy costs TOU charges Demand charges Average

  11. Modeling Microgrid Islanding Problems as DCOPs Saurabh Gupta, William Yeoh, Enrico Pontelli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    , we formulate the microgrid islanding problem as distributed constraint optimization problem (DCOP. Index Terms--Microgrid, Islanding, Distributed Constraint Optimization. I. INTRODUCTION Every year residential and commercial facilities with controllable loads and distributed generation sources; loads

  12. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Microgrid Fault Protection Based;#12;Microgrid Fault Protection Based on Symmetrical and Differential Current Components Prepared for Public............................................................................................................................. 12 2. AEP CERTS MICROGRID

  13. Shape of the microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Restrictions on expansion of traditional centralized generating and delivery systems may be becoming so tight in the industrialized countries that they cannot reasonably be expected meet future electricity demand growth at acceptable cost. Meanwhile, technological advances, notably improved power electronics that permit grid interconnection of asynchronous generation sources, is tilting the economics of power generation back towards smaller scales, thereby reversing a century long trend towards the central control paradigm. Special power quality requirements or opportunities for combined heat and power applications make on-site generation an even more attractive option for customers. The existence of a significant amount of electricity sources dispersed throughout the low voltage distribution system could create a power system quite different to the one we are familiar with and creating it offers significant research and engineering challenges. Moreover, the electrical and economic relationships between customers and the distribution utility and among customers may take forms quite distinct from those we know today. For example, rather than devices being individually interconnected in parallel with the grid, they may be grouped with loads in a semi-autonomous neighborhood that could be termed a microgrid. A microgrid is a cluster of small (by the standards of current power systems, e.g. < 500 kW) sources, storage systems, and loads which presents itself to the grid as a legitimate single entity. The heart of the microgrid concept is the notion of a flexible, yet controllable electronic interface between the microgrid and the familiar wider power system, or macrogrid. This interface essentially isolates the two sides electrically; and yet connects them economically by allowing delivery and receipt of electrical energy and ancillary services (EE&AS) at the interface. From the customer side of the interface, the microgrid should appear as an autonomous power system meeting the power quality and reliability requirements of the customer. Such issues as local voltage, reliability, losses and quality of power should be those that support the customers' objectives. From the macrogrid side, however, the microgrid should appear as a legitimate entity akin to current interconnected generators or loads. A key distinction between microgrids and our familiar arrangements is the expanded role of electricity endusers in determining the pattern of development of the overall power system, which must not only accommodate purchases and sales of EE&AS to and from established markets but also contractual agreements between microgrids. Fundamentally, the characteristics and capabilities of the microgrid will be determined by its internal requirements together with the technical, economic, and regulatory opportunities and constraints it faces, and not by established objectives for capacity expansion and reliability of the macrogrid. The goal of Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) work underway at the Berkeley Lab is to anticipate possible patterns of microgrid development that can help focus research efforts on the key technical problems that must be solved to enable microgrid deployment.

  14. International Microgrid Assessment: Governance, INcentives, and Experience (IMAGINE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    economic feasibility of potential renewable energy, energyrenewable energy, identifies the barriers to microgrid development and suggests potentialpotential to increase reliability, energy efficiency, and use of renewable

  15. Droop Control for Islanded Microgrids Hemanshu R Pota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    ]. In this paper a linear model of a two- source microgrid is used to tune controllers for reactive power sharing for power sharing amongst renewable resources in microgrid. II. POWER SHARING WITHOUT CONTROL Analysis. For a microgrid modelled as a collection of ideal voltage sources only the controller and sensor dynamics interact

  16. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vs. Short-Term Energy Storage Technologies Analysis, A Life-Storage Technologies”, ACEEE 2008 Summer Study on EnergyStorage Technologies on Microgrid Viability The Distributed Energy

  17. Microgrid Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirazi, M.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the publication of IEEE 1574.4 Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems, there is an increasing amount of attention on not only the design and operations of microgrids, but also on the proper operation and testing of these systems. This standard provides alternative approaches and good practices for the design, operation, and integration of microgrids. This includes the ability to separate from and reconnect to part of the utility grid while providing power to the islanded power system. This presentation addresses the industry need to develop standardized testing and evaluation procedures for microgrids in order to assure quality operation in the grid connected and islanded modes of operation.

  18. Value and Technology Assessment to Enhance the Business Case for the CERTS Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasseter, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genset Reliability The genset equipment is consideredAssessments of reliability for the generating equipment asreliability considerations, into its optimization of microgrid equipment

  19. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Technical Advisory Committee Microgrid Test Bed Project 30 April 2008 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Building 90 Room 4133 1

  20. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Summary of CERTS Microgrid Static Switch Power Quality Tests at AEP Dolan, CERTS Microgrid Static Switch Testing Prepared For of the information in this report. #12;#12;AEP DTC Proposed Test Plan ­ CERTS Micro-grid Static Switch Project

  2. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  3. Vehicle to MicroGrid: Leveraging Existing Assets for Reliable Energy Management Mike Simpson, Tony Markel, and Michael O'Keefe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Communities Vehicles POWER ELECTRONICS EFFICIENCY POWER ELECTRONICS EFFICIENCY INFRASTRUCTURE CODES Electricity GCV MicroGrid The Smith Electric Newton allelectric truckFort Carson Photovoltaic Installation Managed Charging 3 Managed Bidirectional Charging ANALYSIS Courtesy of Smith Electric Vehicles

  4. Energy manager design for microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services such as voltage support and emergency demand response. Local aggregations of distributed energy resources (DER) that may include active control of on-site end-use energy devices can be called microgrids. Microgrids require control to ensure safe operation and to make dispatch decisions that achieve system objectives such as cost minimization, reliability, efficiency and emissions requirements, while abiding by system constraints and regulatory rules. This control is performed by an energy manager (EM). Preferably, an EM will achieve operation reasonably close to the attainable optimum, it will do this by means robust to deviations from expected conditions, and it will not itself incur insupportable capital or operation and maintenance costs. Also, microgrids can include supervision over end-uses, such as curtailing or rescheduling certain loads. By viewing a unified microgrid as a system of supply and demand, rather than simply a system of on-site generation devices, the benefits of integrated supply and demand control can be exploited, such as economic savings and improved system energy efficiency.

  5. A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Greg Young; Abbey, Chad; Joos, Geza; Marnay, Chris

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Microgrid is recognized as an innovative technology to help integrate renewables into distribution systems and to provide additional benefits to a variety of stakeholders, such as offsetting infrastructure investments and improving the reliability of the local system. However, these systems require additional investments for control infrastructure, and as such, additional costs and the anticipated benefits need to be quantified in order to determine whether the investment is economically feasible. This paper proposes a methodology for systematizing and representing benefits and their interrelationships based on the UML Use Case paradigm, which allows complex systems to be represented in a concise, elegant format. This methodology is demonstrated by determining the economic feasibility of a Microgrid and Distributed Generation installed on a typical Canadian rural distribution system model as a case study. The study attempts to minimize the cost of energy served to the community, considering the fixed costs associated with Microgrids and Distributed Generation, and suggests benefits to a variety of stakeholders.

  6. Integration of Distributed Energy The CERTS MicroGrid Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resources The MicroGrid Concept Appendices Prepared for Transmission Reliability Program Office of PowerIntegration of Distributed Energy Resources The CERTS MicroGrid Concept CALIFORNIA ENERGY;Preface The U.S. Electricity Grid Today The U.S. electric power system is in the midst of a fundamental

  7. SMART FUEL CELL OPERATED RESIDENTIAL MICRO-GRID COMMUNITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam (PI/PD)

    2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To build on the work of year one by expanding the smart control algorithm developed to a micro-grid of ten houses; to perform a cost analysis; to evaluate alternate energy sources; to study system reliability; to develop the energy management algorithm, and to perform micro-grid software and hardware simulations.

  8. Sandia Energy - Microgrid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ridashoter2015-04-07T21:09:21+00:00 A microgrid is a small-scale version of a centralized electric grid-implemented at a local level. A microgrid can be tied to the larger grid,...

  9. Abstract--The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources into microgrids and large power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    resources (DER), many of them based on renewable energies, have experimented an unprecedented growth of the renewable energy sources, and its integration into power systems. One of the main technical issues1 Abstract-- The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources

  10. Microgrids for Rural Electrification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microgrids for Rural Electrification: A critical review of best practices based on seven case Electrification Microgrids for Rural Electrification: A critical review of best practices based on seven case Mellon University University of California, Berkeley #12;Microgrids for Rural Electrification i Dan

  11. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Test Plan Section 7.0 Validate upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this report. #12;#12;CERTS MICROGRID TEST REPORT.0 MICROGRID TESTBED SETUP......................................................... 2 4.0 PROPOSED TEST PLAN

  12. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Test Log Prepared For in this report. #12;#12;DTC Registered Procedure - CERTS Microgrid Test Plan Appendix C: TEST LOG Dolan: Assigned Approved by: K. P. Loving Procedure Review Date: 23 Feb. 2008 Appendix C - "CERTS Microgrid Test

  13. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Test Plan Section 8.0 Reduced in this report. #12;#12;CERTS MICROGRID TEST REPORT SECTION 8.0 "Reduced System Tests" #12;I Table of Contents 1.0 MICROGRID TESTBED SETUP......................................................... 2 4.0 PROPOSED TEST PLAN

  14. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Tecogen CHP Modules to the CERTS research program for the AEP Microgrid Test Bed. Tecogen subcontracted with Youtility Inc. (Hudson was bench-tested at Youtility both individually, and in pairs as a simulated microgrid. Rather than

  15. Abstract Microgrids are a new concept for future energy dis-tribution systems that enable renewable energy integration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Emmanuel

    1 Abstract ­ Microgrids are a new concept for future energy dis- tribution systems that enable renewable energy integration and improved energy management capability. Microgrids consist of multiple power quality and power distribution reliability, microgrids need to operate in both grid

  16. Software reliability models for critical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Software reliability models for critical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG&G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    equipment operation ... 4.0 Procedures ­ CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Lockout/Tagout 5.0 Procedures ­ General 5

  19. RTI International Develops SSL Luminaire Reliability Model |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is developing and validating accelerated life testing (ALT) methodologies and a reliability model for predicting the lifetime of integrated solid-state lighting...

  20. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 3 - Simplified diagram of Test Bed showing Meter and Relay locations .... 5 Figure 4 - DiagramArnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Test Plan Section 6.0 Microgrid Test Bed System Checkout (Static Switch) Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 3 - Simplified diagram of Test Bed showing Meter and Relay locations .... 4 Figure 4 - DiagramArnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Test Plan Section 10.0 Difficult in this report. #12;#12;CERTS MICROGRID TEST REPORT SECTION 10.0 "Difficult Load Tests" #12;I Table of Contents 1

  2. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assuming perfect reliability of DER equipment. ImperfectEnergy Reliability, http://www.eere.energy.gov/de/equipment_

  3. Are Standard Solar Models Reliable?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John N. Bahcall; M. H. Pinsonneault; Sarbani Basu; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard

    1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The sound speeds of solar models that include element diffusion agree with helioseismological measurements to a rms discrepancy of better than 0.2% throughout almost the entire sun. Models that do not include diffusion, or in which the interior of the sun is assumed to be significantly mixed, are effectively ruled out by helioseismology. Standard solar models predict the measured properties of the sun more accurately than is required for applications involving solar neutrinos.

  4. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  5. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasseter, R. H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roy, Nancy Jo Lewis, “CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Report:Appendix K,” http://certs.lbl.gov/CERTS_P_

  6. Optical fiber reliability models M. John Matthewson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    3 Optical fiber reliability models M. John Matthewson Fiber Optic Materials Research Program Systems containing optical fiber have design lives on the order of decades so that models for assessing and promising areas for future work are proposed. 1. INTRODUCTION Mechanical failure of optical fiber must

  7. Status of Overseas Microgrid Programs:Microgrid Research Activities in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on microgrids in the U.S. has taken a somewhat different path than parallel efforts in Japan and Europe, and this distinction is often noted in international research forums. In general, reliability and power quality in North America is poor compared to other developed countries. For example, in the U.S., the average annual expected outage duration is a few hours, whereas in Japan, it is only a few minutes. Power quality problems in the U.S. are both large scale, such as the August 2003 blackout, and local, such as damaging voltage sags. Meeting the increasingly demanding requirements of a modern digital economy would then seem to offer a more daunting challenge for the U.S. than elsewhere, and certainly, concern that the existing power delivery system will prove inadequate for future gourmet requirements has been a motivating driver of U.S. research. This objective tends to translate into a desire for microgrids to seamlessly island when grid power is interrupted or its quality is inadequate, and to (also seamlessly) reconnect when normal service has been restored. In a sense, the microgrid is perceived as acting as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), and sometimes even as a competitor to existing UPS options. Nonetheless, this difference is often over-stated, and the other threads that motivate microgrid research also exist in the U.S., e.g. the desire to expand renewable generation and the need to increase the efficiency of fossil-fired generation by the useful local application of waste heat in combined heat and power (CHP) systems, Further, over time, the differences are blurring as concerns about climate change increasingly dominate objectives worldwide. This article describes the CERTS Microgrid, which is almost certainly the best known U.S. example, and also briefly mentions some other U.S. microgrid research.

  8. Wireless Communication for Controlling Microgrids: Co-simulation and Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Rukun [ORNL] [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Husheng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microgrid with wireless communication links for microgrid control has been designed and developed. The complete simulation model has been developed in MatLab SimuLink with seamless integration of the power subsystem and the communication subsystem. Unlike the conventional co-simulators that usually glue two existing simulators together by creating an interface, which has a steep learning curve, the proposed simulator is a compact single-unit model. Detailed modeling of the power subsystem and communication system is presented as well as the microgrid control architecture and strategies. The impact of different communication system performances on microgrid control has been studied and evaluated in the proposed simulator.

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS Cost and Stability Analysis of Microgrids in Presence Of Evs Based On Dynamic Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad Vazinram; Majid G; Mehdi Bayat Mokhtari

    Development of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) has been created many challenges and also advantages for grids. One of the most important subjects is capability of which as energy storage device. In this paper, role of EVs has been studied as useful element in microgrids as energy storage device to reduce

  10. Value and Technology Assessment to Enhance the Business Case for the CERTS Microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseter, Robert; Eto, Joe

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERTS Microgrid concept is an advanced approach for enabling integration of, in principle, an unlimited quantity of distributed energy resources into the electricity grid. A key feature of a microgrid, is its ability, during a utility grid disturbance, to separate and isolate itself from the utility seamlessly with no disruption to the loads within the microgrid (including no reduction in power quality). Then, when the utility grid returns to normal, the microgrid automatically resynchronizes and reconnects itself to the grid, in an equally seamless fashion. What is unique about the CERTS Microgrid is that it can provide this technically challenging functionality without extensive (i.e., expensive) custom engineering. In addition, the design of the CERTS Microgrid also provides high system reliability and great flexibility in the placement of distributed generation within the microgrid. The CERTS Microgrid offers these functionalities at much lower costs than traditional approaches by incorporating peer-to-peer and plug-and-play concepts for each component within the Microgrid. The predecessor to the current project involved the construction of and completion of initial testing using the world's first, full-scale, inverter-based, distributed generation test bed. The project demonstrated three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, which collectively significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of small generating sources. The techniques are: (1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation; (2) an approach to electrical protection within the microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and (3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under both grid and islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications. The work conducted in this phase of RD&D on the CERTS Microgrid Concept builds upon this base of technical accomplishments to prioritize, develop, and then demonstrate technology enhancements to further enhance the business case for microgrids. That is, having demonstrated the technical feasibility of microgrid functions, RD&D optimization efforts are now needed to accelerate commercial deployment. The current phase is a contribution to these efforts. This project involved seven distinct analysis, bench-, and full-scale testing tasks. The first five tasks were described in the original proposal submitted and awarded through DOE's solicitation. Two additional tasks were added to address issues that had been identified in the earlier, first phase of testing.

  11. Online Energy Generation Scheduling for Microgrids with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    Online Energy Generation Scheduling for Microgrids with Intermittent Energy Sources and Co entitled: Online Energy Generation Scheduling for Microgrids with Intermittent Energy Sources and Co schedul- ing. However, accurate prediction cannot be guaranteed due to the small scale of microgrids

  12. Development of a High-Speed Static Switch for Distributed Energy and Microgrid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; Lynch, J.; John, V.; Meor Daniel, S.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources can provide power to local loads in the electric distribution system and benefits such as improved reliability. Microgrids are intentional islands formed at a facility or in an electrical distribution system that contains at least one distributed resource and associated loads. Microgrids that operate both electrical generation and loads in a coordinated manner can offer additional benefits to the customer and local utility. The loads and energy sources can be disconnected from and reconnected to the area or local utility with minimal disruption to the local loads, thereby improving reliability. This paper details the development and testing of a highspeed static switch for distributed energy and microgrid applications.

  13. Webinar Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids (November 2012) Webinar Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids (November 2012) On November 7, 2012, Clean...

  14. Text of article published in IEEE Smart Grid, March 2012. http://smartgrid.ieee.org/march-2012/527-microgrids-an-emerging-technology-to-enhance-power-system-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /527-microgrids-an-emerging-technology-to-enhance-power-system- reliability Title: Microgrids: An emerging solution to combat reduced power reliability Authors: Siddharth Suryanarayanan, Elias Kyriakides on the society. Such recent international events include: the major power outage in the San Diego area

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Test Bed Design Schematics Park Waitsfield, VT 05673 802-496-2955 www.northernpower.com CERTS Test Bed Schematic - PRELIMINARY (including Relay 1) T11 500kVA L11A,B,C CB12 CB13 Feeder C 75 yds cable Load Bank Zone 6 (Sheet 16, 17) A12 B

  16. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 3 - Simplified diagram of Test Bed showing Meter and Relay locations .... 4 Figure 4 - DiagramArnold Schwarzenegger Governor CERTS MICROGRID LABORATORY TEST BED Test Plan Section 9.0 Power Flow Control Tests Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared

  17. Microgrid: A Conceptual Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert H. Lasseter; Paolo Piagi

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract — Application of individual distributed generators can cause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to realize the emerging potential of distributed generation is to take a system approach which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a “microgrid”. During

  18. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasseter, R. H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inverters, microgrid, CERTS, power vs. frequency droop,voltage droop. The objective of the CERTS Microgridusing a power vs. frequency droop controller. If there is

  19. Project Title: Microgrid Design Toolset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microgrid Design Toolset Organization: Sandia National Laboratories (with support from LBNL and PNNL) Presenters: Jason Stamp and Kevin Schneider FY 2014 Funding (K): 900k...

  20. System and method for controlling microgrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bose, Sumit (Niskayuna, NY); Achilles, Alfredo Sebastian (Bavaria, DE); Liu, Yan (Ballston Lake, NY); Ahmed, Emad Ezzat (Munich, DE); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling a microgrid includes microgrid assets and a tieline for coupling the microgrid to a bulk grid; and a tieline controller coupled to the tieline. At least one of the microgrid assets comprises a different type of asset than another one of the microgrid assets. The tieline controller is configured for providing tieline control signals to adjust active and reactive power in respective microgrid assets in response to commands from the bulk grid operating entity, microgrid system conditions, bulk grid conditions, or combinations thereof.

  1. A Hierarchical Model for Estimating the Reliability of Complex Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Shane

    an approximation to the joint posterior distribution on the total system reliability was obtained. Many reliability or bounding moments of the system reliability posterior distribution (Cole (1975), Mastran (1976), DostalA Hierarchical Model for Estimating the Reliability of Complex Systems Valen E. Johnson, Todd L

  2. Validating and scaling the microgrid: A scientific instrument for grid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xin Liu; Huaxia Xia; Andrew A. Chien

    depends on coordinated and accurate modeling of all four of these elements simultaneously. We have designed and implemented a tool called the MicroGrid which enables accurate and comprehensive study of the dynamic interaction of applications, middleware, resource, and networks. The MicroGrid creates a

  3. Arnold Schwarzenegger CERTS MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a microgrid. Test I_a_i (0KW-30KW step load) Unit #1 Transient Response Unit #2 Transient Response Figure 1 individual inverters in an islanded condition. The data provided in this section depicts step loads Individual Inverter Transient Response 0 ­ 30 kW A (Island) B (Island) Load Bank #1(S.P/Actual) KW 0.0/0.0 KW

  4. Abstract--The concept of microgrid hierarchical control is presented recently. In this paper, a hierarchical scheme is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    and reliability ·Integrating distributed power generation and storage ·Utilizing renewable energy resources1 1 Abstract-- The concept of microgrid hierarchical control is presented recently. In this paper comprises distributed generators (DGs) local controllers. The local controllers mainly consist of power

  5. Bayesian Networks and Evidence Theory to Model Complex Systems Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , infrastructure of water distribution or electricity. The reliability studies of such systems are consequentlyBayesian Networks and Evidence Theory to Model Complex Systems Reliability Ch. SIMON, Ph. WEBER, E.levrat}@cran.uhp-nancy.fr Abstract-- This paper deals with the use of Bayesian Net- works to compute system reliability of complex

  6. Sandia Energy - Microgrid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution Grid Integration Permalink Gallery Mesa del SolMicrogrid Home

  7. Project Profile: Physics-Based Reliability Models for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    developed models to predict the reliability of hybrid gas bearing (HGB) and dry gas seal (DGS) components in the turboexpander of a supercritical CO2 turbine. The...

  8. 1 Smart Distribution: Coupled Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. H. Lasseter

    Abstract-- The distribution system provides major opportunities for smart grid concepts. One way to approach distribution system problems is to rethinking our distribution system to include the integration of high levels of distributed energy resources, using microgrid concepts. Basic objectives

  9. Dynamics and challenges of microgrids implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabhlok, Vikalp Pal

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids have the capability of operating on an island mode as well as an integrated mode with the smart grid, depending on the requirement and objectives. Recently, microgrids projects have gained popularity both in ...

  10. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  11. Energy Security: Microgrid Planning and Design (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giraldez, J.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Security: Microgrid Planning and Design presentation to be given at the 2012 WREF in Denver, CO.

  12. Microgrids: distributed on-site generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    : · Diversity of the load profile as a function of microgrid size; · Feasibility of accurate control of bothMicrogrids: distributed on-site generation Suleiman Abu-Sharkh, Rachel Li, Tom Markvart, Neil Ross for Climate Change Research Technical Report 22 #12;1 Microgrids: distributed on-site generation Tyndall

  13. Assessing the reliability of linear dynamic transformer thermal modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the reliability of linear dynamic transformer thermal modelling X. Mao, D.J. Tylavsky and G.A. McCulla Abstract: Improving the utilisation of transformers requires that the hot-spot and top. An alternative method for assessing transformer model reliability is provided. 1 Introduction The maximally

  14. Microgrids, virtual power plants and our distributed energy future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asmus, Peter

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Opportunities for VPPs and microgrids will only increase dramatically with time, as the traditional system of building larger and larger centralized and polluting power plants by utilities charging a regulated rate of return fades. The key questions are: how soon will these new business models thrive - and who will be in the driver's seat? (author)

  15. Consensus alignment server for reliable comparative modeling with distant templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    Consensus alignment server for reliable comparative modeling with distant templates Jahnavi C; Accepted April 26, 2004 ABSTRACT Consensus is a server developed to produce high- quality alignments different align- ment methods, the server produces a consensus alignment, with a reliability measure

  16. RELIABILITY COMPARISON MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES (OWT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Joseph B.

    RELIABILITY COMPARISON MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES (OWT) Yizhou Lu, T. M. Delorm, A. Christou of survivor functions R(t) of drive-trains, after 1 year of operation, between Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) vs of the reliability of these 5 Types Surrogate failure rate data Onshore wind turbines (OT) 1-1.5MW CONCLUSIONS

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: PV Reliability & Performance Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generator Modeling Radar Friendly Blades Special Programs Techno-Economic Modeling, Analysis, and Support Analysis, Modeling, Cost of Energy, and Policy Impact: Wind Vision 2014...

  18. Microgrid Fault Protection Based on Symmetrical and Differential Current Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microgrid Fault Protection Based on Symmetrical and Differential Current Components Prepared.........................................................................................8 2. AEP CERTS MICROGRID .........................................................................9 ........................................................................67 #12;3 Index of Figures Figure 1: Schematic representation of the AEP CERTS microgrid

  19. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    option on natural gas generation, which increases in valueL ABORATORY Distributed Generation Investment by a MicrogridORMMES’06 Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid

  20. Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Transformer Thermal Modeling: Improving Reliability Using Data Quality Control Daniel J. Tylavsky--Eventually all large transformers will be dynamically loaded using models updated regularly from field measured data. Models obtained from measured data give more accurate results than models based on transformer

  1. Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, Sumit; Krok, Michael

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document constitutes GE’s final report for the Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration program for DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Award DE-FC02-05CH11349. It contains the final report for Phase I in Appendix I, and the results the work performed in Phase II. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate a Microgrid Energy Management (MEM) framework for a broad set of Microgrid applications that provides unified controls, protection, and energy management. This project contributed to the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program goals by developing a fully automated power delivery microgrid network that: - Reduces carbon emissions and emissions of other air pollutants through increased use of optimally dispatched renewable energy, - Increases asset use through integration of distributed systems, - Enhances reliability, security, and resiliency from microgrid applications in critical infrastructure protection, constrained areas of the electric grid, etc. - Improves system efficiency with on-site, distributed generation and improved economic efficiency through demand-side management.

  2. Stochastic Methods in Reliability and Risk Management This volume focuses on stochastic methods developed for reliability modeling and risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Haijun

    such as quantitative risk management, decision analysis under uncertainty, and their applications in areas methods developed for reliability modeling and risk analysis. Reliability theory and risk analysis have. This special volume highlights this convergence of reliability modeling and risk analysis, that forms the core

  3. On the possibility of using models of reliability theory for technical systems to investigate the reliability of energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, Yu.N.; Ushakov, I.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain features of mathematical models of energy-system reliability are analyzed. Mathematical models employed in reliability theory for technical systems are considered together with the possibility of modifying them for use in the solution of problems associated with ensuring the reliability of energy systems.

  4. Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications I.S.W.B. Prasetya, T.E.J. Vos, S UU-CS-2005-002 www.cs.uu.nl #12;Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications I@cs.uu.nl, tanja@iti.upv.es, doaitse@cs.uu.nl, bela@cs.ui.ac.id Abstract Web Cube is a server side programming

  5. Improved load models for multi-area reliability calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Sanjesh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SANJESH PATHAK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering IMPROVED LOAD MODELS FOR MULTI-AREA RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by SAN JESH PATHAK Approved as to style and content by: Chanan Singh (Chair of Committee) Prasad Enjeti (Member) Ces . Mal, e...

  6. Validation of the CERTS Microgrid Concept The CEC/CERTS MicrogridTestbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, David K.; Stevens, John; Lasseter, Robert H.; Eto,Joseph H.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of test plans to validate the CERTSMicrogrid concept is discussed, including the status of a testbed.Increased application of Distributed Energy Resources on the Distributionsystem has the potential to improve performance, lower operational costsand create value. Microgrids have the potential to deliver these highvalue benefits. This presentation will focus on operationalcharacteristics of the CERTS microgrid, the partners in the project andthe status of the CEC/CERTS microgrid testbed. Index Terms DistributedGeneration, Distributed Resource, Islanding, Microgrid,Microturbine

  7. Validation of the CERTS Microgrid Concept The CEC/CERTS Microgrid Testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, David K.; Stevens, John; Lasseter, Robert H.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Generation, Distributed Resource, Islanding, Microgrid, Microturbine ISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES (DER) hold promise for solving many issues facing electric utilities.

  8. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  9. Why Two Grids Can Be Better Than One: How the CERTS Microgrid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and improvement of key microgrid components, visit the Microgrids page. Why Two Grids Can Be Better Than One: How the CERTS Microgrid Evolved from Concept to Practice...

  10. "Reliability Inference Based on Multistate and Degradation Models"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    "Reliability Inference Based on Multistate and Degradation Models" Vijay Nair Department of extensive covariate information, and the use of multistate and degradation data when available. This talk common models for analyzing degradation data and then describe a class of models based on non

  11. Decoding the `Nature Encoded' Messages for Distributed Energy Generation Control in Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Shuping; Lai, Lifeng; Qiu, Robert C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The communication for the control of distributed energy generation (DEG) in microgrid is discussed. Due to the requirement of realtime transmission, weak or no explicit channel coding is used for the message of system state. To protect the reliability of the uncoded or weakly encoded messages, the system dynamics are considered as a `nature encoding' similar to convolution code, due to its redundancy in time. For systems with or without explicit channel coding, two decoding procedures based on Kalman filtering and Pearl's Belief Propagation, in a similar manner to Turbo processing in traditional data communication systems, are proposed. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity of the schemes, using a linear model of electric generator dynamic system.

  12. Smart Microgrid Demonstrator Dr. Wei-Jen Lee (wlee@uta.edu) (Funded by DOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    and efficiency, lower cost of electric power #12;Advanced Metering Infrastructure Dr. Wei-Jen Lee (wlee reliability and efficiency, lower cost of electric power #12;Smart Microgrid Demonstrator Dr. Wei-Jen Lee (wlee@uta.edu) (Funded by DOE) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING www.uta.edu/ee info@engineering.uta.edu COLLEGE

  13. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  14. ADAPTIVE NETWORK PROTECTION IN MICROGRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Re Oudalova; Antonio Fidigattib

    directional interlock Microgrids comprise low voltage distribution systems with distributed energy re-sources (DER) and controllable loads which can operate connected to the medium voltage grid or islanded in a controlled coordinated way. This concept aims to move from “connect and forget

  15. Action Models: A Reliability Modeling Formalism for Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    Action Models: A Reliability Modeling Formalism for Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computing Systems. Introduction Model-based evaluation of the reliability of distributed systems has traditionally required expert- proach to analyze the reliability of fault-tolerant distributed systems. More in particular, we want

  16. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  17. MODELING HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS USING MIDAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P. Hallbert; Brian F. Gore

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes an emerging collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and NASA Ames Research Center regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error with novel control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of risk significance in recreating past event scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of novel staffing levels in control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of risk in next generation control rooms.

  18. Microsoft Word - microgrid_for_resilience .docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    When grid-connected, microgrids can provide various services, e.g. frequency control support, voltage support, congestion management, reduction of grid losses, and...

  19. Sandia Energy - Energy Surety Microgrid(tm)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surety microgrid is a smaller version of the larger electric grid. It can generate and control electrical power output in a self contained, localized area; thus ensuring that...

  20. A Green Prison: The Santa Rita Jail Campus Microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A large microgrid project is nearing completion at Alameda County’s twenty-two-year-old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources (DER) including an eight-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a five-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and considerable efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion adds a 2 MW-4 MWh Li-ion battery, a static disconnect switch, and various controls upgrades. During grid blackouts, or when conditions favor it, the Jail can now disconnect from the grid and operate as an island, using the on-site resources described together with its back-up diesel generators. In other words, the Santa Rita Jail is a true microgrid, or ?grid, because it fills both requirements, i.e. it is a locally controlled system, and it can operate both grid connected and islanded. The battery’s electronics includes Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology (CERTS) Microgrid technology. This enables the battery to maintain energy balance using droops without need for a fast control system.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Microgrid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to solve many of the nation's most complex challenges in satisfying its electric energy needs. Initial focus has been on enabling resilient and reliable performance when...

  2. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    distributed generation and storage technologies provide SRJ with microgrid functionality, allowing it to operate in island

  3. International Microgrid Assessment: Governance, INcentives, and Experience (IMAGINE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microgrid simulator with multiple power generation units including solar PV, diesel, energy storage,

  4. Distributed control for optimal reactive power compensation in smart microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolognani, Saverio

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of optimal reactive power compensation for the minimization of power distribution losses in a smart microgrid. We first propose an approximate model for the power distribution network, which allows us to cast the problem into the class of convex quadratic, linearly constrained, optimization problems. We also show how this model provides the tools for a distributed approach, in which agents have a partial knowledge of the problem parameters and state, and can only perform local measurements. Then, we design a randomized, gossip-like optimization algorithm, providing conditions for convergence together with an analytic characterization of the convergence speed. The analysis shows that the best performance can be achieved when we command cooperation among agents that are neighbors in the smart microgrid topology. Numerical simulations are included to validate the proposed model and to confirm the analytic results about the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VII, August 19-24, 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1 Eric M. Fleming Ian A. Hiskens Department-- The paper presents a model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack operating at relatively low pressures. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cells, microgrid dynamics, inverter control. I. INTRODUCTION Distributed

  6. Multiagent coordination in microgrids via wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao Liang; Atef Abdrabou

    The future smart grid is expected to be an integration of intelligent microgrids featured by localized electricity generation, storage, and consumption. Wireless communication is a promising means to facilitate pervasive microgrid monitoring and control at a high flexibility and low deployment cost

  7. Defining control strategies for microgrids islanded operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Peças Lopes; Senior Member; C. L. Moreira; A. G. Madureira

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—This paper describes and evaluates the feasibility of control strategies to be adopted for the operation of a microgrid when it becomes isolated. Normally, the microgrid operates in interconnected mode with the medium voltage network; however, scheduled or forced isolation can take place

  8. 1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaurav S. Kasbekar; Saswati Sarkar

    Abstract—We consider a scenario with multiple independent microgrids close to each other in a region that are connected to each other and to the central grid (macrogrid). In each time slot, a given microgrid may produce more than, less than or as much power as it needs, and there is uncertainty on

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: microgrid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPIDERS On April 26, 2011, in singlepic id591 w320 h240 floatright SPIDERS (Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security) is based on a Joint...

  10. BAYESIAN RELIABILITY MODELING FOR MASKED SYSTEM LIFETIME DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lynn

    supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation 971­0105­027­2. 1 #12; reliability of the components of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269­3120, USA Tae Young YANG y Department of Mathematics consider various probability models for the conditional masking probabilities that identify the set

  11. Reliability Modeling and Evaluation in Aging Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hag-Kwen

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewal process has been often employed as a mathematical model of the failure and repair cycle of components in power system reliability assessment. This implies that after repair, the component is assumed to be restored to be in as good as new...

  12. PRODUCTION PLANNING BASED ON RELIABILITY MODELS FOR PART REUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Lily H.

    PRODUCTION PLANNING BASED ON RELIABILITY MODELS FOR PART REUSE Takeshi Murayama, Hiroshi Obata, Canada Abstract: This paper describes a production planning procedure addressing the issue that the timings and quantities of returned products and reusable components included in them is unknown

  13. Statistical Modeling of Photovoltaic Reliability Using Accelerated Degradation Techniques (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Jones, W.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a cutting-edge life-testing technique, accelerated degradation testing (ADT), for PV reliability testing. The ADT technique is a cost-effective and flexible reliability testing method with multiple (MADT) and Step-Stress (SSADT) variants. In an environment with limited resources, including equipment (chambers), test units, and testing time, these techniques can provide statistically rigorous prediction of lifetime and other interesting parameters, such as failure rate, warranty time, mean time to failure, degradation rate, activation energy, acceleration factor, and upper limit level of stress. J-V characterization can be used for degradation data and the generalized Eyring model can be used for the thermal-humidity stress condition. The SSADT model can be constructed based on the cumulative damage model (CEM), which assumes that the remaining test united are failed according to cumulative density function of current stress level regardless of the history on previous stress levels.

  14. The CERTS microgrid and the future of the macrogrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen C.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blackouts of summer 2003 underscored the dependence of western economies on reliable supply of electricity with tight tolerances of quality. While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR) delivered is possible or desirable. An alternative path to providing for sensitive loads is to provide for generation close to them. This would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in grid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Providing for loads by means of local power generation is becoming increasingly competitive with central station generation for a number of reasons, four key ones being non-technical constraints on expansion of the grid, improvements in small scale technologies, opportunities for CHP application, and the ubiquitous nature of sensitive loads in advanced economies. Along with these new technologies, concepts for operating them partially under local control in microgrids are emerging, the CERTS Microgrid being one example. It has been demonstrated in simulation, and a laboratory test of a three microturbine system is planned for early 2005, to be followed by a field demonstration. A systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building demonstrates a current economic on-site power opportunity.

  15. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine the most appropriate means of implementing micro-grids and the costs and processes involved with their extended operation. With the development and availability of fuel cell based stand-alone power plants, an electrical mini-grid, encompassing several connected residential neighborhoods, has become a viable concept. A primary objective of this project is to define the parameters of an economically efficient fuel cell based mini-grid. Since pure hydrogen is not economically available in sufficient quantities at the present time, the use of reforming technology to produce and store excess hydrogen will also be investigated. From a broader perspective, the factors that bear upon the feasibility of fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods are similar to those pertaining to the electrification of a small town with a localized power generating station containing several conventional generating units. In the conventional case, the town or locality would also be connected to the larger grid system of the utility company. Therefore, in the case of the fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods, this option should also be available. The objectives of this research project are: To demonstrate that smart energy management of a fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhood can be efficient and cost-effective;To define the most economical micro-grid configuration; and, To determine how residential micro-grid connected fuel cell(s) can contribute to America's hydrogen energy future.

  16. Sandia Energy - Building a Microgrid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim Bay CoatingsBuilding a Microgrid

  17. Reliability modeling and evaluation of HVDC power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for evaluating the reliability indices of HVdc transmission systems. The developed models and computational techniques are described. These can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of a system under study efficiently and realistically. This method is based on the failure modes and effects analysis and uses the event tree method and the minimal cut set approach to represent the system's operational behavior and deduce the appropriate system's failure modes. A set of five reliability indices is evaluated for each output node being analyzed together with the probability and frequency of encountering particular regions of system performance levels. The analysis of an assumed HVdc bipolar transmission system is also included.

  18. Diploma Thesis Distributed Secondary Control in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    and Droop Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Notation and Geometric Definitions in AC networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.5 Droop-Controlled Microgrid of loads and droop-controlled inverters. While the decentralized and proportional primary droop

  19. A Distributed Generation Control Architecture for Islanded AC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    1 A Distributed Generation Control Architecture for Islanded AC Microgrids Stanton T. Cady, Student architecture for generation control in islanded microgrids, and illustrate the performance Member, IEEE Abstract In this paper, we propose a distributed architecture for generation control

  20. A load shedding scheme for inverter based microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojeda, Alejandro P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last decade, penetration of microgrids containing distributed generation (DG) sources has increased in grid distribution systems. This requires the stable operation of microgrids when connected to the distribution ...

  1. Stochastic PV performance/reliability model : preview of alpha version.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miller, Steven P.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Problem Statement: (1) Uncertainties in PV system performance and reliability impact business decisions - Project cost and financing estimates, Pricing service contracts and guarantees, Developing deployment and O&M strategies; (2) Understanding and reducing these uncertainties will help make the PV industry more competitive (3) Performance has typically been estimated without much attention to reliability of components; and (4) Tools are needed to assess all inputs to the value proposition (e.g., LCOE, cash flow, reputation, etc.). Goals and objectives are: (1) Develop a stochastic simulation model (in GoldSim) that can represent PV system performance as a function of system design, weather, reliability, and O&M policies; (2) Evaluate performance for an example system to quantify sources of uncertainty and identify dominant parameters via a sensitivity study; and (3) Example System - 1 inverter, 225 kW DC Array latitude tilt (90 strings of 12 modules {l_brace}1080 modules{r_brace}), Weather from Tucumcari, NM (TMY2 with annual uncertainty).

  2. Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources to Maximize the Use of Wind Power in Rural Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Chunlian; Zhang, Yu

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this paper is to design control strategies for distributed energy resources (DERs) to maximize the use of wind power in a rural microgrid. In such a system, it may be economical to harness wind power to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels for electricity production. In this work, we develop control strategies for DERs, including diesel generators, energy storage and demand response, to achieve high penetration of wind energy in a rural microgrid. Combinations of centralized (direct control) and decentralized (autonomous response) control strategies are investigated. Detailed dynamic models for a rural microgrid are built to conduct simulations. The system response to large disturbances and frequency regulation are tested. It is shown that optimal control coordination of DERs can be achieved to maintain system frequency while maximizing wind power usage and reducing the wear and tear on fossil fueled generators.

  3. Evaluating North American Electric Grid Reliability Using the Barabasi-Albert Network Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David P. Chassin; Christian Posse

    2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of electric transmission systems is examined using a scale-free model of network structure and failure propagation. The topologies of the North American eastern and western electric networks are analyzed to estimate their reliability based on the Barabasi-Albert network model. A commonly used power system reliability index is computed using a simple failure propagation model. The results are compared to the values of power system reliability indices previously obtained using standard power system reliability analysis methods, and they suggest that scale-free network models are useful for estimating aggregate electric network reliability.

  4. International Microgrid Assessment: Governance, INcentives, and Experience (IMAGINE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storage • Hydrogen Fuel Cell • Energy Management • VSE SCADA Test at Idaho National Lab • Entire Installation Smart Micro-Grid

  5. Understanding the Role of Buildings in a Smart Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    Understanding the Role of Buildings in a Smart Microgrid Yuvraj Agarwal Computer Science of a smart microgrid. In this paper, we examine the significant role that buildings play in energy use buildings can be enhanced and interfaced with the smart microgrid, and demonstrate the benefits

  6. Selective compensation of voltage harmonics in grid-connected microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    1 Selective compensation of voltage harmonics in grid-connected microgrids Mehdi Savaghebia , Juan is proposed for selective compensation of main voltage harmonics in a grid- connected microgrid. The aim level. Keywords Distributed Generator (DG); microgrid; grid-connected; voltage harmonics compensation. 1

  7. Aalborg Universitet Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters Shafiee, Qobad Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters. I E E E Transactions on Energy Conversion. General rights, J. C. Vasquez, and J. M. Guerrero, "Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters," IEEE

  8. Title: Experimental Platform for Novel Distributed Microgrids Control Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Title: Experimental Platform for Novel Distributed Microgrids Control Solutions Principal Investigator: Wenxin Liu Sponsor: U.S. Department of Defense Office of Naval Research Summary: Microgrid can, and can operate autonomously without connecting to power grid. The microgrid concept is a big step toward

  9. TOWARDS REAL-TIME GENERATION SCHEDULING IN MICROGRIDS WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    TOWARDS REAL-TIME GENERATION SCHEDULING IN MICROGRIDS WITH PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE LIAN LU, JINLONG TU, CHI-KIN CHAU, MINGHUA CHEN, ZHAO XU AND XIAOJUN LIN INTRODUCTION Microgrid is an emerging- generation improves generation efficiency by 2-3x. A key problem in microgrid operations is how to schedule

  10. Hierarchical Control Scheme for Voltage Unbalance Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Hierarchical Control Scheme for Voltage Unbalance Compensation in Islanded Microgrids Mehdi@et.aau.dk Abstract-- The concept of microgrid hierarchical control is presented, recently. In this paper, a hierarchical scheme which includes primary and secondary control levels is proposed for islanded microgrids

  11. Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters Invited Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Modular Power Architectures for Microgrid Clusters ­ Invited Paper ­ Hengwei Lin1 , Chengxi Liu1 distributed generation (DG) units, loads and energy storage systems [1]. However, although nowadays microgrid between microgrid and the conventional main power grid is also not clearly standardized. In fact

  12. Breaking the Hierarchy: Distributed Control & Economic Optimality in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    genera- tion and energy storage systems, the concept of a microgrid has recently gained popularity [2 generation, storage, load, and managed au- tonomously from the larger transmission network. Microgrids independently. Distributed energy sources in a microgrid generate either DC or variable frequency AC power

  13. DECENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR COUPLING MICROGRIDS INTO DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 1 Task 1: Coupling Low-Voltage Microgrids into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemmon, Michael

    DECENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR COUPLING MICROGRIDS INTO DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 1 Task 1: Coupling Low-Voltage Microgrids into Mid-Voltage Distribution Systems Zhao Wang, Student Member, IEEE-voltage (LV) microgrids. At the same time, reactive power is dispatched coordinatively so that voltage

  14. Introduction to Model-based Reliability Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    Introduction to Model-based Reliability Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks C. J¨aggle J: A high level of reliability is a significant requirement for using wireless sensor networks in industrial environments. Model-based evaluation is usually applied in conventional systems to estimate the reliability

  15. Evaluating North American Electric Grid Reliability Using the Barabasi-Albert Network Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of electric transmission systems is examined using a scale-free model of network topology and failure propagation. The topologies of the North American eastern and western electric grids are analyzed to estimate their reliability based on the Barabási-Albert network model. A commonly used power system reliability index is computed using a simple failure propagation model. The results are compared to the values of power system reliability indices previously obtained using other methods and they suggest that scale-free network models are usable to estimate aggregate electric grid reliability.

  16. Evaluating North American Electric Grid Reliability Using the Barabasi-Albert Network Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of electric transmission systems is examined using a scale-free model of network topology and failure propagation. The topologies of the North American eastern and western electric grids are analyzed to estimate their reliability based on the Barabasi-Albert network model. A commonly used power system reliability index is computed using a simple failure propagation model. The results are compared to the values of power system reliability indices previously obtained using standard power engineering methods, and they suggest that scale-free network models are usable to estimate aggregate electric grid reliability.

  17. Integration of distributed energy resources. The CERTS Microgrid Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseter, Robert; Akhil, Abbas; Marnay, Chris; Stephens, John; Dagle, Jeff; Guttromsom, Ross; Meliopoulous, A. Sakis; Yinger, Robert; Eto, Joe

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolutionary changes in the regulatory and operational climate of traditional electric utilities and the emergence of smaller generating systems such as microturbines have opened new opportunities for on-site power generation by electricity users. In this context, distributed energy resources (DER)--small power generators typically located at users' sites where the energy (both electric and thermal) they generate is used--have emerged as a promising option to meet growing customer needs for electric power with an emphasis on reliability and power quality. The portfolio of DER includes generators, energy storage, load control, and, for certain classes of systems, advanced power electronic interfaces between the generators and the bulk power provider. This white paper proposes that the significant potential of smaller DER to meet customers' and utilities' needs can be best captured by organizing these resources into MicroGrids.

  18. Topology Detection in Microgrids with Micro-Synchrophasors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arghandeh, Reza; von Meier, Alexandra; Cavraro, Guido; Ruh, Monika; Andersson, Göran

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Network topology in distribution networks is often unknown, because most switches are not equipped with measurement devices and communication links. However, knowledge about the actual topology is critical for safe and reliable grid operation. This paper proposes a voting-based topology detection method based on micro-synchrophasor measurements. The minimal difference between measured and calculated voltage angle or voltage magnitude, respectively, indicates the actual topology. Micro-synchrophasors or micro-Phasor Measurement Units ({\\mu}PMU) are high-precision devices that can measure voltage angle differences on the order of ten millidegrees. This accuracy is important for distribution networks due to the smaller angle differences as compared to transmission networks. For this paper, a microgrid test bed is implemented in MATLAB with simulated measurements from {\\mu}PMUs as well as SCADA measurement devices. The results show that topologies can be detected with high accuracy. Additionally, topology detecti...

  19. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A microgrid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The microgrid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, such as water and space heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the microgrid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean central station generation in California.

  20. A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Greg Young

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Generation (DG) used in the Microgrid, the end-use Microgrid Customers (MGCs), the Distribution Network Operator (DNO), and possibly the generation utilities

  1. Estimation of system reliability using a semiparametric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Leon

    An important problem in reliability engineering is to predict the failure rate, that is, the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails. This paper presents a new method of estimating failure rate using ...

  2. 1 Validation of the CERTS Microgrid Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microgrid Testbed; David K. Nichols; John Stevens; Robert H. Lasseter; Joseph H. Eto; Harry T. Vollkommer; Islanding Microgrid Microturbine

    Abstract—The development of test plans to validate the CERTS Microgrid concept is discussed, including the status of a testbed. Increased application of Distributed Energy Resources on the Distribution system has the potential to improve performance, lower operational costs and create value

  3. The Advanced Microgrid: Integration and Integration and Interoperabili...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    standards activities. It complements workshop reports and information provided by OE's Smart Grid R&D Program and other microgrid conference proceedings. With their...

  4. GE Partners on Microgrid Project | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Academia Partner on Microgrid Project GE Awarded a 1.2M Department of Energy Grant to Design Technology to Keep Electricity Flowing after Catastrophic Weather Events...

  5. Energy Department Launches Microgrid Competition to Support Resiliency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    system." The Microgrid 2014 MVP Challenge builds on efforts by the Sandy Rebuilding Task Force to harness innovation in energy infrastructure and help communities become more...

  6. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  7. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utility. Using the real options approach, we find naturalDistributed Generation; Real Options; Optimal Investment. 1.based microgrid via the real options approach to determine

  8. Fracture mechanics models developed for piping reliability assessment in light water reactors: piping reliability project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.O.; Lim, E.Y.; Dedhia, D.D.; Woo, H.H.; Chou, C.K.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efforts concentrated on modifications of the stratified Monte Carlo code called PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) to make it more widely applicable to probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of nuclear reactor piping. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects introduced during fabrication, that escape detection during inspections. The code modifications allow the following factors in addition to those considered in earlier work to be treated: other materials, failure criteria and subcritical crack growth characteristic; welding residual and vibratory stresses; and longitudinal welds (the original version considered only circumferential welds). The fracture mechanics background for the code modifications is included, and details of the modifications themselves provided. Additionally, an updated version of the PRAISE user's manual is included. The revised code, known as PRAISE-B was then applied to a variety of piping problems, including various size lines subject to stress corrosion cracking and vibratory stresses. Analyses including residual stresses and longitudinal welds were also performed.

  9. Mitigation of Voltage and Current Harmonics in Grid-Connected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Mitigation of Voltage and Current Harmonics in Grid-Connected Microgrids Mehdi Savaghebi1 , Josep M-connected microgrids. Two modes of compensation are considered, i.e. voltage and current compensation modes-electronic interface converter to the utility grid or microgrid. Microgrid is a local grid consisting of DGs, energy

  10. Department of Mechanical Engineering Presents: "Towards Optimal Investment, Planning and Control of Microgrids"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keaveny, Tony

    on the optimal investment, planning, and control of distributed micro-grids. A micro-grid is characterized by its generation sources (renewables and non-renewables), storage capacity, internal demand and sell back to grid of microgrids quite challenging problems. From the power grid point of view, microgrids are resource nodes

  11. Reliability-yield allocation for semiconductor integrated circuits: modeling and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Chunghun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research develops yield and reliability models for fault-tolerant semiconductor integrated circuits and develops optimization algorithms that can be directly applied to these models. Since defects cause failures in microelectronics systems...

  12. Reliability Modeling and Simulation of Composite Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hagkwen

    2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This research proposes an efficient reliability modeling and simulation methodology in power systems to include photovoltaic units, wind farms and storage. Energy losses by wake effect in a wind farm are incorporated. Using the wake model, wind...

  13. Reliability Modeling and Simulation of Composite Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources and Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hagkwen

    2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This research proposes an efficient reliability modeling and simulation methodology in power systems to include photovoltaic units, wind farms and storage. Energy losses by wake effect in a wind farm are incorporated. Using the wake model, wind...

  14. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Eto, Joseph H.; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Klapp, Dave; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Stevens, John; Volkommer, Harry

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating small energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of small generating sources. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation; 2) an approach to electrical protection within the microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications. The techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protections system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust and under all conditions, including difficult motor starts. The results from these test are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or mroe of the CERTS Microgrid concepts.

  15. Accelerating the Customer-Driven Microgrid Through Real-Time Digital Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Leonard; T. Baldwin; M. Sloderbeck

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive design and testing of realistic customer-driven microgrids requires a high performance simulation platform capable of incorporating power system and control models with external hardware systems. Traditional non real-time simulation is unable to fully capture the level of detail necessary to expose real-world implementation issues. With a real-time digital simulator as its foundation, a high-fidelity simulation environment that includes a robust electrical power system model, advanced control architecture, and a highly adaptable communication network is introduced. Hardware-in-the-loop implementation approaches for the hardware-based control and communication systems are included. An overview of the existing power system model and its suitability for investigation of autonomous island formation within the microgrid is additionally presented. Further test plans are also documented.

  16. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty++++ Afzal Siddiqui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    , CA 94720-8163, USA, c_marnay@lbl.gov ABSTRACT. This paper examines a California-based microgrid-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold

  17. Power Quality Improvement in Microgrid Using Advanced Active Power Conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract:- Wind energy conversion systems are now occupying important space in the research of renewable energy sources with microgrid. The main challenge in wind power generation is power quality problem and their connection with the distribution network in microgrid. The main factor behind poor

  18. Renewable Energy Microgrid Testbed at NASA Ames Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Herbie

    Renewable Energy Microgrid Testbed at NASA Ames Research Center Joel Kubby, Dan O'Leary, Zachary #12;Goals · Set-up a unique microgrid test-bed for renewable energy generation, monitoring and storage · Use the facility for testing systems integration, optimization and control of new renewable energy

  19. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    loss, such as photovoltaic panels, batteries, fuel cells, LEDs, and electronic loads, DC microgrids sharing and secondary voltage regulation can now be analytically studied, and specialized optimization of the DC microgrid, in term of systematic analysis, protection coordination design, network optimization

  20. Technical Report for "Hybrid Renewable Energy Investment in Microgrid"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    side management, and decen- tralized operations of power grid in the form of microgrids [1]. It and demand in the microgrid to minimize the social operational cost. We design a decentralized algorithm observatory, we numerically demonstrate that the demand response saves 18% of the capital investment

  1. Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumdar, Mainak

    Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model reliabilities. An operational test procedure is considered in which only the individual modules are tested and the system is considered acceptable if, and only if, no failures are observed. The minimum number of tests

  2. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR ONE-SHOT SYSTEMS USING MULTIPLE-STATE DESIGN RELIABILITY MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    semiconductors, microelectronics, lasers, electronic devices, and mechanical components, to obtain timely information on the reliability of both products and components. Breyfogle [5] and Meeker and Escobar [4] note1 DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR ONE-SHOT SYSTEMS USING MULTIPLE-STATE DESIGN RELIABILITY MODELS

  3. GridMat: Matlab Toolbox for GridLAB-D to Analyse Grid Impact and Validate Residential Microgrid Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    GridMat: Matlab Toolbox for GridLAB-D to Analyse Grid Impact and Validate Residential Microgrid, in this paper, we present a new Matlab toolbox (GridMat) to integrate the capabilities of domain-specific modeling & simulation tools from power system (GridLAB-D) and control (Matlab). The GridMat tool supports

  4. A chronological probabilistic production cost model to evaluate the reliability contribution of limited energy plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Tommy (Tommy Chun Ting)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of renewables in power systems has reinvigorated research and regulatory interest in reliability analysis algorithms such as the Baleriaux/Booth convolution-based probabilistic production cost (PPC) model. ...

  5. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David; Scheven, Alexander von

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.

  6. Project Profile: Physics-Based Reliability Models for Supercritical-CO2 Turbomachinery Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GE, under the Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Program will be leveraging internally developed models to predict the reliability of hybrid gas bearing (HGB) and dry gas seal (DGS) components in the turboexpander of a supercritical CO2 turbine. The Bayesian model is to include phase changes, low cycle fatigue/high cycle fatigue, dynamic instabilities, and corrosion processes.

  7. A CONSISTENT MODELLING METHODOLOGY FOR SECONDARY1 SETTLING TANKS: A RELIABLE NUMERICAL METHOD2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bürger, Raimund

    relations for hindered settling, compression and dispersion can be used within the model, allowing the user, continuous sedimentation, secondary clarifier, simulation5 model, partial differential equation6 NomenclatureA CONSISTENT MODELLING METHODOLOGY FOR SECONDARY1 SETTLING TANKS: A RELIABLE NUMERICAL METHOD2

  8. Reliable Computation of Binary Parameters in Activity Coefficient Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    phase equilibria. The technique is demonstrated with examples using the NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL (eNRTL) models. In two of the NRTL examples, results are found that contradict previous work. In the eNRTL time that a method for parameter estimation in the eNRTL model from binary LLE data (mutual solubility

  9. Reliability Analysis of Electric Power Systems Using an Object-oriented Hybrid Modeling Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schläpfer, Markus; Kröger, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ongoing evolution of the electric power systems brings about the need to cope with increasingly complex interactions of technical components and relevant actors. In order to integrate a more comprehensive spectrum of different aspects into a probabilistic reliability assessment and to include time-dependent effects, this paper proposes an object-oriented hybrid approach combining agent-based modeling techniques with classical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Objects represent both technical components such as generators and transmission lines and non-technical components such as grid operators. The approach allows the calculation of conventional reliability indices and the estimation of blackout frequencies. Furthermore, the influence of the time needed to remove line overloads on the overall system reliability can be assessed. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated by performing simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996 and on a model of the Swiss high-voltage grid.

  10. Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikabdullah, N. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); K, Elwaleed A. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Noorani, M. S. M. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading.

  11. A simple model for the reliability of an infrastructure system controlled by B. A. Carreras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    A simple model for the reliability of an infrastructure system controlled by agents B. A. Carreras zeidenberg@tc.columbia. edu Abstract A simple dynamic model of agent operation of an infrastructure system of the components. The system is controlled by adjusting the upgrading rate of the components and the replacement

  12. Reliability-economics analysis models for photovoltaic power systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stember, L.H.; Huss, W.R.; Bridgman, M.S.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development of modeling techniques to characterize the reliability, availability, and maintenance costs of photovoltaic power systems. The developed models can be used by designers of PV systems in making design decisions and trade-offs to minimize life-cycle energy costs.

  13. A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks: a reliable numerical method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bürger, Raimund

    accounting for sediment compressibility, and a dispersion term for turbulence. In addition, the solutionA consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks: a reliable numerical method modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks (SSTs) leads to a partial differential equation (PDE

  14. Secondary Control for Voltage Unbalance Compensation in an Islanded Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    coupling (PCC). Unbalance compensation is achieved by proper control of distributed generators (DGs unbalance. Keywords-distributed generation; microgrid; secondary control; voltage unbalance compensation I. INTRODUCTION Distributed Generators (DGs) may be connected individually to the utility grid or be integrated

  15. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid?s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit fuelled by natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find a natural gas generation cost threshold that triggers DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid increases DG investment, while the option to disconnect from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generation cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit when two sources of uncertainty exist.

  16. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  17. Hardware simulation of diesel generator and microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zieve, Michael M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last few years, people have begun to depend less on large power plants with extensive distribution systems, and more on local distributed generation sources. A microgrid, a local collection of distributed generators, ...

  18. Design and implementation of a microgrid-capable solar inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darcey, Gavin M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion of a practical microgrid -- a small, interconnected system of generators and loads that operates both synchronously with a larger, centralized grid and isolated from the grid, autonomously -- has grown popular ...

  19. On-chip COMA Cache-coherence protocol for Microgrids of Microthreaded Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesshope, Chris

    On-chip COMA Cache-coherence protocol for Microgrids of Microthreaded Cores Li Zhang Chris Jesshope and the development of a co-simulator to the Microgrid CMP emulator. 1 Introduction It is now widely accepted

  20. Multi-Building Microgrids for a Distributed Energy Future in Portugal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    field for entrance of ESCO businesses in the microgridfield for entrance of ESCO businesses in the microgrid

  1. Voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrids: a plug-and-play approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    by microgrids that normally operate in grid-connected mode and that can be switched off- grid for guaranteeing

  2. Conditional Reliability Modeling of Short-term River Basin Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, A.; Wurbs, R. A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , which are highly dependent on known current conditions of reservoir storage. 8 WRAP MODEL: Limitations 0 100 200 300 400 Jan-34 Jan-37 Jan-40 Jan-43 Jan-46 Jan-49 Jan-52 Jan-55 Jan-58 Jan-61 Jan-64 Jan-67 Jan-70 Jan-73 Jan-76 Jan-79 Jan-82 Jan-85 Jan... Q1 (Jan 1939) Q2 (Feb 1939) Q3 (Mar 1939) ? ? Qm (Dec 1939) Output 1 Simulation 2 Q1 (Jan 1940) Q2 (Feb 1940) Q3 (Mar 1940) ? ? Qm (Dec 1940) Output 2 Simulation n Q1 (Jan 2002) Q2 (Feb 2002) Q3 (Mar 2002) ? ? Qm (Dec 2002) Output n INITIAL CONDITION...

  3. Control and Protection of Power Electronics Interfaced Distri-buted Generation Systems in a Customer-Driven Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    in a Customer-Driven Microgrid Fang Z. Peng, Yun Wei Li and Leon M. Tolbert Abstract ­ This paper discusses-driven microgrid (CDM). Particularly, the following topics will be addressed: microgrid system configurations); renewable energy source (RES); micro-source; microgrid; customer-driven micro- grid (CDM), power electronics

  4. Secondary Voltage Unbalance Compensation for Three-Phase Four-Wire Islanded Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    as a cluster of distributed resources (DRs), i.e. distributed generation (DG), distributed storage (DSSecondary Voltage Unbalance Compensation for Three-Phase Four-Wire Islanded Microgrids Fen Tang four-wire islanded microgrid systems. It is implemented in the secondary control level of the microgrid

  5. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Electric Power Micro-grids: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Electric Power Micro-grids: Opportunities and Challenges for an Emerging;Electric Power Micro-grids: Barriers and opportunities for an emerging distributed energy architecture ii, such as engines and micro-turbines. #12;Electric Power Micro-grids: Barriers and opportunities for an emerging

  6. Self-triggered Communication Enabled Control of Distributed Generation in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.

    1 Self-triggered Communication Enabled Control of Distributed Generation in Microgrids Muhammad. I. INTRODUCTION Effective integration of multiple distributed generation (DG) units in microgrids. Conventionally the secondary control in a microgrid is based on a centralized control structure using periodic

  7. TOWARDS RELIABLE STOCHASTIC DATA-DRIVEN MODELS APPLIED TO THE ENERGY SAVING IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on Cleantech for Smart Cities & Buildings from Nano to Urban Scale (CISBAT 2013), Lausanne : Suisse (2013)" #12TOWARDS RELIABLE STOCHASTIC DATA-DRIVEN MODELS APPLIED TO THE ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS A.Ridi1 at the elaboration of Information Systems able to optimize energy consumption in buildings while preserving human

  8. New Logic Modeling Paradigms for Complex System Reliability and Risk Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Joseph B.

    New Logic Modeling Paradigms for Complex System Reliability and Risk Analysis Antoine Rauzy Chair ground ... is a mature technology ... is a great tool for decision making So, what's next? · More://www.lgi.ecp.fr/pmwiki.php/PagesPerso/ARauzy *Sponsored by SAFRAN group #12;Probabilistic Risk Assessment ... ... is now established on a solid scientific

  9. Optical fiber reliability implications of uncertainty in the fatigue crack growth model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Optical fiber reliability implications of uncertainty in the fatigue crack growth model G. M. Bubel University Fiber Optic Materials Research Program Ceramic Science and Engineering P.O. Box 909 Piscataway, furthermore, that such flaws can grow in time so that an initially intact silica optical fiber may undergo

  10. Reviewing progress in PJM's capacity market structure via the new reliability pricing model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sener, Adil Caner; Kimball, Stefan

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reliability Pricing Model introduces significant changes to the capacity market structure of PJM. The main feature of the RPM design is a downward-sloping demand curve, which replaces the highly volatile vertical demand curve. The authors review the latest RPM structure, results of the auctions, and the future course of the implementation process. (author)

  11. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Mendes, Goncalo; Marnay, Chris; M& #233; gel, Olivier; Lai, Judy

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) global concept of microgrid and electric vehicle (EV) modeling; (2) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (3) presentation summary - how does the number of EVs connected to the building change with different optimization goals (cost versus CO{sub 2}); (3) ongoing EV modeling for California: the California commercial end-use survey (CEUS) database, objective: 138 different typical building - EV connections and benefits; (4) detailed analysis for healthcare facility: optimal EV connection at a healthcare facility in southern California; and (5) conclusions. Conclusions are: (1) EV Charging/discharging pattern mainly depends on the objective of the building (cost versus CO{sub 2}); (2) performed optimization runs show that stationary batteries are more attractive than mobile storage when putting more focus on CO{sub 2} emissions. Why? Stationary storage is available 24 hours a day for energy management - more effective; (3) stationary storage will be charged by PV, mobile only marginally; (4) results will depend on the considered region and tariff - final work will show the results for 138 different buildings in nine different climate zones and three major utility service territories.

  12. Accounting for the effects of rehabilitation actions on the reliability of flexible pavements: performance modeling and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Vighnesh Prakash

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A performance model and a reliability-based optimization model for flexible pavements that accounts for the effects of rehabilitation actions are developed. The developed performance model can be effectively implemented in all the applications...

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 1 and 2: Testing and Modeling Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; LaCava, W.; Link, H.; McNiff, B.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) investigates root causes of wind turbine gearbox premature failures and validates design assumptions that affect gearbox reliability using a combined testing and modeling approach. Knowledge gained from the testing and modeling of the GRC gearboxes builds an understanding of how the selected loads and events translate into internal responses of three-point mounted gearboxes. This paper presents some testing and modeling results of the GRC research during Phase 1 and 2. Non-torque loads from the rotor including shaft bending and thrust, traditionally assumed to be uncoupled with gearbox, affect gear and bearing loads and resulting gearbox responses. Bearing clearance increases bearing loads and causes cyclic loading, which could contribute to a reduced bearing life. Including flexibilities of key drivetrain subcomponents is important in order to reproduce the measured gearbox response during the tests using modeling approaches.

  14. Challenges for a reliable shell model description of the neutrinoless double beta decay matrix elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, Mihai [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States)

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Assuming that the neutrinos are Majorana particles and the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay is observed, a reliable 0{nu}{beta}{beta} matrix element is necessary to decide the neutrino mass hierarchy and the minimum neutrino mass. Many nuclear structure techniques, including the shell model, are presently used to calculate these matrix elements. In the last few years one could see a slow convergence of these results, but not yet at a level of 20 several shell model effective interactions and varying other parameters, finding results in a range that spans about 20In this contribution we describe challenges for obtaining reliable shell model 0{nu}{beta}{beta} matrix elements, with emphasis to {sup 76}Ge and {sup 82}Se decays.

  15. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr. (,; .); Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  16. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid UnderUncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit that operates on natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find natural gas generating cost thresholds that trigger DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid accelerates DG investment, while the option to disconnect entirely from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generating cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit.

  17. Microgrid Workshop Report August 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312),Microgrid Workshop Report August 2011 Microgrid Workshop

  18. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  19. MICROGRIDS -The Exploitation of Massive On-chip Concurrency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesshope, Chris

    MICROGRIDS - The Exploitation of Massive On-chip Concurrency C. R. Jesshope Department of Computer not yield concurrency unless existing code is recompiled using the concurrency controls introduced be explicitly programmed and is at a relatively coarse grain. An ideal architecture would provide this same

  20. Randomized Auction Design for Electricity Markets between Grids and Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zongpeng

    Randomized Auction Design for Electricity Markets between Grids and Microgrids Linquan Zhang Dept@cs.hku.hk ABSTRACT This work studies electricity markets between power grids and mi- crogrids, an emerging paradigm Problem; Mechanism Design; Approximation Algorithms 1. INTRODUCTION An electrical power grid

  1. Sharing Renewable Energy in Smart Microgrids , Zhichuan Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Prashant

    Sharing Renewable Energy in Smart Microgrids Ting Zhu , Zhichuan Huang , Ankur Sharma , Jikui Su § Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst ABSTRACT Renewable energy harvested from the environment is an at- tractive option for providing green energy to homes. Unfor- tunately, the intermittent

  2. Understanding the Role of Buildings in a Smart Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuvraj Agarwal; Thomas Weng; Rajesh K. Gupta

    Abstract—A ‘smart microgrid ’ refers to a distribution network for electrical energy, starting from electricity generation to its transmission and storage with the ability to respond to dynamic changes in energy supply through co-generation and demand adjustments. At the scale of a small town, a

  3. Electric Grid State Estimators for Distribution Systems with Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vijay

    46556 Emails: {jhuang6,vgupta2,huang}@nd.edu Abstract--In the development of smart grid, state] into the distribution systems of the power grid. Such integration complicates the operation of distribution systemsElectric Grid State Estimators for Distribution Systems with Microgrids Jing Huang, Vijay Gupta

  4. Hybrid Renewable Energy Investment in Microgrid Hao Wang, Jianwei Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    between the utility company and consumers for a better demand side management, and decen- tralized. In the second period, the operator coordinates the power supply and demand in the microgrid to minimize that the demand response saves 18% of the capital investment, and hybrid renewable energy investment reduces

  5. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Sanborn, Scott E.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a working report drafted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, describing statistical models of passives component reliabilities.

  6. Integrating Photovoltaic Inverter Reliability into Energy Yield Estimation with Markov Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    fixed costs in typical installations. Detailed reliability studies pertaining to PV modules, inverters

  7. The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, D.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Cognitive Systems Engineering Lab.); Pople, H.E. Jr. (Seer Systems (USA)); Roth, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Science and Technology Center)

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human responses in emergency situations. In addition a methodology called Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (CREATE) was developed that describes how CES can be used to provide input to human reliability analyses (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. This report describes the results of three activities that were performed to evaluate CES/CREATE: (1) A technical review was conducted by a panel of experts in cognitive modeling, PRA and HRA; (2) CES was exercised on steam generator tube rupture incidents for which data on operator performance exist; (3) a workshop with HRA practitioners was held to analyze a worked example'' of the CREATE methodology. The results of all three evaluations indicate that CES/CREATE is a promising approach for modeling intention formation. Volume 1 provides a summary of the results. This document, Volume 2, provides details on the three evaluations, including the CES computer outputs for the tube rupture events. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, D.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Cognitive Systems Engineering Lab.); Pople, H.E. Jr. (Seer Systems (USA)); Roth, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Science and Technology Center)

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human response in emergency situations. In addition a methodology called Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (CREATE) was developed that describes how CES can be used to provide input to human reliability analyses (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. This report describes the results of three activities that were performed to evaluate CES/CREATE: (1) A technical review was conducted by a panel of experts in cognitive modeling, PRA and HRA; (2) CES was exercised on steam generator tube rupture incidents for which data on operator performance exist; (3) a workshop with HRA practitioners was held to analyze a worked example'' of the CREATE methodology. The results of all three evaluations indicate that CES/CREATE is a promising approach for modeling intention formation. This document, Volume 1 provides a summary of the results. Volume 2 provides details on three evaluations, including the CES computer outputs for the tube rupture events. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Novel Approach for Calculation and Analysis of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Microgrids: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Gao, W.; Muljadi, E.; Jiang, J.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a novel approach based on matrix perturbation theory to calculate and analyze eigenvalues and eigenvectors in a microgrid system. Rigorous theoretical analysis to solve eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors for a system under various perturbations caused by fluctuations of irradiance, wind speed, or loads is presented. A computational flowchart is proposed for the unified solution of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in microgrids, and the effectiveness of the matrix perturbation-based approach in microgrids is verified by numerical examples on a typical low-voltage microgrid network.

  10. RELY: A reliability modeling system for analysis of sodium-sulfur battery configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, C.J.; Huber, H.D.; Doggett, W.H.; Dirks, J.A.; Dovey, J.F.; Grinde, R.B.; Littlefield, J.S.; Cuta, F.M.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has produced a microcomputer-based software package, called RELY, to assess the impact of sodium-sulfur cell reliability on constant current discharge battery performance. The Fortran-based software operates on IBM microcomputers and IBM-compatibles that have a minimum of 512K of internal memory. The software package has three models that provide the following: (1) a description of the failure distribution parameters used to model cell failure, (2) a Monte Carlo simulation of battery life, and (3) a detailed discharge model for a user-specified battery discharge cycle. 6 refs., 31 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  12. Panel: Microgrid Research and Field Testing IEEE PES General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, Tampa, FL 1 In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panel: Microgrid Research and Field Testing IEEE PES General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, Tampa, FL 1 Abstract In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode where the microgrid is interfaced to the main power system by a fast semiconductor switch called static switch, (SS

  13. The added economic and environmental value of plug-in electric vehicles connected to commercial building microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microgrid, which may include photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries, thermal storage, and combined heat and power (

  14. A Markov Model for Assessing the Reliability of a Digital Feedwater Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu,T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Lehner, J.

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A Markov approach has been selected to represent and quantify the reliability model of a digital feedwater control system (DFWCS). The system state, i.e., whether a system fails or not, is determined by the status of the components that can be characterized by component failure modes. Starting from the system state that has no component failure, possible transitions out of it are all failure modes of all components in the system. Each additional component failure mode will formulate a different system state that may or may not be a system failure state. The Markov transition diagram is developed by strictly following the sequences of component failures (i.e., failure sequences) because the different orders of the same set of failures may affect the system in completely different ways. The formulation and quantification of the Markov model, together with the proposed FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) approach, and the development of the supporting automated FMEA tool are considered the three major elements of a generic conceptual framework under which the reliability of digital systems can be assessed.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 4, JULY 2014 1621 Realizing Unified Microgrid Voltage Profile and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Zhihua

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 4, JULY 2014 1621 Realizing Unified Microgrid Voltage the information received locally from the neighboring nodes in the microgrid, and the critical nodes without DG the microgrid to have a unified voltage profile, and incorporating the subgradient method facilitates its

  16. Plug-and-Play Control and Optimization in Microgrids Florian Dorfler, John W. Simpson-Porco, and Francesco Bullo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    distributed renewable genera- tion and energy storage systems, the concept of a microgrid has recently gained, storage, load, and managed autonomously from the larger transmission network. Microgrids are able. The sources in a microgrid generate either DC or variable frequency AC power, and are interfaced with an AC

  17. Abstract -This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU--Droop control; distributed energy storage system (DESS); DC micro-grids; state-of-charge (SoC) I. INTRODUCTION and more popularity [1]. Nowadays DC micro-grids are becoming more attractive with the raise of DC power

  18. Load Response Fundamentally Matches Power System Reliability Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system. Loads are frequently barred from providing the highest value and most critical reliability services; regulation and spinning reserve. Advances in communications and control technology now make it possible for some loads to provide both of these services. The limited storage incorporated in some loads better matches their response capabilities to the fast reliability-service markets than to the hourly energy markets. Responsive loads are frequently significantly faster and more accurate than generators, increasing power system reliability. Incorporating fast load response into microgrids further extends the reliability response capabilities that can be offered to the interconnected power system. The paper discusses the desired reliability responses, why this matches some loads' capabilities, what the advantages are for the power system, implications for communications and monitoring requirements, and how this resource can be exploited.

  19. Science-Based Simulation Model of Human Performance for Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; Ali Mosleh; Carol Smidts

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human reliability analysis (HRA), a component of an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), is the means by which the human contribution to risk is assessed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, among the literally dozens of HRA methods that have been developed, most cannot fully model and quantify the types of errors that occurred at Three Mile Island. Furthermore, all of the methods lack a solid empirical basis, relying heavily on expert judgment or empirical results derived in non-reactor domains. Finally, all of the methods are essentially static, and are thus unable to capture the dynamics of an accident in progress. The objective of this work is to begin exploring a dynamic simulation approach to HRA, one whose models have a basis in psychological theories of human performance, and whose quantitative estimates have an empirical basis. This paper highlights a plan to formalize collaboration among the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the University of Maryland, and The Ohio State University (OSU) to continue development of a simulation model initially formulated at the University of Maryland. Initial work will focus on enhancing the underlying human performance models with the most recent psychological research, and on planning follow-on studies to establish an empirical basis for the model, based on simulator experiments to be carried out at the INL and at the OSU.

  20. Micro-Grids for Colonias (TX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean Schneider; Michael Martin; Renee Berry; Charles Moyer

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of the final implementation and testing of a hybrid micro-grid system designed for off-grid applications in underserved Colonias along the Texas/Mexico border. The project is a federally funded follow-on to a project funded by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office in 2007 that developed and demonstrated initial prototype hybrid generation systems consisting of a proprietary energy storage technology, high efficiency charging and inverting systems, photovoltaic cells, a wind turbine, and bio-diesel generators. This combination of technologies provided continuous power to dwellings that are not grid connected, with a significant savings in fuel by allowing power generation at highly efficient operating conditions. The objective of this project was to complete development of the prototype systems and to finalize and engineering design; to install and operate the systems in the intended environment, and to evaluate the technical and economic effectiveness of the systems. The objectives of this project were met. This report documents the final design that was achieved and includes the engineering design documents for the system. The system operated as designed, with the system availability limited by maintenance requirements of the diesel gensets. Overall, the system achieved a 96% availability over the operation of the three deployed systems. Capital costs of the systems were dependent upon both the size of the generation system and the scope of the distribution grid, but, in this instance, the systems averaged $0.72/kWh delivered. This cost would decrease significantly as utilization of the system increased. The system with the highest utilization achieved a capitol cost amortized value of $0.34/kWh produced. The average amortized fuel and maintenance cost was $0.48/kWh which was dependent upon the amount of maintenance required by the diesel generator. Economically, the system is difficult to justify as an alternative to grid power. However, the operational costs are reasonable if grid power is unavailable, e.g. in a remote area or in a disaster recovery situation. In fact, avoided fuel costs for the smaller of the systems in use during this project would have a payback of the capital costs of that system in 2.3 years, far short of the effective system life.

  1. Robust Networked Control Scheme for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded MicroGrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    1 Robust Networked Control Scheme for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded MicroGrids Qobad scenarios that have an increased number of distributed generators (DGs) within the MG. Due (RES) and distributed generators (DGs), microgrids (MGs) have recently attracted a significant interest

  2. Fine-Grained Remote Monitoring, Control and Pre-Paid Electrical Service in Rural Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    Fine-Grained Remote Monitoring, Control and Pre-Paid Electrical Service in Rural Microgrids Maxim microgrid deployment in rural Les Anglais, Haiti. The system consists of a three-tiered architecture,arthur}@earthsparkinternational.org Abstract--In this paper, we present the architecture, design and experiences from a wirelessly managed

  3. Complementary Effect of Wind and Solar Energy Sources in a Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Complementary Effect of Wind and Solar Energy Sources in a Microgrid M. A. Barik, Student Member. Index Terms--Microgrid, renewable energy sources, reactive power mismatch, solar integration, voltage-mass energy, etc. Of them wind and solar energy is broadly used for their characteristics. This paper presents

  4. A Secure Energy Routing Mechanism for Sharing Renewable Energy in Smart Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    A Secure Energy Routing Mechanism for Sharing Renewable Energy in Smart Microgrid Ting Zhu Sheng, Binghamton, NY, USA Abstract--Due to volatile and rising energy prices, smart microgrids appear and wind turbines on every house sharing renewable energy among houses. How to efficiently and optimally

  5. Control of Parallel-Connected Bidirectional AC-DC Converters in Stationary Frame for Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodorescu, Remus

    Sistemes Automàtica i Informàtica Industrial Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Abstract. In this paper, parallel-connected bidirectional converters for AC and DC hybrid microgrid application energy sources [3-6]. A hybrid microgrid can be made up of distributed renewable source, AC and DC common

  6. A Survey of Techniques Used to Control Microgrid Generation and Storage during Island Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Angelo Pedrasa

    A microgrid is a cluster of interconnected distributed generators, loads and intermediate storage units that cooperate with each other to be collectively treated by the grid as a controllable load or generator. Power quality events and pre-set conditions will make the microgrid disconnect from the

  7. A Distributed Control Strategy for Coordination of an Autonomous LVDC Microgrid Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    A Distributed Control Strategy for Coordination of an Autonomous LVDC Microgrid Based on Power for autonomous LVDC MGs. Index Terms--Microgrid (MG), voltage-droop (VD) control, battery chargers, power storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS

  8. Consensus + Innovations Approach for Distributed Multi-Agent Coordination in a Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Soummya

    in which distributed resources and loads form microgrids within the bulk power system in which load1 Consensus + Innovations Approach for Distributed Multi-Agent Coordination in a Microgrid Gabriela- agement are expected to become more prevalent in the future electric power system. Coordinating

  9. Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units With larger portion of growing electricity demand which is being fed through distributed generation (DG power system. Being able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode, a microgrid manages

  10. Supervisory Control of an Adaptive-Droop Regulated DC Microgrid with Battery Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    such as photovoltaic (PV) systems and secondary batteries. In this paper, several distributed generators (DGs) have1 Supervisory Control of an Adaptive-Droop Regulated DC Microgrid with Battery Management been merged together with a pair of batteries and loads to form an autonomous dc Microgrid (MG

  11. Improving Energy Use Forecast for Campus Micro-grids using Indirect Indicators Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    and institutional campuses can significantly contribute to energy conservation. The rollout of smart grids of occupants, and is a micro-grid test-bed for the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration ProjectImproving Energy Use Forecast for Campus Micro-grids using Indirect Indicators Saima Aman

  12. Demand Side Management for Wind Power Integration in Microgrid Using Dynamic Potential Game Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Demand Side Management for Wind Power Integration in Microgrid Using Dynamic Potential Game Theory, Wind Power Integration, Markov Chain, Dynamic Potential Game Theory, Nash Equilibrium. I. INTRODUCTION the intermittency in wind power generation. Our focus is on an isolated microgrid with one wind turbine, one fast

  13. Microgrids in the Evolving Electricity Generation and DeliveryInfrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The legacy paradigm for electricity service in most of the electrified world today is based on the centralized generation-transmission-distribution infrastructure that evolved under a regulated environment. More recently, a quest for effective economic investments, responsive markets, and sensitivity to the availability of resources, has led to various degrees of deregulation and unbundling of services. In this context, a new paradigm is emerging wherein electricity generation is intimately embedded with the load in microgrids. Development and decay of the familiar macrogrid is discussed. Three salient features of microgrids are examined to suggest that cohabitation of micro and macro grids is desirable, and that overall energy efficiency can be increased, while power is delivered to loads at appropriate levels of quality.

  14. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  15. Motivation & Goals The copula-based reliability and availability modeling environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    (t) A Potential inter-dependencies: - failures with a common cause - failure propagation - load sharing - shared repair resources - ... Traditional solution methods for - reliability block diagrams - fault trees assume

  16. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  17. Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Firestone, Ryan; Chandran, Bala

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integrationand Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integration

  18. A Green Prison: The Santa Rita Jail Campus Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integrationand Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integration

  19. The added economic and environmental value of plug-in electric vehicles connected to commercial building microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Megel, Olivier; Gomez, Tomás; Marnay, Chris; Beer, Sebastian; Lai, Judy; Battaglia, Vincent

    2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Connection of electric storage technologies to smartgrids or microgrids will have substantial implications for building energy systems. In addition to potentially supplying ancillary services directly to the traditional centralized grid (or macrogrid), local storage will enable demand response. As an economically attractive option, mobile storage devices such as plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources and storage at the building. In general, it is assumed that they can improve the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of renewable and fossil based on-site generation (e.g. PV, fuel cells, or microturbines operating with or without combined heat and power). Also, mobile storage can directly contribute to tariff driven demand response in commercial buildings. In order to examine the impact of mobile storage on building energy costs and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a microgrid/distributed-energy-resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs applying CO2 taxes/CO2 pricing schemes. The problem is solved for a representative office building in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2020. By using employees' EVs for energy management, the office building can arbitrage its costs. But since the car battery lifetime is reduced, a business model that also reimburses car owners for the degradation will be required. In general, the link between a microgrid and an electric vehicle can create a win-win situation, wherein the microgrid can reduce utility costs by load shifting while the electric vehicle owner receives revenue that partially offsets his/her expensive mobile storage investment. For the California office building with EVs connected under a business model that distributes benefits, it is found that the economic impact is very limited relative to the costs of mobile storage for the site analyzed, i.e. cost reductions from electric vehicle connections are modest. Nonetheless, this example shows that some economic benefit is created because of avoided demand charges and on-peak energy. The strategy adopted by the office building is to avoid these high on-peak costs by using energy from the mobile storage in the business hours. CO2 emission reduction strategy results indicate that EVs' contribution at the selected office building are minor.

  20. SPIDERS JCTD Smart Cyber-Secure Microgrids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) is a groundbreaking program to bolster the cyber security and energy efficiency of U.S. military installations and transfer the knowhow to non-military critical infrastructure.

  1. The Use of F0 Reliability Function for Prosodic Command Analysis on F0 Contour Generation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakai, Mitsuru; Shimodaira, Hiroshi

    This paper describes a method of utilizing an ``F0 Reliability Field'' (FRF), which we have proposed in our previous work, for estimating prosodic commands on F0 contour generation model. This FRF is the time-frequency representation of F0...

  2. ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation K-COVERAGE RELIABILITY EVALUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Liudong

    #12;7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 2 Introduction Wireless sensor;7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 7 Model 13 Consider a set of sensor nodes (SN7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 1 K-COVERAGE RELIABILITY EVALUATION

  3. Value and Technology Assessment to Enhance the Business Case for the CERTS Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasseter, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microgrid increase their output power to match the desired decrease in output from the energy storagemicrogrid’s power demand. This investigation utilized batteries as the energy storagemicrogrid’s power demand. This investigation utilized batteries as the energy storage

  4. Micro-grid operation of inverter based distributed generation with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeineldin, H. H.

    Distribution systems are experiencing increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG). One attractive option is to use the available DG capacity during utility outages by forming planned micro-grids. Load sharing ...

  5. Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Saswati

    1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract than, less than or as much aggregate power as it requires. G. Kasbekar and S. Sarkar

  6. Hardware Development of a Laboratory-Scale Microgrid Phase 2: Operation and Control of a Two-Inverter Microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illindala, M. S.; Piagi, P.; Zhang, H.; Venkataramanan, G.; Lasseter, R. H.

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities of the second year of a three-year project to develop control software for microsource distributed generation systems. In this phase, a laboratory-scale microgrid was expanded to include: (1) Two emulated distributed resources; (2) Static switchgear to allow rapid disconnection and reconnection; (3) Electronic synchronizing circuitry to enable transient-free grid interconnection; (4) Control software for dynamically varying the frequency and voltage controller structures; and (5) Power measurement instrumentation for capturing transient waveforms at the interconnect during switching events.

  7. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in MicrogridsEnvironmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgridsa) ABSTRACT The addition of solar thermal and heat storage

  8. Integration& Operation of a Microgrid at Santa Rita Jail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chevron Energy Solutions; Alameda County; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy; Stadler, Michael; Mendes, Goncalo; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Santa Rita Jail is a 4,500 inmate facility located in Dublin CA, approximately 40 miles (65 km) east of San Francisco. Over the past decade, a series of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) installations and efficiency measures have been undertaken to transform the 3MW facility into a"Green Jail". These include a 1.2MW rated rooftop PV system installed in 2002, a 1MW molten carbonate fuel cell with CHP, and retrofits to lighting and HVAC systems to reduce peak loads. With the upcoming installation of a large-scale battery and fast static disconnect switch, Santa Rita Jail will become a true microgrid, with full CERTS Microgrid functionality. Consequently, the jail will be able to seamlessly disconnect from the grid and operate as an island in the event of a disturbance, reconnecting again once the disturbance has dissipated. The extent to which that jail is capable of islanding is principally dependant on the energy capacity of the battery-one focus of this investigation. Also presented here are overviews of the DER currently installed at the jail, as well as the value it provides by offsetting the purchase of electricity under the current Pacific Gas& Electric (PG&E) tariff.

  9. A Review of Power Electronics Based Microgrids 181 JPE 12-1-23 http://dx.doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2012.12.1.181

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    is followed by the descriptions of system controls and power management strategies for AC microgrids. Finally, but enables also microgrids to control and manage the power and energy flows efficiently [6]­[9]. FurthermorA Review of Power Electronics Based Microgrids 181 JPE 12-1-23 http://dx.doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2012

  10. Bi-factor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Modeling for Subscores Estimation, Reliability, and Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Md Desa, Zairul Nor Deana

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , test linking, equating and scaling (Kolen & Brennan, 2004), item banking, computer-based testing and computerized adaptive testing (Dras- gow & Olson-Buchanan, 1999; Mills et al., 2002; Parshall et al., 2001; van der Linden & Glas, 2000; Wainer & Dorans... decisions at student and school-level decisions (Sinharay et al., 2007; Haberman, 2008; Haberman et al., 2009; Puhan et al., 2010). The application of Bayesian approach has shown improved reliability of the overall score or subscores estimates (Kolen & Tong...

  11. Design and Performance of Solar Decathlon 2011 High-Penetration Microgrid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.; Coddington, M.; Butt, R.; Solomon, S.; Wiegand, G.; Wagner, C.; Gonzalez, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The Solar Decathlon 2011 was held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 to October 2, 2011 . A high-penetration microgrid was designed, installed, and operated for the Solar Decathlon 2011 to grid-connect 19 highly energy-efficient, solar-powered competition houses to a single utility connection point. The capacity penetration of this microgrid (defined as maximum PV generation divided by maximum system load over a two-week period) was 74% based on 1-minute averaged data. Temporary, ground-laid conductors and electrical distribution equipment were installed to grid-connect the Solar Decathlon village, which included the houses as well as other electrical loads used by the event organizers. While 16 of the houses were connected to the 60 Hz microgrid, three houses from Belgium, China, and New Zealand were supplied with 50 Hz power. The design of the microgrid, including the connection of the houses powered by 50 Hz and a standby diesel generator, is discussed in this paper. In addition to the utility-supplied net energy meters at each house, a microgrid monitoring system was installed to measure and record energy consumption and PV energy production at 1-second intervals at each house. Bidirectional electronic voltage regulators were installed for groups of competition houses, which held the service voltage at each house to acceptable levels. The design and successful performance of this high-penetration microgrid is presented from the house, microgrid operator, and utility perspectives.

  12. New Power Electronics Converter Interfacing a Hybrid Dc/Ac Microgrid M. Alibeik, E. C. dos Santos Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    New Power Electronics Converter Interfacing a Hybrid Dc/Ac Microgrid M. Alibeik, E. C. dos Santos microgrid is that it has higher efficiency and lesser power conversion. In this work is proposed a new integrated power electronics converter able to connect a Distributed Generation (DG) unit with a hybrid dc

  13. 944 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 4, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2013 Robust Energy Management for Microgrids With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    in microgrids, which feature distributed generation (DG) and distributed storage (DS). Distributed economic of distributed storage (DS) units, and their index. Number of power production facilities with renewable energy for Microgrids With High-Penetration Renewables Yu Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Nikolaos Gatsis, Member, IEEE

  14. Multi-Agent Based Techniques for Coordinating the Distribution of Electricity in a Micro-Grid Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    and agent managed microgrids. Fred Schweppe, a recognised world leader in the field of electric powerMulti-Agent Based Techniques for Coordinating the Distribution of Electricity in a Micro-Grid will be required which incor- porates intermittent renewable resources, micro-generators, micro-storage devices

  15. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  16. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the heat distribution systems and system reliability, and b)the heat distribution systems and system reliability, and b)of reliability than that provided by the distribution system

  17. Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chiller (kW elec. ) solar thermal (kW) electric storage (largely served by solar thermal collection and some NGchiller (kW elec. ) solar thermal (kW) electric storage (

  18. Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $/kWh lifetime (a) lead- acid batterie s co nfere nc e, Calfor the lead-acid battery. Even though flow batteries were

  19. Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kW•a and up, but the carbon footprint consequences are mixedaround 4%, and carbon footprint is noticeably reduced, bytiny increase in net carbon footprint. However, the CM case,

  20. Progressive Dynamical Drive Train Modeling as Part of NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gearbox Reliabiity Collaborative seeks to integrate several numerical models into the wind turbine drive train design process. This paper describes these models.

  1. Progressive Dynamical Drive Train Modeling as Part of NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gearbox Reliabiity Collaborative seeks to integrate several numerical models into the wind turbine drive train design process. This paper decribes these models.

  2. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Eto

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    storage, combined heat and power (including both natural gas and biomass), AMI, DR capabilities, distribution, automation, electric vehicle accommodation, and microgrid

  3. Microgrids in the Evolving Electricity Generation and Delivery Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equipment performance or durability. Thus, from an end-user perspective, power quality and reliability

  4. Constructing Reliable Distributed Communication Systems with CORBA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    Constructing Reliable Distributed Communication Systems with CORBA Silvano Maffeis Douglas C model to support reliable data- and process- oriented distributed systems that communicate through syn distributed object computing systems with CORBA. First, we examine the question of whether reliable applica

  5. The Reliable Hub-and-spoke Design Problem: Models and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    service between nodes and expanding capacities of hubs. [14] extend ... and MA models to derive an optimal network structure that maximizes the expected net-.

  6. A Mid-Layer Model for Human Reliability Analysis: Understanding the Cognitive Causes of Human Failure Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; April M. Whaley; Ronald L. Boring; James Y. H. Chang; Song-Hua Shen; Ali Mosleh; Johanna H. Oxstrand; John A. Forester; Dana L. Kelly; Erasmia L. Lois

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method’s middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

  7. A mid-layer model for human reliability analysis : understanding the cognitive causes of human failure events.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Song-Hua (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Chang, James Y. H. (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Boring,Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Whaley, April M. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Oxstrand, Johanna H. (Vattenfall Ringhals AB, Varobacka, Sweden); Forester, John Alan; Kelly, Dana L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Mosleh, Ali (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method's middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

  8. North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Reliability...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (NERC): Reliability Considerations from the Integration of Smart Grid North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Reliability Considerations from the Integration of...

  9. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.

  10. Reliability Analysis of Settlement Using an Updated Probabilistic Unified Soil Compression Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambrose, Avery

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    on elastic analysis of soils. To better estimate settlement, a probabilistic estimate that uses a more in depth analysis of the behavior of soil is required. This thesis develops a new probabilistic model for estimating settlement based on a probabilistic...

  11. Reliable Phase Stability Analysis for Asymmetric Models , William D. Haynes2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    ; Interval analysis; Validated computing; Equation of state; NRTL. * Current address: NFS Inc., 1205 Banner several examples, involving as many as eight components, with NRTL as the liquid phase model and a cubic

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: PV Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reliability Sandia Research on PV Arc-Fault Detection Submitted for US Patent On March 4, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  13. Electricity Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems of modernizing the electric grid to meet the nations's need for reliable, electric power, enhancing security continues to increase within the electricity infrastructure. DOE is conducting research, development

  14. Probabilistic models and reliability analysis of scour depth around bridge piers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolduc, Laura Christine

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    parameters suggest that the maximum sour depth predicted by the deterministic HEC-18 Sand and HEC-18 Clay models tend to be conservative. Evidence is also found that the applicability of the HEC-18 Clay method is not limited to clay but can also be used...

  15. Modeling Techniques to Assess Long-term Reliability of Environmental Flows in Basin Scale Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale Planning Thesis directed by Edith Zagona One aspect of integrated water resources management of the rivers but management can help sustain the river ecosystem through modifications to reservoir operations be incorporated into the model to capture reservoir operations. Finally, after addressing the integration of new

  16. A Unified Approach for Modeling and Optimization of Energy, Makespan and Reliability for Scientific Workflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deelman, Ewa

    model for analyzing and profiling energy usage that addresses resource utilization, data movement, and I.g. single core homogeneous virtual machines), and ignores external loads. In this work, we propose 1.k.a. transformations) that read one or more input files and produce one or more output files, and data dependencies

  17. Physical modeling of wind turbine generators in a small scale analog system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xuntuo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project represents the physical modeling and experimental test of a Doubly-fed Induction Machine (DFIM), in order to substantially analyze the characteristic behaviors of wind turbines and its use in the micro-grid ...

  18. Investigation of techniques to build generation system models for reliability evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubbala, Nagalakshmi V.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Proposed Method 1. Two State Unit 2. Three State Unit . 3. n State Unit B. Results and Discussion 1. Case Studies Using IEEE-RTS 2. Case Studies Using EPRI Synthetic System 3. The System Described in Reference [8] 4. CPU Times for Different Models... Transform 1. Count of Operations 3 7 10 11 12 13 16 16 17 20 24 25 27 30 33 39 39 40 43 44 46 48 50 VJn CHAPTER Page 2. Derivation D. Mathematical Comparison E. System Studies 1. IEEE-RTS 2. EPRI Synthetic 3. Results 4...

  19. Investigation of techniques to build generation system models for reliability evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubbala, Nagalakshmi V.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Proposed Method 1. Two State Unit 2. Three State Unit . 3. n State Unit B. Results and Discussion 1. Case Studies Using IEEE-RTS 2. Case Studies Using EPRI Synthetic System 3. The System Described in Reference [8] 4. CPU Times for Different Models... Transform 1. Count of Operations 3 7 10 11 12 13 16 16 17 20 24 25 27 30 33 39 39 40 43 44 46 48 50 VJn CHAPTER Page 2. Derivation D. Mathematical Comparison E. System Studies 1. IEEE-RTS 2. EPRI Synthetic 3. Results 4...

  20. A Virtual Laboratory for Micro-Grid Information and Communication Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    for communication between distributed energy resources, building, substations, etc. To evaluate various ICT and substations; monitoring electricity consumption; adjusting the power consumption of household applications. Within the smart-grid design hierarchy, micro-grids represent localized power grids containing both

  1. Synchronization and Power Sharing for Droop-Controlled Inverters in Islanded Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    - geneously composed of distributed generation, storage, load, and managed autonomously from the larger priSynchronization and Power Sharing for Droop-Controlled Inverters in Islanded Microgrids John W can be serviced without violating given actuation constraints. Moreover, we propose a distributed

  2. Microgrid Implementa1on Ge3ng (rela1vely) down and dirty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesshope, Chris

    5/12/10 1 Microgrid Implementa1on Ge3ng (rela1vely) down and dirty The Big & Caches ­ Small caches; because of latency-tolerant architecture · Pipeline · Threads Cache Line · Control Bits read by Fetch Stage ­Switch, End · Register Info

  3. A Holonic Control Architecture for a Heterogeneous Multi-Objective Smart Micro-Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaconescu, Ada

    A Holonic Control Architecture for a Heterogeneous Multi-Objective Smart Micro-Grid Sylvain Frey proposes a holonic control architecture to help meet these requirements. We show how this architecture can that the proposed architecture can facilitate the development of control solutions addressing the aforementioned

  4. An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid M. A. Barik and H generator. An automatic load sharing approach for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind wind velocity. The load demand for the wind generator is determined based on the variation of its

  5. Community-Based Electric Micro-Grids Can Contribute to Rural Development: Evidence from Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    an ability to charge and enforce cost-reflective tariffs and when electricity consumption is closely linked and distribute electricity in rural areas (Government of Kenya, 2006). As an incentive measure, systems below 3Community-Based Electric Micro-Grids Can Contribute to Rural Development: Evidence from Kenya

  6. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Stability, Power Sharing, & Distributed Secondary Control in Droop-Controlled Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    , heterogeneously composed of distributed generation, storage, load, and managed autonomously from the larger generation within a microgrid can be highly heterogeneous, including photovoltaic, wind, geother- mal, micro with a synchronous AC grid via power electronic DC/AC inverters. In islanded operation, it is through these inverters

  8. Demo Abstract: Toward Data-driven Demand-Response Optimization in a Campus Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    -driven demand response optimization (DR) in the USC campus microgrid, as part of the Los An- geles Smart Grid to interact with the consumers (or their software/hardware proxies). The Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration can later be scaled to a city power grid. Here, we describe our prototype software architecture

  9. Optimal power flow in microgrids using event-triggered optimization Pu Wan and Michael D. Lemmon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemmon, Michael

    be accomplished through small micro- turbines and gas/diesel generators. Storage devices such as battery banks Abstract-- Microgrids are power generation and distribution systems in which users and generators are in close proximity. They usually have limited power generation capacity, and are networked together to meet

  10. An Electricity Trade Model for Microgrid Communities in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    is the major trend of future smart grid, which contains various kinds of renewable power generation centers]. This distributed power generation center has made it easier to make use of all kinds of renewable energy sources as a "prosumer" (producer and consumer) [3]. It contains one or multiple kinds of renewable power generation

  11. Effects of a carbon tax on combined heat and power adoption by a microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Siddidqui, Afzal S.; Stadler, Michael

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid ((mu)Grid) consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A (mu)Grid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The (mu)Grid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without CHP equipment, such as water- and space-heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the (mu)Grid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean generation in California.

  12. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricityand heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energyquality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first major paradigm shift in electricity generation,delivery, and control is emerging in the developed world, notably Europe,North America, and Japan. This shift will move electricity supply awayfrom the highly centralised universal service quality model with which weare familiar today towards a more dispersed system with heterogeneousqualities of service. One element of dispersed control is the clusteringof sources and sinks into semi-autonomous mu grids (microgrids).Research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) of mu gridsare advancing rapidly on at least three continents, and significantdemonstrations are currently in progress. This paradigm shift will resultin more electricity generation close to end-uses, often involvingcombined heat and power application for building heating and cooling,increased local integration of renewables, and the possible provision ofheterogeneous qualities of electrical service to match the requirementsof various end-uses. In Europe, mu grid RD3 is entering its third majorround under the 7th European Commission Framework Programme; in the U.S.,one specific mu grid concept is undergoing rigorous laboratory testing,and in Japan, where the most activity exists, four major publiclysponsored and two privately sponsored demonstrations are in progress.This evolution poses new challenges to the way buildings are designed,built, and operated. Traditional building energy supply systems willbecome much more complex in at least three ways: 1. one cannot simplyassume gas arrives at the gas meter, electricity at its meter, and thetwo systems are virtually independent of one another; rather, energyconversion, heat recovery and use, and renewable energy harvesting mayall be taking place simultaneously within the building energy system; 2.the structure of energy flows in the building must accommodate multipleenergy processes in a manner that permits high overall efficiency; and 3.multiple qualities of electricity may be supplied to various buildingfunctions.

  13. Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Firestone, Ryan; Chandran, Bala

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L ABORATORY Optimal Technology Selection and Operation ofEnvironmental Energy Technologies Division 15 January 2007for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions with funding

  14. Ris-R-1235(EN) Reliability Databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1 ISO standard: Gas and Oil - Collection of Reliability and Maintenance Data for Equipment 17 5.2 EDF standard for collection of reliability and maintenance data for equipment (also called MCD ­ Mode et Cause judgements on new equipment reliability parameters or using standard values or standard reliability models (e

  15. Are mixed explicit/implicit solvation models reliable for studying phosphate hydrolysis? A comparative study of continuum, explicit and mixed solvation models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamerlin, Shina C. L.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Warshel, Arieh

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphate hydrolysis is ubiquitous in biology. However, despite intensive research on this class of reactions, the precise nature of the reaction mechanism remains controversial. In this work, we have examined the hydrolysis of three homologous phosphate diesters. The solvation free energy was simulated by means of either an implicit solvation model (COSMO), hybrid quantum mechanical / molecular mechanical free energy perturbation (QM/MM-FEP) or a mixed solvation model in which N water molecules were explicitly included in the ab initio description of the reacting system (where N=1-3), with the remainder of the solvent being implicitly modelled as a continuum. Here, both COSMO and QM/MM-FEP reproduce Delta Gobs within an error of about 2kcal/mol. However, we demonstrate that in order to obtain any form of reliable results from a mixed model, it is essential to carefully select the explicit water molecules from short QM/MM runs that act as a model for the true infinite system. Additionally, the mixed models tend to be increasingly inaccurate the more explicit water molecules are placed into the system. Thus, our analysis indicates that this approach provides an unreliable way for modelling phosphate hydrolysis in solution.

  16. This document is a preprint of the final paper: Savaghebi, M.; Vasquez, J.C.; Jalilian, A.; Guerrero, J.M.; Tzung-Lin Lee; , "Selective harmonic virtual impedance for voltage source inverters with LCL filter in microgrids," Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ECENTLY, microgrids have been taken more attention in the power electronics research community due, a microgrid is defined as a group of distributed generators and energy storage systems which could operate, if the grid power quality is not good, the Microgrid Central Controller can decide to disconnect

  17. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and regulators. The report will also serve to support activities to develop and share information among industry and regulatory participants about critical resources and practices. The toolkit has been developed by investigating the status of indices and definitions, surveying utility organizations on information sharing, and preparing summaries of reliability standards and monitoring requirements--the issues, needs, work under way, existing standards, practices and guidelines--for the following three classifications: (1) terms and definitions of reliability; (2) power quality standards, guidelines, and measurements; and (3) activities and organizations developing and sharing information on distribution reliability. As these synopses of reliability measurement practices are provided, it must be noted that an economic penalty may be associated with requiring too high a reliability level from the distribution system for all customers. It may be appropriate for the distribution system to supply only some base, generally accepted level of reliability. This base level would be adequate for the majority of customers. Users who need a higher level may find it economical to supply using distributed energy resources (DER) and other local solutions to reliability and power quality needs. Local solutions implemented by the customer may be the most cost-effective method for addressing the more stringent needs of a digital economy. These local solutions include energy storage, small distributed generators, and microgrids. This report also considers the market's role in addressing reliability issues and requirements. The customer's needs are discussed in view of issues such as power quality requirements of digital electronic equipment, the cost of outages, the cost of storage and new infrastructure, and natural gas prices. The market role in addressing these issues and requirements is explored. The economic considerations associated with the reliability issues are discussed, as well as the levels at which these economic decisions could be made. Finally, a discussion is provided of the role DER could play in addressing

  18. Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials Increasing numbers on the structural integrity of embedded micro- electronic components and assemblies. Improved knowledge and modeling methods are critical for the reliable use of electronic packages. In particular, since the advent

  19. Power electronics reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.

  20. Thermoelectric Materials By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enable improvements in TE device design, optimization, and maximum reliability. * Next year will involve: - Continued TE material database generation. - TE modeling and...

  1. Reliability-Centered Maintenance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reliability-centered maintenance leverages the same practices and technologies of predictive maintenance.

  2. A MODEL FOR THE DESIGN AND PROGRAMMING OF MULTICORES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesshope, Chris

    A MODEL FOR THE DESIGN AND PROGRAMMING OF MULTICORES Microgrid of reconfigurable microthreaded control 12 Summary of the model 15 /. SVP memory model 16 Shared memory 17 Synchronising memory 17 0 model provides a foundation for significant advances i8 both computer architecture as we7 as operating

  3. Further Results on Distributed Secondary Control in Microgrids Hedi Bouattour, John W. Simpson-Porco, Florian Dorfler, and Francesco Bullo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    , and extend them to the case where only a fraction of inverters cooperates in regulating the network frequency. We show that both these secondary-control schemes achieve frequency regulation in the presence]. Energy generation within a microgrid can be highly heterogeneous, including pho- tovoltaics, wind

  4. Copyright 2013 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission from: CERTS Microgrid Demonstration with Large-Scale Energy Storage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Scale Energy Storage and Renewable Generation Eduardo Alegria, Member, IEEE; Tim Brown, Member, IEEE; Erin Minear, Member, IEEE; Robert H. Lasseter, Fellow, IEEE Submitted to "Energy Storage Applications--Distributed Generation, Distributed Resource, Islanding, Microgrid, Smart Grid, Renewable Energy, Advanced Energy Storage

  5. Carbyne contamination in carbon-coated TEM microgrids made from vacuum-resistive heating deposition from a graphite rod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Hanying; Sun Jingzhi; Wang Youwen; Chen Hongzheng; Cao Jian; Wang Mang

    2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbyne contamination was found to exist on the as-prepared carbon-coated transmission electron microscope (TEM) microgrids made by the method of vacuum-resistive heating deposition from a graphite rod. It is a source to bring mistaken and confusing information to the samples being studied by TEM.

  6. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 30, NO. 6, JULY 2012 1061 Decentralized Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Hao Liang, Student Member, IEEE, Bong at the minimum cost based on the economic dispatch. In this paper, we introduce a decentralized economic dispatch wireless communication devices are used to establish an ad hoc network as a basic information exchange

  7. Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability and Security (EPIRS) Reseach and Development Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Meeker; L. Baldwin; Steinar Dale; Alexander Domijan; Davild Larbalestier; Hui Li; Peter McLaren; Sastry Pamidi; Horatio Rodrigo; Michael Steurer

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Power systems have become increasingly complex and face unprecedented challenges posed by population growth, climate change, national security issues, foreign energy dependence and an aging power infrastructure. Increased demand combined with increased economic and environmental constraints is forcing state, regional and national power grids to expand supply without the large safety and stability margins in generation and transmission capacity that have been the rule in the past. Deregulation, distributed generation, natural and man-made catastrophes and other causes serve to further challenge and complicate management of the electric power grid. To meet the challenges of the 21st century while also maintaining system reliability, the electric power grid must effectively integrate new and advanced technologies both in the actual equipment for energy conversion, transfer and use, and in the command, control, and communication systems by which effective and efficient operation of the system is orchestrated - in essence, the 'smart grid'. This evolution calls for advances in development, integration, analysis, and deployment approaches that ultimately seek to take into account, every step of the way, the dynamic behavior of the system, capturing critical effects due to interdependencies and interaction. This approach is necessary to better mitigate the risk of blackouts and other disruptions and to improve the flexibility and capacity of the grid. Building on prior Navy and Department of Energy investments in infrastructure and resources for electric power systems research, testing, modeling, and simulation at the Florida State University (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS), this project has continued an initiative aimed at assuring reliable and secure grid operation through a more complete understanding and characterization of some of the key technologies that will be important in a modern electric system, while also fulfilling an education and outreach mission to provide future energy workforce talent and support the electric system stakeholder community. Building upon and extending portions of that research effort, this project has been focused in the following areas: (1) Building high-fidelity integrated power and controls hardware-in-the-loop research and development testbed capabilities (Figure 1). (2) Distributed Energy Resources Integration - (a) Testing Requirements and Methods for Fault Current Limiters, (b) Contributions to the Development of IEEE 1547.7, (c) Analysis of a STATCOM Application for Wind Resource Integration, (d) Development of a Grid-Interactive Inverter with Energy Storage Elements, (e) Simulation-Assisted Advancement of Microgrid Understanding and Applications; (3) Availability of High-Fidelity Dynamic Simulation Tools for Grid Disturbance Investigations; (4) HTS Material Characterization - (a) AC Loss Studies on High Temperature Superconductors, (b) Local Identification of Current-Limiting Mechanisms in Coated Conductors; (5) Cryogenic Dielectric Research; and (6) Workshops, education, and outreach.

  8. Multi-Building Microgrids for a Distributed Energy Future in Portugal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equipment can provide the system with greater reliability.Reliability of power supply Reduction of investments in plants and equipment

  9. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  10. This document is a preprint of the final paper: Savaghebi, M.; Jalilian, A.; Vasquez, J. C.; Guerrero, J. M.; , "Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids," Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol.3, no.4, pp.1893-1902, Dec. 2012. doi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    .; Guerrero, J. M.; , "Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids," Smart Grid, IEEE for enhancement of Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) voltage quality in microgrids. The control structure consists control scheme. Index Terms--Distributed Generator (DG), microgrid, voltage harmonics, voltage unbalance

  11. Reliability Evaluation of Electric Power Generation Systems with Solar Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samadi, Saeed

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    reliability evaluation of generation systems including Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants. Unit models of PV and CSP are developed first, and then generation system model is constructed to evaluate the reliability of generation systems...

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 2, JUNE 2013 1087 Reliability Modeling and Evaluation of Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    . Based on a multiple-state Markov chain model, the failure and repair rates of power components, power transformers are in particular critical to this mission. Any minor failure, such as a fluid leak on power transformers and concluded that it is necessary to know the winding temperature in order

  13. A Multi-State Model for the Reliability Assessment of a Distributed Generation System via Universal Generating Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Milan, Italy, Dipartimento di Energia Enrico.zio@polimi.it Abstract The current and future developments renewable technology (e.g. wind or solar, etc.) whose behavior is described by a binary state, working assessment, multi-state modeling, universal generating function #12;2 Notations Solar irradiance Total number

  14. This document is a preprint of the final paper: Shafiee, Qobad; Vasquez, Juan C.; Guerrero, Josep M.; , "Distributed secondary control for islanded MicroGrids -A networked control systems approach," IECON 2012 -38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial El

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    approach is not only able to restore frequency and voltage of the MicroGrid but also ensures reactive power such as power electronics converters, distributed generations (DGs), energy storage systems.; , "Distributed secondary control for islanded MicroGrids - A networked control systems approach," IECON 2012 - 38

  15. This document downloaded from www.microgrids.et.aau.dk is the preprint version of the paper: D. Wu, F. Tang, T. Dragicevic, J. C. Vasquez, J. M. Guerrero, "A control architecture to coordinate renewable energy sources and energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    renewable energy sources and energy storage systems in islanded microgrids," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, Early into account both the available power in renewable energy sources (RES) and storage capacity of energy storage and flexibly controlled compared to the large centralized power systems. Microgrid is emerging as a potential

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Test and Model Investigation of Sun Orbit and Planet Load Share in a Wind Turbine Gearbox; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCava, W.; Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes experimental measurement of the sun gear orbit in dynamometer testing and describes its relation to the other measured responses of the planetary stage. The relation of the sun orbit to component runout, component flexibility, gear coupling alignment, planet load share, and planet position error will be investigated. Equations describing the orbit of the sun gear in the test cases are derived. Rigid and flexible multibody models of the full gearbox are investigated and compared to sun and planet measurements. This paper shows that the sun gear's path may be influenced by gear coupling responses and gearbox structural flexibilities.

  17. Solving Customer-Driven Microgrid Optimization Problems as DCOPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    impact on global warming [21]. In order to meet the demand of power, a large number of renewable power and an islanding problem. We show how one can model both problems as DCOPs and solve them using off-the-shelf DCOP that there is an urgent need to move away from fossil fuel to renewable energy resources given that the demand for fossil

  18. NISTIR 7817 A Credential Reliability and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NISTIR 7817 A Credential Reliability and Revocation Model for Federated Identities Hildegard Ferraiolo http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.7817 #12;NISTIR 7817 A Credential Reliability and Revocation Interagency Report 7817 22 pages (Nov. 2012) Certain commercial entities, equipment, or materials may

  19. Medical Aspects of Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation covers the medical evaluation as part of a human reliability program, particularly the various medical qualifications and potential disqualifiers.

  20. Lifetime and Reliability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A DOE Solid-State Lighting Program technology fact sheet on lifetime, reliability, and failure as related to LED-based products.

  1. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  2. Medical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NEMI Medical Electronics team to address short- and long-term reliability issues with medical devices. OurMedical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to provide medical device manufacturers, and consistency of active implantable medical devices. These devices, including pacemakers, cardiac defibrillators

  3. Composite System based Multi-Area Reliability Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajan, Ramya

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of such systems. Multi - area reliability evaluation is typically done by considering equivalent tie lines between different areas in an integrated power system. It gives approximate results for the reliability indices of a power system as it models each...

  4. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the ninth PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Sheraton Denver West Hotel on September 4--6, 1996. This years workshop included presentations from 25 speakers and had over 100 attendees. All of the presentations that were given are included in this proceedings. Topics of the papers included: defining service lifetime and developing models for PV module lifetime; examining and determining failure and degradation mechanisms in PV modules; combining IEEE/IEC/UL testing procedures; AC module performance and reliability testing; inverter reliability/qualification testing; standardization of utility interconnect requirements for PV systems; need activities to separate variables by testing individual components of PV systems (e.g. cells, modules, batteries, inverters,charge controllers) for individual reliability and then test them in actual system configurations; more results reported from field experience on modules, inverters, batteries, and charge controllers from field deployed PV systems; and system certification and standardized testing for stand-alone and grid-tied systems.

  5. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integrationand Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integration

  6. Photovoltaic system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  7. Reliable solar: powering communities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliability Technology earns award ReliabilityReliable

  8. Validation of a STATCOM Transient Stability Model through Small-Disturbance Stability Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    . INTRODUCTION Power system operators are constantly striving to keep power networks secure by guaranteeing models. For instance, the TS models proposed for a series of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS used in small-disturbance stability studies of large, interconnected power grids as well as microgrids

  9. Reliability and Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar reliability and safety research and development (R&D) focuses on testing photovoltaic (PV) modules, inverters, and systems for long-term performance, and helping investors, consumers,...

  10. Reliability Standards Owner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Internal Operations and Asset Management group of Planning and Asset Management (TP). A successful candidate in this position will serve as the Reliability Standards...

  11. Microgrid modeling using the stochastic Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model DER-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    output introduce time-of-use tariffs for home electricityinfo – electricity/NG tariffs (time of use, demand charges),

  12. Facility Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Office Of Energy Efficiency; Renewable Energy; Z. Ye; R. Walling; N. Miller; P. Du; K. Nelson; Z. Ye; R. Walling; N. Miller; P. Du; K. Nelson

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof. Available electronically at

  13. Reliability and Availability Requirements Engineering within the Unified Process using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    Reliability and Availability Requirements Engineering within the Unified Process using to support quantifiable, testable reliability and availability requirements (R&AR) elicitation, reliability and availability re- quirements, Unified Modeling Language profile, misuse cases, fault trees. I

  14. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  15. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Reliability Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability PV Systems ReliabilityCoryne Tasca2015-05-08T03:40:54+00:00...

  16. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  17. Reliability and Functional Availability of HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrefelt, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RELIABILITY AND FUNCTIONAL AVAILABILITY OF HVAC SYSTEMS Sonny Myrefelt Dep. of Build. Serv. Eng., KTH, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden, and SKANSKA Sydost, V?xj?, Sweden Summary This paper presents a model to calculate the reliability... system, therefore, there must be sufficient documentation of design airflow rates. The compulsory ventilation checks performed in Sweden have focused on the importance of maintaining the design air flow rates. More about this activity can be seen...

  18. Panel on Microgrids Systems International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, April 16-18, 2007 San Antonio Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are included. Keywords: CHP, UPS, distributed generation, intentional islanding, inverters, microgrid, power vs-18, 2007 San Antonio Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can cause as many problems as it may solve. A better way to realize the emerging potential of distributed generation is to take

  19. On Reactive Power Flow and Voltage Stability in Microgrids Basilio Gentile, John W. Simpson-Porco, Florian Dorfler, Sandro Zampieri, and Francesco Bullo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    ], where an approximate solution to the reactive power flow equations was developed for electrical networksOn Reactive Power Flow and Voltage Stability in Microgrids Basilio Gentile, John W. Simpson-Porco, Florian D¨orfler, Sandro Zampieri, and Francesco Bullo Abstract-- This paper focuses on reactive power

  20. 54 IEEE power & energy magazine may/june 20081540-7977/08/$25.00©2008 IEEE T THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMICAL BENEFITS OF THE MICROGRID, AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    and power quality constraints, and market participation strategies, the required control and operational strategies of a microgrid can be significantly, and even conceptually, dif-ferent than those of the conventional power systems. The main reasons are as follows: ? steady-state and dynamic

  1. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. XX, NO. XX, MONTH 20XX 1 Decentralized Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Weihua

    Economic Dispatch in Microgrids via Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Hao Liang, Student Member, IEEE, Bong at the minimum cost based on the economic dispatch. In this paper, we propose a decentralized economic dispatch wireless communication devices are used to establish an ad hoc network as a basic information exchange

  2. An Electricity Trade Model for Multiple Power Distribution Networks in Smart Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . A microgrid is a small scale power network, which contains one or multiple types of renewable power generators complicated with the adoption of energy storage [5]. For a power network, the amount of energy generationAn Electricity Trade Model for Multiple Power Distribution Networks in Smart Energy Systems

  3. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  4. Empirical Bayes Estimation of Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pensky, Marianna

    types of equipment relies on statistical inference about char- acteristics of reliabilityEmpirical Bayes Estimation of Reliability Introduction Assessment of the reliability of various such as reliability function, mean lifetime of the devices, or failure rate. Gen- eral techniques of statistical

  5. Reliability-based casing design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maes, M.A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Civil Engineering Dept.; Gulati, K.C.; Johnson, R.C. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); McKenna, D.L. [Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria); Brand, P.R.; Lewis, D.B. [Mobil E and P Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper describes the development of reliability-based design criteria for oil and/or gas well casing/tubing. The approach is based on the fundamental principles of limit state design. Limit states for tubulars are discussed and specific techniques for the stochastic modeling of loading and resistance variables are described. Zonation methods and calibration techniques are developed which are geared specifically to the characteristic tubular design for both hydrocarbon drilling and production applications. The application of quantitative risk analysis to the development of risk-consistent design criteria is shown to be a major and necessary step forward in achieving more economic tubular design.

  6. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  7. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.

  8. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  9. Reliable computation Peter Gacs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gacs, Peter

    of compressors 28 4.6. Exercises 30 5. The reliable storage problem 32 5.1. Clocked circuits 32 5.2. Storage 34 5.1. Cables 21 4.2. Compressors 23 4.3. Propagating safety 25 4.4. Endgame 26 4.5. The construction.3. Error-correcting codes 35 5.4. Refreshers 39 5.5. Exercises 48 6. Problems 49 7. Historical remarks 51

  10. Reliable computation of homogeneous azeotropes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, R.W.; Brennecke, J.F.; Stadtherr, M.A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important to determine the existence and composition of homogeneous azeotropes in the analysis of phase behavior and in the synthesis and design of separation systems, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. A new method for reliably locating any and all homogeneous azeotropes for multicomponent mixtures is presented. The method also verifies the nonexistence of homogeneous azeotropes if none are present. The method is based on interval analysis, in particular an interval-Newton/generalized-bisection-algorithm providing a mathematical and computational guarantee that all azeotropes are located. This general-purpose technique can be applied in connection with any thermodynamic models. The technique is illustrated in several example problems using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC activity-coefficient models.

  11. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alex Farrell of the Energy and Resources Group, UniversityMicrogrid Distributed Energy Resource Potential Using DER-of Distributed Energy Resources: The CERTS MicroGrid

  12. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  13. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  14. RAMP: Impact of Rule Based Aggregator Business Model for Residential Microgrid of Prosumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    the load through storage), participation in the electricity market through DR program, and other innovative Including Distributed Energy Resources Mohammad Abdullah Al Faruque Department of Electrical Engineering programs) in the electricity market and therefore will be able to bring economic advantages to all

  15. Modeling and Simulation of a Microgrid as a Stochastic Hybrid System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abate, Alessandro

    . Strelec and K. Macek are with the Honeywell Laboratories, Honeywell s.r.o., V Parku 2326/18 , 148 00 Prague,Czech Republic. Email: {martin.strelec,karel.macek}@honeywell.com K. Macek is also with FNSPE CTU

  16. This document downloaded from www.microgrids.et.aau.dk is a preprint version from the paper: L. Meng, T. Dragicevic, J.M. Guerrero, J.C. Vasquez, M. Savaghebi, F. Tang, "Agent-based distributed unbalance compensation for optimal power quality in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    -based Distributed Unbalance Compensation for Optimal Power Quality in Islanded Microgrids Lexuan Meng, Tomislav, the distributed generators (DG) can be used as distributed compensators so as to compensate the voltage unbalances as to compensate the unbalances at the critical bus. In case of microgrids, distributed generators (DGs) can

  17. Software engineering practices for control system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. K. Schaffner; K. S White

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will discuss software engineering practices used to improve Control System reliability. The authors begin with a brief discussion of the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (CMM) which is a framework for evaluating and improving key practices used to enhance software development and maintenance capabilities. The software engineering processes developed and used by the Controls Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for accelerator control, are described. Examples are given of how their procedures have been used to minimized control system downtime and improve reliability. While their examples are primarily drawn from their experience with EPICS, these practices are equally applicable to any control system. Specific issues addressed include resource allocation, developing reliable software lifecycle processes and risk management.

  18. Integration of NDE Reliability and Fracture Mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, F. L.; Doctor, S. R.; Heas!er, P. G.; Morris, C. J.; Pitman, S. G.; Selby, G. P.; Simonen, F. A.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a four-phase program for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of in-service inspection (lSI} performed on the primary system piping welds of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). Phase I of the program is complete. A survey was made of the state of practice for ultrasonic rsr of LWR primary system piping welds. Fracture mechanics calculations were made to establish required nondestrutive testing sensitivities. In general, it was found that fatigue flaws less than 25% of wall thickness would not grow to failure within an inspection interval of 10 years. However, in some cases failure could occur considerably faster. Statistical methods for predicting and measuring the effectiveness and reliability of lSI were developed and will be applied in the "Round Robin Inspections" of Phase II. Methods were also developed for the production of flaws typical of those found in service. Samples fabricated by these methods wilI be used in Phase II to test inspection effectiveness and reliability. Measurements were made of the influence of flaw characteristics {i.e., roughness, tightness, and orientation) on inspection reliability. These measurernents, as well as the predictions of a statistical model for inspection reliability, indicate that current reporting and recording sensitivities are inadequate.

  19. Structural Safety and Reliability, Corotis et al. (eds), 2001 Swets & Zeitlinger, ISBN 90 5809 197 X Moment-based fatigue load models for wind energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    197 X 1 Moment-based fatigue load models for wind energy systems Steven R. Winterstein & LeRoy M. Veers Sandia National Laboratories, Wind Energy Technology Department, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0708 Keywords: load models, fatigue loads, wind energy, non-Gaussian, moment-based models, long- term, short

  20. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 47, No. 12, pp. 1889-1901, Dec. 2007 A Maintenance Planning and Business Case Development Model for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandborn, Peter

    and Business Case Development Model for the Application of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM cycle cost, cost modeling, discrete event simulation, business case development, life consumption of Mechanical Engineering University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Abstract - This paper presents a model

  1. The Impact of Protection System Failures on Power System Reliability Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Kai

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 6-11. Reliability modeling of power systems with perfect protections. ............ 145 Figure 6-12. Reliability modeling of power systems with protection failures. ............. 146 Figure 6-13. 24-bus IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS... is reprinted from copyrighted material with permission from IEEE. ?2010 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from Kai Jiang and Chanan Singh, ?Reliability modeling of all-digital protection systems including impact of repair?? IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol...

  2. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factor and its installed capacity must be greater than theand 2006, the total installed capacity increased by 570%.Japan Germany US A Installed capacity (GW) Y ear Source: IEA

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factor and its installed capacity must be greater than theand 2006, the total installed capacity increased by 570%.Japan Germany USA Installed capacity (GW) Year Source: IEA

  4. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    see also Schoenung et al. 2003 and EPRI-DOE Storage Handbookcomparisons_capitalcost.htm). EPRI-DOE Handbook of EnergyDistribution Applications, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, and the U.S.

  5. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    see also Schoenung et al. 2003 and EPRI-DOE Storage Handbooket al. 1996, 2003, EPRI-DOE Handbook 2003, Goldstein, L. etat Schoenung et al. 2003, EPRI-DOE Handbook 2003 and at the

  6. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Edison (SCE) have time-of-use tariffs with stiff demandthe absence of a time of use tariff for electrical energy.the power of the time-of-use tariff. The xix The Effects of

  7. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Abbreviations AC CA CCHP CEC CERTS CEUS CHP ConEd COPcombined cooling heat and power (CCHP) system was installed

  8. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 18. Cumulative installed PV capacity in IEA reportingChicago IL, also LBL-29798, Berkeley CA, 1991. IEA PVPSweb: IEA Co-operative programe on photovoltaic power systems

  9. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increases in size, the cost per kWh decreases significantly.batteries typically cost about $100 per kWh for “wet” typesto MW in size and cost $500 to $800 per kWh. As the overall

  10. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar thermal .DER available include solar thermal, photovoltaics (PV) and$/kW absorption chiller solar thermal photovoltaics Please

  11. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ab’), photovoltaic (‘pv’), and solar thermal (‘st’)} t u Daym,t,h Net heat from solar thermal during hour h, type of daysame alignment of the solar thermal panel it can be used for

  12. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    optimal could be acquired. Battery storage costs are roughlylead/acid battery) and thermal storage, capabilities, withcell electric storage heat storage flow battery abs. chiller

  13. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery Utility electricity consumption Electricity providedis expressed in electricity consumption of the electricis expressed in electricity consumption of the electric

  14. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    charging kW Utility electricity consumption Electricityis expressed in electricity consumption of the electricis expressed in electricity consumption of the electric

  15. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utility electricity and natural gas purchases, amortized capital and annual maintenance costs for distributed generation (utility electricity and natural gas purchases plus amortized capital and annual maintenance costs for distributed generation (

  16. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating value internal combustion engine Internationalbased variable speed internal combustion engine genset withdescription of internal combustion engines (ICE) as well as

  17. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and are typically used for on-site CHP systems. The electriccells.ppt Pacific Region CHP Application Center, Energy andAC CA CCHP CEC CERTS CEUS CHP ConEd COP DER DER-CAM DG DOE

  18. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ES 2. CA nursing home electricity pattern: July weekday lowJanuary and July weekday electricity and total heat (space +CA school weekday total electricity (inclusive of cooling)

  19. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-acid batteries ..quite reasonable, e.g. lead acid batteries are available incontinuous investments lead-acid batteries intercept costs (

  20. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the entire cost, carbon footprint, other metric, orbill is down by 4% and the carbon footprint by 13%. In NY bymodest, although the carbon footprint is reduced by almost a

  1. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    substantial (517 kW) and the battery bank huge (2082 kWh),181 kW), as is the battery bank (1518 kWh). In this case thePV array and a huge battery bank (6434 kWh). Note that this

  2. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in peak shaving by the battery and PV. Therefore, to satisfylow storage & 60% PV incentive Battery discharging BatteryElectricity input to battery Considering lower PV prices and

  3. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in peak shaving by the battery and PV. Therefore, to satisfylow storage & 60% PV incentive Battery charging kW Batterylow storage & PV cost (run 3) Battery charging kW Battery

  4. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermal Solar thermal collectors capture solar radiation and°C /180°F) temperature solar collectors (see also EIA SolarPV) and solar thermal collectors; • traditional batteries,

  5. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    examples due to higher technology costs. Please note thatruns use actual technology costs and performance parametersbecause of its high technology costs. Standby tariff

  6. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CA nursing homes is the constant total NYC heating load. Theand heating demand were performed for the CA nursing home.home meets all of its electricity demand via utility purchases and heating

  7. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capture solar radiation and convert it into thermal energy.solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (solar thermal collector ( kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (

  8. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capture solar radiation and convert it into thermal energy.solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) electric storage (kWh) flow battery - energy (

  9. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High Speed Shaft Tapered Roller Bearing Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is a project investigating gearbox reliability primarily through testing and modeling. Previous dynamometer testing focused upon acquiring measurements in the planetary section of the test gearbox. Prior to these tests, the strain gages installed on the planetary bearings were calibrated in a load frame.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Inverter Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Inverter reliability drives project life cycle costs and plant performance. This...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Component Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Inverter reliability drives project life cycle costs and plant performance. This...

  12. 2014 Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Announcing The Human Reliability Program Workshop Sponsored by Office of Security (AU-50), U.S Department of Energy In collaboration with NA, NE, EM and SC

  13. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electronics manufacturer based in Niestetal, Germany solid oxide fuel cell security, quality, reliability, and

  14. RELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    experience little change while those using the electronic cutoff would drift due to ageing components and changing parameters. The first few shots using the electronic cutoff were less reliable than subsequentRELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS Clint Sprott July 30, 1965 University of Wisconsin

  15. Systems reliability analysis for the national ignition facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, K.C.; Annese, C.E.; MacIntyre, A.T.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) analysis was initiated for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is an inertial confinement fusion research facility designed to achieve controlled thermonuclear reaction; the preferred site for the NIF is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF RAM analysis has three purposes: (1) to allocate top level reliability and availability goals for the systems, (2) to develop an operability model for optimum maintainability, and (3) to determine the achievability of the allocated goals of the RAM parameters for the NIF systems and the facility operation as a whole. An allocation model assigns the reliability and availability goals for front line and support systems by a top-down approach; reliability analysis uses a bottom-up approach to determine the system reliability and availability from component level to system level.

  16. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  17. The Impact of Protection System Failures on Power System Reliability Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Kai

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of protection systems has emerged as an important topic because protection failures have critical influence on the reliability of power systems. The goal of this research is to develop novel approaches for modeling and analysis...

  18. Reliability Assessment of Fault-Tolerant Dc-Dc Converters for Photovoltaic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Reliability Assessment of Fault-Tolerant Dc-Dc Converters for Photovoltaic Applications Sairaj V in photovoltaic energy processing applications is presented. The proposed approach acknowledges the influence through several case studies. Index Terms-- Markov reliability modeling, photovoltaic systems, power

  19. Value and Technology Assessment to Enhance the Business Case for the CERTS Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasseter, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility Supply, and R DG (t) = Reliability of the Distributed Generation.distributed generation only a small amount of kW load was being placed on the utility.utility electricity and natural gas purchases plus amortized capital and annual maintenance costs for distributed generation (

  20. Design and Verification of Smart and Scalable DC Microgrids for Emerging Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    , and service reliability is weak for rural customers [3]. However, the falling cost of solar panels solution that is geared at maximizing efficiency and reducing system installation cost is described is not viable because of the high connection costs faced by households and disincentives for grid operators

  1. Plug-and-play voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrids with meshed topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    generation since, differently from common diesel generators, power is produced and delivered to the main grid Generation Units (DGUs). Local controllers regulate voltage and frequency at the Point of Common Coupling Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) designed to operate safely and reliably in absence of a connection

  2. Multi-hazard Reliability Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mardfekri Rastehkenari, Maryam 1981-

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic framework is developed to assess the structural reliability of offshore wind turbines. Probabilistic models are developed to predict the deformation, shear force and bending moment demands on the support structure of wind turbines...

  3. Multi-hazard Reliability Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mardfekri Rastehkenari, Maryam 1981-

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic framework is developed to assess the structural reliability of offshore wind turbines. Probabilistic models are developed to predict the deformation, shear force and bending moment demands on the support structure of wind turbines...

  4. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichner, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barthold, W.P. [Barthold Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ``weak fuel`` has been proposed on an interim basis. ``Weak fuel`` is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure.

  5. Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database : wind plant reliability benchmark.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems' ORAPWind%C2%AE (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREW's reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

  6. Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.) [ed.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  7. Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. [ed.] [ed.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

  8. Wind turbine reliability : a database and analysis approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsday, James (ARES Corporation); Briand, Daniel; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Benjamin, Allan S. (ARES Corporation)

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US wind Industry has experienced remarkable growth since the turn of the century. At the same time, the physical size and electrical generation capabilities of wind turbines has also experienced remarkable growth. As the market continues to expand, and as wind generation continues to gain a significant share of the generation portfolio, the reliability of wind turbine technology becomes increasingly important. This report addresses how operations and maintenance costs are related to unreliability - that is the failures experienced by systems and components. Reliability tools are demonstrated, data needed to understand and catalog failure events is described, and practical wind turbine reliability models are illustrated, including preliminary results. This report also presents a continuing process of how to proceed with controlling industry requirements, needs, and expectations related to Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety. A simply stated goal of this process is to better understand and to improve the operable reliability of wind turbine installations.

  9. Final report on reliability and lifetime prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Wise, Jonathan; Jones, Gary D.; Causa, Al G. [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH; Terrill, Edward R. [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH; Borowczak, Marc [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights the important results obtained from the subtask of the Goodyear CRADA devoted to better understanding reliability of tires and to developing better lifetime prediction methods. The overall objective was to establish the chemical and physical basis for the degradation of tires using standard as well as unique models and experimental techniques. Of particular interest was the potential application of our unique modulus profiling apparatus for assessing tire properties and for following tire degradation. During the course of this complex investigation, extensive relevant information was generated, including experimental results, data analyses and development of models and instruments. Detailed descriptions of the findings are included in this report.

  10. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  11. LESSONS FROM ENGINEERING: CAN SOFTWARE BENEFIT FROM PRODUCT BASED EVIDENCE OF RELIABILITY?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snooke, Neal

    on mature engineering concepts such as reliability, dependability, safety, failure mode analysisLESSONS FROM ENGINEERING: CAN SOFTWARE BENEFIT FROM PRODUCT BASED EVIDENCE OF RELIABILITY? Position, United Kingdom nns@aber.ac.uk Keywords: Software engineering, Model-driven engineering, Reliability

  12. Session Reliability of Web Systems under Heavy-Tailed Workloads: An Approach Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    Session Reliability of Web Systems under Heavy-Tailed Workloads: An Approach Based on Design reliability modeling which integrates the user view represented by the session layer and the system view indicate that session reliability, which accounts for the distribution of failed requests within sessions

  13. Distributed Reliable Object-Oriented Programming (DROOP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    Distributed Reliable Object-Oriented Programming (DROOP) P. Eugster November 3, 2003 Abstract with such failures, coining the term Distributed Reliable Object-Oriented Programming (DROOP). 1 SCOOP

  14. Thermoelectric Materials By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement 14957) Thermoelectric Materials By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement 14957) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  15. PEEM Thermal Stress and Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M. P.

    2007-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing power electronics thermal stress and reliability is a critical factor in power electronics equipment. NREL aims to improve thermal stress and reliability of power electronics technologies.

  16. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final...

  17. Recommendations to Address Power Reliability Concerns Raised...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reliability Concerns Raised as a Result of Pending Environmental Regulations for Electric Generation Stations Recommendations to Address Power Reliability Concerns Raised as a...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic plant reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photovoltaic plant reliability Sandia-Electric Power Research Institute Partnership Publishes Photovoltaic Reliability Report On January 21, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, Grid...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: national reliability database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    national reliability database Third Annual Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) Database Report Now Available On October 17, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  20. Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience, and Storm Responses (November 2014) Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience, and Storm Responses (November...

  1. Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

  2. Reliability of IGBT in a STATCOM for Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopi Reddy, Lakshmi Reddy [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With smart grid integration, there is a need to characterize reliability of a power system by including reliability of power semiconductors in grid related applications. In this paper, the reliability of IGBTs in a STATCOM application is presented for two different applications, power factor correction and harmonic elimination. The STATCOM model is developed in EMTP, and analytical equations for average conduction losses in an IGBT and a diode are derived and compared with experimental data. A commonly used reliability model is used to predict reliability of IGBT.

  3. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is independent of RH up to a threshold value, depending on the coating chemistry. The mechanism for the adhesion increase beyond this threshold value is that the coupling agent reconfigures from a surface to a bulk phase (Chapter 3). To investigate the details of how the adhesion increase occurs, the authors developed the mechanics for adhesion hysteresis measurements. These revealed that near-crack tip compression is the underlying cause of the adhesion increase (Chapter 4). A vacuum deposition chamber for silane coupling agent deposition was constructed. Results indicate that vapor deposited coatings are less susceptible to degradation at high RH (Chapter 5). To address issues relating to surfaces in relative motion, a new test structure to measure friction was developed. In contrast to other surface micromachined friction test structures, uniform apparent pressure is applied in the frictional contact zone (Chapter 6). The test structure will enable friction studies over a large pressure and dynamic range. In this LDRD project, the authors established an infrastructure for MEMS adhesion and friction metrology. They then characterized in detail the performance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic films under humid conditions, and determined mechanisms which limit this performance. These studies contribute to a fundamental understanding for MEMS reliability design rules. They also provide valuable data for MEMS packaging requirements.

  4. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A MICROGRID WITH PLUG-IN VEHICLES: ERROR MODELING AND THE ROLE OF PREDICTION HORIZON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    in increased use of battery storage, this does not necessarily pro- duce significant decreases in fuel usage

  5. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  6. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  7. The design of a reliable reputation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swamynathan, Gayatri; Almeroth, Kevin C.; Zhao, Ben Y.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reliability by spreading its transactions evenly across all 20 peers in the system (shown by Distribution

  8. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  9. FIELD RELIABILITY OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    study of in-the-field experience of electronics reliability. Tage Elm. Abstract. This report and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the re- liability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine

  10. Reliability, Thermal, and Power Modeling and Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dick, Robert

    to Lan Bai, David Bild, Pai Chou, Peter Dinda, Paul Ferno, Russ Joseph, Brett Meyer, Seth Prejean, Li

  11. Sandia Energy - PV Reliability & Performance Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution Grid IntegrationOffshore Wind RD&D:PVReliability &

  12. Fault Impacts on Solar Power Unit Reliability Ali M. Bazzi, Katherine A. Kim, Brian B. Johnson, Philip T. Krein, and Alejandro Dominguez-Garca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    reliability, solar power unit, reliability modeling procedure. I. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV) powerFault Impacts on Solar Power Unit Reliability Ali M. Bazzi, Katherine A. Kim, Brian B. Johnson a generalized reliability model of a solar power unit (SPU) based on physical characteristics including material

  13. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O'TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  14. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  15. Reliability of dynamic systems under limited information.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Richard V., Jr. (.,; .); Grigoriu, Mircea

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is developed for reliability analysis of dynamic systems under limited information. The available information includes one or more samples of the system output; any known information on features of the output can be used if available. The method is based on the theory of non-Gaussian translation processes and is shown to be particularly suitable for problems of practical interest. For illustration, we apply the proposed method to a series of simple example problems and compare with results given by traditional statistical estimators in order to establish the accuracy of the method. It is demonstrated that the method delivers accurate results for the case of linear and nonlinear dynamic systems, and can be applied to analyze experimental data and/or mathematical model outputs. Two complex applications of direct interest to Sandia are also considered. First, we apply the proposed method to assess design reliability of a MEMS inertial switch. Second, we consider re-entry body (RB) component vibration response during normal re-entry, where the objective is to estimate the time-dependent probability of component failure. This last application is directly relevant to re-entry random vibration analysis at Sandia, and may provide insights on test-based and/or model-based qualification of weapon components for random vibration environments.

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, J.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  17. Power Reliability at BASF Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T. R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Reliability at BASF Corporation Thomas R. Theising Energy Systems Manager BASF Corporation ABSTRACT: Quality is defined not as what the supplier puts into the product but what the customer gets out and is willing to pay for. Power.... INTRODUCTION: BASF often identifies its? power quality by the effects it has on its ability to manufacture products. Improvements are made to remedy the power quality problems either through the elimination of the problems or through some means...

  18. Power Reliability at BASF Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T. R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Reliability at BASF Corporation Thomas R. Theising Energy Systems Manager BASF Corporation ABSTRACT: Quality is defined not as what the supplier puts into the product but what the customer gets out and is willing to pay for. Power.... INTRODUCTION: BASF often identifies its? power quality by the effects it has on its ability to manufacture products. Improvements are made to remedy the power quality problems either through the elimination of the problems or through some means...

  19. Review of Quantitative Software Reliability Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, M.; Lehner, J.

    2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for digital systems rests on deterministic engineering criteria. In its 1995 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) policy statement, the Commission encouraged the use of PRA technology in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although many activities have been completed in the area of risk-informed regulation, the risk-informed analysis process for digital systems has not yet been satisfactorily developed. Since digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety, the NRC established a digital system research plan that defines a coherent set of research programs to support its regulatory needs. One of the research programs included in the NRC's digital system research plan addresses risk assessment methods and data for digital systems. Digital I&C systems have some unique characteristics, such as using software, and may have different failure causes and/or modes than analog I&C systems; hence, their incorporation into NPP PRAs entails special challenges. The objective of the NRC's digital system risk research is to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems into NPP PRAs, and (2) using information on the risks of digital systems to support the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. For several years, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has worked on NRC projects to investigate methods and tools for the probabilistic modeling of digital systems, as documented mainly in NUREG/CR-6962 and NUREG/CR-6997. However, the scope of this research principally focused on hardware failures, with limited reviews of software failure experience and software reliability methods. NRC also sponsored research at the Ohio State University investigating the modeling of digital systems using dynamic PRA methods. These efforts, documented in NUREG/CR-6901, NUREG/CR-6942, and NUREG/CR-6985, included a functional representation of the system's software but did not explicitly address failure modes caused by software defects or by inadequate design requirements. An important identified research need is to establish a commonly accepted basis for incorporating the behavior of software into digital I&C system reliability models for use in PRAs. To address this need, BNL is exploring the inclusion of software failures into the reliability models of digital I&C systems, such that their contribution to the risk of the associated NPP can be assessed.

  20. Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The steady increase of wind power on the grid presents new challenges for power system operators charged with making sure the grid stays up and running. "We need to ensure that we are going down a path that will lead to better reliability [with wind power]," said Bob Zavadil, an executive vice president at EnerNex Corporation in Knoxville, Tenn., a firm specializing in renewable energy grid interconnection and integration. "If this piece isn't done, there will be problems." EnerNex has spent the last decade perfecting wind turbine and plant models that test a wind plant's influence on the grid and its ability to provide grid support. In its latest effort, the company is using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds worth $750,000 to develop documentation and validations of computer wind turbine models.

  1. Real-time State Estimation on Micro-grids Ying Hu, Anthony Kuh, Aleksandar Kavcic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    . In addition, the proposed graphical model can integrate new models for solar/wind cor- relation that will help been made on the individual feeder circuit estimating the customer load characteristics. One reason for this lack of study is that there is hardly any real-time load measure- ments for individual customers

  2. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    storage, and combined heat and power (CHP) systems with and without absorption chillers. Definition of a microgrid

  3. Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSERC Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic Aspects Engineering Research Center Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic and Economic Aspects for Large Interconnected Grids." We express our appreciation for the support provided

  4. Electric Power Reliability in Chemical Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, M. B.

    The quality and reliability of utility-generated electric power is presently receiving a great deal of attention from the chemical and refining industry. What changes have taken place to make electric power reliability a major topic of discussion...

  5. Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research (PIER) California Energy Commission Beth Chambers Contract Manager Jamie Patterson (VSA) prototype to monitor system voltage conditions and provide real time dispatchers with reliabilityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT California ISO Real

  6. Data Communication Principles Reliable Data Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer Data Communication Basics Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS September 8, 2014 Ramkumar CSE 4153 / 6153 #12;Data Communication Principles Switching Reliable Data Transfer 1 Data Communication Principles Data Rate of a Communication

  7. Electric Power Reliability in Chemical Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, M. B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at plants across the country? Has the quality and reliability of utility-generated power deteriorated over the past five or ten years? Or, has the perception of what constitutes reliable power changed with the advent, installation, and increasing usage...

  8. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2004 This report summarizes the results of the project, "Distributed Generation Market Transformation Tools: Distributed Generation Reliability and Availability Database,"...

  9. Reliability Challenges for Solar Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation that reviews reliability issues related to various types of photovoltaic tecnnologies, including crystalline silicon, thin films, and concentrating PV.

  10. LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY LOGIC DIAGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    point (A) to (F). The block diagram also defines the reliability functions for the purpose of FMEA 1

  11. Dispatcher Reliability Analysis : SPICA-RAIL Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    consider that humans are fully reliable. But experience shows that many accidents involve human failuresDispatcher Reliability Analysis : SPICA-RAIL Experiments Fabien Belmonte, Jean-Louis Boulanger of scenarios and evaluate the behaviour of human operators. A state of the art in human reliability is pre

  12. RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Richard Hardin1 , K.K. Choi1 , and Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting Process Design, Optimization, Reliability-Based Design Optimization purpose reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) software tool previously developed at the University

  13. Randomized algorithms for reliable broadcast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaikuntanathan, Vinod

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we design randomized algorithms for classical problems in fault tolerant distributed computing in the full-information model. The full-information model is a strong adversarial model which imposes no ...

  14. Comparison of reliability performance of group connected and conventional HVDC transmission systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuruganty, S. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group connected HVDC transmission scheme is a variant of the unit connection where instead of a single generator, a group of generators are directly connected to the converter. Studies conducted in the past indicated that significant cost reduction can be achieved using this scheme. This is mainly due to the elimination of many components which results in considerable capital and operating cost savings to the utility. Concerns regarding the reliability performance of unit connected schemes were raised, however, there has not been a detailed reliability study conducted. This paper addresses the reliability evaluation aspect of a group connected scheme and compares the reliability performance of the group connected scheme with that of the conventional common collector system. Reliability models for both schemes were developed using a hypothetical system model based on the Nelson River system. Practical system component outage data was used to examine the reliability performance of both schemes.

  15. OPTIMAL RELIABILITY ALLOCATION IN SERIES-PARALLEL SYSTEMS FROM COMPONENTS' DISCRETE COST -RELIABILITY DATA SETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Alice E.

    is not known. Instead, we consider the more realistic assumption of discrete cost-reliability data sets expressions for cost-reliability curves, we consider discrete cost-reliability data sets for each componentOPTIMAL RELIABILITY ALLOCATION IN SERIES-PARALLEL SYSTEMS FROM COMPONENTS' DISCRETE COST

  16. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  17. Abstract --A systematic framework for reliability assessment and fault-tolerant design of multiphase dc-dc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    reliability. Index Terms--Markov reliability modeling, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaics, switch1 Abstract -- A systematic framework for reliability assessment and fault-tolerant design of multiphase dc-dc converters deployed in photovoltaic applications is presented. System-level steady

  18. Imprecise Reliability Assessment and Decision-Making when the Type of the Probability Distribution of the Random Variables is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaidis, Efstratios

    the upper and lower bounds of the reliability of a system involving such variables. A method for modeling, is formulated and solved in order to estimate the minimum and maximum values of a system's reliability1 Imprecise Reliability Assessment and Decision-Making when the Type of the Probability

  19. Monitoring Software Reliability using Statistical Process control: An MMLE approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad, R Satya; Kantam, R R L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper consider an MMLE (Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation) based scheme to estimate software reliability using exponential distribution. The MMLE is one of the generalized frameworks of software reliability models of Non Homogeneous Poisson Processes (NHPPs). The MMLE gives analytical estimators rather than an iterative approximation to estimate the parameters. In this paper we proposed SPC (Statistical Process Control) Charts mechanism to determine the software quality using inter failure times data. The Control charts can be used to measure whether the software process is statistically under control or not.

  20. Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability information about the delivery of electricity and energy reliability Electricity Delivery...

  1. Hybrid Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 1 of 28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE IC ENGINE OR FUEL CELL Use plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV to minimize fuel consumption BATTERY SIZE POWERPLANT SIZE CONTROL ARCHITECHTURE IC ENGINE OR FUEL CELL CONTROL MANIFOLD COOLER & HUMIDIFIER COMPRESSOR MOTOR Air Supply H2 FUEL CELL STACK Voltage CATHODESIDE ANODESIDE

  2. An Integrated Security-constrained Model-based Dynamic Power Management Approach for Isolated Microgrid Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mashayekh, Salman

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Prime Mover and Control GeneratorExcitation System and Control Shaft Power Field Current Voltage Speed / Power Speed Generating Unit Controls – Unit 1 Reactive Power and Voltage Control HVDC Transmission and Associated Controls System Generation...

  3. Sharing local energy infrastructure : organizational models for implementing microgrids and district energy systems in urban commercial districts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Genevieve Rose

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing trend in cities toward establishing localized, shared energy infrastructure. As existing energy infrastructure ages and demand increases, cities face rising energy costs and security risks combined with ...

  4. Energy-aware scheduling under reliability and makespan constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aupy, Guillaume; Robert, Yves

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a task graph to be executed on a set of homogeneous processors. We aim at minimizing the energy consumption while enforcing two constraints: a prescribed bound on the execution time or makespan), and a reliability threshold. Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is a model frequently used to reduce the energy consumption of a schedule, but it has negative effect on its reliability. In this work, to improve the reliability of a schedule while reducing the energy consumption, we allow for the re-execution of some tasks. We assess the complexity of the tri-criteria scheduling problem (makespan, reliability, energy) with two different speed models: either processors can have arbitrary speeds (continuous speeds), or a processor can run at a finite number of different speeds, and it can change its speed during a computation. We propose several novel tri-criteria scheduling heuristics under the continuous speed model, and we evaluate them through a set of simulations. Our two best heuristics turn ...

  5. MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

  6. Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Microgrids inCommercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui,Afzal; Firestone, Ryan; Chandran, Bala

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The deployment of small (<1-2 MW) clusters of generators,heat and electrical storage, efficiency investments, and combined heatand power (CHP) applications (particularly involving heat activatedcooling) in commercial buildings promises significant benefits but posesmany technical and financial challenges, both in system choice and itsoperation; if successful, such systems may be precursors to widespreadmicrogrid deployment. The presented optimization approach to choosingsuch systems and their operating schedules uses Berkeley Lab'sDistributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model [DER-CAM], extendedto incorporate electrical storage options. DER-CAM chooses annual energybill minimizing systems in a fully technology-neutral manner. Anillustrative example for a San Francisco hotel is reported. The chosensystem includes two engines and an absorption chiller, providing anestimated 11 percent cost savings and 10 percent carbon emissionreductions, under idealized circumstances.

  7. Reliability of Manufacturing Equipment in Complex Environments Jeffrey P. Kharoufeh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharoufeh, Jeffrey P.

    Reliability of Manufacturing Equipment in Complex Environments Jeffrey P. Kharoufeh1 Department stochastic failure models for the reliability evaluation of manufacturing equipment that degrades due to its environment of the manufacturing equipment can significantly impact the rate at which tools (or other critical

  8. Dynamic evidential networks in system reliability analysis: A Dempster Shafer Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dynamic evidential networks in system reliability analysis: A Dempster Shafer Approach Philippe for modeling and analyzing the system reliability based on Dynamic Evidential Networks (DEN). This method. The current system state determine the probability distribution over the next states. In the work reported

  9. Seismic reliability of lifeline systems He Nan Building Research Institute, Zhengzhou, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    Seismic reliability of lifeline systems Yang Han He Nan Building Research Institute, Zhengzhou kinds, i.e., continuous and segment. We often use the segment pipe in China, so the seismic reliability to the seismic damage state of buried pipelines we established the probabilistic prediction model

  10. Power as a function of reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abate, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCabe, G.P.; Lynch, M.P. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many studies employ multiple measurement instruments such as human raters, observers, judges, or mechanical gauges to record subject data. It is well known that the consistency of these instruments, commonly called rater reliability, limits the extent to which conclusions should be drawn from the observed data. However, the degree to which rater reliability limits conclusions has traditionally been assessed in only subjective manners. In this paper, a method is developed for objectively quantifying the impact of rate reliability on the statistical analysis of data from a commonly used collection scheme. This method allows the inclusion of a reliability index in statistical power calculations and is an invaluable tool in the planning of experiments.

  11. General Order Ensuring Reliable Electric Service (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The standards set forth herein have been developed to provide consumers, the Louisiana Public Service Commission, and jurisdictional electric utilities with a uniform method of ensuring reliable...

  12. Improving Wind Turbine Gearbox Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; McNiff, B.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new research and development initiative to improve gearbox reliability in wind turbines begun at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, USA.

  13. Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (PSA) program provides expert technical assistance to states, tribes and regions on electricity policies, programs and market mechanisms that increase access to reliable,...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Inverter Reliablity Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulations to look for corresponding changes in behavioral parameters of ... Inverter Reliability Program On December 18, 2012, in As scientists and engineers improve the...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: PV Reliability Operations Maintenance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maintenance database Sandia-Electric Power Research Institute Partnership Publishes Photovoltaic Reliability Report On January 21, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, Grid...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid phenomena of internal inverter components, and their impact on ... Inverter Reliability Program On December 18, 2012, in As scientists and engineers improve the...

  17. NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL: Preliminary Disturbance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Preliminary Disturbance Report The following information represents a partial sequence of events based upon Reliability Coordinator information available to NERC. It is not...

  18. Sandia Energy - Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhancement for Wind (CREW): Project Update Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW):...

  19. Comments of North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    currently developing a report, entitled "Reliability Consideration from Integration of Smart Grid" that will address many of the issues raised in the DOE RFI. North American...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Materials & Manufacturing Reliability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials & Manufacturing Reliability Program Biofouling Studies on Sandia's Marine Hydrokinetic Coatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim Bay On June 26, 2014, in Energy, Materials...