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Sample records for micro nano pico

  1. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact,...

  2. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems | Department of Energy Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented PDF icon hendricks.pdf More Documents & Publications Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight

  3. Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training Via Desktop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Supercomputer Modeling and Simulation (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training Via Desktop Supercomputer Modeling and Simulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training Via Desktop Supercomputer Modeling and Simulation Authors: Kimball, Clyde ; Karonis, Nicholas ; Lurio, Laurence ; Piot, Philippe ; Xiao, Zhili ; Glatz, Andreas ; Pohlman, Nicholas ; Hou, Minmei ; Demir,

  4. Nano-/micro metallic wire synthesis on Si substrate and their characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Jaskiran Kaur, Harmanmeet Singh, Surinder; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Chakarvarti, Shiv Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Nano-/micro wires of copper are grown on semiconducting Si substrate using the template method. It involves the irradiation of 8 um thick polymeric layer coated on Si with150 MeV Ni ion beam at a fluence of 2E8. Later, by using the simple technique of electrodeposition, copper nano-/micro wires were grown via template synthesis. Synthesized wires were morphologically characterized using SEM and electrical characterization was carried out by finding I-V plot.

  5. Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    systems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems Authors: Fan, Xiao Z ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Gnerlich, Markus ; Brown, Adam ; Gerasopoulos, K ; McCarthy, M ; Culver, James ; Ghodssi, Reza Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1160750 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal

  6. Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-10

    We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatchmore » between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.« less

  7. Back The Pico Mountain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos *Pubs summary *Status *Inside view *Go Back The Pico Mountain free tropospheric station Richard Honrath, Michigan Tech (reh@mtu.edu) Paulo Fialho, University of the Azores...

  8. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  9. Raster-scanning serial protein crystallography using micro- and nano-focused synchrotron beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coquelle, Nicolas; Brewster, Aaron S.; Kapp, Ulrike; Shilova, Anastasya; Weinhausen, Britta; Burghammer, Manfred; Colletier, Jacques -Philippe

    2015-04-25

    High-resolution structural information was obtained from lysozyme microcrystals (20 µm in the largest dimension) using raster-scanning serial protein crystallography on micro- and nano-focused beamlines at the ESRF. Data were collected at room temperature (RT) from crystals sandwiched between two silicon nitride wafers, thereby preventing their drying, while limiting background scattering and sample consumption. In order to identify crystal hits, new multi-processing and GUI-driven Python-based pre-analysis software was developed, named NanoPeakCell, that was able to read data from a variety of crystallographic image formats. Further data processing was carried out using CrystFEL, and the resultant structures were refined to 1.7 Åmore » resolution. The data demonstrate the feasibility of RT raster-scanning serial micro- and nano-protein crystallography at synchrotrons and validate it as an alternative approach for the collection of high-resolution structural data from micro-sized crystals. Advantages of the proposed approach are its thriftiness, its handling-free nature, the reduced amount of sample required, the adjustable hit rate, the high indexing rate and the minimization of background scattering.« less

  10. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waghmare, Shivaji D.; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Gore, Shaym K.; Yoon, Seog-Joon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Lokhande, B.J.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ? These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? LPG, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4} gases were exposed. ? Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ammonium (NH{sub 3}) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  11. A general procedure for thermomechanical calibration of nano/micro-mechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, B.D., E-mail: bhauer@ualberta.ca; Doolin, C.; Beach, K.S.D., E-mail: kbeach@ualberta.ca; Davis, J.P., E-mail: jdavis@ualberta.ca

    2013-12-15

    We describe a general procedure to calibrate the detection of a nano/micro-mechanical resonators displacement as it undergoes thermal Brownian motion. A brief introduction to the equations of motion for such a resonator is presented, followed by a detailed derivation of the corresponding power spectral density (PSD) function, which is identical in all situations aside from a system-dependent effective mass value. The effective masses for a number of different resonator geometries are determined using both finite element method (FEM) modeling and analytical calculations. -- Highlights: Model micro- and nanomechanical resonators displaced by their own thermal motion. Review the theoretical framework for describing thermomechanical systems. Present a recipe for measurement calibration on devices of arbitrary shape. Point out and correct inconsistencies in the existing literature. Provide an authoritative guide and reference for practitioners in this area.

  12. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrentsmore » around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.« less

  13. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials photosensitivity.

  14. West Pico Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pico Food Jump to: navigation, search Name: West Pico Food Place: Vernon, California Sector: Solar Product: A distributor of wholesale frozen foods to supermarket chains in...

  15. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors.

  16. Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micronanobio systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro...

  17. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Compares thermo-hydraulic performance and cost of micro-honeycombs to conventional heat exchange structures to highlight performance enhancement mechanisms

  18. From micro- to nano-scale molding of metals : size effect during molding of single crystal Al with rectangular strip punches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.; Meng, W. J.; Mei, F.; Hiller, J.; Miller, D. J. (Materials Science Division); (Louisiana State Univ.); (Enervana Tech. LLC)

    2011-02-01

    A single crystal Al specimen was molded at room temperature with long, rectangular, strip diamond punches. Quantitative molding response curves were obtained at a series of punch widths, ranging from 5 {micro}m to 550 nm. A significant size effect was observed, manifesting itself in terms of significantly increasing characteristic molding pressure as the punch width decreases to 1.5 {micro}m and below. A detailed comparison of the present strip punch molding results was made with Berkovich pyramidal indentation on the same single crystal Al specimen. The comparison reveals distinctly different dependence of the characteristic pressure on corresponding characteristic length. The present results show the feasibility of micro-/nano-scale compression molding as a micro-/nano-fabrication technique, and offer an experimental test case for size-dependent plasticity theories.

  19. Micro- and nano-X-ray computed-tomography: A step forward in the characterization of the pore network of a leached cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossa, Nathan; Chaurand, Perrine; Vicente, Jrme; Borschneck, Daniel; Levard, Clment; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier; Rose, Jrme

    2015-01-15

    Pore structure of leached cement pastes (w/c = 0.5) was studied for the first time from micro-scale down to the nano-scale by combining micro- and nano-X-ray computed tomography (micro- and nano-CT). This allowed assessing the 3D heterogeneity of the pore network along the cement profile (from the core to the altered layer) of almost the entire range of cement pore size, i.e. from capillary to gel pores. We successfully quantified an increase of porosity in the altered layer at both resolutions. Porosity is increasing from 1.8 to 6.1% and from 18 to 58% at the micro-(voxel = 1.81 ?m) and nano-scale (voxel = 63.5 nm) respectively. The combination of both CT allowed to circumvent weaknesses inherent of both investigation scales. In addition the connectivity and the channel size of the pore network were also evaluated to obtain a complete 3D pore network characterization at both scales.

  20. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UVvis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  1. AOI [3] High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and - H2S Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perepezko, John; Lu-Steffes, Otto

    2014-08-31

    The emissions from coal-fired power plants remain a significant concern for air quality. This environmental challenge must be overcome by controlling the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) throughout the entire coal combustion process. One of the processes which could specifically benefit from robust, low cost, and high temperature compatible gas sensors is the coal gasification process which converts coal and/or biomass into syngas. Hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur compounds make up 33%, 43% and 2% of syngas, respectively. Therefore, development of a high temperature (>500°C) chemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of H2, H2S and SO2 levels during coal gasification is strongly desired. The selective detection of SO2/H2S in the presence of H2, is a formidable task for a sensor designer. In order to ensure effective operation of these chemical sensors, the sensor system must inexpensively function within harsh temperature and chemical environment. Currently available sensing approaches, which are based on gas chromatography, electrochemistry, and IR-spectroscopy, do not satisfy the required cost and performance targets. This work focused on the development microsensors that can be applied to this application. In order to develop the high- temperature compatible microsensor, this work addressed various issues related to sensor stability, selectivity, and miniaturization. In the research project entitled “High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and -H2S Sensors”, the team worked to develop micro-scale, chemical sensors and sensor arrays composed of nano-derived, metal-oxide composite materials to detect gases like H2, SO2, and H2S within high-temperature environments (>500C). The research was completed in collaboration with NexTech Materials, Ltd. (Lewis Center, Ohio). NexTech assisted in the testing of the sensors in syngas with contaminate levels of H2S. The idea of including nanomaterials as the sensing material within resistive-type chemical sensor platforms was to increase the sensitivity (as shown for room temperature applications). Unfortunately, nanomaterials are not stable at high temperatures due to sintering and coarsening processes that are driven by their high surface to volume ratio. Therefore, new hydrogen and sulfur selective nanomaterial systems with high selectivity and stability properties in the proposed harsh environment were investigated. Different nano-morphologies of zirconate, molybdate, and tungstate compounds were investigated. The fabrication of the microsensors consisted of the deposition of the selective nanomaterial systems over metal based interconnects on an inert substrate. This work utilized the chemi-resistive (resistive- type) microsensor architecture where the chemically and structurally stable, high temperature compatible electrodes were sputtered onto a ceramic substrate. The nanomaterial sensing systems were deposited over the electrodes using a lost mold method patterned by conventional optical lithography. The microsensor configuration with optimized nanomaterial system was tested and compared to a millimeter-size sensor e outcomes of this research will contribute to the economical application of sensor arrays for simultaneous sensing of H2, H2S, and SO2.

  2. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, D; Mankin, MN; Belisle, RA; Wong, TS; Aizenberg, J

    2013-06-10

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C are rare. Most state-of-the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 degrees C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000. (C) 2013 Author(s).

  3. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Daniel; Max, Mankin N.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-06-12

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 #2;C are rare. Most stateof- the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 #2;C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000.

  4. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  5. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  6. Surfactant-Free Synthesis of Bi?Te?-Te Micro-Nano Heterostructure with Enhanced Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yichi; Wang, Heng; Kraemer, Stephan; Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Fan; Snedaker, Matt; Ding, Kunlun; Moskovits, Martin; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Stucky, Galen D.

    2011-01-01

    An ideal thermoelectric material would be a semiconductor with high electrical conductivity and relatively low thermal conductivity: an electron crystal, phonon glass. Introducing nanoscale heterostructures into the bulk TE matrix is one way of achieving this intuitively anomalous electron/phonon transport behavior. The heterostructured interfaces are expected to play a significant role in phonon scattering to reduce thermal conductivity and in the energy-dependent scattering of electrical carriers to improve the Seebeck coefficient. A nanoparticle building block assembly approach is plausible to fabricate three-dimensional heterostructured materials on a bulk commercial scale. However, a key problem in applying this strategy is the possible negative impact on TE performance of organic residue from the nanoparticle capping ligands. Herein, we report a wet chemical, surfactant-free, low-temperature, and easily up-scalable strategy for the synthesis of nanoscale heterophase Bi?Te?-Te via a galvanic replacement reaction. The micro-nano heterostructured material is fabricated bottom-up, by mixing the heterophase with commercial Bi?Te?. This unique structure shows an enhanced zT value of ~0.4 at room temperature. This heterostructure has one of the highest figures of merit among bismuth telluride systems yet achieved by a wet chemical bottom-up assembly. In addition, it shows a 40% enhancement of the figure of merit over our lab-made material without nanoscale heterostructures. This enhancement is mainly due to the decrease in the thermal conductivity while maintaining the power factor. Overall, this cost-efficient and room-temperature synthesis methodology provides the potential for further improvement and large-scale thermoelectric applications.

  7. Production of ultra-thin nano-scaled graphene platelets from meso-carbon micro-beads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-11-11

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets (NGPs) having an average thickness no greater than 50 nm, typically less than 2 nm, and, in many cases, no greater than 1 nm. The method comprises (a) intercalating a supply of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMBs) to produce intercalated MCMBs; and (b) exfoliating the intercalated MCMBs at a temperature and a pressure for a sufficient period of time to produce the desired NGPs. Optionally, the exfoliated product may be subjected to a mechanical shearing treatment, such as air milling, air jet milling, ball milling, pressurized fluid milling, rotating-blade grinding, or ultrasonicating. The NGPs are excellent reinforcement fillers for a range of matrix materials to produce nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  8. In situ formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomicro composites by utilizing of waste silica fume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattab, R.M.; EL-Rafei, A.M.; Zawrah, M.F.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? We succeeded to obtain in situ formed sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites from waste and pure materials at 1400 C. ? Their sinterability was greatly dependent on both firing temperature and composition. ? XRD patterns showed that the optimum temperature required for formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites was achieved at 1400 C. ? The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite and 30 wt.% mullite exhibited the best properties. ? Microstructures of the densified composites were composed of nanomacro cordieritemullite structures. -- Abstract: This study aims at in situ formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites having high technological properties using waste silica fume, calcined ball clay, calcined alumina, and magnesia as starting materials. The starting materials were mixed in different ratios to obtain different cordieritemullite composite batches in which the cordierite contents ranged from 50 to 100 wt.%. The batches were uni-axially pressed at 100 MPa and sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 C to select the optimum temperature required for cordieritemullite nanomacro composites formation. The formed phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The sintering parameters in terms of bulk density (BD) and apparent porosity (AP) were determined. The microstructure of composites has been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cold crushing strength (CCS) of the sintered batches was evaluated. The result revealed that the cordieritemullite nanomacro composites were in-situ formed at 1400 C. The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite showed good physical and mechanical properties.

  9. Solvothermal synthesis and tunable luminescence of Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} codoped YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals with uniform morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yue [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China) [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Jinsu; Tian, Bining; Sun, Jiashi; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang; Zhong, Hua [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Hua, Ruinian, E-mail: rnhua@dlnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)] [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} codoped YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals with the morphologies of ellipsoid-like nanoplate, spindle, sandwich-structural rhombus and nanoaggregate were synthesized through a solvothermal method. The morphologies of the prepared products can be tailored by controlling the volume ratio of ethylene glycol (EG) to H{sub 2}O, solvent type or the reaction time. A possible formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3} phosphor was proposed. The emitting colors of YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} phosphors can be easily tuned from yellowish green, yellow to orange by increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration. The energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in YF{sub 3} phosphors was studied. It was found that the interaction type between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} is electric dipole-dipole interaction. - Graphical abstract: Sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized through a solvothermal process. The formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphors was studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YF{sub 3} nano- and micro-crystals were synthesized through solvothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A formation mechanism of the sandwich-structural rhombus like YF{sub 3} was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emitting colors of YF{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+},Eu{sup 3+} phosphors can be tuned. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} is confirmed as electric dipole-dipole interaction.

  10. MHK Projects/OWC Pico Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OWC Pico Power Plant < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMA...

  11. In situ derivation of sulfur activated TiO{sub 2} nano porous layers through pulse-micro arc oxidation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayati, M.R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran ; Moshfegh, A.Z.; Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran ; Molaei, Roya

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} S-TiO{sub 2} layers were grown by MAO technique under pulse current for the first time. {yields} Effect of growth parameters on chemical composition, topography, and morphology of the layers was studied. {yields} A correlation between photocatalytic performance and growth conditions was proposed. -- Abstract: Micro arc oxidation technique, as a facile and efficient process, was employed to grow sulfur doped titania porous layers. This research sheds light on the photocatalytic performance of the micro arc oxidized S-TiO{sub 2} nano-porous layers fabricated under pulse current. Morphological and topographical studies, performed by SEM and AFM techniques, revealed that increasing the frequency and/or decreasing the duty cycle resulted in formation of finer pores and smoother surfaces. XRD and XPS results showed that the layers consisted of anatase and rutile phases whose fraction was observed to change depending on the synthesis conditions. The highest anatase relative content was obtained at the frequency of 500 Hz and the duty cycle of 5%. Furthermore, photocatalytic activity of the layers was examined by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under both ultraviolet and visible photo irradiations. Maximum photodegradation reaction rate constants over the pulse-grown S-TiO{sub 2} layers were respectively measured as 0.0202 and 0.0110 min{sup -1} for ultraviolet and visible irradiations.

  12. Pico Rivera, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Pico Rivera is a city in Los Angeles County, California. It falls under California's 38th...

  13. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF3I Bubble Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF3I Bubble Chamber...

  14. PICO: An Object-Oriented Framework for Branch and Bound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ECKSTEIN,JONATHAN; HART,WILLIAM E.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA A.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the design of PICO, a C++ framework for implementing general parallel branch-and-bound algorithms. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a wide range of branch-and-bound methods on an equally wide range of parallel computing platforms. We first discuss the basic architecture of PICO, including the application class hierarchy and the package's serial and parallel layers. We next describe the design of the serial layer, and its central notion of manipulating subproblem states. Then, we discuss the design of the parallel layer, which includes flexible processor clustering and communication rates, various load balancing mechanisms, and a non-preemptive task scheduler running on each processor. We describe the application of the package to a branch-and-bound method for mixed integer programming, along with computational results on the ASCI Red massively parallel computer. Finally we describe the application of the branch-and-bound mixed-integer programming code to a resource constrained project scheduling problem for Pantex.

  15. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase

  16. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amole, C.

    2015-10-26

    We reported new data from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 36.8 kg of CF3I and located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. PICO-60 is the largest bubble chamber to search for dark matter to date. With an analyzed exposure of 92.8 live-days, PICO-60 exhibits the same excellent background rejection observed in smaller bubble chambers. Alpha decays in PICO-60 exhibit frequency-dependent acoustic calorimetry, similar but not identical to that reported recently in a C3F8 bubble chamber. PICO-60 also observes a large population of unknown background events, exhibiting acoustic, spatial, and timing behaviors inconsistent with those expected from a dark matter signal. We found these behaviors allow for analysis cuts to remove all background events while retaining 48.2%of the exposure. Stringent limits on WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent proton and spin-independent processes are set, and the interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal as dark matter interacting with iodine nuclei is ruled out.

  17. NanoDays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NanoDays NanoDays WHEN: Apr 03, 2015 10:00 AM - Apr 12, 2015 5:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA CONTACT: Jessica Privette 505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury Science INTERNAL: Calendar Login NanoDays - April 3-12, 2015 Event Description NanoDays is a nationwide festival of educational programs about nanoscale science and engineering and its potential impact on the future. The Bradbury Science Museum celebrates NanoDays during Spring Break week, April

  18. NanoDays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NanoDays NanoDays WHEN: Mar 24, 2016 10:00 AM - Apr 03, 2016 5:00 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Ave, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description NanoDays is a national festival of educational programs about nanoscale science and engineering and it's potential impact on the future. The Bradbury Science Museum will celebrate NanoDays over local spring break, March 24 - April 3, 2016. At the

  19. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase transitions triggered by nuclear recoils in the keV range induced by interactions with WIMPs. We present details of the construction and operation of these detectors as well as the results, obtained by several years of observations. We also introduce PICO, a joint effort of the two collaborations to build a second generation ton-scale bubble chamber with 250 liters of active liquid.

  20. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EPJ Web of Conferences 95,04020 (2015) DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/ 20159504020 © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2015 PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - search for dark matter with bubble chambers C. Amole1, M. Ardid2, D. M. Asner3, D. Baxter4, E. Behnke5, P. Bhattacharjee6, H. Borsodi5, M. Bou-Cabo2, S. J. Brice7, D. Broemmelsiek7, K. Clark8, J. I. Collar9, P S. Cooper7, M. Crisler7, C. E. Dahl4, M. Das6, F. Debris10, N. Dhungana11, J. Farine11, I. Felis2, R. Filgas12,a, M. Fines-

  1. Nano-composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  2. In situ growth of ZrO{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-crystalline ceramic coatings via micro arc oxidation of aluminum substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaei-Rad, V.; Bayati, M.R.; Zargar, H.R.; Javadpour, J.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ? ZrO{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers were fabricated by MAO process. ? A formation mechanism was also proposed. ? Effect of voltage and electrolyte composition on layers properties was studied. -- Abstract: Micro arc oxidation technique was employed to grow zirconiaalumina porous layers. Considering XPS, XRD, and EDX results, the layers mainly consisted of ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}, tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}. Fractions of these phases were observed to change based on the fabrication conditions. Zirconia phases formed not only on the surface, but also in the layers depth. Increasing the voltage as well as utilizing thicker electrolytes resulted in higher zirconium concentration. The average crystalline size of the ZrO{sub 2} and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases was determined as about 57 and 75 nm. AFM studies revealed that the surface roughness increased with voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphological evaluations, performed by SEM, showed that the microstructure of the layers strongly depended on the synthesis conditions. The layers revealed a porous structure with a pores size of 40300 nm. Microcracks were observed to appear when the electrolyte concentration and the applied voltage increased. Finally, a formation mechanism was put forward with emphasis on the chemical and the electrochemical foundations.

  3. Sustainable Nano-Materials: What is happening at the cellular level?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-Materials What is happening at the cellular level? Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper Science and Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Advanced Materials: Cellular Level Chemicals Enzymes Mechanical 1 cm 10 m 1 m 10 nm 100 m mm nm Micro Fibrillated Cellulose NanoCellulose Balls Cellulose Whiskers Composite Whisker Films Water Based polymer + Whiskers>> Easy Dispersions Matrix = hydrosoluble polymers Water evaporation nanocomposite film Poly(oxyethylene) Xylans; Hemis

  4. Future nano- and micro-systems using nanobonding technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howlader, Matiar M. R. E-mail: jamal@mcmaster.ca; Deen, M. Jamal E-mail: jamal@mcmaster.ca

    2014-03-31

    In this paper, some of the recent achievements in surface-activation-based nanobonding technology are described. This bonding technology allows for the combination of electronic, photonic, fluidic and mechanical functionalities into small form-factor systems for emerging applications in health diagnostics and screening, for example. These nanobonding technologies provide void-free, strong, and nanoscale bonding at room temperature or at low temperatures (<200 C), and they do not require chemicals, adhesives, or high external pressure. The interfaces of the nanobonded materials in ultra-high vacuum and in air correspond to the covalent bonds, and hydrogen and hydroxyl bonds, respectively, which gives rise to excellent bonding properties. Further, these nanobonding technologies are well-suited for the development of low-cost, high-performance miniaturized systems such as biophotonic imaging systems.

  5. Semiconductive micro- and nano-wire array manufacturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Emily L.; Audesirk, Heather A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2015-06-02

    The disclosure provides methods of manufacturing semiconductive structures using stamping and VLS techniques.

  6. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M; Anderson, Richard J; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L; Rye, Michael J

    2014-10-07

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  7. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented PDF icon hendricks.pdf More Documents &...

  8. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Nordman, Bruce; Lai, Judy

    2011-07-01

    Although it has slowed considerably, consumption of electricity continues to grow in developed economies. Further, there are some unknowns which might accelerate this growth, such as electrification of vehicle fleets and geothermal heat pump space and water heating. Most analysts anticipate that distributed energy resources (DER) will provide a large share of the expanded generation capacity required to meet this seemingly inexorably increasing electricity demand. Further, given the urgency of tackling the climate change problem, most of the added assets must be carbonfree renewables or nuclear, end-use efficiency improvements, or highly efficient fossil-fired technologies. In developed economies worldwide, the current power delivery paradigm has been in place for more than a century, i.e. since the emergence of polyphase AC systems around the turn of the last century. A key feature of this structure is that, in principle, universal service is delivered at a consistent level of power quality and reliability (PQR) throughout large regions. This paper describes a future possible structure for the electricity generation and delivery system that leaves the existing high voltage meshed grid paradigm in place, but involves radical reorganization of parts of the distribution network and customer sites. Managing a much more diverse dispersed system poses major challenges to the current centralized grid paradigm, particularly since many of these assets are small to tiny by macrogrid standards and they may ultimately number in the millions. They are also not ones that centralized control can rely upon to function in traditionally dependable ways, e.g. renewable generation can be highly variable and changes in output of generators are not independent. Although most involved in the industry agree that a paradigm shift is both necessary and desirable to manage the new system, the nature of the future system remains quite unclear. In the possible structure described here, the traditional grid, or macrogrid, remains similar at the high voltage meshed level. Three new entities are added more locally: community grids or milligrids that operate a segment of the existing distribution system, microgrids which are akin to current customer sites but which have automonous control, and nanogrids, such as telecom or Ethernet networks that currently distribute power to many low-power devices. The latter exist currently in the local electrical systems but are not typically considered a part of the traditional electricity supply system. Because all these new entities exhibit some localized control, providing appropriate local heterogeneous PQR becomes a possibility. These new grid concepts enable a more"bottom-up" approach to electricity distribution, in contrast to the historic 'top-down' model. The future will almost certainly include a mix of the two, but the balance among them and the interface (if any) between them is unclear.

  9. Unique Methodologies for Nano/Micro Manufacturing Job Training...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My ...

  10. Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Diesel Fuel Injectors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Micro-Orifices for Diesel Fuel Injectors Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Diesel Fuel Injectors Scuffing resistance of a MoN-Cu nano-composite coating under exteme loading condidtions do not show scuffing within the load limit of the testing device. PDF icon deer08_fenske.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors) Fuel Injector Holes Fuel Injector Holes

  11. Nano C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nano-C Place: Westwood, Massachusetts Zip: 2090 Product: A Boston-based company that manufactures combustion based technology. Coordinates:...

  12. NanoReady Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NanoReady Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: NanoReady Ltd Place: Caesarea, Israel Zip: 38900 Sector: Solar Product: String representation "NanoReady devel ... nd solar cells."...

  13. PV Nano Cell | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cell Jump to: navigation, search Name: PV Nano Cell Place: Israel Product: Israel-based firm focused on PV nano cell technology. References: PV Nano Cell1 This article is a stub....

  14. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Vsevolodov, Nikolai N. (Kensington, MD)

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  15. Nano Tune Technologies Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Nano Tune use sol-gel processing technology to develop a high energy density & power storage devices. References: Nano Tune Technologies Corp.1 This article is...

  16. MicroED data collection and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-07-01

    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  17. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  18. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  19. Pi-CO? aqueous post-combustion CO? capture: Proof of concept through thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and gas-lift pump modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, G.; Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; ONeil, K.; Kervvan, C.; Beddelem, M. -H.

    2014-12-31

    Partnering in Innovation, Inc. (Pi-Innovation) introduces an aqueous post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO?) capture system (Pi-CO?) that offers high market value by directly addressing the primary constraints limiting beneficial re-use markets (lowering parasitic energy costs, reducing delivered cost of capture, eliminating the need for special solvents, etc.). A highly experienced team has completed initial design, modeling, manufacturing verification, and financial analysis for commercial market entry. Coupled thermodynamic and thermal-hydraulic mass transfer modeling results fully support proof of concept. Pi-CO? has the potential to lower total cost and risk to levels sufficient to stimulate global demand for CO? from local industrial sources.

  20. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  1. Nuclear waste repository research at the micro- to nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, T.; Denecke, M. A.

    2010-04-06

    Micro- and nano-focused synchrotron radiation techniques to investigate determinant processes in contaminant transport in geological media are becoming especially an increasingly used tool in nuclear waste disposal research. There are a number of reasons for this but primarily they are driven by the need to characterize actinide speciation localized in components of heterogeneous natural systems. We summarize some of the recent research conducted by researchers of the Institute of Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology using micro- and nano-focused X-ray beams for characterization of colloids and their interaction with minerals and of elemental and phase distributions in potential repository host rocks and actinide speciation in a repository natural analogues sample. Such investigations are prerequisite to ensuring reliable assessment of the long term radiological safety for proposed nuclear waste disposal sites.

  2. MicroBooNE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE MicroBooNE Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email MicroBooNE schematic drawing Figure 1: A schematic drawing of the MicroBooNE liquid argon TPC detector. The main goals of the MicroBooNE experiment are: (1) to demonstrate the capabilities of a liquid argon TPC in the reconstruction of neutrino

  3. Magnetic nano-particles | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic nano-particles The student will be involved in assembling CoFe2O4 nano-particles onto Si wafers for further studies by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) that will...

  4. Nano Design Works | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Design Works Nano Design Works (NDW) capitalizes on the power of nanotechnology and provides services to strengthen its impact. With expertise in nanomaterials, computing, chemistry, materials, and energy systems, along with its world-class facilities, Argonne is a perfect match for companies looking to make a big impact with tiny materials. PDF icon Argonne_Nano_Design_Works

  5. Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

  6. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic studies on anatase nano-TiO{sub 2} at internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hang Li, Mei; Jun, Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The micro morphological structure of the nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was also observed with TEM, as shown in figure. The TEM images clearly exhibited the homogeneous microstructure of particles with a size of around 1015 nm. - Highlights: Nano-TiO{sub 2} was prepared by complex techniques of solgel, micro-emulsion and solvent thermal. The size of TiO{sub 2} was nano level and uniformity. Nano-TiO{sub 2} exhibited high photo-catalytic activity at internal air lift circulating reactor. The best nano-TiO{sub 2} dosage was obtained. - Abstract: Anatase nano-titania (TiO{sub 2}) powder was prepared by using a solgel process mediated in reverse microemulsion combined with a solvent thermal technique. The structures of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, TEM. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue (MB) on nano-TiO{sub 2} was studied by using an internal air lift circulating photocatalytic reactor. The results show that the anatase structure appears in the calcination temperature range of 400510 C, while the transformation of anatase into rutile takes place above 510 C. The homogeneous microstructure of nano-TiO{sub 2} particles was obtained with a size of around 1015 nm. In the photocatalytic performance, degradation process follows pseudo first order kinetics with different dosages of photocatalyst and initial MB concentrations and optimal TiO{sub 2} dosage is 0.1 g/L with neutral medium.

  7. Micro-laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Richards, Roger K.

    2003-07-22

    A micro-laser is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide and at least one amplifying medium in the waveguide. PBG features are positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings and allow introduction of amplifying mediums into the highly resonant guided micro-laser microcavity. The micro-laser may be positioned on a die of a bulk substrate material with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a micro-laser is disclosed. A method for tuning the micro-laser is also disclosed. The micro-laser may be used as an optical regenerator, or a light source for data transfer or for optical computing.

  8. MicroSight Optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. Guest editorial: Special issue micro-and nanomachines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Samuel; Paxton, Walter F.; Nitta, Takahiro

    2015-05-21

    The articles in this special section focus on the technologies and applications supported by micro- and nanomachines. The world of artificial micro- and nanomachines has greatly expanded over the last few years to include a range of disciplines from chemistry, physics, biology, to micro/nanoengineering, robotics, and theoretical physics. The dream of engineering nanomachines involves fabricating devices that mimic the mechanical action of biological motors that operate over multiple length scales: from molecular-scale enzymes and motors such as kinesins to the micro-scale biomachinery responsible for the motility of tiny organisms such as the flagella motors of E. coli. However, the design and fabrication of artificial nano- and micromachines with comparable performance as their biological counterparts is not a straightforward task. It requires a detailed understanding of the basic principles of the operation of biomotors and mechanisms that couple the dissipation of energy to mechanical motion. Furthermore, micro engineering and microfabrication knowledge is required in order to design efficient, small and even smart micro- and nanomachines.

  10. Guest editorial: Special issue micro-and nanomachines.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sanchez, Samuel; Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Barcelona; Paxton, Walter F.; Nitta, Takahiro

    2015-05-21

    The articles in this special section focus on the technologies and applications supported by micro- and nanomachines. The world of artificial micro- and nanomachines has greatly expanded over the last few years to include a range of disciplines from chemistry, physics, biology, to micro/nanoengineering, robotics, and theoretical physics. The dream of engineering nanomachines involves fabricating devices that mimic the mechanical action of biological motors that operate over multiple length scales: from molecular-scale enzymes and motors such as kinesins to the micro-scale biomachinery responsible for the motility of tiny organisms such as the flagella motors of E. coli. However, the designmore » and fabrication of artificial nano- and micromachines with comparable performance as their biological counterparts is not a straightforward task. It requires a detailed understanding of the basic principles of the operation of biomotors and mechanisms that couple the dissipation of energy to mechanical motion. Furthermore, micro engineering and microfabrication knowledge is required in order to design efficient, small and even smart micro- and nanomachines.« less

  11. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  12. Nano Nouvelle Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Product: Nano-Nouvelle uses advanced materials technology, including nanotechnology, to develop technology in key large markets. Its particular focus is on...

  13. C3Nano, inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has emerged from Stanford University in Stanford, California. C3Nano, inc. is team of students from Stanford University, who recently won the Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  14. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  15. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-11

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  16. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  17. 'Nano'tubes, Surface Area & NanoSolar Cells

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This unit takes students through several introductory lessons designed to gain a better understanding of the 'nano' scale as it relates to the creation of a (dye-sensitized) solar cell (DSSC). The introductory lessons guide students through activities covering volume, surface area and density and exploration of the relationship between these factors. The unit culminates with students building a Gratzel cell, a solar cell employing a layer of nanospheres of TiO2 as the semiconductor and blackberry juice as the light absorber in a non-Si-based solar cell. Students are able to build a small solar cell and test its efficiency.

  18. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  19. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium ...

  20. Nano-composite stainless steel (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nano-composite stainless steel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nano-composite stainless steel You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  1. Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center KANC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea (Republic) Zip: 443-270 Product: String representation "The Korea Advan ... f nano devices." is too long. References: Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC)1 This...

  2. Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond Title: Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond Authors: Biteen, Julie S. ; Blainey, Paul C. ; Cardon, Zoe G. ; Chun, ...

  3. Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghannam, T.

    2014-03-31

    In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.

  4. Comparative Study of Structural Damage Under Irradiation in SiC Nano-structured and Conventional Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile; Thome, Lionel

    2008-07-01

    In the context of research on new materials for next generation nuclear reactors, it becomes more and more interesting to know what can be the advantages of nano-structured materials for such applications. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments on micro-structured and nano-structured {beta}-SiC samples, with 95 MeV Xe and 4 MeV Au ions. The structure of the samples was characterized before and after irradiation by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the occurrence of a synergy between electronic and nuclear energy loss in both samples with 95 MeV Xe ions, while the nano-structured pellet was found to have a better resistance to the irradiation with 4 MeV Au ions. (authors)

  5. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  6. Silicon micro-mold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  7. Micro-machined resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  8. Micro-machined resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  9. Method of fabricating a micro machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-11-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  10. Micro Power Trading Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Power Trading Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Micro Power Trading Co Place: Singapore Product: Silicon ingots manufacturer. References: Micro Power Trading Co1 This...

  11. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  12. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oleg Gang

    2010-01-08

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  13. Cima NanoTech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    including nanoparticle conductive inks and transparent conductive coatings for solar cells. References: Cima NanoTech1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  14. High-pressure generation using double stage micro-paired diamond anvils shaped by focused ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, Takeshi Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Yagi, Takehiko; Irifune, Tetsuo; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Suzuki, Yuya; Kuroda, Yasushi; Asakawa, Takayuki; Kanemura, Takashi

    2015-03-15

    Micron-sized diamond anvils with a 3 ?m culet were successfully processed using a focused ion beam (FIB) system and the generation of high pressures was confirmed using the double stage diamond anvil cell technique. The difficulty of aligning two second-stage micro-anvils was solved via the paired micro-anvil method. Micro-manufacturing using a FIB system enables us to control anvil shape, process any materials, including nano-polycrystalline diamond and single crystal diamond, and assemble the sample exactly in a very small space between the second-stage anvils. This method is highly reproducible. High pressures over 300 GPa were achieved, and the pressure distribution around the micro-anvil culet was evaluated by using a well-focused synchrotron micro-X-ray beam.

  15. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noy, Aleksandr (Belmont, CA); Artyukhin, Alexander B. (Menlo Park, CA); Bakajin, Olgica (San Leandro, CA); Stoeve, Pieter (Davis, CA)

    2009-08-04

    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  16. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  17. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2014-06-23

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  18. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Collaboration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The DOE Tours MicroBooNE! - Nov. 27, 2012

  19. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  20. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliver, Warren C. (Knoxville, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  1. Methods and systems for micro transmissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-12-23

    Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

  2. Methods and systems for micro bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stalford, Harold L

    2015-01-27

    A micro drive assembly may comprise a substrate, a micro shaft oriented in-plane with the substrate and at least one micro bearing to support rotation of the micro shaft. The micro shaft and micro bearing may be in or less than the micrometer domain.

  3. Methods and systems for micro bearings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2012-10-09

    A micro drive assembly may comprise a substrate, a micro shall oriented in-plane with the substrate and at least one micro bearing to support rotation of the micro shaft. The micro shaft and micro bearing may be in or less than the micrometer domain.

  4. Electrochemical micro sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

    1989-09-12

    A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

  5. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  6. Nano tech Silicon India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tech Silicon India Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nano-tech Silicon India Ltd Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Product: Nano-tech Silicon is a manufacturer of PV...

  7. NanoMas Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: NanoMas develops silver nanoparticle-based dyes which can be used in printable solar cells and other printable electronics. References: NanoMas Technologies Inc.1 This...

  8. The Economics of Micro Grids

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Security Energy Resiliency Go Electric The Economics of Micro Grids SPIDERS Industry Day August 27, 2015 1 Go Electric: Who We Are Lisa Laughner Founder, President & CEO Tony Soverns Engineering Director Alex Creviston Chief Engineer Mechanical Systems Go Electric Anderson, Indiana 2 Go Electric: What We Do Go Electric Our Role in SPIDERS Phase III: Delivered: * 500kW LYNC(tm) UPS * 1500kW Diesel Generators * Micro Grid Control & Integration Micro Grid in a Box * Provides Uninterruptible

  9. Sandia National Labs: Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences...

  10. Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2013-01-01

    A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.

  11. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  12. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  13. Methods and systems for positioning micro elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stalford, Harold L

    2015-04-28

    A micro device may comprise a substrate, a first micro structure coupled to the substrate, a second micro structure coupled to the substrate, and port configured to receive an input. The first micro structure is configured to move into engagement with the second micro structure in response to the input.

  14. Methods and systems for positioning micro elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stalford; Harold L.

    2012-03-13

    A micro device may comprise a substrate, a first micro structure coupled to the substrate, a second micro structure coupled to the substrate, and port configured to receive an input. The first micro structure is configured to move into engagement with the second micro structure in response to the input.

  15. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2012-04-17

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  16. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold

    2015-01-13

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  17. Micro-channel plate detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  18. Chemical micro-sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2005-05-03

    An integrated optical capillary electrophoresis system for analyzing an analyte. A modulated optical pump beam impinges on an capillary containing the analyte/buffer solution which is separated by electrophoresis. The thermally-induced change in the index of refraction of light in said electrophoresis capillary is monitored using an integrated micro-interferometer. The interferometer includes a first interferometer arm intersecting the electrophoresis capillary proximate the excitation beam and a second, reference interferometer arm. Changes in index of refraction in the analyte measured by interrogating the interferometer state using white light interferometry and a phase-generated carrier demodulation technique. Background thermo-optical activity in the buffer solution is cancelled by splitting the pump beam and exciting pure buffer solution in a second section of capillary where it crosses the reference arm of the interferometer.

  19. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.J.

    1998-11-17

    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  20. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator's ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA).

  1. SeaMicro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SeaMicro Jump to: navigation, search Name: SeaMicro Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95054 Product: SeaMicro develops energy efficient server systems and is backed by Khosla...

  2. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro ?-MnO? powders...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE thermoelectric properties; transition metal oxides;...

  3. Micro/nano devices fabricated from Cu-Hf thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luber, Erik J; Ophus, Colin; Mitlin, David; Olsen, Brian; Harrower, Christopher; Radmilovi, Velimir

    2013-06-04

    An all-metal microdevice or nanodevice such as an atomic force microscope probe is manufactured from a copper-hafnium alloy thin film having an x-ray amorphous microstructure.

  4. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

  5. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro ?-MnO? powders...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that varied between 15-60 min. Particle size versus ground time clearly shows the existence of a size-induced regime transition (i.e., regime I and II). Thermoelectric...

  6. CarbonMicro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Irvine, California Zip: CA 92618 Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery Corporation has a unique technology of creating micro and nanoscale carbon...

  7. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  8. Nano-Composite Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nano-Composite Materials National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Alternative fuel vehicles typically require large energy stores (e.g., for acceleration), resulting in the ongoing development of capacitor and supercapacitor technologies. These technologies have a broad range of

  9. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  10. Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Tools for the Microbiome: Nano and Beyond Authors: Biteen, Julie S. ; Blainey, Paul C. ; Cardon, Zoe G. ; Chun, Miyoung ; Church, George M. ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ;...

  11. PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Find More Like This Return to Search PLZT Nano-Precursors for High Energy Density Applications Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology...

  12. BioCentric Energy Inc formerly Nano Chemical Systems Holdings...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: BioCentric Energy Inc (formerly Nano Chemical Systems Holdings) Place: Santa Ana, California Zip: 90707 Product: California-based development-stage company that...

  13. Nano Structure Control and Selectivity of Hydrogen Release from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Structure Control and Selectivity of Hydrogen Release from Hydrogen Storage Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Illustration depicting...

  14. NanoBright Technologies Pte Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    develops luminescent materials, including substances used to improve the efficiency of solar cells. References: NanoBright Technologies Pte Ltd1 This article is a stub. You...

  15. Developing Supersonic Impactor and Aerodynamic Lens for Separation and Handling of Nano-Sized Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2008-06-30

    A computational model for supersonic flows of compressible gases in an aerodynamic lens with several lenses and in a supersonic/hypersonic impactor was developed. Airflow conditions in the aerodynamic lens were analyzed and contour plots for variation of Mach number, velocity magnitude and pressure field in the lens were evaluated. The nano and micro-particle trajectories in the lens and their focusing and transmission efficiencies were evaluated. The computational model was then applied to design of a aerodynamic lens that could generate focus particle beams while operating under atmospheric conditions. The computational model was also applied to airflow condition in the supersonic/hypersonic impactor. Variations of airflow condition and particle trajectories in the impactor were evaluated. The simulation results could provide understanding of the performance of the supersonic and hypersonic impactors that would be helpful for the design of such systems.

  16. NanoSIMS, TEM, and XANES studies of a unique presolar supernova graphite grain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groopman, Evan; Bernatowicz, Thomas; Zinner, Ernst; Nittler, Larry R.

    2014-07-20

    We report on isotopic and microstructural investigations of a unique presolar supernova (SN) graphite grain, referred to as G6, isolated from the Orgueil CI chondrite. G6 contains complex heterogeneities in its isotopic composition and in its microstructure. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer isotope images of ultramicrotome sections reveal heterogeneities in its C, N, and O isotopic compositions, including anomalous shell-like structures. Transmission electron microscope studies reveal a nanocrystalline core surrounded by a turbostratic graphite mantle, the first reported nanocrystalline core from a low-density SN graphite grain. Electron diffraction analysis shows that the nanocrystalline core consists of randomly oriented 2-4 nm graphene particles, similar to those in cores of high-density (HD) presolar graphite grains from asymptotic giant branch stars. G6's core also exhibits evidence for planar stacking of these graphene nano-sheets with a domain size up to 4.5 nm, which was unobserved in the nanocrystalline cores of HD graphite grains. We also report on X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements of G6. The complex isotopic- and micro-structure of G6 provides evidence for mixing and/or granular transport in SN ejecta.

  17. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Oden, Patrick I. (Plano, TX); Bryan, William L. (Knoxville, TN); Moore, James A. (Powell, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  18. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002_deer_venkatasubramanian1.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Thermoelectric Developments for Vehicular Applications

  19. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002_deer_venkatasubramanian2.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI The 60% Efficient Diesel Engine: Probably, Possible, Or Just a Fantasy?

  20. Nano-superconducting quantum interference devices with suspended junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, D.; Hasselbach, K.; Kirtley, J. R.

    2014-04-14

    Nano-Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (nano-SQUIDs) are usually fabricated from a single layer of either Nb or Al. We describe here a simple method for fabricating suspended nano-bridges in Nb/Al thin-film bilayers. We use these suspended bridges, which act as Josephson weak links, to fabricate nano-SQUIDs which show critical current oscillations at temperatures up to 1.5?K and magnetic flux densities up to over 20?mT. These nano-SQUIDs exhibit flux modulation depths intermediate between all-Al and all-Nb devices, with some of the desirable characteristics of both. The suspended geometry is attractive for magnetic single nanoparticle measurements.

  1. ICARUS/MicroBooNE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ) ICARUS/MicroBooNE ν ( Φ 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 µ ν µ ν e ν e ν

  2. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

    1994-08-16

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

  3. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehler, Dale R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Bivens, Hugh M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  4. Webel Micro Power JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Webel & Micro Power JV Place: Kolkata, West Bengal, India Zip: 700091 Product: A joint venture set up by Webel SL Energy Systems and Micro Power Trading in August 2007....

  5. Characterization of silicon photomultipliers at National Nano-Fab Center for PET-MR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Cho, Gyuseong; Sul, Woo Suk

    2014-10-15

    The silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were fabricated for magnetic resonance compatible positron emission tomography (PET) applications using customized CMOS processes at National NanoFab Center. Each micro-cell consists of a shallow n+/p well junction on a p-type epitaxial wafer and passive quenching circuit was applied. The size of the SiPM is 3 3 mm{sup 2} and the pitch of each micro-cell is 65 ?m. In this work, several thousands of SiPMs were packaged and tested to build a PET ring detector which has a 60 mm axial and 390 mm radial field of view. I-V characteristics of the SiPMs are shown good uniformity and breakdown voltage is around 20 V. The photon detection efficiency was measured via photon counting method and the maximum value was recorded as 16% at 470 nm. The gamma ray spectrum of a Ge-68 isotope showed nearly 10% energy resolution at 511 keV with a 3 3 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystal.

  6. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Collaboration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaboration (*) The MicroBooNE spokespeople are Bonnie Fleming (Yale) and Sam Zeller (FNAL) (+) The MicroBooNE project manager was Gina Rameika Updated collaboration list for presentations: powerpoint pdf map collaboration photo MicroBooNE organizational chart MicroBooNE contact list (password required) (IB) = Insititutional Board representative (PD) = postdoc (GS) = graduate student (UG) = undergraduate student Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, Switzerland Martin Auger

  7. Direct Energy Conversion Nano-hybrid Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-07-01

    Most of the exothermic nuclear reactions transfer the mass defect or binding and surplus energy into kinetic energy of the resulting particles. These particles are traveling through material lattices, interacting by ionization and nuclear collisions. Placing an assembly of conductive-insulating layers in the path of such radiation, the ionization energy is transformed into charge accumulation by polarization. The result is a super-capacitor charged by the moving particles and discharged electrically. Another more promising solution is to use bi-material nanoparticles organized such as to act like a serial connection and add the voltage. A spherical symmetry fission products source coated in several nano-layers is desired for such structures. The system may operate as dry or liquid-immersed battery, removing the fission products from the fissile material. There is a tremendous advantage over the current heat flow based thermal stabilization system allowing a power density up to 1000 times higher. (author)

  8. Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

  9. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Nano Self-Assembly Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of...

  10. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    themselves in a hexagonal grid. Nano-sized particles-bits of matter a few billionths of a meter in size, or more than a hundred times smaller than the stuff of today's...

  11. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  12. Light modulation with a nano-patterned diffraction grating and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a nano-patterned diffraction grating and MEMS pixel. Abstract not provided. Authors: Skinner, Jack L. ; Talin, Albert Alec ; Horsley, David A. Publication Date: 2008-05-01...

  13. NREL: Awards and Honors - NanoCeram Nanoalumina Fiber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of time. For bone tissue engineering, NanoCeram provides a strong fibrous material, molding a scaffolding to which bone-forming osteoblast cells can adhere and build. Trials...

  14. Shenzhen Institute of Nano Materials and Technology | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: An institute of nano technology, which could be applied in DLC film coated solar cells (diamond solar cells). Coordinates: 22.546789, 114.112556 Show Map Loading...

  15. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  16. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Wednesday, 25 March 2009 00:00 Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned

  17. CNM Participation in Nature of Nano Event | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Participation in Nature of Nano Event December 1, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Director Amanda Petford-Long and CNM user Adam Khan, of AKHAN Technologies, presented lectures at "The Nature of Nano" event held on December 11, 2013, at Northwestern University. The event was sponsored by C2ST, the Chicago Council on Science and Technology. Materials scientist Amanda Petford-Long, who is also the Director of Argonne's Nanoscience and Technology Division,

  18. New nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulator offers electronics potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne National Laboratory nano-mechanical plasmonic phase modulator offers electronics potential April 3, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint By using standard semiconductor manufacturing equipment, a team of scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Rutgers University and the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, has demonstrated a nano-mechanical plasmon phase modulator that can control and manipulate

  19. High Strength Nano-Structured Steel - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Return to Search High Strength Nano-Structured Steel Idaho National Laboratory Success Story Details Partner Location Agreement Type Publication Date Nanosteel, Inc. Providence, Rhode Island License Work for Others (WFO) June 4, 2013 Video Bulk Materials Nanotechnology Summary The NanoSteel Company Complex modern challenges are driving new industrial market demands for metal alloys with properties and performance capabilities outside the known boundaries of

  20. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and

  1. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering | Department of Energy Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Presents new concepts for high performance nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials PDF icon lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications The Bottom-Up Approach

  2. Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent N-CAS: A low cost, highly effective arsenic removal technology Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent (N-CAS) Fact Sheet (1,859 KB) Technology Marketing Summary INL nanotechnology researchers have engineered a revolutionary and affordable material called

  3. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) | Department of Energy Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm052_osborne_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications AMD 405: Improved Automotive Suspension

  4. Stabilized Spinels and Nano Olivines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano Olivines Stabilized Spinels and Nano Olivines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es_23_manthiram.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized Spinels and Polyanion Cathodes STABILIZED SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

  5. Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reuel, Nigel (Rio Rancho, NM); Lionberger, Troy A. (Ann Arbor, MI); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-03-11

    A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

  6. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  7. MicroEnergy International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: D-10587 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Promotes renewable energy technologies in the developing countries. References: MicroEnergy...

  8. Micro Kernel Benchmark for Evaluating Computer Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-06

    Crystal_mk is a micro benchmark that LLNL will use to evaluate vendor's software(e.g. compiler) and hardware(e.g. processor speed, memory design).

  9. Micro Power Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Power Electronics Inc Place: Hillsboro, Oregon Zip: 97124-7165 Product: Leading battery system integrator. Coordinates: 43.651735, -90.341144 Show Map Loading map......

  10. RF Micro Devices | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Others) for this property. Partnering Center within NREL National Center for Photovoltaics Partnership Year 2009 RF Micro Devices is a company located in Greensboro, NC....

  11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - uav-proteus-micro

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments (UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Cloud...

  12. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Collaboration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE In the News MicroBooNE internal newletters (password protected) The Hidden Neutrino, Symmetry Magazine, 03/01/16 Booster Neutrino Beam Reaches Record Beam Intensity, Fermilab This Week, 02/02/16 MicroBooNE Sees First Accelerator-Born Neutrinos, Fermilab Today, 11/02/15 MicroBooNE Sees First Accelerator-Born Neutrinos, Symmetry Magazine, 11/02/15 Detector Finds its First Ghost Particle, Daily Mail, 11/03/15 First Evidence of Neutrinos, Daily Galaxy, 11/03/15 A Neutrino in a Haystack,

  13. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE Documents and Publications Public Notes See the Public Notes Page for a list of notes with results made public by the MicroBooNE collaboration. Presentations See the Talks Page for copies of slides and posters presented at conferences and workshops. MicroBooNE DocDB Like most experiments at Fermilab, MicroBooNE uses DocDB - a documents database. Much of the contents of the DocDB are restricted to members of the collaboration, but some items are public. Use the link below to enter the

  14. Helio Micro Utility Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Helio Micro Utility Inc Address: 1827A Fifth Street Place: Berkeley, California Zip: 94710 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar Product: Contracts with solar installers to build and...

  15. Micro Materials Japan Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Materials Japan Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Micro Materials Japan Inc Place: Omura, Nagasaki, Japan Zip: 856-0806 Product: Japanese manufacturer of high purity wafers and...

  16. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  17. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenski, Edward G. (Lenexa, KS)

    2007-08-21

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  18. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenski, Edward G.

    2006-01-10

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  19. Micro-tensile testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenski, Edward G. (Lenexa, KS)

    2007-07-17

    A micro-tensile testing system providing a stand-alone test platform for testing and reporting physical or engineering properties of test samples of materials having thicknesses of approximately between 0.002 inch and 0.030 inch, including, for example, LiGA engineered materials. The testing system is able to perform a variety of static, dynamic, and cyclic tests. The testing system includes a rigid frame and adjustable gripping supports to minimize measurement errors due to deflection or bending under load; serrated grips for securing the extremely small test sample; high-speed laser scan micrometers for obtaining accurate results; and test software for controlling the testing procedure and reporting results.

  20. Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion ...

  1. GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. ...

  2. A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High...

  3. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts This presentation ...

  4. Chemical imaging of biological materials by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P K; Smith, J B; Hutcheon, I D; Shmakov, A; Rybitskaya, I; Curran, H

    2004-08-23

    The NanoSIMS 50 represents the state -of-the-art for in situ microanalysis for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), combining unprecedented spatial resolution (as good as 50 nm) with ultra-high sensitivity (MDL of 200 atoms). The NanoSIMS incorporates an array of detectors, enabling simultaneous collection of 5 elements or isotopes originating from the same sputtered volume of a sample. The primary ion beam (Cs{sup +} or O{sup -}) can be scanned across the sample to produce quantitative secondary ion images. This capability for multiple isotope imaging with high spatial resolution is unique to the NanoSIMS and provides a novel new approach to the study of the distribution of elements in biological materials. We have applied this technique extensively to mammalian cells and bacterial spores. Results from these studies and critical analytical issues such as sample preparation, instrument tuning, and data processing will be discussed.

  5. Argonne OutLoud: The Nature of Nano (Jan. 30, 2014) | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory The Nature of Nano (Jan. 30, 2014) Share Topic Programs Materials science Nanoscience Amanda Petford-Long

  6. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  7. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print Wednesday, 24 February 2010 00:00 If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and

  8. Nanoconstriction-based spin-Hall nano-oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, V. E.; Urazhdin, S.; Zholud, A.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2014-10-27

    We experimentally demonstrate magnetic nano-oscillators driven by pure spin current produced by the spin Hall effect in a bow tie-shaped nanoconstriction. These devices exhibit single-mode auto-oscillation and generate highly-coherent electronic microwave signals with a significant power and the spectral linewidth as low as 6.2 MHz at room temperature. The proposed simple and flexible device geometry is amenable to straightforward implementation of advanced spintronic structures such as chains of mutually coupled spin-Hall nano-oscillators.

  9. Micro-Earthquake At Snake River Plain Geothermal Region (1976...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Snake River Plain Geothermal Region (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Snake River...

  10. Micro-Earthquake At Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At...

  11. Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Erten & Rial, 1999) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Erten & Rial, 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Erten &...

  12. MicroLink Devices Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: MicroLink Devices, Inc. Place: Niles, Illinois Product: MicroLink Devices is a semiconductor manufacturer and system integrator that provides the latest...

  13. Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project...

  14. Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulation and Experimental Approaches Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel ...

  15. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel ...

  16. An experimental study of external reactor vessel cooling strategy on the critical heat flux using the graphene oxide nano-fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors)

  17. Micro-sonicator for spore lysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Belgrader, Phillip; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2000-01-01

    A micro-sonicator for spore lysis. Using micromachining technology, the micro-sonicator uses ultrasonic excitation of spores to perform spore and cell lysis. The micro-sonicator comprises a container with a cavity therein for retaining the sample in an ultrasonic transmission medium, the cavity being closed by a silicon membrane to which an electrode and piezoelectric material are attached, with the electrode and piezoelectric material being electrically connected to an AC signal generator which causes the membrane to flex and vibrate at the frequency of the applied voltage.

  18. Snow Micro-Structure Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-06-25

    PIKA is a MOOSE-based application for modeling micro-structure evolution of seasonal snow. The model will be useful for environmental, atmospheric, and climate scientists. Possible applications include application to energy balance models, ice sheet modeling, and avalanche forecasting. The model implements physics from published, peer-reviewed articles. The main purpose is to foster university and laboratory collaboration to build a larger multi-scale snow model using MOOSE. The main feature of the code is that it is implementedmore » using the MOOSE framework, thus making features such as multiphysics coupling, adaptive mesh refinement, and parallel scalability native to the application. PIKA implements three equations: the phase-field equation for tracking the evolution of the ice-air interface within seasonal snow at the grain-scale; the heat equation for computing the temperature of both the ice and air within the snow; and the mass transport equation for monitoring the diffusion of water vapor in the pore space of the snow.« less

  19. Thermoelectric properties of nano-meso-micro β-MnO₂ powders as a function of electrical resistance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hedden, Morgan; Francis, Nick; Haraldsen, Jason T.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Constantin, Costel

    2015-07-15

    Particle sizes of manganese oxide (β-MnO₂) powders were modified by using a mortar and pestle ground method for period of times that varied between 15–60 min. Particle size versus ground time clearly shows the existence of a size-induced regime transition (i.e., regime I and II). Thermoelectric properties of β-MnO₂ powders as a function of electrical resistance in the range of RP = 10 - 80Ω were measured. Based on the data presented, we propose a model for the β-MnO₂ system in which nanometer-scale MnO₂ crystallites bond together through weak van der Waals forces to form larger conglomerates that span inmore » size from nanometer to micrometer scale.« less

  20. Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites Nanomaterials for Applications Ranging From Photovoltaic Cells to Display Technologies Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Indium Tin Oxide, the most widely used commercial transparent conducting coating, has severe limitations such

  1. MicroPower Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    owner of semiconductor-based heat conversion to electricity technology for use in waste-heat, solar thermal and other uses. References: MicroPower Global1 This article is a...

  2. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  3. MicroEmissive Displays | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edinburgh, United Kingdom Zip: EH9 3JF Product: MicroEmissive Displays makes P-OLED (polymer light emitting diode) displays. Specific interests are head mounted displays and...

  4. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Collaboration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact MicroBooNE Spokespeople: Bonnie Fleming, Yale email: bonnie.fleming(AT)yale.edu phone: (203) 432-3235 Sam Zeller, FNAL email: gzeller(AT)fnal.gov phone: (630) 840-6879 Collaboration Members

  5. MicroBooNE Detector Move

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Flemming, Bonnie; Rameika, Gina

    2014-07-15

    On Monday, June 23, 2014 the MicroBooNE detector -- a 30-ton vessel that will be used to study ghostly particles called neutrinos -- was transported three miles across the Fermilab site and gently lowered into the laboratory's Liquid-Argon Test Facility. This video documents that move, some taken with time-lapse camerad, and shows the process of getting the MicroBooNE detector to its new home.

  6. MicroCED - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroCED Microbial Based Chlorinated Ethene Destruction Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Scientists at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have discovered a new and innovative treatment for the decontamination, detoxification, and elimination of chlorinated ethenes (CE) in the environment.&nbsp; MicroCED Microbiological Based Chlorinated Ethene Destruction rapidly and completely converts CE to safe end products without production or accumulation

  7. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  8. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Public Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE Public Notes Page Back to the Publications Page

  9. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboards were performed to determine their actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The models were first validated using field data, and then used to perform annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis to evaluate the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced building components.

  10. Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools for Fabricating Curvilinear Features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,MICHAEL J.; KRISHNAN,A.S.M.

    2000-07-24

    This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, curvilinear features in a variety of workpiece materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting widths as small as 13 {micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used for ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide to create a number of critically aligned facets. Sputtering produces rake facets of desired angle and cutting edges having radii of curvature equal to 0.4 {micro}m. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from a particular ion beam/target geometry that accounts for the sputter yield dependence on incidence angle. It is believed that geometrically specific cutting tools of this dimension have not been made previously. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close match between tool width and feature size. Microtools are used to machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061 Al cylindrical workplaces. Micro-grooving tools are also used to fabricate sinusoidal cross-section features in planar metal samples.

  11. Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

    2008-06-10

    Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

  12. Methods for fabricating a micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-01-06

    Methods for fabricating a highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  13. Mirror profile optimization for nano-focusing KB mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lin; Baker, Robert; Barrett, Ray; Cloetens, Peter; Dabin, Yves

    2010-06-23

    A KB focusing mirror width profile has been optimized to achieve nano-focusing for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. The complete mirror and flexure bender assembly has been modeled in 3D with finite element analysis using ANSYS. Bender stiffness, anticlastic effects and geometrical non-linear effects have been considered. Various points have been studied: anisotropy and crystal orientation, stress in the mirror and bender, actuator resolution and the mirror-bender adhesive bonding... Extremely high performance of the mirror is expected with residual slope error smaller than 0.6 {mu}rad, peak-to-valley, compared to the bent slope of 3000 {mu}rad.

  14. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-07

    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  15. In Conversation with Jim Schuck: Nano-optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jim Schuck and Alice Egan

    2010-01-08

    Sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD), "In Conversation with" is a next generation science seminar series. Host Alice Egan is the assistant to MSD Director Miquel Salmeron. Alice conducts a fun and informative interview, touching on the lives and work of the guest. The first In Conversation With took place July 9 with Jim Schuck, a staff scientist in the Molecular Foundry's Imaging and Manipulation Facility as our first guest. He discussed the world of Nano-optics.

  16. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  17. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  18. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  19. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  20. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  1. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  2. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  3. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  4. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire Print Self-assembly of polymers promises to vastly improve the properties and manufacturing processes of nanostructured materials, since self-assembly is highly parallel, quite versatile, and easy to implement. Especially promising are novel compounds known as block copolymers, formed by two chemically different polymers that are linked together. Guided patterned arrays have been produced using electron-beam lithographic techniques or

  5. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  6. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  7. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  8. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  9. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  10. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  11. Muon Application to Advanced Bio- and Nano-Sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    2008-02-21

    Among present and future applications of the muon to various fields of sciences, there are several examples where research accomplishments can only be done by using muons. Here we would like to explain the selected two examples representing bio- and nano-sciences, namely, muon spin imaging of human brain for new brain function studies and muonium spin-exchange scattering spectroscopy for the development of spintronics materials.

  12. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  13. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important advance toward this goal has been achieved by researchers who have found a simple and yet powerfully robust way to induce nanoparticles to assemble themselves into complex arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the

  14. Mega-Pore Nano-Structured Carbon - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Mega-Pore Nano-Structured Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCurrent supercapacitor technologies cannot meet the growing demands for high-power energy storage. Meeting this challenge requires the development of new electrode materials.DescriptionScientists at ORNL have developed robust carbon monolithic having hierarchical

  15. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings Laser Processing Techniques Used for the Production of Wear-Resistant Steel Coatings from Iron-Based Glassy Powders Introduction Steel is widely used in a broad range of engineering, mining, and construction applications due to its mechanical properties, availability, and relatively low cost, but is not optimized for wear resistance. Wear of steel components leads to both direct and indirect costs and energy losses, including losses due to plant

  16. Micro-machined thermo-conductivity detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A micro-machined thermal conductivity detector for a portable gas chromatograph. The detector is highly sensitive and has fast response time to enable detection of the small size gas samples in a portable gas chromatograph which are in the order of nanoliters. The high sensitivity and fast response time are achieved through micro-machined devices composed of a nickel wire, for example, on a silicon nitride window formed in a silicon member and about a millimeter square in size. In addition to operating as a thermal conductivity detector, the silicon nitride window with a micro-machined wire therein of the device can be utilized for a fast response heater for PCR applications.

  17. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the homeowner. In its proposed embodiment, the system has a 2kW prime mover integrated to a furnace platform. The second version is a Micro-Trigen system with heating, cooling and power. It has the same Micro-Cogen platform integrated with a 14kW thermally activated chiller. A Stirling engine is suggested as a promising path for the prime mover. A LiBr absorption chiller is today's best technology in term of readiness level. Paybacks are acceptable for the Micro-Cogen version. However, there is no clear economically viable path for a Micro-Trigen version with today's available technology. This illustrates the importance of financial incentives to home owners in the initial stage of micro-CHP commercialization. It will help create the necessary conditions of volume demand to start transitioning to mass-production and cost reduction. Incentives to the manufacturers will help improve efficiency, enhance reliability, and lower cost, making micro-CHP products more attractive. Successful development of a micro-CHP system for residential applications has the potential to provide significant benefits to users, customers, manufacturers, and suppliers of such systems and, in general, to the nation as a whole. The benefits to the ultimate user are a comfortable and healthy home environment at an affordable cost, potential utility savings, and a reliable supply of energy. Manufacturers, component suppliers, and system integrators will see growth of a new market segment for integrated energy products. The benefits to the nation include significantly increased energy efficiency, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, pollutant and CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation, enhanced security from power interruptions as well as enhanced economic activity and job creation. An integrated micro-CHP energy system provides advantages over conventional power generation, since the energy is used more efficiently by means of efficient heat recovery. Foreign companies are readily selling products, mostly in Europe, and it is urgent to react promptly to these offerings that will soon emerge on the U.S

  18. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  19. Micro/nanofabricated environments for synthetic biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, Pat [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of how confinement, crowding and reduced dimensionality modulate reactivity and reaction dynamics will aid in the rational and systematic discovery of functionality in complex biological systems. Artificial micro- and nanofabricated structures have helped elucidate the effects of nanoscale spatial confinement and segregation on biological behavior, particularly when integrated with microfluidics, through precise control in both space and time of diffusible signals and binding interactions. Examples of nanostructured interfaces for synthetic biology include the development of cell-like compartments for encapsulating biochemical reactions, nanostructured environments for fundamental studies of diffusion, molecular transport and biochemical reaction kinetics, and regulation of biomolecular interactions as functions of micro- and nanofabricated topological constraints.

  20. MicroBooNE First Cosmic Tracks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Tracks in MicroBooNE (August 6, 2015) On August 6, 2015, we started to turn on the drift high voltage in the MicroBooNE detector for the very first time. We paused at 58 kV (this is about 1/2 of our design voltage) and immediately started to see tracks across the entire TPC. Below are some of our first images of cosmic rays and UV laser tracks (last picture) recorded by the TPC! Collection plane images: And here is one of the first images of a UV laser track in the TPC. You can tell which

  1. ARM - Evaluation Product - Micro-ARSCL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsMicro-ARSCL Citation DOI: 10.5439/1225811 [ What is this? ] ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Micro-ARSCL Microscale data product based on the increased temporal resolution of the MMCRs which includes information about the local maxima in each Doppler spectrum, uncertainty estimates

  2. About the MicroBooNE Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About MicroBooNE The MicroBooNE collaboration is currently operating a large 170-ton liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) that is located on the Booster neutrino beam line at Fermilab. The experiment will measure low energy neutrino cross sections and investigate the low energy excess events observed by the MiniBooNE experiment. The detector also serves as a next step in a phased program towards the construction of massive kiloton scale LArTPC detectors for future long-baseline neutrino

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation | Department of Energy Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation Presentation given by U. Conn at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal oxide nano-array catalysts for low temperature diesel oxidation. PDF icon

  4. Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Project objective: To develop ultra-hard and wear resistant nanocompositestainless steel coatings and bulk components for geothermal drilling applications. PDF icon high_peter_nanocomposite_bits.pdf More Documents & Publications Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review 300ºC DDS

  5. 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro http://www.biomedicalimaging.org/2013/ April 7-11, 2013; San Francisco, CA, USA

  6. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation demonstrates how nano-array catalysts have excellent robustness, use ultra-low amounts of PGM, and can be tuned for optimum performance.

  7. Nano-Composite Designs for Energy Storage | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nano-Composite Designs for Energy Storage Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy ...

  8. Tiny subject, big fun with NanoDays at Bradbury Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Museum NanoDays is a national campaign, engaging people of all ages in learning about the emerging field of nanoscale science and engineering. March 18, 2013...

  9. Diagnostic system for profiling micro-beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Chris C. (Berkeley, CA)

    2007-10-30

    An apparatus for characterization of a micro beam comprising a micro modified Faraday cup assembly including a first layer of material, a second layer of material operatively connected to the first layer of material, a third layer of material operatively connected to the second layer of material, and a fourth layer of material operatively connected to the third layer of material. The first layer of material comprises an electrical conducting material and has at least one first layer radial slit extending through the first layer. An electrical ground is connected to the first layer. The second layer of material comprises an insulating material and has at least one second layer radial slit corresponding to the first layer radial slit in the first layer of material. The second layer radial slit extends through the second layer. The third layer of material comprises a conducting material and has at least one third layer radial slit corresponding to the second layer radial slit in the second layer of material. The third layer radial slit extends through the third layer. The fourth layer of material comprises an electrical conducting material but does not have slits. An electrical measuring device is connected to the fourth layer. The micro modified Faraday cup assembly is positioned to be swept by the micro beam.

  10. Determination of Interfacial Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Composites by the Compression of Micro-pillar Test Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chunghao; Katoh, Yutai; Leonard, Keith J; Bei, Hongbin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    A novel method to determine the fiber-matrix interfacial properties of ceramic matrix composites is proposed and evaluated; where micro- pillar samples containing inclined fiber/matrix interfaces were prepared from a SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites then compression-tested using the nano-indentation technique. This new test method employs a simple geometry and mitigates the uncertainties associated with complex stress state in the conventional single filament push-out method for the determination of interfacial properties. Based on the test results using samples with different interface orientations , the interfacial debond shear strength and the internal friction coefficient are explicitly determined and compared with values obtained by other test methods.

  11. Structural hysteresis in dragline spider silks induced by supercontraction: an X-ray fiber micro-diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampath, Sujatha; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2014-11-27

    Interaction with water causes shrinkage and significant changes in the structure of spider dragline silks, which has been referred to as supercontraction in the literature. Preferred orientation or alignment of protein chains with respect to the fiber axis is extensively changed during this supercontraction process. Synchrotron X-ray micro-fiber diffraction experiments have been performed on Nephila clavipes and Argiope aurantia major and minor ampullate dragline spider fibers in the native dry, contracted (by immersion in water) and restretched (from contracted) states. Changes in the orientation of ?-sheet nanocrystallites and the oriented component of the amorphous network have been determined from wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns. While both the crystalline and amorphous components lose preferred orientation on wetting with water, the nano-crystallites regain their orientation on wet-restretching, whereas the oriented amorphous components only partially regain their orientation. Dragline major ampullate silks in both the species contract more than their minor ampullate silks.

  12. Nano-scale NiSi and n-type silicon based Schottky barrier diode as a near infra-red detector for room temperature operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, S.; Midya, K.; Duttagupta, S. P.; Ramakrishnan, D.

    2014-09-28

    The fabrication of nano-scale NiSi/n-Si Schottky barrier diode by rapid thermal annealing process is reported. The characterization of the nano-scale NiSi film was performed using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The thickness of the film (27 nm) has been measured by cross-sectional Secondary Electron Microscopy and XPS based depth profile method. Currentvoltage (IV) characteristics show an excellent rectification ratio (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} = 10?) at a bias voltage of 1 V. The diode ideality factor is 1.28. The barrier height was also determined independently based on IV (0.62 eV) and high frequency capacitancevoltage technique (0.76 eV), and the correlation between them has explained. The diode photo-response was measured in the range of 1.352.5 ?m under different reverse bias conditions (0.01.0 V). The response is observed to increase with increasing reverse bias. From the photo-responsivity study, the zero bias barrier height was determined to be 0.54 eV.

  13. Towards sub-200 nm nano-structuring of linear giant magneto-resistive spin valves by a direct focused ion beam milling process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedmüller, Benjamin; Huber, Felix; Herr, Ulrich

    2014-02-14

    In this work, we present a detailed investigation of a focused ion beam (FIB) assisted nano-structuring process for giant magneto-resistive (GMR) spin valve sensors. We have performed a quantitative study of the dependence of the GMR ratio as well as the sensor resistance on the ion dose, which is implanted in the active region of our sensors. These findings are correlated with the decrease of magneto-resistive properties after micro- and nano-structuring by the FIB and reveal the importance of ion damage which limits the applicability of FIB milling to GMR devices in the low μm range. Deposition of a protective layer (50 nm SiO{sub 2}) on top of the sensor structure before milling leads to a preservation of the magneto-resistive properties after the milling procedure down to sensor dimensions of ∼300 nm. The reduction of the sensor dimensions to the nanometer regime is accompanied by a shift of the GMR curves, and a modification of the saturation behavior. Both effects can be explained by a micromagnetic model including the magnetic interaction of free and pinned layer as well as the effect of the demagnetizing field of the free layer on the sensor behavior. The results demonstrate that the FIB technology can be successfully used to prepare spintronic nanostructures.

  14. Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Ioannou, M.; Chrissafis, K.; Chung, D.Y.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2012-09-15

    K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

  15. Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble We have experimentally investigated the control of Marangoni flow around a micro bubble using photothermal conversion. Using a focused laser spot acting as a highly localized heat source on Au nanoparticles/dielectric/Ag mirror thin film enables us to create a micro bubble and to control the

  16. Optimization of Nano-Carbon Materials for Hydrogen Sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakobson, Boris I

    2013-08-02

    Research undertaken has added to the understanding of several critical areas, by providing both negative answers (and therefore eliminating expensive further studies of unfeasible paths) and positive feasible options for storage. Theoretical evaluation of the early hypothesis of storage on pure carbon single wall nanotubes (SWNT) has been scrutinized with the use of comprehensive computational methods (and experimental tests by the Center partners), and demonstrated that the fundamentally weak binding energy of hydrogen is not sufficiently enhanced by the SWNT curvature or even defects, which renders carbon nanotubes not practical media. More promising direction taken was towards 3-dimensional architectures of high porosity where concurrent attraction of H2 molecule to surrounding walls of nano-scale cavities can double or even triple the binding energy and therefore make hydrogen storage feasible even at ambient or somewhat lower temperatures. An efficient computational tool has been developed for the rapid capacity assessment combining (i) carbon-foam structure generation, (ii) accurate empirical force fields, with quantum corrections for the lightweight H2, and (iii) grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. This made it possible to suggest optimal designs for carbon nanofoams, obtainable via welding techniques from SWNT or by growth on template-zeolites. As a precursor for 3D-foams, we have investigated experimentally the synthesis of VANTA (Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays). This can be used for producing nano-foams. On the other hand, fluorination of VANTA did not show promising increase of hydrogen sorption in several tests and may require further investigation and improvements. Another significant result of this project was in developing a fundamental understanding of the elements of hydrogen spillover mechanisms. The benefit of developed models is the ability to foresee possible directions for further improvement of the spillover mechanism.

  17. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  18. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Brownsboro, AL); Antony, Leo V. M. (Huntsville, AL); O'Dell, Scott (Arab, AL); Power, Chris (Guntersville, AL); Tabor, Terry (Huntsville, AL)

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  19. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon wear-resistant_nano-composite.pdf More Documents & Publications Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 Advanced Manufacturing Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  20. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  1. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  2. Process of making titanium carbide (TiC) nano-fibrous felts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fong, Hao; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhao, Yong; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2015-01-13

    A method of synthesizing mechanically resilient titanium carbide (TiC) nanofibrous felts comprising continuous nanofibers or nano-ribbons with TiC crystallites embedded in carbon matrix, comprising: (a) electrospinning a spin dope for making precursor nanofibers with diameters less than 0.5 J.Lm; (b) overlaying the nanofibers to produce a nanofibrous mat (felt); and then (c) heating the nano-felts first at a low temperature, and then at a high temperature for making electrospun continuous nanofibers or nano-ribbons with TiC crystallites embedded in carbon matrix; and (d) chlorinating the above electrospun nano-felts at an elevated temperature to remove titanium for producing carbide derived carbon (CDC) nano-fibrous felt with high specific surface areas.

  3. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE one of the first neutrino event candidates seen in the MicroBooNE detector see more neutrino images here! see more cosmic tracks here! The MicroBooNE Experiment Located at Fermilab, the MicroBooNE collaboration is currently operating a large 170 ton Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) that is located on the Booster neutrino beam line at Fermilab. The experiment first started collecting neutrino data in October 2015. MicroBooNE will measure low energy neutrino cross sections

  4. DROPWISE CONDENSATION ON MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enright, R; Miljkovic, N; Alvarado, JL; Kim, K; Rose, JW

    2014-07-23

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface-enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro-and nanoscale using both bottom-up and top-down approaches has led to increased study of complex interfacial phenomena. In the heat transfer community, researchers have been extensively exploring the use of advanced surface structuring techniques to enhance phase-change heat transfer processes. In particular, the field of vapor-to-liquid condensation and especially that of water condensation has experienced a renaissance due to the promise of further optimizing this process at the micro-and nanoscale by exploiting advances in surface engineering developed over the last several decades.

  5. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  6. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  7. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  8. Effect of substrates on microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-eutectic 1080 steel produced by aluminothermic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La, Peiqing, E-mail: pqla@lut.cn; Li, Zhengning; Li, Cuiling; Hu, Sulei; Lu, Xuefeng; Wei, Yupeng; Wei, Fuan

    2014-06-01

    Nano-eutectic bulk 1080 carbon steel was prepared on glass and copper substrates by an aluminothermic reaction casting. The microstructure of the steel was analyzed by an optical microscope, transmission electron microscopy, an electron probe micro-analyzer, a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the microstructure of the steel consisted of a little cementite and lamellar eutectic pearlite. Average lamellar spacing of the pearlite prepared on copper and glass substrates was about 230 nm and 219 nm, respectively. Volume fraction of the pearlite of the two steels was about 95%. Hardness of the steel was about 229 and 270 HV. Tensile strength was about 610 and 641 MPa and tensile elongation was about 15% and 8%. Compressive strength was about 1043 and 1144 MPa. Compared with the steel prepared on copper substrate, the steel prepared on glass substrate had smaller lamellar spacing of the pearlite phase and higher strength, and low ductility due to the smaller spacing. - Highlights: 1080-carbon steels were successfully prepared by an aluminothermic reaction casting. Lamellar spacing of the nanoeutetic pearlite is less than 250 nm. The compressive strength of the steel is about 1144 MPa. The tensile ductility of the steel is about 15%.

  9. MicroBooNE Proposal Addendum March

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE Proposal Addendum March 3, 2008 H. Chen, G. de Geronimo, J. Farrell, A. Kandasamy, F. Lanni, D. Lissauer, D. Makowiecki, J. Mead, V. Radeka, S. Rescia, J. Sondericker, B. Yu Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY L. Bugel, J. M. Conrad, Z. Djurcic, V. Nguyen, M. Shaevitz, W. Willis ‡ Columbia University, New York, NY C. James, S. Pordes, G. Rameika Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL C. Bromberg, D. Edmunds Michigan State University, Lansing, MI P. Nienaber St.

  10. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  11. High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2005-09-01

    When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

  12. GaAs micro-pyramids serving as optical micro-cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karl, M.; Beck, T.; Li, S.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.; Kalt, H.; Hetterich, M.

    2010-01-04

    An efficient light-matter coupling requires high-quality (Q) micro-cavities with small mode volume. We suggest GaAs micro-pyramids placed on top of AlAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors to be promising candidates. The pyramids were fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy, electron-beam lithography and a subsequent wet-chemical etching process using a sacrificial AlAs layer. Measured Q-factors of optical modes in single pyramids reach values up to 650. A finite-difference time-domain simulation assuming a simplified cone-shaped geometry suggests possible Q-factors up to 3600. To enhance the light confinement in the micro-pyramids we intend to overgrow the pyramidal facets with a Bragg mirror--results of preliminary tests are given.

  13. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  14. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  15. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  16. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  17. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic solgel route. The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic solgel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 C. Fired needles were of 12 cm in length and 550 ?m in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  18. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  19. CNM Participates in 2014 NanoDays Outreach Event | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Participates in 2014 NanoDays Outreach Event May 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint On April 14, 2014, the CNM held a Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (NISE) NanoDays Event for 62 local fifth-grade science students and their teachers. CNM has a strong committment to activities that increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) literacy and enthusiasm among students, their families, and educators. The NanoDays kits were an excellent resource for this audience, and

  20. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 ; Hu, Han; Sun, Ying E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu; Duan, Yuanyuan E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu

    2013-12-16

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  1. Phototoxicity of nano titanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytesGeneration of reactive oxygen species and cell damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jun; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E.; Fu, Peter P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Zhao, Baozhong

    2012-08-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is among the top five widely used nanomaterials for various applications. In this study, we determine the phototoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) with different molecular sizes and crystal forms (anatase and rutile) in human skin keratinocytes under UVA irradiation. Our results show that all nano-TiO{sub 2} particles caused phototoxicity, as determined by the MTS assay and by cell membrane damage measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, both of which were UVA dose- and nano-TiO{sub 2} dose-dependent. The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. The level of photocytotoxicity and cell membrane damage is mainly dependent on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using polyunsaturated lipids in plasma membranes and human serum albumin as model targets, and employing electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry and immuno-spin trapping as unique probing methods, we demonstrated that UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2} can induce significant cell damage, mediated by lipid and protein peroxidation. These overall results suggest that nano-TiO{sub 2} is phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes, and that this phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation. Highlights: ? We evaluate the phototoxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} with different sizes and crystal forms. ? The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. ? The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. ? ESR oximetry and immuno-spin trapping techniques confirm UVA-induced cell damage. ? Phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2}.

  2. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Scott M. (Oviedo, FL)

    2010-11-30

    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  3. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Getting Started

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Started on MicroBooNE Welcome to MicroBooNE! This page is designed to help new MicroBooNE collaborators find their way around the experiment and Fermilab. Table of Contents Fermilab ID, Computing Accounts, and Required Training Visas for non-US Citizens Traveling to Fermilab Housing/Hotels Getting Around Communication within the Collaboration Software Getting Help Fermilab ID, Computing Accounts, and Required Training Badging changes for non-US visitors Whether obtaining a new Fermilab

  4. Micro-Modular Biopower System for Cooling, Heating and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    This Congressionally-mandated project seeks to test a micro-modular biopower system for use on the Mount Wachusett Community College (MWCC) campus.

  5. Micro-Earthquake At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Stroujkova...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Stroujkova & Malin, 2001) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  6. A probabilistic approach to microRNA-target binding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogul, Hasan; Umu, Sinan U.; Bioinformatics Program, Informatics Institute, Middle East Technical University, Cankaya TR-06800, Ankara ; Tuncel, Y. Yener; Akkaya, Mahinur S.

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} A new probabilistic model is introduced for microRNA-target binding. {yields} The new model significantly outperforms RNAHybrid and miRTif. {yields} The experiments can unveil the effects of the type and directions of distinct base pairings. -- Abstract: Elucidation of microRNA activity is a crucial step in understanding gene regulation. One key problem in this effort is how to model the pairwise interactions of microRNAs with their targets. As this interaction is strongly mediated by their sequences, it is desired to set-up a probabilistic model to explain the binding preferences between a microRNA sequence and the sequence of a putative target. To this end, we introduce a new model of microRNA-target binding, which transforms an aligned duplex to a new sequence and defines the likelihood of this sequence using a Variable Length Markov Chain. It offers a complementary representation of microRNA-mRNA pairs for microRNA target prediction tools or other probabilistic frameworks of integrative gene regulation analysis. The performance of present model is evaluated by its ability to predict microRNA-target mRNA interaction given a mature microRNA sequence and a putative mRNA binding site. In regard to classification accuracy, it outperforms two recent methods based on thermodynamic stability and sequence complementarity. The experiments can also unveil the effects of base pairing types and non-seed region in duplex formation.

  7. RF Micro Devices Inc RFMD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greensboro, North Carolina Zip: 27409-9421 Product: RF Micro Devices, Inc. is a global leader in the design and manufacture of high-performance semiconductor components....

  8. Transfer Printed Microcells with Micro-Optic Concentrators for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Micro-Optic Concentrators for Low Cost, High Performance Photovoltaic Modules Authors: Lewis, Jennifer A ; Nuzzo, Ralph G ; Rogers, John A Publication Date: 2011-04-30 OSTI...

  9. Micro-Earthquake At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Katz & J.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Katz & J., 1984) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

  10. Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field...

  11. Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity...

  12. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1987) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    variations in the Coso region, California, derived from local earthquake travel times Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMicro-Ear...

  13. Micro-Earthquake At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area (2011)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area (2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

  14. Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  15. Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  16. Transfer Printed Microcells with Micro-Optic Concentrators for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transfer Printed Microcells with Micro-Optic Concentrators for Low Cost, High Performance Photovoltaic Modules Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transfer Printed...

  17. Designing a Micro-Mechanical Transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mainieri, R.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Micro-mechanical electronic systems are chips with moving parts. They are fabricated with the same techniques that are used to manufacture electronic chips, sharing their low cost. Micro-mechanical chips can also contain electronic components. By combining mechanical parts with electronic parts it becomes possible to process signal mechanically. To achieve designs comparable to those obtained with electronic components it is necessary to have a mechanical device that can change its behavior in response to a small input - a mechanical transistor. The work proposed will develop the design tools for these complex-shaped resonant structures using the geometrical ray technique. To overcome the limitations of geometrical ray chaos, the dynamics of the rays will be studied using the methods developed for the study of nonlinear dynamical systems. T his leads to numerical methods that execute well in parallel computer architectures, using a limited amount of memory and no inter-process communication.

  18. MicroShield/ISOCS gamma modeling comparison.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansone, Kenneth R

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative radiological analysis attempts to determine the quantity of activity or concentration of specific radionuclide(s) in a sample. Based upon the certified standards that are used to calibrate gamma spectral detectors, geometric similarities between sample shape and the calibration standards determine if the analysis results developed are qualitative or quantitative. A sample analyzed that does not mimic a calibrated sample geometry must be reported as a non-standard geometry and thus the results are considered qualitative and not quantitative. MicroShieldR or ISOCSR calibration software can be used to model non-standard geometric sample shapes in an effort to obtain a quantitative analytical result. MicroShieldR and Canberra's ISOCSR software contain several geometry templates that can provide accurate quantitative modeling for a variety of sample configurations. Included in the software are computational algorithms that are used to develop and calculate energy efficiency values for the modeled sample geometry which can then be used with conventional analysis methodology to calculate the result. The response of the analytical method and the sensitivity of the mechanical and electronic equipment to the radionuclide of interest must be calibrated, or standardized, using a calibrated radiological source that contains a known and certified amount of activity.

  19. Radial arrays of nano-electrospray ionization emitters and methods of forming electrosprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ryan T [West Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2010-10-19

    Electrospray ionization emitter arrays, as well as methods for forming electrosprays, are described. The arrays are characterized by a radial configuration of three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters without an extractor electrode. The methods are characterized by distributing fluid flow of the liquid sample among three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters, forming an electrospray at outlets of the emitters without utilizing an extractor electrode, and directing the electrosprays into an entrance to a mass spectrometry device. Each of the nano-electrospray ionization emitters can have a discrete channel for fluid flow. The nano-electrospray ionization emitters are circularly arranged such that each is shielded substantially equally from an electrospray-inducing electric field.

  20. Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es009jang2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based...

  1. X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters The student will participate in hands on X-ray scattering experiments on bio-inspired inorganic materials (i.e., magnetic...

  2. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Good Sugars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  3. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on Bad Sugars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  4. Nano-High: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lecture on the "compassionate instinct"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nano-High, a program of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a series of free Saturday morning talks by internationally recognized leaders in scientific research. The talks are designed...

  5. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R

    2014-07-31

    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  6. GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Strain-induced self-assembly during semiconductor heteroepitaxy offers a promising approach to produce quantum nanostructures for nanologic and optoelectronics applications. Our current research direction aims to move beyond self-assembly of the basic quantum dot

  7. Carbon NanoFiber Systems for Tissue Interfacing - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon NanoFiber Systems for Tissue Interfacing Platform Technology for Electrophysiological Interfacing and for Drug and Gene Delivery Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at ORNL have created vertically aligned carbon nano?fibers (VACNF) that are well suited for cell and tissue interfacing applications, such as electrophysiological stimulus and

  8. Decomposition Pathway of Ammonia Borane on the Surface of nano-BN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neiner, Doinita; Luedtke, Avery T.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Wang, Julia; Browning, Nigel; Autrey, Thomas; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2010-08-19

    Ammonia borane (AB) is under significant investigation as a possible hydrogen storage material. While many chemical additives have been demonstrated to have a significant positive effect on hydrogen release from ammonia borane, many provide additional complications in the regeneration cycle. Mechanically alloyed hexagonal BN (nano-BN) has been shown to facilitate the release of hydrogen from AB at lower temperature, with minimal induction time, less exothermically, and inert nano-BN may be easily removed during any regeneration of the spent AB. The samples were prepared by mechanically alloying AB with nano-BN. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the AB:nano-BN samples are physical mixtures of AB and h-BN. The release of hydrogen from AB:nano-BN mixtures as well as the decomposition products were characterized by 11B magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, TGA/DSC/MS with 15N labeled AB, and solution 11B NMR spectroscopy. The 11B MAS solid state NMR spectrum shows that diammonate of diborane (DADB) is present in the mechanically alloyed mixture, which drastically shortens the induction period for hydrogen release from AB. Analysis of the TGA/DSC/MS spectra using 15N labeled AB shows that all the borazine (BZ) produced in the reaction comes from AB and that increasing nano-BN surface area results in increased amounts of BZ. However, under high temperature, 150?C, isothermal conditions, the amount of BZ released was the same as for neat AB. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the initial and final nano-BN additive provide evidence for crystallinity loss but not significant chemical changes. The higher concentration of BZ observed for low temperature dehydrogenation of AB:nano-BN mixtures versus neat AB is attributed to a surface interaction that favors the formation of precursors which ultimately result in BZ. This pathway can be avoided through isothermal heating at temperatures >150?C.

  9. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon brosha_lanl_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Long Term Innovative Technologies The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow PGM Catalysts DOE Durability Working Group October 2010 Meeting Minutes

  10. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more strict in material quality that urban furniture or construction products)

  11. Characterization of the nanoDot OSLD dosimeter in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarboro, Sarah B.; Cody, Dianna; Followill, David; Court, Laurence; Stingo, Francesco C.; Kry, Stephen F.; Alvarez, Paola; Zhang, Di; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The extensive use of computed tomography (CT) in diagnostic procedures is accompanied by a growing need for more accurate and patient-specific dosimetry techniques. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) offer a potential solution for patient-specific CT point-based surface dosimetry by measuring air kerma. The purpose of this work was to characterize the OSLD nanoDot for CT dosimetry, quantifying necessary correction factors, and evaluating the uncertainty of these factors. Methods: A characterization of the Landauer OSL nanoDot (Landauer, Inc., Greenwood, IL) was conducted using both measurements and theoretical approaches in a CT environment. The effects of signal depletion, signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were characterized through direct measurement for CT energies (80140 kV) and delivered doses ranging from ?5 to >1000 mGy. Energy dependence as a function of scan parameters was evaluated using two independent approaches: direct measurement and a theoretical approach based on Burlin cavity theory and Monte Carlo simulated spectra. This beam-quality dependence was evaluated for a range of CT scanning parameters. Results: Correction factors for the dosimeter response in terms of signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were found to be small for most measurement conditions (<3%). The relative uncertainty was determined for each factor and reported at the two-sigma level. Differences in irradiation geometry (rotational versus static) resulted in a difference in dosimeter signal of 3% on average. Beam quality varied with scan parameters and necessitated the largest correction factor, ranging from 0.80 to 1.15 relative to a calibration performed in air using a 120 kV beam. Good agreement was found between the theoretical and measurement approaches. Conclusions: Correction factors for the measurement of air kerma were generally small for CT dosimetry, although angular effects, and particularly effects due to changes in beam quality, could be more substantial. In particular, it would likely be necessary to account for variations in CT scan parameters and measurement location when performing CT dosimetry using OSLD.

  12. Micro-turbo-generator design and fabrication: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiegele, T.G.

    1996-12-31

    The size and weight of portable electronic products are often dictated by the physical characteristics of the power supply system. The design of energy storage systems is therefore critical to market competitiveness. An alternative to energy storage is proposed in this paper which relies on a very small power generation system which converts a pressure difference in a gas into electrical power: a micro-turbo-generator. The design of the micro-turbo-generator involved combining two very different machines, a micro-generator and a micro-turbine, into a single device which could be fabricated within the constraints of current microelectronic processing techniques. Research into power generation on the micro-scale has begun to take place in the form of electromagnetic micro-motor design and fabrication. These variable reluctance machines can be transformed into power generation devices by implementing accurate rotor position sensing, high-speed current switching and a means for inducing rotor motion. This leads to the implementation of a switched reluctance generator, which is well-understood on the macro-scale but has not been attempted on the micro-scale. The most significant hurdle facing researchers is the task of coupling a prime mover, such as a micro-turbine, to the rotor of a power generation device efficiently and effectively while maintaining relative simplicity in the fabrication procedures. The design presented here offers a potential solution to this problem.

  13. SMART FUEL CELL OPERATED RESIDENTIAL MICRO-GRID COMMUNITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam University of South Alabama ECE Department, EEB 75 Mobile, AL 36688-0002 Phone: 251-460-6117 Fax: 251-460-6028

    2005-04-13

    To build on the work of year one by expanding the smart control algorithm developed to a micro-grid of ten houses; to perform a cost analysis; to evaluate alternate energy sources; to study system reliability; to develop the energy management algorithm, and to perform micro-grid software and hardware simulations.

  14. Micro-valve pump light valve display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeechun Lee.

    1993-01-19

    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  15. Micro-valve pump light valve display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yee-Chun

    1993-01-01

    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  16. Hard turning micro-machine tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

    2013-10-22

    A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

  17. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1984-01-01

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a micro-column liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  18. Intrinsic dissipation in a nano-mechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunal, K.; Aluru, N. R.

    2014-09-07

    We investigate the effect of size on intrinsic dissipation in nano-structures. We use molecular dynamics simulation and study dissipation under two different modes of deformation: stretching and bending mode. In the case of stretching deformation (with uniform strain field), dissipation takes place due to Akhiezer mechanism. For bending deformation, in addition to the Akhiezer mechanism, the spatial temperature gradient also plays a role in the process of entropy generation. Interestingly, we find that the bending modes have a higher Q factor in comparison with the stretching deformation (under the same frequency of operation). Furthermore, with the decrease in size, the difference in Q factor between the bending and stretching deformation becomes more pronounced. The lower dissipation for the case of bending deformation is explained to be due to the surface scattering of phonons. A simple model, for phonon dynamics under an oscillating strain field, is considered to explain the observed variation in dissipation rate. We also studied the scaling of Q factor with initial tension, in a beam under flexure. We develop a continuum theory to explain the observed results.

  19. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  20. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

  1. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ceria (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process.

  2. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Ahmadi, Abbas; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and impairs steroidogenesis. ? Nano-Se retained sperm quality against CIS-induced free radicals toxic stress.

  3. Fuel injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors) Fuel injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors) 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  4. A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature ...

  5. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire We employed micro-focused Brillouin light

  6. Miniature modified Faraday cup for micro electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA); Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Chris C. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-05-27

    A micro beam Faraday cup assembly includes a refractory metal layer with an odd number of thin, radially positioned traces in this refractory metal layer. Some of the radially positioned traces are located at the edge of the micro modified Faraday cup body and some of the radially positioned traces are located in the central portion of the micro modified Faraday cup body. Each set of traces is connected to a separate data acquisition channel to form multiple independent diagnostic networks. The data obtained from the two diagnostic networks are combined and inputted into a computed tomography algorithm to reconstruct the beam shape, size, and power density distribution.

  7. For the MicroBooNE Collaboration IPA2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status of MicroBooNE Christina Ignarra (MIT) For the MicroBooNE Collaboration IPA2013 May 14, 2013 Motivation for MicroBooNE: MiniBooNE Motivation for MiniBooNE: LSND * LSND result: Observed an appearance signal consistant with oscillations at a m 2 not consistent with known mass splittings: * A 3 rd mass splitting would solve this problem: P (ν µ → ν e ) = sin 2 2θ sin 2 (1.27∆m 2 L E ) 3 3+1 Sterile Neutrino Model l Assume one more neutrino that doesn't interact through the weak

  8. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Simes, A.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 C for 8 min.

  9. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Biao; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Lu, Juan; Cao, Jia-Lei; Wang, Zuo-Shan

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites have been successfully synthesized. ? As-prepared AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites own the excellent visible light photocatalytic activity. ? As-prepared AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composites own the excellent stability. - Abstract: AgI doped SnO{sub 2} nano-composites were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method and were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results showed that main of the I{sup ?} ions remained in the AgI lattice which is highly dispersed in the system. The photo-catalytic experiments performed under visible light irradiation using methylene blue as the pollutant revealed that not only the photo-catalytic activity but also the stability of SnO{sub 2} based photocatalyst could be improved by introduction of an appropriate amount of AgI, and the result was further supported by the UVVis diffuse reflection spectra and the electron spin-resonance spectra. Among all of the samples, AgISnO{sub 2} nano-composite with 2At% AgI exhibited the best catalytic efficiency and stability.

  10. Micro-position sensor using faraday effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElfresh, Michael (Livermore, CA); Lucas, Matthew (Pittsburgh, PA); Silveira, Joseph P. (Tracy, CA); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2007-02-27

    A micro-position sensor and sensing system using the Faraday Effect. The sensor uses a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field, and a magneto-optic material positioned in the magnetic field for rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light transmitted through the magneto-optic material. The magnet is independently movable relative to the magneto-optic material so as to rotate the plane of polarization of the polarized light as a function of the relative position of the magnet. In this manner, the position of the magnet relative to the magneto-optic material may be determined from the rotated polarized light. The sensing system also includes a light source, such as a laser or LED, for producing polarized light, and an optical fiber which is connected to the light source and to the magneto-optic material at a sensing end of the optical fiber. Processing electronics, such as a polarimeter, are also provided for determining the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of the back-reflected polarized light to determine the position of the magnet relative to the sensing end of the optical fiber.

  11. Micro transport machine and methods for using same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold

    2015-10-13

    A micro transport machine may include a substrate and a movable device comprising a drive component responsive to a wireless power source. The movable device is operable to move between a plurality of disparate areas on the substrate.

  12. Oak Ridge Micro Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ridge, Tennessee Zip: 37830 Product: Developer and producer of thin film rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. References: Oak Ridge Micro-Energy Inc1 This article is...

  13. Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logs (FMI) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) Author Shakeel Ahmed Published Publisher Not...

  14. Micro-beam friction liner and method of transferring energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mentesana, Charles

    2007-07-17

    A micro-beam friction liner adapted to increase performance and efficiency and reduce wear in a piezoelectric motor or actuator or other device using a traveling or standing wave to transfer energy in the form of torque and momentum. The micro-beam friction liner comprises a dense array of micro-beam projections having first ends fixed relative to a rotor and second ends projecting substantially toward a plurality of teeth of a stator, wherein the micro-beam projections are compressed and bent during piezoelectric movement of the stator teeth, thereby storing the energy, and then react against the stator teeth to convert the stored energy stored to rotational energy in the rotor.

  15. Micro-Earthquake At Marysville Mt Area (Blackwell) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    observed in the geothermal areas in the Salton Sea between 1-10 Hz (in units of power density). Because of this very low background noise the micro-earthquake survey was possible...

  16. Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    potential as part of the coordinated exploration program for geothermal sources on the Big Island of Hawaii. Notes A two week micro-seismic study in the Puna district was...

  17. MicroBooNE Project Critical Decision Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Decisions for MicroBooNE Documents CD-0 Mission Need CD-1 Selection of Alternatives CD-2/3a Performance Baseline and Long Lead Procurements CD-3b Start of Construction

  18. Silicon micro-mold and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2005-01-11

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon micro-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  19. Helio Micro Utility Helio mU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Helio mU Jump to: navigation, search Name: Helio Micro Utility (Helio mU) Place: Berkeley, California Zip: 94710 Product: Helio mU provides independent financing and risk...

  20. netl-ord-micro-xct | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7312015 Goal The primary goal of this research is to visualize gas hydrate within sediment pore spaces under in situ conditions using a high-resolution micro-XCT scanner....

  1. Micro-Earthquake At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  2. A Monolithically-Integrated MicroGC Chemical Sensor System. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Monolithically-Integrated MicroGC Chemical Sensor System. Citation ... OSTI Identifier: 1108243 Report Number(s): SAND2011-2870J Journal ID: ISSN 1424--8220; ...

  3. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mousa, Sahar; King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh ; Hanna, Adly

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 C and calcined at 600 C and 900 C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  4. A Micro-Opto-Mechanical Photoacoustic Spectrometer (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect A Micro-Opto-Mechanical Photoacoustic Spectrometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Micro-Opto-Mechanical Photoacoustic Spectrometer × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  5. The MicroBooNE Experiment - About the Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Physics Goals MicroBooNE will collect neutrino interactions using the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab and produce the first neutrino cross section measurements on argon in the 1 GeV energy range. MicroBooNE will also explore the currently unexplained excess of low energy electromagnetic events observed in the MiniBooNE experiment. Click here for public plots and physics distributions.

  6. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI | Department of Energy Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI Key characteristics of variable orifice fuel injector are described that will extend the operation maps of early PCCI combustion and enable dual-mode combustion over full operating maps. PDF icon deer08_hou.pdf

  7. Smart Microfabricated Preconcentrator (and Other Micro Analytical Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Components&Systems). (Conference) | SciTech Connect Smart Microfabricated Preconcentrator (and Other Micro Analytical Detection Components&Systems). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Smart Microfabricated Preconcentrator (and Other Micro Analytical Detection Components&Systems). Abstract not provided. Authors: Manginell, Ronald Paul Publication Date: 2011-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1107226 Report Number(s): SAND2011-4365C 465761 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource

  8. MicroCantilever (MC) based Robust Sensing Approach for Controlled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substances | The Ames Laboratory MicroCantilever (MC) based Robust Sensing Approach for Controlled Substances FWP/Project Description: MicroCantilever (MC) based sensors can provide revolutionary sensitivity for forensic detection and identification of controlled substance, toxic species, biological molecules, and DNA matching. Current sensor systems require extensive sample preparation and/or specialized instrumentation to identify molecules of controlled substances such as cocaine with

  9. ChromPlot for MicroChemLab

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-19

    The software entitled "ChromPlot for MicroChemLab" is used to collect, display, and save data from the Sandia National Laboratories chemical analysis system dubbed MicroChemLab. Sensor data is streamed from a MicroChemLab unit into a computer thru RS-232 in a manner that is not amenable to plotting. Also, there is no direct way to start and stop the unit as is. This software rearranges the data into something that can be easily plotted in real-time thenmore » save the data into a text file. In addition, this software provides the users a means to start and stop the hardware. This software was written specifically for MicroChemLab. MicroChemLab data is delivered at 6- 7 pts/sec/channel in a two-channel system for 1-2 min. This code is written around that premise. It is written for Pentium or higher machines running Windows 9x/Me/NT/2000/XP. This software was not developed under the BMS CRADA; it is software we use in the lab for our own testing. Bristol Meyers Squibb (BMS) will use this software for testing an online process monitor based on MicroChemLab. They have not indicated their interest in marketing our device or the software.« less

  10. In Vitro Phototoxicity and Hazard Identification of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, Kristen; Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina ; Degn, Laura L.; Mundy, William R.; Zucker, Robert M.; Dreher, Kevin; Zhao, Baozhong; National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing ; Roberts, Joan E.; Fordham University, New York, New York ; and others

    2012-01-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) catalyze reactions under UV radiation and are hypothesized to cause phototoxicity. A human-derived line of retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was treated with six samples of nano-TiO{sub 2} and exposed to UVA radiation. The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were independently characterized to have mean primary particle sizes and crystal structures of 22 nm anatase/rutile, 25 nm anatase, 31 nm anatase/rutile, 59 nm anatase/rutile, 142 nm anatase, and 214 nm rutile. Particles were suspended in cell culture media, sonicated, and assessed for stability and aggregation by dynamic light scattering. Cells were treated with 0, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 ?g/ml nano-TiO{sub 2} in media for 24 hrs and then exposed to UVA (2 hrs, 7.53 J/cm{sup 2}) or kept in the dark. Viability was assessed 24 hrs after the end of UVA exposure by microscopy with a live/dead assay (calcein-AM/propidium iodide). Exposure to higher concentrations of nano-TiO{sub 2} with UVA lowered cell viability. The 25 nm anatase and 31 nm anatase/rutile were the most phototoxic (LC{sub 50} with UVA < 5 ?g/ml), while the 142 nm anatase and 214 nm rutile were the least phototoxic. An acellular assay ranked TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for their UVA photocatalytic reactivities. The particles were found to be capable of generating thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) under UVA. Flow cytometry showed that nano-TiO{sub 2} combined with UVA decreased cell viability and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, measured by Mitosox). LC{sub 50} values under UVA were correlated with TBARS reactivity, particle size, and surface area. -- Highlights: ? Nano-TiO{sub 2} enters cells within 24 hours ? Nano-TiO{sub 2} causes dose-dependent cytotoxicity greatly enhanced by UVA radiation ? Treatment with nano-TiO{sub 2} and UVA produces reactive oxygen species ? Phototoxicity is correlated with particle size, surface area, and TBARS reactivity.

  11. Improved light extraction with nano-particles offering directional radiation diagrams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jouanin, A.; Hugonin, J. P.; Besbes, M.; Lalanne, P.

    2014-01-13

    We propose a unique approach for light extraction, using engineered nano-particles to efficiently decouple the light guided in transverse-magnetic guided modes into free-space radiation modes that leak out normally to the thin-film stacks. The underlying mechanism takes advantage of a small electric field variation at the nano-particle scale and induces a polarization conversion, which renders the induced dipole moment perpendicular to the polarization of the incident light. Our analysis is supported by 2D fully vectorial computational results. Potential applications for light emitting or photovoltaic devices are outlined.

  12. A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation Azar Alizadeh 2012.03.08 Hi folks, As many of you may know ice could be a huge problem in everyday life. For many of us who live in the North East of the US, dealing

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01, Sedlacek, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10 - 2011.06.25 Lead Scientist : Gannet Hallar For data sets, see below. Abstract Current estimates indicate that new particle formation globally account for a majority of Cloud

  14. Indexing and TEM Sample Preparation of Isolated CdTe/CdS Nano-Islands.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Indexing and TEM Sample Preparation of Isolated CdTe/CdS Nano-Islands. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indexing and TEM Sample Preparation of Isolated CdTe/CdS Nano-Islands. Abstract not provided. Authors: Aguirre, Brandon Adrian ; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Pete, Douglas V. ; Zubia, David Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140918 Report Number(s): SAND2014-2312C 505756 DOE Contract Number:

  15. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion We have very recently discovered a new hydrogen-producing photocatalyst is BiNbO4. BiNbO4 powders prepared by solid state reaction were tested for photocatalytic activity in methanol solutions under UV irradiation. When the material is tested without

  16. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  17. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, T.; Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Rcz, R.; Biri, S.; Asaji, T.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585

    2014-02-15

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C{sub 60} using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  18. Nano-magnetism of magnetostriction in Fe{sub 35}Co{sub 65}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisfi, A.; Ren, T.; Wuttig, M.; Khachaturyan, A.

    2014-03-03

    The nature of the large magnetostriction in body-centered Fe-based solid solutions has been widely discussed in the literature. Here, we use a combination of magnetostriction, magnetization, torque, and transmission electron microscopy measurements of specially annealed Co{sub 65}Fe{sub 35} to show that the magnetostriction is caused by coherent uniaxial nano-precipitates. We show further that these nano-precipitates lower the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in these alloys to K{sub 1}?=??2.16??10{sup 4}?J/m{sup 3}.

  19. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 μm long nano-rods with an average diameter of ≈20 nm.

  1. Helium nano-bubble evolution in aging metal tritides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-05-01

    A continuum-scale, evolutionary model of helium (He) nano-bubble nucleation, growth and He release for aging bulk metal tritides is presented which accounts for major features of the experimental database. Bubble nucleation, modeled as self-trapping of interstitially diffusing He atoms, is found to occur during the first few days following tritium introduction into the metal and is sensitive to the He diffusivity and pairing energy. An effective helium diffusivity of 0.3 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 K is required to generate the average bubble density of 5x 1017 bubbles/cm3 observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Early bubble growth by dislocation loop punching with a l/radius bubble pressure dependence produces good agreement with He atomic volumes and bubble pressures determined from swelling data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, and hydride pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) shifts. The model predicts that later in life neighboring bubble interactions may first lower the loop punching pressure through cooperative stress effects, then raise the pressure by partial blocking of loops. It also accounts for the shape of the bubble spacing distribution obtained from NMR data. This distribution is found to remain fixed with age, justifying the separation of nucleation and growth phases, providing a sensitive test of the growth formulation, and indicating that further significant bubble nucleation does not occur throughout life. Helium generated within the escape depth of surfaces and surface-connected porosity produces the low-level early helium release. Accelerated or rapid release is modeled as inter-bubble fracture using an average ligament stress criterion. Good agreement is found between the predicted onset of fracture and the observed He-metal ratio (HeM) for rapid He release from bulk palladium tritide. An examination of how inter-bubble fracture varies over the bubble spacing distribution shows that the critical Hem will be lower for thin films or small particle material. It is concluded that control of He retention can be accomplished through control of bubble nucleation.

  2. Real time control of micro-machine system using micro-computer based fuzzy logic power system stabilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiyama, Takashi . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A micro-computer based fuzzy logic power system stabilizer is applied to a micro-machine system to investigate its efficiency in real time control. The stabilizing signal is determined by using measured speed or real power signals at every sampling time to damp the system oscillations. The results show the proposed stabilizer improves the system damping effectively subject to various types of disturbances.

  3. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dohner, Jeffrey L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  4. Structural hysteresis in dragline spider silks induced by supercontraction: an X-ray fiber micro-diffraction study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sampath, Sujatha; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2014-11-27

    Interaction with water causes shrinkage and significant changes in the structure of spider dragline silks, which has been referred to as supercontraction in the literature. Preferred orientation or alignment of protein chains with respect to the fiber axis is extensively changed during this supercontraction process. Synchrotron X-ray micro-fiber diffraction experiments have been performed on Nephila clavipes and Argiope aurantia major and minor ampullate dragline spider fibers in the native dry, contracted (by immersion in water) and restretched (from contracted) states. Changes in the orientation of β-sheet nanocrystallites and the oriented component of the amorphous network have been determined from wide-anglemore » X-ray diffraction patterns. While both the crystalline and amorphous components lose preferred orientation on wetting with water, the nano-crystallites regain their orientation on wet-restretching, whereas the oriented amorphous components only partially regain their orientation. Dragline major ampullate silks in both the species contract more than their minor ampullate silks.« less

  5. Micro-Grids for Colonias (TX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean Schneider; Michael Martin; Renee Berry; Charles Moyer

    2012-07-31

    This report describes the results of the final implementation and testing of a hybrid micro-grid system designed for off-grid applications in underserved Colonias along the Texas/Mexico border. The project is a federally funded follow-on to a project funded by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office in 2007 that developed and demonstrated initial prototype hybrid generation systems consisting of a proprietary energy storage technology, high efficiency charging and inverting systems, photovoltaic cells, a wind turbine, and bio-diesel generators. This combination of technologies provided continuous power to dwellings that are not grid connected, with a significant savings in fuel by allowing power generation at highly efficient operating conditions. The objective of this project was to complete development of the prototype systems and to finalize and engineering design; to install and operate the systems in the intended environment, and to evaluate the technical and economic effectiveness of the systems. The objectives of this project were met. This report documents the final design that was achieved and includes the engineering design documents for the system. The system operated as designed, with the system availability limited by maintenance requirements of the diesel gensets. Overall, the system achieved a 96% availability over the operation of the three deployed systems. Capital costs of the systems were dependent upon both the size of the generation system and the scope of the distribution grid, but, in this instance, the systems averaged $0.72/kWh delivered. This cost would decrease significantly as utilization of the system increased. The system with the highest utilization achieved a capitol cost amortized value of $0.34/kWh produced. The average amortized fuel and maintenance cost was $0.48/kWh which was dependent upon the amount of maintenance required by the diesel generator. Economically, the system is difficult to justify as an alternative to grid power. However, the operational costs are reasonable if grid power is unavailable, e.g. in a remote area or in a disaster recovery situation. In fact, avoided fuel costs for the smaller of the systems in use during this project would have a payback of the capital costs of that system in 2.3 years, far short of the effective system life.

  6. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical engineers made impact. Through a basic understanding of the history of MEMS, the background physics and scaling in micromechanical systems, and an introduction to baseline MEMS processes, a mechanical engineer should be well on his way to Alice's wonderland in the ever-exciting playground of MEMS.

  7. SU-E-T-173: Evaluation of the MicroSTAR Reader for the OSLD System for Remote Dosimetry Audits at the IROC HQAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, P; Gonzalez, S; McDonald, L; Followill, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the performance of the microSTARii reader for optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) used by the IROC Houston Quality Assurance Center (IROC HQAC) for external audits compare to the characteristics of the Microstar reader. Methods: The IROC HQAC uses the Microstar reader for the OSLD program for verification of output of photon, electron and proton beams. The calculation of dose from the OSLD system is based on a group of factors defined at time of the commissioning of a batch of detectors. Factors like system sensitivity (SS), depletion (KD), element correction factor (ECF), linearity (KL), energy correction (KE). The new microSTARii unit presents many hardware and software upgrades that were considered useful for this program. Based on these changes many factors, that were considered reader dependent, were revised in order to analyze the effect of the new reading process. The SS, KD, ECF and KL were evaluated and compared with data defined based on reading done on Microstar reader. Results: The SS is reader specific and specified at 100 cGy dose level. This value is define per reading session and monitored over time. The KD factor was found to be different because of reading procedure are different. The ECF values changed for a group of nano dots compare to values defined based on reading done on the Microstar reader. The KL was defined for the reader. Conclusion: The new microSTARii reader presents new features that improve the efficiency of the OSLD program at the IROC HQAC. New characterization is needed before final implementation is done to match the requirements of the existing OSLD system defined for the Microstar reader. Changes in uncertainty of the results has not been analized.

  8. Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Mosher, Daniel A; Laube, Bruce L; Brown, Ronald J; Vanderspurt, Thomas H; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Ronnebro, Ewa; Boyle, Tim; Cordaro, Joseph

    2010-06-30

    A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method's potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H2 dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH4)4 stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH4)4 ligand complex in SiO2 aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in nano-frameworks did not improve their H2 absorption due to the formation of stable alkaline earth B12H12 intermediates upon rehydrogenation. This project primarily investigated the effect of nano-framework surface chemistry on hydride properties, while the effect of pore size is the focus area of other efforts (e.g., HRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) etc.) within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The projects were complementary in gaining an overall understanding of the influence of nano-frameworks on hydride behavior.

  9. Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Hecht, Andrew M. (Sandia Park, NM); Sylwester. Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM); Bell, Nelson S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-23

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  10. Method for fabricating arrays of micro-needles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenney, Christopher J.

    2003-04-22

    An array of micro-needles is created by forming an array pattern on the upper surface of a silicon wafer and etching through openings in the pattern to define micro-needle sized cavities having a desired depth. The mold thus formed may be filled with electrically conductive material, after which a desired fraction of the silicon wafer bulk is removed from the bottom-up by etching, to expose an array of projecting micro-needles. The mold may instead be filled with a flexible material to form a substrate useful in gene cell probing. An array of hollow micro-needles may be formed by coating the lower wafer surface with SiN, and etching through pattern openings in the upper surface down to the SiN layer, and then conformally coating the upper surface with thermal silicon dioxide. The SiN layer is then stripped away and a desired fraction of the bulk of the wafer removed from the bottom-up to expose an array of projecting hollow micro-needles.

  11. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gaps in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAhcm2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 m-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.

  12. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore »in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  14. MEMS: A new approach to micro-optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and their fabrication technologies provide great opportunities for application to micro-optical systems (MOEMS). Implementing MOEMS technology ranges from simple, passive components to complicated, active systems. Here, an overview of polysilicon surface micromachining MEMS combined with optics is presented. Recent advancements to the technology, which may enhance its appeal for micro-optics applications are emphasized. Of all the MEMS fabrication technologies, polysilicon surface micromachining technology has the greatest basis in and leverages the most the infrastructure for silicon integrated circuit fabrication. In that respect, it provides the potential for very large volume, inexpensive production of MOEMS. This paper highlights polysilicon surface micromachining technology in regards to its capability to provide both passive and active mechanical elements with quality optical elements.

  15. Micro-Bubble Experiments at the Van de Graaff Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wardle, Kent E.; Quigley, K. J.; Gromov, Roman; Youker, A. J.; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Bailey, James; Stepinski, D. C.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    2015-02-01

    In order to test and verify the experimental designs at the linear accelerator (LINAC), several micro-scale bubble ("micro-bubble") experiments were conducted with the 3-MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) electron accelerator. The experimental setups included a square quartz tube, sodium bisulfate solution with different concentrations, cooling coils, gas chromatography (GC) system, raster magnets, and two high-resolution cameras that were controlled by a LabVIEW program. Different beam currents were applied in the VDG irradiation. Bubble generation (radiolysis), thermal expansion, thermal convection, and radiation damage were observed in the experiments. Photographs, videos, and gas formation (O2 + H2) data were collected. The micro-bubble experiments at VDG indicate that the design of the full-scale bubble experiments at the LINAC is reasonable.

  16. Application of micro-PIXE method to ore geology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murao, S.; Hamasaki, S.; Sie, S. H.; Maglambayan, V. B.; Hu, X.

    1999-06-10

    Specific examples of ore mineral analysis by micro-PIXE are presented in this paper. For mineralogical usage it is essential to construct a specimen chamber which is designed exclusively for mineral analysis. In most of the analysis of natural minerals, selection of absorbers is essential in order to obtain optimum results. Trace element data reflect the crystallographic characteristics of each mineral and also geologic settings of sampling locality, and can be exploited in research spanning mineral exploration to beneficiation. Micro-PIXE thus serves as a bridge between small-scale mineralogical experiments and understanding of large-scale geological phenomenon on the globe.

  17. MicroChip Imager Module for Recognition of Microorganisms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-01-01

    The MicroChip Reader for Cereus Group takes the table of intensities of hybridization signals produced by the MicroChip Imager software and evokes a series of steps designed to recognize the pattern of intensities specific to a particular Cereus subgroup. Seven subgroups of the Cereus group can be identified by particular features of their RNA sequence. The Reader also provides statistics documenting how well its conclusion is confirmed by the hybridization signals. At the user’s request,more »the Reader can list every recognition step utilized so that the user can verify the recognition process manually if desired.« less

  18. The MicroBooNE Experiment - At Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MicroBooNE at Work At Work Now The Getting Started Page holds links to help find your way around Fermilab services and prepare for working on the experiment. The MicroBooNE Contact List contains contact information for collaboration members. The Working Groups Page is a portal to these sub-sites. The Operations Page is a portal to the running detector. The Meetings Page lists the current regular meeting time slots, and also lists the collaboration meeting dates with links to the DocDB for past

  19. The MicroBooNE Experiment - Conference Talks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Talks and Posters Once you have given a MicroBooNE presentation, please send your talk to Ben Carls so it can be archived. If you have written proceedings to accompany your talk, please upload them to the MicroBooNE DocDB and send the document number to Ben. Also, remember that conference proceedings are required by Fermilab policy to be submitted to the Fermilab Technical Publications archive. Instructions for doing that appear here. Click here for Future talks. Conference Presentations Speaker

  20. Marcel Filoche Seminar: Modeling and Designing Micro-Optoelectronic Devices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Real World: The Role of Disorder | Center for Energy Efficient Materials Marcel Filoche Seminar: Modeling and Designing Micro-Optoelectronic Devices in the Real World: The Role of Disorder Apr 15, 2014 | 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM Marcel Filoche Researcher at CNRS, Assistant Laboratory Director CNRS France Modeling and Designing Micro-Optoelectronic Devices in the Real World: The Role of Disorder April 15, 2014 | 4:00pm | ESB 1001 Faculty host: Jim Speck >>>Video and slides available

  1. A micro-structured ion-implanted magnonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obry, Bjoern; Pirro, Philipp; Chumak, Andrii V.; Ciubotaru, Florin; Serga, Alexander A.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Braecher, Thomas; Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, D-67663 Kaiserslautern ; Osten, Julia; Fassbender, Juergen

    2013-05-20

    We investigate spin-wave propagation in a microstructured magnonic-crystal waveguide fabricated by localized ion implantation. The irradiation caused a periodic variation in the saturation magnetization along the waveguide. As a consequence, the spin-wave transmission spectrum exhibits a set of frequency bands, where spin-wave propagation is suppressed. A weak modification of the saturation magnetization by 7% is sufficient to decrease the spin-wave transmission in the band gaps by a factor of 10. These results evidence the applicability of localized ion implantation for the fabrication of efficient micron- and nano-sized magnonic crystals for magnon spintronic applications.

  2. Micro devices using shape memory polymer patches for mated connections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Fitch, Joseph P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and micro device for repositioning or retrieving miniature devices located in inaccessible areas, such as medical devices (e.g., stents, embolic coils, etc.) located in a blood vessel. The micro repositioning or retrieving device and method uses shape memory polymer (SMP) patches formed into mating geometries (e.g., a hoop and a hook) for re-attachment of the deposited medical device to a catheter or guidewire. For example, SMP or other material hoops are formed on the medical device to be deposited in a blood vessel, and SMP hooks are formed on the micro device attached to a guidewire, whereby the hooks on the micro device attach to the hoops on the medical device, or vice versa, enabling deposition, movement, re-deposit, or retrieval of the medical device. By changing the temperature of the SMP hooks, the hooks can be attached to or released from the hoops located on the medical device. An exemplary method for forming the hooks and hoops involves depositing a sacrificial thin film on a substrate, patterning and processing the thin film to form openings therethrough, depositing or bonding SMP materials in the openings so as to be attached to the substrate, and removing the sacrificial thin film.

  3. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  4. Webinar: Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Above is the webinar recording for the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells," originally presented on November 19, 2013. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of this recording will be available soon

  5. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet. A liquid...

  6. Effect of addition of Ag nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy/polyaminoamide adduct coatings filled with conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samad, Ubair Abdus; Khan, Rawaiz; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Al-Othman, Othman Y.; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M.

    2015-05-22

    In this study the effect of Ag Nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy coatings filled with optimized ratio of conducting polymers (Polyaniline and Polyppyrole) was evaluated. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin (DGEBA) along with polyaminoamide adduct (ARADUR 3282-1 BD) is used as curing agent under optimized stoichiometry values. Curing is performed at room temperature with different percentages of Nano filler. Glass and steel panels were used as coating substrate. Bird applicator was used to coat the samples in order to obtain thin film with wet film thickness (WFT) of about 70-90?m. The samples were kept in dust free environment for about 7 days at room temperature for complete curing. The coated steel panels were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of coating such as hardness, scratch and impact tests whereas coated glass panels were used for measuring pendulum hardness of the coatings. To check the dispersion and morphology of Nano filler in epoxy matrix scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in addition Nano indentation was also performed to observe the effect of Nano filler on modulus of elasticity and hardness at Nano scale.

  7. Self-Assembled Silica Nano-Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Synthesis, Rheology & Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Saad A.: Fedkiw Peter S.; Baker, Gregory L.

    2007-01-24

    The ultimate objectives of this research are to understand the principles underpinning nano-composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) and facilitate development of novel CPEs that are low-cost, have high conductivities, large Li+ transference numbers, improved electrolyte-electrode interfacial stability, yield long cycle life, exhibit mechanical stability and are easily processable. Our approach is to use nanoparticulate silica fillers to formulate novel composite electrolytes consisting of surface-modified fumed silica nano-particles in polyethylene oxides (PEO) in the presence of lithium salts. We intend to design single-ion conducting silica nanoparticles which provide CPEs with high Li+ transference numbers. We also will develop low-Mw (molecular weight), high-Mw and crosslinked PEO electrolytes with tunable properties in terms of conductivity, transference number, interfacial stability, processability and mechanical strength

  8. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  9. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  10. Realizing three-dimensional artificial spin ice by stacking planar nano-arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2014-01-06

    Artificial spin ice is a frustrated magnetic two-dimensional nano-material, recently employed to study variety of tailor-designed unusual collective behaviours. Recently proposed extensions to three dimensions are based on self-assembly techniques and allow little control over geometry and disorder. We present a viable design for the realization of a three-dimensional artificial spin ice with the same level of precision and control allowed by lithographic nano-fabrication of the popular two-dimensional case. Our geometry is based on layering already available two-dimensional artificial spin ice and leads to an arrangement of ice-rule-frustrated units, which is topologically equivalent to that of the tetrahedra in a pyrochlore lattice. Consequently, we show, it exhibits a genuine ice phase and its excitations are, as in natural spin ice materials, magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb law.

  11. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Shimoda, Kazuya; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic behavior of Co/MCM-41 nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuello, N.; Elas, V.; Crivello, M.; Oliva, M.; Eimer, G.

    2013-09-15

    Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Co/MCM-41 as magnetic nano-composites have been investigated. Mesoporous materials with different degrees of metal loading were prepared by wet impregnation and characterized by ICP, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption, UVvis DRS, TPR and EPMA-EDS. Cobalt oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles could be confined inside the mesopores of MCM-41, being this fact favored by the Co loading increasing. In addition, larger crystals of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} detectable by XRD also grow on the surface when the Co loading is enhanced. The magnetic characterization was performed in a SQUID magnetometer using a maximum magnetic applied field {sub 0}Ha=1 T. While the samples with the higher Co loadings showed a behavior typically paramagnetic, a superparamagnetic contribution is more notorious for lower loadings, suggesting high Co species dispersion. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature hysteresis loops as a function of the Co content. Display Omitted - Highlights: Co species as isolated Co{sup 2+}, oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles were detected. For higher Co loads were detected, by XRD, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles on the external surface. The confining of Co species inside the mesopores was achieved by increasing Co load. Paramagnetism from oxide clusters/nano-particles becomes dominant for higher Co loads. Superparamagnetism can be assigned to Co species of small size and finely dispersed.

  13. Novel Instruments Usher in a New Paradigm for Eye Surgery (Cornea NanoPunch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Retina Velcro) - Energy Innovation Portal Novel Instruments Usher in a New Paradigm for Eye Surgery (Cornea NanoPunch and Retina Velcro) Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary ORNL scientists working in conjunction with the Hamilton Eye Institute at the University of Tennessee-Memphis invented new methods and devices to reduce risk in surgical procedures for removing scar tissue and treating damage to the eye from corneal erosion.

  14. Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es009_jang_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery Manufacturing Grants 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Energy Storage

  15. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, N. S. S. Muthuvalu, M. S.; Asirvadam, V. S.

    2014-10-24

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  16. Geometrical effects on the electron residence time in semiconductor nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koochi, Hakimeh; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-07

    We have used random walk (RW) numerical simulations to investigate the influence of the geometry on the statistics of the electron residence time ?{sub r} in a trap-limited diffusion process through semiconductor nano-particles. This is an important parameter in coarse-grained modeling of charge carrier transport in nano-structured semiconductor films. The traps have been distributed randomly on the surface (r{sup 2} model) or through the whole particle (r{sup 3} model) with a specified density. The trap energies have been taken from an exponential distribution and the traps release time is assumed to be a stochastic variable. We have carried out (RW) simulations to study the effect of coordination number, the spatial arrangement of the neighbors and the size of nano-particles on the statistics of ?{sub r}. It has been observed that by increasing the coordination number n, the average value of electron residence time, ?{sup }{sub r} rapidly decreases to an asymptotic value. For a fixed coordination number n, the electron's mean residence time does not depend on the neighbors' spatial arrangement. In other words, ?{sup }{sub r} is a porosity-dependence, local parameter which generally varies remarkably from site to site, unless we are dealing with highly ordered structures. We have also examined the effect of nano-particle size d on the statistical behavior of ?{sup }{sub r}. Our simulations indicate that for volume distribution of traps, ?{sup }{sub r} scales as d{sup 2}. For a surface distribution of traps ?{sup }{sub r} increases almost linearly with d. This leads to the prediction of a linear dependence of the diffusion coefficient D on the particle size d in ordered structures or random structures above the critical concentration which is in accordance with experimental observations.

  17. Bridging the Nano-World and the Real World in Polymer Solar Cells | U.S.

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Bridging the Nano-World and the Real World in Polymer Solar Cells Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information »

  18. Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry Monday, August 1, 2011 - 2:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137 Conference Room 137-322 Matthias Müller, Scientist at Physikalisch-Technischn, Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany Advanced research on novel semiconductor, energy-storage and energy-conversion devices relies on the reliability of the characterization

  19. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Fuel Cells and Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying Jia, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA The development of novel electrode materials is hindered by the lack of fundamental understanding of the precise structural effects on the catalytic activity and

  20. nano-energy | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nanotechnology: Energizing our Future Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Program Summaries Brochures Reports Accomplishments Presentations BES and Congress Science for Energy Flow Seeing Matter Nano for Energy Scale of Things Chart Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence

  1. Carbon Nanotubes and Nano-Structure Manufacturing at TJNAF | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Office of Science (SC) Carbon Nanotubes and Nano-Structure Manufacturing at TJNAF Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation / Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  2. NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency Breakthrough should eliminate need for anti-reflection layer, cutting costs October 12, 2012 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have produced solar cells using nanotechnology techniques at an efficiency - 18.2% -- that is competitive. The breakthrough should be a major step toward helping lower the cost of solar energy. NREL tailored a nanostructured surface while ensuring

  3. Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells" held on November 19, 2013. PDF icon Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications 2012 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2011 Fuel Cell Technologies Market

  4. The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, December 2003 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, December 2003 The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, December 2003 On June 11-12, 2003, in Greenbelt, Maryland, key stakeholders from industry, government agencies, universities, and others involved in combined heat and power (CHP) and residential buildings industries explored solutions to technical, institutional, and market barriers facing micro-combined heat and power systems (mCHP). This document, The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, is a result of this

  5. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieira Jnior, D. S.; Leonel, S. A. Dias, R. A. Toscano, D. Coura, P. Z. Sato, F.

    2014-09-07

    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurationsvortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned statestype Cas a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortextype C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  6. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Balakrishnan, Shankar

    2015-05-14

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  7. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, X.; Dauler, E.; Molnar, R.; Berggren, K. K.

    2010-12-20

    Optical nano-antennae have been integrated with semiconductor lasers to intensify light at the nanoscale and photodiodes to enhance photocurrent. In quantum optics, plasmonic metal structures have been used to enhance nonclassical light emission from single quantum dots. Absorption and detection of single photons from free space could also be enhanced by nanometallic antennae, but this has not previously been demonstrated. Here, we use nano-optical transmission effects in a one-dimensional gold structure, combined with optical cavity resonance, to form optical nano-antennae, which are further used to couple single photons from free space into a 80-nm-wide superconducting nanowire. This antenna-assisted coupling enables a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 47% device efficiency at the wavelength of 1550 nm and 9-?m-by-9-?m active area while maintaining a reset time of only 5 ns. We demonstrate nanoscale antenna-like structures to achieve exceptional efficiency and speed in single-photon detection.

  8. Combined experimental and numerical evaluation of a prototype nano-PCM enhanced wallboard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; LuPh.D., Jue; Soroushian, Parviz; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, forty-eight (48) percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced building envelopes can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Combined experimental testing and numerical modeling of PCM-enhanced envelope components are two important aspects of the evaluation of their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conductive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. A wall with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards was built and tested in a natural exposure test (NET) facility in a hot-humid climate location. The test wall contained PCM wallboards and regular gypsum wallboard, for a side-by-side annual comparison study. Further, numerical modeling of the walls containing the nano-PCM wallboard was performed to determine its actual impact on wall-generated heating and cooling loads. The model was first validated using experimental data, and then used for annual simulations using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the measured performance and numerical analysis evaluating the energy-saving potential of the nano-PCM-enhanced wallboard.

  9. Micro-polarimeter for high performance liquid chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward E. (Ames, IA); Steenhoek, Larry E. (Wilmington, DE); Woodruff, Steven D. (Morgantown, WV); Kuo, Jeng-Chung (Skokie, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A micro-polarimeter interfaced with a system for high performance liquid chromatography, for quantitatively analyzing micro and trace amounts of optically active organic molecules, particularly carbohydrates. A flow cell with a narrow bore is connected to a high performance liquid chromatography system. Thin, low birefringence cell windows cover opposite ends of the bore. A focused and polarized laser beam is directed along the longitudinal axis of the bore as an eluent containing the organic molecules is pumped through the cell. The beam is modulated by air gap Faraday rotators for phase sensitive detection to enhance the signal to noise ratio. An analyzer records the beams's direction of polarization after it passes through the cell. Calibration of the liquid chromatography system allows determination of the quantity of organic molecules present from a determination of the degree to which the polarized beam is rotated when it passes through the eluent.

  10. Stirling engines for gas fired micro-cogen and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, N.W.; Beale, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and performance of free-piston Stirling engine-alternators particularly suited for use as natural gas fired micro-cogen and cooling devices. Stirling based cogen systems offer significant potential advantages over internal combustion engines in efficiency, to maintain higher efficiencies at lower power levels than than combustion engines significantly expands the potential for micro-cogen. System cost reduction and electric prices higher than the U.S. national average will have a far greater effect on commercial success than any further increase in Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling based cogen systems are competitive. Machines of this design are being considered for production in the near future as gas-fired units for combined heat and power in sufficiently large quantities to assure competitive prices for the final unit.

  11. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  12. Concentric micro-nebulizer for direct sample insertion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassel, Velmer A.; Rice, Gary W.; Lawrence, Kimberly E.

    1986-03-11

    A concentric micro-nebulizer and method for introducing liquid samples into a plasma established in a plasma torch including a first tube connected to a source of plasma gas. The concentric micro-nebulizer has inner and outer concentric tubes extending upwardly within the torch for connection to a source of nebulizer gas and to a source of liquid solvent and to a source of sample liquid. The inner tube is connected to the source of liquid solvent and to the source of sample liquid and the outer tube is connected to the source of nebulizer gas. The outer tube has an orifice positioned slightly below the plasma when it is established, with the inner and outer tubes forming an annulus therebetween with the annular spacing between the tubes at said orifice being less than about 0.05 mm. The dead volume of the inner tube is less than about 5 microliters.

  13. Concentric micro-nebulizer for direct sample insertion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassel, V.A.; Rice, G.W.; Lawrence, K.E.

    1984-03-06

    A concentric micro-nebulizer and method for introducing liquid samples into a plasma established in a plasma torch including a first tube connected to a source of plasma gas. The concentric micro-nebulizer has inner and outer concentric tubes extending upwardly within the torch for connection to a source of nebulizer gas and to a source of liquid solvent and to a source of sample liquid. The inner tube is connected to the source of liquid solvent and to the source of sample liquid and the outer tube is connected to the source of nebulizer gas. The outer tube has an orifice positioned slightly below the plasma when it is established, with the inner and outer tubes forming an annulus therebetween with the annular spacing between the tubes at said orifice being less than about 0.05mm. The dead volume of the inner tube is less than about 5 microliters.

  14. Synthesis of micro-sized interconnected Si-C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Donghai; Yi, Ran; Dai, Fang

    2016-02-23

    Embodiments provide a method of producing micro-sized Si--C composites or doped Si--C and Si alloy-C with interconnected nanoscle Si and C building blocks through converting commercially available SiO.sub.x (0

  15. Maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Patterson, David O.; Gough, Richard A.

    2005-05-03

    A maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system is a system for projecting patterns onto a resist layer on a wafer with feature size down to below 100 nm. The MMRL system operates without a stencil mask. The patterns are generated by switching beamlets on and off from a two electrode blanking system or pattern generator. The pattern generator controllably extracts the beamlet pattern from an ion source and is followed by a beam reduction and acceleration column.

  16. Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-12-15

    The rapid development of the femtosecond laser has revolutionized materials processing due to its unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. The short pulse width suppresses the formation of a heat-affected zone, which is vital for ultrahigh precision fabrication, whereas the high peak intensity allows nonlinear interactions such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization to be induced in transparent materials, which provides versatility in terms of the materials that can be processed. More interestingly, irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials makes three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication available due to efficient confinement of the nonlinear interactions within the focal volume. Additive manufacturing (stereolithography) based on multiphoton absorption (two-photon polymerization) enables the fabrication of 3D polymer micro- and nanostructures for photonic devices, micro- and nanomachines, and microfluidic devices, and has applications for biomedical and tissue engineering. Subtractive manufacturing based on internal modification and fabrication can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass. These microcomponents can be easily integrated in a single glass microchip by a simple procedure using a femtosecond laser to realize more functional microdevices, such as optofluidics and integrated photonic microdevices. The highly localized multiphoton absorption of a tightly focused femtosecond laser in glass can also induce strong absorption only at the interface of two closely stacked glass substrates. Consequently, glass bonding can be performed based on fusion welding with femtosecond laser irradiation, which provides the potential for applications in electronics, optics, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, microfluidic devices, and small satellites. This review paper describes the concepts and principles of femtosecond laser 3D micro- and nanofabrication and presents a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art, applications, and the future prospects of this technology.

  17. MHK Technologies/European Pico Pilot Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2008 Brest, France , Jah, Alok, "Tidal Turbine begins Feeding Power to the Grid", The Guardian (newspaper), London, July 18, 2008 Date Submitted 9282010 << Return to the MHK...

  18. Pico Vermelho Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  19. Pico Vermelho-Ribeira Grande Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yd Use the "Edit with Form" button at the top of the page to add a Well Field Description Geology of the Area Geologic Setting Tectonic Setting: Rift Zone Controlling Structure:...

  20. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ?6 wt% and ?50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the experiments. Overall, the combined experimental measurements and simulations indicate that hydrogen storage based on enhanced solubility in nano-confined liquids is unlikely to meet the storage densities required for practical use. Only low gravimetric capacities of < 0.5 wt% were achieved. More importantly, solvent filled scaffolds had lower volumetric capacities than corresponding empty scaffolds. Nevertheless, several of the composites measured did show significant (>~ 5x) enhanced hydrogen solubility relative to bulk solvent solubility, when the hydrogen capacity was attributed only to dissolution in the confined solvent. However, when the hydrogen capacity was compared to an empty scaffold that is known to store hydrogen by surface adsorption on the scaffold walls, including the solvent always reduced the hydrogen capacity. For the best composites, this reduction relative to an empty scaffold was ~30%; for the worst it was ~90%. The highest capacities were obtained with the largest solvent molecules and with scaffolds containing 3- dimensionally confined pore geometries. The simulations suggested that the capacity of the composites originated from hydrogen adsorption on the scaffold pore walls at sites not occupied by solvent molecules. Although liquid solvent filled the pores, not all of the adsorption sites on the pore walls were occupied due to restricted motion of the solvent molecules within the confined pore space.

  1. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

  2. Dissipative soliton dynamics in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; You, Chun-Yeol; Song, Hyon-Seok; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2014-02-03

    Soliton dynamics is studied in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain by means of micromagnetic simulations together with an analytic model equation. A soliton under a dissipative system is driven by an applied field. The field-driven dissipative soliton enhances its mobility nonlinearly, as the characteristic frequency and the intrinsic Gilbert damping decrease. During the propagation, the soliton emits spin waves which act as an extrinsic damping channel. The characteristic frequency, the maximum velocity, and the localization length of the soliton are found to be proportional to the threshold field, the threshold velocity, and the initial mobility, respectively.

  3. Failure by fracture and fatigue in 'NANO' and 'BIO'materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

    2003-12-19

    The behavior of nanostructured materials/small-volumestructures and biologi-cal/bio-implantable materials, so-called "nano"and "bio" materials, is currently much in vogue in materials science. Oneaspect of this field, which to date has received only limited attention,is their fracture and fatigue properties. In this paper, we examine twotopics in this area, namely the premature fatigue failure ofsilicon-based micron-scale structures for microelectromechanical systems(MEMS), and the fracture properties of mineralized tissue, specificallyhuman bone.

  4. Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Batteries | Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es009_jang_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Hybrid Nano Carbon Fiber/Graphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Energy Storage Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery

  5. Research and development of RHIC injection kicker upgrade with nano second FID pulse generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Hahn, H.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.J.; Pai, C.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2012-05-20

    Our recent effort to test a 50 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse width, 10 ns pulse rise time FID pulse generator with a 250 ft transmission cable, resistive load, and existing RHIC injection kicker magnet has produced unparalleled results. This is the very first attempt to drive a high strength fast kicker magnet with a nano second high pulsed power (50 MVA) generator for large accelerator and colliders. The technology is impressive. We report here the result and future plan of RHIC Injection kicker upgrade.

  6. Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Nano Carbon: From Solar Cells to Atomic Drums

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 3, 2011 4:00 pm Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Nano Carbon: From Solar Cells to Atomic Drums Paul McEuen Goldwin Smith Professor of Physics, Cornell University and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science CNMS D D I I S S C C O O V V E E R R Y Y SEMINAR SERIES Abstract: Graphene is the world's first atomic membrane, a robust, one-atom thick freestanding layer of sp2-bonded carbon. Graphene membranes are strong but highly flexible, with bending stiffness comparable to a lipid

  7. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Robert M. Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-02-10

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  8. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Yanbing Guo, Zheng Ren, and Pu-Xian Gao � Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering & � Institute of Materials Science � University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3136 � 18 th DEER Conference, Dearborn, Michigan October 19, 2012 This work is funded by DoE/NETL through Award: DE-EE0000210 � 1 Outline � 1 2 3 5 4 2 _ Motivations and Goals � Images from:

  9. Irradiation-induced nano-voids in strained tin precipitates in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaiduk, P. I., E-mail: gaiduk@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physical Electronics and Nanotechnology, Belarusian State University, prosp. Nezavisimosti, 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lundsgaard Hansen, J., E-mail: johnlh@phys.au.dk; Nylandsted Larsen, A., E-mail: anl@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-04-14

    We report on self-assembling of spherically shaped voids in nanometer size strained Sn precipitates after irradiation with He{sup +} ions in different conditions. It is found that high-temperature irradiation induces vacancies which are collected by compressively strained Sn precipitates enhancing of out-diffusion of Sn atoms from the precipitates. Nano-voids formation takes place simultaneously with a ?- to ?-phase transformation in the Sn precipitates. Post-irradiation thermal treatment leads to the removal of voids and a backward transformation of the Sn phase to ?-phase. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects along with vacancy assisted Sn out-diffusion and precipitate dissolution are discussed.

  10. The effect of ultrasonication on the size and morphology of iron oxide - chitosan nano and microparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ak?n, Deniz; Yakar, Arzu; Gndz, Ufuk

    2013-12-16

    The aim of this study is to synthesize magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-chitosan nano and microparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs) by suspension cross-linking and ionic gelation methods and investigate the effect of ultrasonication on the size, morphology and magnetic properties. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the ultrasonication decreased the mean particle diameter and enhanced magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CPs due to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} content.

  11. Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.

  12. The Enzyme-mimic Activity of Ferric Nano-Core Residing in Ferritin and Its Biosensing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong J.; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Zhaohui; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    Ferritins are nano-scale globular protein cages encapsulating a ferric core. They widely exist in animals, plants, and microbes, playing indispensable roles in iron homeostasis. Interestingly, our study clearly demonstrates that ferritin has an enzyme-mimic activity derived from its ferric nano-core, but not the protein cage. Further study revealed that the mimic-enzyme activity of ferritin is more thermally stable and pH-tolerant compared with horseradish peroxidase. Considering the abundance of ferritin in numerous organisms, this finding may indicate a new role of ferritin in antioxidant and detoxification metabolisms. In addition, as a natural protein-caged nanoparticle with an enzyme-mimic activity, ferritin is readily conjugated with biomolecules to construct nano-biosensors, thus holds promising potential for facile and biocompatible labeling for sensitive and robust bioassays in biomedical applications.

  13. Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    intermetallics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9 intermetallics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-assembled nano- to micron-size fibers from molten R11Ni4In9 intermetallics A study of the formation of Gd11M4In9 (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) and R11Ni4In9 (R = rare earth) compounds revealed a unique and peculiar property, which is to naturally crystallize in a bundle of

  14. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Juan, J. Gómez-Cortés, J. F.

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  15. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  16. Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B. (Monash); (ANSTO)

    2008-06-30

    The residual orientation following micro-injection molding of small rectangular plates with linear polyethylene has been examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of changing the molding conditions has been examined, and the residual chain orientation has been compared to the residual orientation of the crystallites as a function of position in the sample. This study has found that, for micromoldings, the orientation of the crystallites decreases with increasing injection speed and increasing mold thickness. The combined data suggest that the majority of the orientation present comes from oriented crystal growth rather than residual chain orientation.

  17. The MicroBooNE Project - Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Home Project Status Reporting Project Reports Monthly Reports Quarterly Reports, pre-CD2 PMG Meetings Project Management Group meetings are held on the 2nd Wednesday of each month, at 1pm CT in the Black Hole meeting room (WH2NW). Presentation materials are posted in the MicroBooNE DocDB, private access user-name is reviewer, password on request. From the DocDB home page, select Calendar, and on the Calendar click on PMG in the appropriate day box to bring up the meeting's Event Page.

  18. Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Pressure Sensor for Footwear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrer, Brandon R. (Albuquerque, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, Jason W. (Albuquerque, NM); Hobart, Clinton G. (Albuquerque, NM); Givler, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-23

    Footwear comprises a sole and a plurality of sealed cavities contained within the sole. The sealed cavities can be incorporated as deformable containers within an elastic medium, comprising the sole. A plurality of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensors are respectively contained within the sealed cavity plurality, and can be adapted to measure static and dynamic pressure within each of the sealed cavities. The pressure measurements can provide information relating to the contact pressure distribution between the sole of the footwear and the wearer's environment.

  19. Hydroquinone-ZnO nano-laminate deposited by molecular-atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jie; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Kim, Jiyoung; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ha, Min-Woo

    2015-03-23

    In this study, we have deposited organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting hydroquinone (HQ)/zinc oxide (ZnO) superlattices using molecular-atomic layer deposition, which enables accurate control of film thickness, excellent uniformity, and sharp interfaces at a low deposition temperature (150 °C). Self-limiting growth of organic layers is observed for the HQ precursor on ZnO surface. Nano-laminates were prepared by varying the number of HQ to ZnO cycles in order to investigate the physical and electrical effects of different HQ to ZnO ratios. It is indicated that the addition of HQ layer results in enhanced mobility and reduced carrier concentration. The highest Hall mobility of approximately 2.3 cm{sup 2}/V·s and the lowest n-type carrier concentration of approximately 1.0 × 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} were achieved with the organic-inorganic superlattice deposited with a ratio of 10 ZnO cycles to 1 HQ cycle. This study offers an approach to tune the electrical transport characteristics of ALD ZnO matrix thin films using an organic dopant. Moreover, with organic embedment, this nano-laminate material may be useful for flexible electronics.

  20. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Margha, Fatma H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ? Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ? Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ? Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UVvisible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  1. Controllable synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica spheres and application as support of nano-gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Weihua Shangguan, Junnan; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2014-07-01

    Hollow silica spheres with mesoporous structure were synthesized by solgel/emulsion method. In the process, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to stabilize the oil droplet and also used as structure direct agent. The diameter of the hollow silica spheres, ranging from 895 nm to 157 nm, can be controlled by changing the ratio of ethanol to water and the concentration of the surfactant as well. The shell thickness of the spheres decreased when the ratio of ethanol to water decreased. The proposed mechanism of the formation of silica spheres could elucidate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the resultant hollow mesoporous silica spheres were then employed as support of nano-gold which was used to catalyze the isomerization reaction of propylene oxide to produce allyl alcohol. - Graphical abstract: It is the schematic mechanism for the formation of hollow mesoporous silica spheres. - Highlights: The formation mechanism of the hollow spheres is proposed. The isomerization of propylene oxide can be catalyzed by the nano-gold/SiO{sub 2}. The hollow silica spheres can be prepared controllably.

  2. Size dependent compressibility of nano-ceria: Minimum near 33 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Song, Junhua; Chan, Siu-Wai; Walker, David; Clark, Simon M.; Kalkan, Bora

    2015-04-20

    We report the crystallite-size-dependency of the compressibility of nanoceria under hydrostatic pressure for a wide variety of crystallite diameters and comment on the size-based trends indicating an extremum near 33 nm. Uniform nano-crystals of ceria were synthesized by basic precipitation from cerium (III) nitrate. Size-control was achieved by adjusting mixing time and, for larger particles, a subsequent annealing temperature. The nano-crystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and standard ambient x-ray diffraction (XRD). Compressibility, or its reciprocal, bulk modulus, was measured with high-pressure XRD at LBL-ALS, using helium, neon, or argon as the pressure-transmitting medium for all samples. As crystallite size decreased below 100 nm, the bulk modulus first increased, and then decreased, achieving a maximum near a crystallite diameter of 33 nm. We review earlier work and examine several possible explanations for the peaking of bulk modulus at an intermediate crystallite size.

  3. SiN-SiC nanofilm: A nano-functional ceramic with bipolar magnetic semiconducting character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiahui; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-04-28

    Nowadays, functional ceramics have been largely explored for application in various fields. However, magnetic functional ceramics for spintronics remain little studied. Here, we propose a nano-functional ceramic of sphalerite SiN-SiC nanofilm with intrinsic ferromagnetic order. Based on first principles calculations, the SiN-SiC nanofilm is found to be a ferromagnetic semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.71 eV. By mean field theory, the Curie temperature is estimated to be 304 K, close to room temperature. Furthermore, the valence band and conduction band states of the nanofilm exhibit inverse spin-polarization around the Fermi level. Thus, the SiN-SiC nanofilm is a typical bipolar magnetic semiconductor in which completely spin-polarized currents with reversible spin polarization can be created and controlled by applying a gate voltage. Such a nano-functional ceramic provides a possible route for electrical manipulation of carrier's spin orientation.

  4. Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy | Department of Energy Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy

  5. Upcoming Webinar November 19: Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 19, the Energy Department will present a webinar on micro-structural mitigation strategies for PEM fuel cells focusing on morphological simulations and experimental approaches.

  6. High-energy physics detector MicroBooNE sees first accelerator-born

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    neutrinos MicroBooNE sees first accelerator-born neutrinos High-energy physics detector MicroBooNE sees first accelerator-born neutrinos The principal purpose of the detector is to confirm or deny the existence of a hypothetical particle known as the sterile neutrino. November 2, 2015 An accelerator-born neutrino candidate, spotted with the MicroBooNE detector. Image courtesy Fermilab. An accelerator-born neutrino candidate, spotted with the MicroBooNE detector. Image courtesy Fermilab.

  7. Linking the micro and macro: L-H transition dynamics and threshold...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dynamics and threshold physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linking the micro and macro: L-H transition dynamics and threshold physics The links between the ...

  8. MICROBOONE PHYSICS Ben Carls Fermilab MicroBooNE Physics Outline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PHYSICS Ben Carls Fermilab MicroBooNE Physics Outline * The detector and beam - MicroBooNE TPC - Booster and NuMI beams at Fermilab * Oscillation physics - Shed light on the MiniBooNE low energy excess * Low energy neutrino cross sections * Non-accelerator topics - Supernova neutrino detection - Proton decay backgrounds 2 B. Carls, Fermilab MicroBooNE Physics MicroBooNE Detector * 60 ton fiducial volume (of 170 tons total) liquid Argon TPC * TPC consists of 3 planes of wires; vertical Y, ±60°

  9. Micro-Earthquake At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  11. 14-07-09 MicroBooNE calibrations.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud disperse: Diffusion* * Charge loss due to impurities** * Signal on wires * Induction * Collection 090714 MicroBooNE Calibrations, T. Strauss 4 First we need to...

  12. MicroPlanet Technology Corp formerly HF Capital Corp | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Corp formerly HF Capital Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: MicroPlanet Technology Corp (formerly HF Capital Corp) Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98104 Sector:...

  13. X-ray micro-diffraction studies of heterogeneous interfaces between...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: X-ray micro-diffraction studies of heterogeneous interfaces between cementitious materials and geological formations Citation ...

  14. A.O. Smith: Demonstrate Underutilized Micro-CHP | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A.O. Smith: Demonstrate Underutilized Micro-CHP A.O. Smith: Demonstrate Underutilized Micro-CHP The energy advantage of micro-CHP compared to standard energy building usage. Based on primary source energy combined heat and power has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of energy used. The energy advantage of micro-CHP compared to standard energy building usage. Based on primary source energy combined heat and power has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of energy used.

  15. Understanding batteries on the micro- and nanometer scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-22

    In order to understand performance limitations and failure mechanisms of batteries, one has to investigate processes on the micro- and nanometer scale. A typical failure mechanism in lithium metal batteries is dendritic growth. During discharge, lithium is stripped of the anode surface and migrates to the cathode. During charge, lithium is deposited back on the anode. Repeated cycling can result in stripping and re-deposition that roughens the surface. The roughening of the surface changes the electric field and draws more metal to spikes that are beginning to grow. These can grow with tremendous mechanical force, puncture the separator, and directly connect the anode with the cathode which can create an internal short circuit. This can lead to an uncontrolled discharge reaction, which heats the cell and causes additional exothermic reactions leading to what is called thermal runaway. ORNL has developed a new technology called liquid electron microscopy. In a specially designed sample holder micro-chamber with electron-transparent windows, researchers can hold a liquid and take images of structures and particles at nanometer size. It's the first microscope holder of its kind used to investigate the inside of a battery while cycled.

  16. Understanding batteries on the micro- and nanometer scale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-03

    In order to understand performance limitations and failure mechanisms of batteries, one has to investigate processes on the micro- and nanometer scale. A typical failure mechanism in lithium metal batteries is dendritic growth. During discharge, lithium is stripped of the anode surface and migrates to the cathode. During charge, lithium is deposited back on the anode. Repeated cycling can result in stripping and re-deposition that roughens the surface. The roughening of the surface changes the electric field and draws more metal to spikes that are beginning to grow. These can grow with tremendous mechanical force, puncture the separator, and directly connect the anode with the cathode which can create an internal short circuit. This can lead to an uncontrolled discharge reaction, which heats the cell and causes additional exothermic reactions leading to what is called thermal runaway. ORNL has developed a new technology called liquid electron microscopy. In a specially designed sample holder micro-chamber with electron-transparent windows, researchers can hold a liquid and take images of structures and particles at nanometer size. It's the first microscope holder of its kind used to investigate the inside of a battery while cycled.

  17. The proposed Institute for Micro-manufacturing, Louisiana Tech University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) DOE/EA-0958, evaluating the construction and equipping of two components of the proposed Institute for Micro-manufacturing at Louisiana Tech University (LTU), a proposed R and D facility to be located in Ruston, LA. and, the proposed installation of a beamline for micro-machining applications at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) facility at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, LA. The objective of the proposed project is to focus on the applied, rather than basic research emphasizing the design and development, metrology, inspection and testing, and the assembly and production of micron and submicron structures and devices. Also, the objective of the beamline at CAMD would be the fundamental study of processing and analysis technologies, including x-ray lithography, which are important to microstructures fabrication and electronic device development. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  18. Nano Facts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a millimeter thick. If the pages were a nanometer thick, 125 copies of the text of this book could fit in the thickness of one page of the book as it really is. * Scientists at...

  19. Mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles by using WO{sub 3}/Zn/C powder mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoseinpur, Arman; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Marashi, Maryam Sadat

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nano particles of WC are synthesized by mechanochemical process. ? Zn was used to reduce WO{sub 3}. ? By removing ZnO from the milling products with an acid leaching, WC will be the final products. ? XRD results showed that the reduction reactions were completed after 36 h. ? TEM and SEM images showed that the morphology of produced powder is nearly spherical like. -- Abstract: In this research we introduce a new, facile, and economical system for fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) nano particle powder. In this system WO{sub 3}, Zn, and C have been ball-milled for several hours, which led to the synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles. The synthesized WC can successfully be separated from the ball-milled product by subjecting the product powder to diluted HCl for removing ZnO and obtaining WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the reduction of WO{sub 3} will be completed gradually by increasing milling time up to 36 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that after 36 h of milling the particle size of the fabricated powder is nano metric (about 20 nm). Results have shown that this system can surmount some main problems occurred in previous similar WC synthesizing systems. For example carbothermic reduction reactions, which lead to the synthesis of W{sub 2}C instead of WC, would not be activated because in this system reactions take place gradually.

  20. Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS Micro-XRF and Micro-XRD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L MacLean; S Beauchemin; P Rasmussen

    2011-12-31

    X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF), and micro-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) were used to determine the speciation of Pb in house dust samples from four Canadian urban homes having elevated Pb concentrations (>1000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). Linear combination fitting of the XAFS data, supported by {mu}XRF and {mu}XRD, shows that Pb is complexed in a variety of molecular environments, associated with both the inorganic and organic fractions of the dust samples. The inorganic species of lead identified were as follows: Pb metal, Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb oxide, and Pb adsorbed to iron oxyhydroxides. Pb carbonate and/or Pb hydroxyl carbonate occurred in all four dust samples and accounted for 28 to 75% of total Pb. Pb citrate and Pb bound to humate were the organic species identified. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of XAFS to identify Pb speciation in house dust and show the potential to identify Pb sources from new homes versus older homes. Understanding Pb speciation and how it influences bioaccessibility is important for human health risk assessment and risk management decisions which aim to improve indoor environmental health.

  1. Structure and band gap determination of irradiation-induced amorphous nano-channels in LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachan, R. Pakarinen, O. H.; Chisholm, M. F.; Liu, P.; Patel, M. K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Weber, W. J.

    2015-04-07

    The irradiation of lithium niobate with swift heavy ions results in the creation of amorphous nano-sized channels along the incident ion path. These nano-channels are on the order of a hundred microns in length and could be useful for photonic applications. However, there are two major challenges in these nano-channels characterization: (i) it is difficult to investigate the structural characteristics of these nano-channels due to their very long length and (ii) the analytical electron microscopic analysis of individual ion track is complicated due to electron beam sensitive nature of lithium niobate. Here, we report the first high resolution microscopic characterization of these amorphous nano-channels, widely known as ion-tracks, by direct imaging them at different depths in the material, and subsequently correlating the key characteristics with electronic energy loss of ions. Energetic Kr ions ({sup 84}Kr{sup 22} with 1.98?GeV energy) are used to irradiate single crystal lithium niobate with a fluence of 2 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}, which results in the formation of individual ion tracks with a penetration depth of ?180??m. Along the ion path, electron energy loss of the ions, which is responsible for creating the ion tracks, increases with depth under these conditions in LiNbO{sub 3}, resulting in increases in track diameter of a factor of ?2 with depth. This diameter increase with electronic energy loss is consistent with predictions of the inelastic thermal spike model. We also show a new method to measure the band gap in individual ion track by using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

  2. Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fink, Samuel D.; Fondeur, Fernando F.

    2011-10-18

    An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

  3. Airfoil-shaped micro-mixers for reducing fouling on membrane surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K; Altman, Susan J; Clem, Paul G; Hibbs, Michael; Cook, Adam W

    2012-10-23

    An array of airfoil-shaped micro-mixers that enhances fluid mixing within permeable membrane channels, such as used in reverse-osmosis filtration units, while minimizing additional pressure drop. The enhanced mixing reduces fouling of the membrane surfaces. The airfoil-shaped micro-mixer can also be coated with or comprised of biofouling-resistant (biocidal/germicidal) ingredients.

  4. Solvothermal synthesis of copper sulfide semiconductor micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Covellite copper sulfide (CuS) micro/nanometer crystals in the shape of hierarchical doughnut-shaped, superstructured spheric-shaped and flowerlike architectures congregated from those nanoplates with the thickness of 20-100 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. The as-obtained CuS products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic investigation has been carried out to understand the factors influencing the evolution of CuS particle morphology which found to be predominant by solvent, surfactant, sulfur resource and copper salt. The possible formation mechanism for the nanostructure formation was also discussed. These CuS products show potential applications in solar cell, photothermal conversion and chemical sensor.

  5. Hydrogen isotope MicroChemLab FY15.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David; Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a new method to measure the composition of gaseous mixtures of any two hydrogen isotopes, as well as an inert gas component. When tritium is one of those hydrogen isotopes, there is usually some helium present, because the tritium decays to form helium at a rate of about 1% every 2 months. The usual way of measuring composition of these mixtures involves mass spectrometry, which involves bulky, energy-intensive, expensive instruments, including vacuum pumps that can quite undesirably disperse tritium. Our approach uses calorimetry of a small quantity of hydrogen-absorbing material to determine gas composition without consuming or dispersing the analytes. Our work was a proof of principle using a rather large and slow benchtop calorimeter. Incorporation of microfabricated calorimeters, such as those that have been developed in Sandias MicroChemLab program or that are now commercially available, would allow for faster measurements and a smaller instrument footprint.

  6. Micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-11-09

    A micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules. The injector is used for collecting and delivering controlled amounts of charged molecule samples for subsequent analysis. The injector delivery system can be scaled to large numbers (>96) for sample delivery to massively parallel high throughput analysis systems. The essence of the injector system is an electric field controllable loading tip including a section of porous material. By applying the appropriate polarity bias potential to the injector tip, charged molecules will migrate into porous material, and by reversing the polarity bias potential the molecules are ejected or forced away from the tip. The invention has application for uptake of charged biological molecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids, polymers, etc.) for delivery to analytical systems, and can be used in automated sample delivery systems.

  7. Micro-cooler enhancements by barrier interface analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen, A.; Dunn, G. M.; Glover, J.; Oxley, C. H.; Bajo, M. Montes; Kuball, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Khalid, A.

    2014-02-15

    A novel gallium arsenide (GaAs) based micro-cooler design, previously analysed both experimentally and by an analytical Heat Transfer (HT) model, has been simulated using a self-consistent Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) model for a more in depth analysis of the thermionic cooling in the device. The best fit to the experimental data was found and was used in conjunction with the HT model to estimate the cooler-contact resistance. The cooling results from EMC indicated that the cooling power of the device is highly dependent on the charge distribution across the leading interface. Alteration of this charge distribution via interface extensions on the nanometre scale has shown to produce significant changes in cooler performance.

  8. Circuit model optimization of a nano split ring resonator dimer antenna operating in infrared spectral range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gneiding, N.; Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U.; Shamonina, E.

    2014-10-28

    Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.

  9. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

    2011-06-09

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  10. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

    2011-07-15

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  11. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  12. Low-temperature method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets and their nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2012-03-13

    A method of exfoliating a layered material to produce separated nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm. The method comprises: (a) providing a graphite intercalation compound comprising a layered graphite containing expandable species residing in an interlayer space of the layered graphite; (b) exposing the graphite intercalation compound to an exfoliation temperature lower than 650.degree. C. for a duration of time sufficient to at least partially exfoliate the layered graphite without incurring a significant level of oxidation; and (c) subjecting the at least partially exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce separated platelets. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

  13. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  14. Micro-scale mass-transfer variations during electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutija, D.P.

    1991-08-01

    Results of two studies on micro-scale mass-transfer enhancement are reported: (1) Profiled cross-sections of striated zinc surfaces deposited in laminar channel flow were analyzed with fast-fourier transforms (FFT) to determine preferred striation wavelengths. Striation frequency increases with current density until a minimum separation between striae of 150 {mu}m is reached. Beyond this point, independent of substrate used, striae meld together and form a relatively smooth, nodular deposit. Substrates equipped with artificial micron-sized protrusions result in significantly different macro-morphology in zinc deposits. Micro-patterned electrodes (MPE) with hemispherical protrusions 5 {mu}m in diameter yield thin zinc striae at current densities that ordinarily produce random nodular deposits. MPEs with artificial hemi-cylinders, 2.5 {mu}m in height and spaced 250 {mu}m apart, form striae with a period which matches the spacing of micron-sized ridges. (2) A novel, corrosion-resistant micromosaic electrode was fabricated on a silicon wafer. Measurements of mass-transport enhancement to a vertical micromosaic electrode caused by parallel bubble streams rising inside of the diffusion boundary-layer demonstrated the presence of two co-temporal enhancement mechanisms: surface-renewal increases the limiting current within five bubble diameters of the rising column, while bubble-induced laminar flows cause weaker enhancement over a much broader swath. The enhancement caused by bubble curtains is predicted accurately by linear superposition of single-column enhancements. Two columns of smaller H{sub 2} bubbles generated at the same volumetric rate as a single column of larger bubbles cause higher peak and far-field enhancements. 168 refs., 96 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} nano superconducting quantum interference devices implementing nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arpaia, R.; Arzeo, M.; Nawaz, S.; Charpentier, S.; Lombardi, F.; Bauch, T.

    2014-02-17

    We present results on ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7?} (YBCO) nano Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (nanoSQUIDs). To realize such devices, we implemented high quality YBCO nanowires, working as weak links between two electrodes. We observe critical current modulation as a function of an externally applied magnetic field in the full temperature range below the transition temperature T{sub C}. The white flux noise below 1??{sub 0}/?(Hz) at T=8?K makes our nanoSQUIDs very attractive for the detection of small spin systems.

  16. Boride-based nano-laminates with MAX-phase-like behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telle, Rainer . E-mail: telle@ghi.rwth-aachen.de; Momozawa, Ai; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-09-15

    MAX-phases being usually composed of transition metals, group A elements and carbon/nitrogen are considered interesting materials for many applications because of their tremendous bulk modulus, 'reversible' plasticity, and machinability. This is mainly due to their unique kind of bonding comprising covalent, ionic as well as metallic bonds providing 'easy' planes of rupture and deformability due to the layered crystal structures. In transition metal boride systems, similar types of bonding are available. In particular the W{sub 2}B{sub 5}-structure type and its stacking variations allow the synthesis of strongly layered crystal structures exhibiting unique delamination phenomena. The paper presents ab initio calculations showing the similarities of bonding between the ternary carbides and the corresponding ternary or quaternary borides. Formation of boride-based nano-laminates from auxiliary liquid phases, from the melt as well as during sintering and precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions will be discussed by means of SEM and TEM studies. The role of impurities weakening the interlayer bonding will be addressed in particular. The pronounced cleavage parallel to the basal plane gives rise for crack deflection and pull-out mechanisms if the laminates are dispersed in brittle matrices such as boron carbide, silicon carbide or other transition metal borides. - Graphical abstract: Some transition metal borides crystallise in a layered structure of alternating stacks of metal and boron atoms giving rise for strongly anisotropic properties. Their preferred cleavage parallel and the deformability perpendicular to the basal plan are similar to the peculiar mechanical behaviour recently described for MAX-phases. Ab initio calculations of the crystal structure prove the weak bonds between the layers for a variety of borides which can be used to reinforce ceramic materials on a nano-scale level.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of micro-orifices for diesel fuel injectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.; Woodford, J.; Wang, J.; El-Hannouny, E.; Schaefer, R.; Hamady, F.; National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Lab.

    2007-04-01

    Stringent emission standards are driving the development of diesel-fuel injection concepts to mitigate in-cylinder formation of particulates. While research has demonstrated significant reduction in particulate formation using micro-orifice technology, implementation requires development of industrial processes to fabricate micro-orifices with diameters as low as 50 gmm and with large length-to-diameter ratios. This paper reviews the different processes being pursued to fabricate micro-orifices and the advanced techniques applied to characterize the performance of micro-orifices. The latter include the use of phase-contrast x-ray imaging of electroless nickel-plated, micro-orifices and laser imaging of fuel sprays at elevated pressures. The experimental results demonstrate an industrially viable process to create small uniform orifices that improve spray formation for fuel injection.

  18. The effects of surface bond relaxation on electronic structure of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nano-films by first-principles calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C. Zhao, Y. F.; Fu, C. X.; Gong, Y. Y.; Chi, B. Q.; Sun, C. Q.

    2014-10-15

    The effects of vertical compressive stress on Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nano-films have been investigated by the first principles calculation, including stability, electronic structure, crystal structure, and bond order. It is found that the band gap of nano-film is sensitive to the stress in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nano-film and the critical thickness increases under compressive stress. The band gap and band order of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film has been affected collectively by the surface and internal crystal structures, the contraction ratio between surface bond length of nano-film and the corresponding bond length of bulk decides the band order of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film.

  19. Structural Study of SiC Nanoparticles Grown by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Laser Pyrolysis for Nano-structured Ceramics Elaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Portier, Xavier; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile

    2008-07-01

    Refractory carbide nano-structured ceramics as SiC constitute interesting materials for high temperature applications and particularly for fourth generation nuclear plants. To elaborate such nano-materials, weighable amounts of SiC nano-powders have to be synthesized first with an accurate control of the grain size and stoichiometry. The inductively coupled plasma and the laser pyrolysis techniques, respectively developed at EMPA Thun and CEA Saclay, allow meeting these requirements. Both techniques are able to produce dozens of grams per hour of silicon carbide nano-powders. The particle size can be adjusted down to around 20 nm for the plasma synthesis and even down to 5-10 nm for the laser pyrolysis. The stoichiometry Si/C can be tuned by the addition of methane into the plasma and acetylene for the laser process. (authors)

  20. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  1. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

    1994-11-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 4 figs.

  2. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

    1997-05-06

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 10 figs.

  3. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, Raoul (Ann Arbor, MI); Tan, Weihong (Ames, IA); Shi, Zhong-You (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor (50). An optical fiber micro-light source (50) is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors (22) in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material (60). This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source (50). Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material (60) enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  4. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, Raoul (Ann Arbor, MI); Tan, Weihong (Ann Arbor, MI); Shi, Zhong-You (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  5. Annual Site Environmental Report Paducah Site

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Paducah Site 2011 PAD-REG-1012 BACK TABLE OF CONTENTS FORWARD Fractions and Multiples of Units Multiple Decimal Equivalent Prefix Symbol Engineering Format 10 6 1,000,000 mega- M E+06 10 3 1,000 kilo- k E+03 10 2 100 hecto- h E+02 10 10 deka- da E+01 10 -1 0.1 deci- d E-01 10 -2 0.01 centi- c E-02 10 -3 0.001 milli- m E-03 10 -6 0.000001 micro- μ E-06 10 -9 0.000000001 nano- n E-09 10 -12 0.000000000001 pico- P E-12 10 -15 0.000000000000001 femto- F E-15 10 -18 0.000000000000000001 atto-

  6. Paducah Site Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Paducah Site Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012 Fractions and Multiples of Units Multiple Decimal Equivalent Prefix Symbol Engineering Format 10 6 1,000,000 mega- M E+06 10 3 1,000 kilo- k E+03 10 2 100 hecto- h E+02 10 10 deka- da E+01 10 -1 0.1 deci- d E-01 10 -2 0.01 centi- c E-02 10 -3 0.001 milli- m E-03 10 -6 0.000001 micro- μ E-06 10 -9 0.000000001 nano- n E-09 10 -12 0.000000000001 pico- P E-12 10 -15 0.000000000000001 femto- F E-15 10 -18 0.000000000000000001 atto-

  7. Phase lag deduced information in photo-thermal actuation for nano-mechanical systems characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bijster, R. J. F. Vreugd, J. de; Sadeghian, H.

    2014-08-18

    In photo-thermal actuation, heat is added locally to a micro-cantilever by means of a laser. A fraction of the irradiation is absorbed, yielding thermal stresses and deformations in the structure. Harmonic modulation of the laser power causes the cantilever to oscillate. Moreover, a phase lag is introduced which is very sensitive to the spot location and the cantilever properties. This phase lag is theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. Combined with thermo-mechanical properties of the cantilever and its geometry, the location of the laser spot, the thermal diffusivity, and the layer thicknesses of the cantilever can be extracted.

  8. Low temperature synthesis of diamond-based nano-carbon composite materials with high electron field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Yeh, C. J.; Leou, K. C.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-06-08

    A diamond-based nano-carbon composite (d/NCC) material, which contains needle-like diamond grains encased with the nano-graphite layers, was synthesized at low substrate temperature via a bias enhanced growth process using CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma. Such a unique granular structure renders the d/NCC material very conductive (??=?714.8?S/cm), along with superior electron field emission (EFE) properties (E{sub 0}?=?4.06?V/?m and J{sub e}?=?3.18?mA/cm{sup 2}) and long lifetime (??=?842?min at 2.41?mA/cm{sup 2}). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and EFE behavior of d/NCC material can be tuned in a wide range that is especially useful for different kind of applications.

  9. Three dimensional imaging and analysis of a single nano-device at the ultimate scale using correlative microscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenier, A.; Barnes, J. P.; Serra, R.; Audoit, G.; Cooper, D.; Duguay, S.; Rolland, N.; Blavette, D.; Vurpillot, F.; Morin, P.; Gouraud, P.

    2015-05-25

    The analysis of a same sample using nanometre or atomic-scale techniques is fundamental to fully understand device properties. This is especially true for the dopant distribution within last generation nano-transistors such as MOSFET or FINFETs. In this work, the spatial distribution of boron in a nano-transistor at the atomic scale has been investigated using a correlative approach combining electron and atom probe tomography. The distortions present in the reconstructed volume using atom probe tomography have been discussed by simulations of surface atoms using a cylindrical symmetry taking into account the evaporation fields. Electron tomography combined with correction of atomic density was used so that to correct image distortions observed in atom probe tomography reconstructions. These corrected atom probe tomography reconstructions then enable a detailed boron doping analysis of the device.

  10. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Chi, Li-Feng E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn Wang, Sui-Dong E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn

    2015-03-23

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process.

  11. Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Depth profiling for the amount of lattice damage using a Confocal Micro-Raman (CMR) spectrometer is demonstrated in this paper. Samples of n-type silicon carbide were implanted with 2 MeV He and O ions at both room temperature and 500 C, and fluences between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 17}

  12. ARM - Evaluation Product - MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsMicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) The MPLCOD VAP retrieves the column cloud visible optical depth using LIDAR derived backscatter from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized Backscatter) and

  13. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao Liu, Lin; Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-10

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10??m. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  14. Microsoft Word - MicroBooNE CD-3b appr.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3b Approve Start of Full Construction of the Micro Booster Neutrino Project at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Office of High Energy Physics Office of Science A. Purpose The purpose of this document is to record the review and approval by the Office of Science Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board-equivalent for Critical Decision (CD) 3b "Approve Start of Full Construction" for the Micro Booster Neutrino (MicroBooNE) Project at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

  15. Packaging Materials of the 21st Century: "Sustainable Nano-Materials - Benefits to the industry"

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Packaging Materials of the 21 st Century "Sustainable Nano-Marterials - Benefits to the industry" Phil Jones Imerys, & Co-Chair Nanocellulose Work Group Agenda 2020 June 26 2012 Packaging at Point of Sale Packaging Materials of the 21 st Century * Appearance * Low Cost * High Strength * Lighter weight * Sustainable materials W Europe & N America 15% population of world / 50% consumption world resources Demand in Asia accelerates: Commodity prices will explode Forest Based,

  16. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFD) For Fuel Assembly Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Michael Reichenberger; Phillip Ugorowski

    2013-09-01

    Neutron sensors capable of real-time measurement of thermal flux, fast flux, and temperature in a single miniaturized probe are needed in irradiation tests required to demonstrate the performance of candidate new fuels, and cladding materials. In-core ceramic-based miniature neutron detectors or Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) have been studied at Kansas State University (KSU). The first MPFD prototypes were tested in various neutron fields at the KSU TRIGA research reactor with successful results. Currently, a United States Department of Energy-sponsored joint KSU/Idaho National Laboratory (INL) effort is underway to develop a high-temperature, high-pressure version of the MPFD using radiation-resistant, high temperature materials, which would be capable of withstanding irradiation test conditions in high performance material and test reactors (MTRs). Ultimately, this more compact, more accurate, and longer lifetime flux sensor for critical mock-ups, existing and advanced reactor designs, high performance MTRs, and transient test reactors has the potential to lead to higher accuracy and resolution data from irradiation testing, more detailed core flux measurements and enhanced fuel assembly processing. Prior evaluations by KSU indicate that these sensors could also be used to monitor burn-up of nuclear fuel. If integrated into nuclear fuel assemblies, MPFDs offer several advantages to current spent fuel management systems.

  17. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael; Beilis, Isak

    2012-06-15

    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100-200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  18. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  19. Micro-miniature gas chromatograph column disposed in silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A micro-miniature gas chromatograph column is fabricated by forming matching halves of a circular cross-section spiral microcapillary in two silicon wafers and then bonding the two wafers together using visual or physical alignment methods. Heating wires are deposited on the outside surfaces of each wafer in a spiral or serpentine pattern large enough in area to cover the whole microcapillary area inside the joined wafers. The visual alignment method includes etching through an alignment window in one wafer and a precision-matching alignment target in the other wafer. The two wafers are then bonded together using the window and target. The physical alignment methods include etching through vertical alignment holes in both wafers and then using pins or posts through corresponding vertical alignment holes to force precision alignment during bonding. The pins or posts may be withdrawn after curing of the bond. Once the wafers are bonded together, a solid phase of very pure silicone is injected in a solution of very pure chloroform into one end of the microcapillary. The chloroform lowers the viscosity of the silicone enough that a high pressure hypodermic needle with a thumbscrew plunger can force the solution into the whole length of the spiral microcapillary. The chloroform is then evaporated out slowly to leave the silicone behind in a deposit.

  20. Effects of nano-SiO{sub 2} particles on surface tracking characteristics of silicone rubber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong Li, Zhonglei; Du, Boxue

    2014-09-08

    Compared with neat silicone rubber composites (SiRCs), SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles at weight ratios from 0.1 to 1.0?wt.?% exhibit a higher surface flashover voltage and a greater resistance to surface tracking. Scanning electron microscopy images of tracking morphologies indicate that the SiO{sub 2} particles are situated in close proximity to the polymeric chains and act as bridges to stabilize the chains and maintain the structure of the composite. Higher concentrations of nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, however, (above 0.3?wt.?%) produce defects in the molecular network which lead to reductions in both the surface flashover voltage and the resistance to surface tracking, although these reduced values are still superior to those of neat SiRCs. Therefore, SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, especially at an optimal weight ratio (0.1 to 0.3?wt.?%), may have significant potential applications as outdoor insulators for power systems.