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Sample records for mfg goodyear tire

  1. EERE Success Story-Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber ...

  2. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment (May 2008) More Documents & Publications Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: ...

  3. EERE Success Story-Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trucking Fleets | Department of Energy Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S. Trucking Fleets EERE Success Story-Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S. Trucking Fleets April 7, 2015 - 4:52pm Addthis This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear. This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. |

  4. Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S. Trucking Fleets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is demonstrating its award-winning self-inflating tires by testing the Air Maintenance Technology (AMT) on U.S. trucking fleets. Goodyear has received...

  5. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Now Assessment | Department of Energy Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment This case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saved approximately 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in their Union City, Tennessee, plant. PDF icon Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings

  6. Goodyear Speeding Up on Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Goodyear Speeding Up on Energy Savings Goodyear Speeding Up on Energy Savings March 8, 2010 - 11:12am Addthis The Goodyear Blimp flies over Goodyear's tire plant in Union City, Tenn. | Photo courtesy of Goodyear The Goodyear Blimp flies over Goodyear's tire plant in Union City, Tenn. | Photo courtesy of Goodyear Joshua DeLung The Goodyear tire plant in Union City, Tenn., is saving energy, which helps keep the plant's operating costs down. A Save Energy Now assessment from the U.S. Department of

  7. Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S. Trucking...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel economy 2-3 percent, this innovative technology will help save nearly 1.2 billion gallons of petroleum that experts estimate are wasted each year due to underinflated tires. ...

  8. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: New Tire Technology Pumps Up Fuel Savings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy New Tire Technology Pumps Up Fuel Savings 54.5 MPG and Beyond: New Tire Technology Pumps Up Fuel Savings December 12, 2012 - 10:30am Addthis This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear. This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital

  9. Goodyear, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goodyear, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.4353199, -112.3582135 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  10. Dainippon Screen Mfg Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mfg Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dainippon Screen Mfg Co Place: Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan Sector: Solar Product: Japan-based company engaged in the manufacture and sale of...

  11. EERE Energy Impacts: Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money on Gas, Improve Driving Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The self-regulating tire system that the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company has developed with funding from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) uses a new technology called Air Maintenance Technology (AMT) that automatically manages air pressure in tires, so you don't have to.

  12. Tuori Solar Energy Equipment Mfg Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tuori Solar Energy Equipment Mfg Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tuori Solar Energy Equipment Mfg Company Place: Baoding, Hebei Province, China Zip: 71000 Sector: Solar...

  13. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The steam system at the Union City plant is served by four dual fueled (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) boilers. The plant uses more than 400,000 MMBtu of natural gas and 4 million ...

  14. HPC4Mfg: Boosting American Competiveness in Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    through High Performance Computing | Department of Energy HPC4Mfg: Boosting American Competiveness in Clean Energy Manufacturing through High Performance Computing HPC4Mfg: Boosting American Competiveness in Clean Energy Manufacturing through High Performance Computing February 23, 2016 - 3:50pm Addthis Supercomputers like these at the Energy Department's national laboratories will play a key role in solving ‪‎manufacturing challenges and building clean ‪‎energy

  15. DOE High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) Program Seeks To

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fund New Proposals To Jumpstart Energy Technologies | Department of Energy High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) Program Seeks To Fund New Proposals To Jumpstart Energy Technologies DOE High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) Program Seeks To Fund New Proposals To Jumpstart Energy Technologies March 18, 2016 - 3:31pm Addthis News release from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, March 17 2016 LIVERMORE, Calif - A new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program

  16. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  17. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  18. Tire deflation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  19. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  20. Scrap tires: a resource and technology evaluation of tire pyrolysis and other selected alternate technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.; Domenico, W.F.; Evans, D.R.; Fish, L.W.; Lassahn, P.L.; Toth, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    The results of a technical and economic evaluation of scrap tire pyrolysis are presented and some other alternative uses for scrap tires are discussed. A scrap tire, by definition in this report, is one for which there is no economic end use. Information is presented on the scrap tire resource, pyrolysis processes, pyrolysis products (char, oil, and gas), markets for these products, and the economics of tire pyrolysis. A discussion is presented on alternative ideas for using scrap tires as an energy resource.

  1. Google.org Invests $10 Million in Enhanced Geothermal Systems | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Goodyear Speeding Up on Energy Savings Goodyear Speeding Up on Energy Savings March 8, 2010 - 11:12am Addthis The Goodyear Blimp flies over Goodyear's tire plant in Union City, Tenn. | Photo courtesy of Goodyear The Goodyear Blimp flies over Goodyear's tire plant in Union City, Tenn. | Photo courtesy of Goodyear Joshua DeLung The Goodyear tire plant in Union City, Tenn., is saving energy, which helps keep the plant's operating costs down. A Save Energy Now assessment from the U.S. Department of

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Goodyear at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a system for automatically...

  3. New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by More Than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by More Than 5% New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by More Than 5% Cooper Tire recently developed concept tires that can improve fuel efficiency by 5.5%,...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Rolling Resistance Tires

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Rolling Resistance Tires to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Rolling Resistance Tires on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Rolling Resistance Tires on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Rolling Resistance Tires on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Rolling Resistance Tires on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Rolling Resistance Tires on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  5. Tire with outer groove containing bonded tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welter, Carolin Anna; Chandra, Dinesh; Benedict, Robert Leon

    2016-02-16

    The invention relates generally to a pneumatic rubber tire which contains an outer, annular, circular groove which contains a flexible tube bonded to the walls of the groove.

  6. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  7. Scrap tire utilization via surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

  8. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  9. Scrap tire pyrolysis: Experiment and modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napoli, A.; Soudais, Y.; Lecomte, D.; Castillo, S.

    1997-12-01

    Pyrolysis of waste, usually organic solids like tires, plastics or composite materials, is an alternative thermal waste treatment technology. Three main physical and chemical mechanisms - i.e.: chemical kinetics, internal heat transfer and external heat transfer - have to be considered when modelling the degradation of solid waste particles. Because of the lack of physical properties for wastes most of the models described in the literature use basic data obtained on the pyrolysis of coal, wood and biomass. In this work, the authors report basic information on the thermal degradation of tire samples at small scale: Thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), as well as direct and indirect measurements of thermal and physical properties (thermal conductivity of the tire and of the char, porosity, density, specific heat). Pyrolysis experiments on tire samples are performed in an imaging furnace. The experimental results are compared to theoretical values deduced from models that take into account physical property measurements.

  10. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To develop a new class of tires in the replacement market that improves fuel efficiency by a minimum of 3% and reduces overall tire weight by 20%. This presentation does...

  11. Tire gassification and combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, D.; Towne, G.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a system for disposing of a material such as vehicle tires and similar substantially organic matter and generating useful heat therefrom. It comprises gasification means for holding an amount of the material to be disposed while the material is allowed to partially combust and for containing combustible gas produced thereby, the gasification means comprising a substantially air tight gasification chamber having at least one access way for inserting the material therein; inlet means for receiving a controlled amount of oxygen containing gas into the gasification means, the inlet means comprising a tuyere disposed in the air tight gasification chamber and a blower connected to the tuyere; removal means for removing the combustible gas from the gasification means, the removal means comprising a gas outlet located above the tuyere in the gasification chamber such that substantially amounts of the combustible gases produced by the partially combusted material exits through the gas outlet; primary combustion means for receiving and mixing the combustible gas removed from the gasification means with an oxygen containing gas and burning the combustible gas; and means for directing the combustion products to a heat utilizing device.

  12. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  13. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  14. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because of lack of progress by the CRADA members, the agreement was not extended beyond February 2004. The work completed included the detailed design of the mobile unit, a general economic analysis of the operating the system, and outreach activities.

  15. An unresolved riddle: Tire chips, two roadbeds, and spontaneous reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, D.E.B.; Green, W.P.

    1997-12-31

    Experience with road fills in Washington State constructed with thick layers of tire chips spontaneously burning has led to a decrease in tire chip use nationally. The field measurements and samples taken indicate that a pyrolitic reaction occurred at two roadfill sites in Washington State based on a comparison to know pyrolytic reactions in controlled settings. Pyrolysis in roadbeds containing tire chips is a new phenomena previously only found in open piles of processed tire chips. Because water and nutrients were introduced, iron oxidation, microbial digestion, and chemical oxidation are possible factors contributing to the pyrolytic reactions at the two Washington State sites. A new heat ignition theory from Japanese experiments suggests a theoretical answer to practical design depth limits in roadbeds and tire chip piles may be climate (air temperature) and depth dependent.

  16. Reprocessing of used tires into activated carbon and other products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, H.; Serio, M.A.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Bassilakis, R.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    Landfilling used tires which are generated each year in the US is increasingly becoming an unacceptable solution. A better approach, from an environmental and economic standpoint, is to thermally reprocess the tires into valuable products such as activated carbon, other solid carbon forms (carbon black, graphite, and carbon fibers), and liquid fuels. In this study, high surface area activated carbons (> 800 m{sup 2}/g solid product) were produced in relatively high yields by pyrolysis of tires at up to 900 C, followed by activation in CO{sub 2} at the same temperature. The surface areas of these materials are comparable with those of commercial activated carbons. The efficiency of the activation process (gain in specific surface area/loss in mass) was greatest (up to 138 m{sup 2}/g original tire) when large pieces of tire material were used ({approximately} 170 mg). Oxygen pretreatment of tires was found to enhance both the yield and the surface area of the carbon product. High-pressure treatment of tires at low temperatures (< 400 C) is an alternative approach if the recovery of carbon black or fuel oils is the primary objective.

  17. Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Mei, J.S.; Notestein, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal is reviewed on the basis of (1) environmental acceptability, (2) conservation of resources, (3) impact on existing industries, (4) operational feasibility, and (5) special features. The focus of this report is the fluidized-bed incineration of scrap tires for thermal energy recovery. The factors that affect scrap tire combustion are discussed in Section 4.0. These factors are (1) agitation, (2) temperature, (3) excess air, (4) residence time, (5) feed uniformity, (6) solid waste handling, and (7) pollutants emission control. In reviewing these incineration processes, (1) fuel flexibility, (2) environmental acceptability, (3) combustion efficiency, and (4) operational reliability are discussed. The results from a tire incineration experiment conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center are presented in Section 5.0, and a conceptual fluidized-bed combustor is discussed in Section 6.0. Future considerations in the FBC of scrap tires are discussed in Section 7.0. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    replacement of carbon black andor silica with nano-fiber materials 2) Ultra-light ... 2 nd tire program to further evaluate production process issues and to evaluate film ...

  19. Firm eyes savings from tires-to-fuel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1983-01-31

    A $600,000 pyrolysis system to convert tire scraps into methane will eliminate a tire retreading company's landfill and boiler fuel costs and achieve a five-year payback. The process also yields steel belts, fibers, and carbon black byproducts that can be sold for additional revenue. Heat from the hot exhaust gases will be recycled to the combustion chamber. A 10% federal energy tax credit and a 10% investment tax credit lowered the capital costs for $480,000. (DCK)

  20. Recovery of commercially valuable products from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, C.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for producing carbon black by vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires, which comprises pyrolysing used rubber tire material at a temperature in the range of about 490 C to about 510 C under an absolute pressure of less than about 5 kPa, and recovering a solid carbonaceous material containing carbon black having an iodine adsorption number of about 130 to about 150 mg/g.

  1. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  2. 56th and Walnut: A Philly Gut Rehab Development, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy 4.5 MPG and Beyond: New Tire Technology Pumps Up Fuel Savings 54.5 MPG and Beyond: New Tire Technology Pumps Up Fuel Savings December 12, 2012 - 10:30am Addthis This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear. This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka

  3. Legacy Fleet Improvements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    package, barrier film liner, and low hysteresis tire profile - Goodyear * Developed design process and prototype manufacturing method, proved pumping theory, refined material...

  4. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground rubber, which is used for sports surfacing, asphalt, playgrounds, and other molded ... U.S. Scrap Tire Uses, 2009 Market Tons (Thousands) Tire-derived Fuel 2,084.8 Ground Rubber ...

  5. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are Recycled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There were 263 million tires scrapped in 2009 (latest available data) which amounts to more than 4.7 million tons of waste. Fortunately, 84% of that waste was recycled. Most of the recycled tires...

  6. Passive tire pressure sensor and method (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Passive tire pressure sensor and method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Passive tire pressure sensor and method A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave

  7. Disposal techniques with energy recovery for scrapped vehicle tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sladek, T.A.; Demos, E.K.

    1987-06-01

    The scrap tire disposal problem is serious and widespread. However there are a number of promising management options, especially using the rubber as a supplemental fuel for existing combustors. The most cost-effective approach to dealing with Denver's tire stockpile appears to be shredding to a coarse size range, storing the shreds in a secure area, and marketing the rubber to nearby cement kilns, lime kilns, and boilers. This interim step would greatly reduce the volume of the pile, facilitate the Superfund evaluation, reduce fire and disease hazards, and simplify subsequent materials handling. Further processing to obtain rubber chips or crumbs may also be practical. However the industry and the markets would have to emerge over time. New power plants or pyrolysis facilities would be impeded by the low energy prices in Denver and the need for elaborate pollution controls. Landfilling could be considered as a last resort. Landfilling costs would be minimized if the tires are shredded. Chapter 2 discusses the tire disposal problem and the general options for tire management. Chapter 3 describes the methodology used to analyze Denver's situation and presents the results and conclusions obtained. This includes evaluation of strategies to implement the more promising resource recovery options in the Denver area. Chapter 4 summarizes the lessons learned and identifies impediments and uncertainties that need to be addressed in any future studies. The Appendix contains additional acknowledgments, a list of references, definitions for the acronyms and units used in the text, the agenda for the tire workshop, and a brief description of a stockpile fire near Denver in June 1987. 111 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Ji, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Coal liquefaction is highly dependent upon the type of coal liquefaction solvent used. The solvent must readily solubilize the coal and must act as an effective hydrogen donor or shuttler. Oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires has recently been used as a coal solvent with good conversion of coal to liquids in a hydrogen atmosphere. All experiments were completed in shaken tubing reactors at 450{degrees}C utilizing a bituminous coal. Results show the effectiveness of the pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal liquefaction solvent depends upon hydrogen pressure. Electron probe microanalysis data reveal good dispersion of the molybdenum catalyst in coal particles taken from liquefaction experiments.

  9. Combustion and inorganic emissions of ground waste tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Steciak, J.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristics and emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} gases from ground waste tires. Results were contrasted with those obtained from burning pulverized coal. Laboratory bench-scale experiments were conducted in a drop-tube, laminar-flow furnace, in air at fuel-lean conditions, at gas temperatures ranging from 1300 K to 1600 K. Two particle size cuts were burned from both materials, 75-90 {mu}m and 180-212 {mu}m. Blends of coal and tire particles, at equal weight ratios, were also burned. Pyrometric and cinematographic observations revealed that the coal particles exhibited distinct volatile and char combustion phases, while tire particles exhibited a distinct primary volatile phase followed by a char combustion phase, which was accompanied by burning of secondary pyrolysis products. SO{sub 2} emissions of burning ground tires increased from 160 to 500 ppm as the temperature increased from 1300 K to 1600 K. Combustion of coal produced SO{sub 2} emissions in the neighborhood of 200-300 ppm (corresponding to 40 to 60 wt% of its sulfur content) independent of the gas temperature. The blend of coal and tire particles (equal mass ratios) exhibited SO{sub 2} values which fell in between the above. NO{sub x} emissions were constant at approximately 175 ppm for tire crumb (corresponding to approximately 45 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) and 625 ppm for coal (corresponding to 55 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) in the temperature range studied. CO{sub 2} emissions from tire were 8-9 molar %, while for coal particles they were 5-7 molar %; the upper limits corresponded to approximately 100% combustion efficiency. As a means to reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions, pulverized coal and tire crumb were fluidized together with particles of a calcium bearing sorbent - calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA has been identified as an effective SO{sub 2} scrubbing agent in previous studies.

  10. EERE Success Story-New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Than 5% | Department of Energy New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by More Than 5% EERE Success Story-New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by More Than 5% January 15, 2016 - 10:17am Addthis EERE Success Story—New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by More Than 5% EERE Success Story—New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by More Than 5% EERE Success Story-New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency by More Than 5% EERE

  11. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  12. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the replacement market that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Coopers CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  13. Method for recycling tires and similarly compounded materials to recover usable constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letsch, W.

    1980-12-23

    A processing plant and method are described for processing scrap tires and similar materials containing a mixture of technical rubber, scrap metal and tire cord in which the plant is essentially vehicular and thus eliminates the necessity of hauling accumulated tires long distances with the accompanying costs. The plant includes means for directing mixed tire sizes to a cyrogenic section where the technical rubber is reduced to a sufficient temperature making it brittle so that initial separation of reusable technical rubber is accomplished; the plant is operated essentially on the reusable by-products of pyrolytic reduction of the tires so that hydrocarbons and heated gas are utilized and additional commercial by-products such as commercial soots, metal and tire beads are obtained.

  14. Numerical model for the vacuum pyrolysis of scrap tires in batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Tanguy, P.A.; Roy, C.

    1995-06-01

    A quantitative model for scrap tire pyrolysis in a batch scale reactor developed comprises the following basic phenomena: conduction inside tire particles; conduction, convection, and radiation between the feedstock particles or between the fluids and the particles; tire pyrolysis reaction; exothermicity and endothermicity caused by tire decomposition and volatilization; and the variation of the composition and the thermal properties of tire particles. This model was used to predict the transient temperature and density distributions in the bed of particles, the volatile product evolution rate, the mass change, the energy consumption during the pyrolysis process, and the pressure history in a tire pyrolysis reactor with a load of 1 kg. The model predictions agree well with independent experimental data.

  15. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  16. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N.

    1998-09-01

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  17. Characterization of chars from coal-tire copyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Murillo, R.; Alvarez, R.; Clemente, C.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of the solid conversion product from coal-tire copyrolysis because, nowadays, any new process should be faced without resolving the problem of the subproducts generated. A low-rank coal and a nonspecific mixture of scrap automotive tires, 50/50 w/w, have been coprocessed at 400 C for 30 min at different H{sub 2} pressures and atmospheres. Once the most valuable conversion products, the liquids, were recovered by tetrahydrofuran extraction, a complementary battery of analytical techniques was applied to characterize the solids or chars, looking for their possible use. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, immediate and ultimate analyses, ASA, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were performed on them. By X-ray diffractometry the presence of sphalerite, pyrrhotite, and anhydrite was detected. Thermogravimetric studies demonstrated that the combustion induction temperature is 400 C. Char combustion tests at 900 C with discussion of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions are included. Mineral matter behaves as if only coal is processed with the Zn exception, from ZnO in the tire, which is converted into ZnS. It is shown that the char organic component has a higher aromaticity than the one from coal.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by PPG during the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on a system for automatically maintaining tire pressure in commercial truck tires.

  19. A Materials Approach to Fuel-Efficient Tires | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vss084_okel_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: A Materials Approach to Fuel-Efficient Tires Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Bus and Truck Radial Materials for Fuel Efficiency Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight

  20. Pyrolysis of scrap tires: Can it be profitable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtowicz, M.A.; Serio, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis--the thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen--is one way to reprocess scrap tires. The products are fuel gas, oils, and a solid residue (char), which contains appreciable quantities of mineral matter and low-grade carbon black. The three products have comparable yields by weight. The two most important factors affecting process economics are the tipping fees charged for tire disposal and the selling prices of the products. Selling prices of the products yield low returns because of the low market value of the fuels and the low quality of the recovered char or carbon black. Therefore, to obtain a positive cash flow, it would be desirable to develop a process based on the recovery of value-added products such as high-grade carbon black, activated carbon, or valuable chemicals (e.g., benzene, toluene, and xylene). The authors believe that significant improvement in the economics can be accomplished by upgrading the primary pyrolysis products to secondary products of higher value.

  1. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High Value Scrap Tire Recycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Value Scrap Tire Recycle The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact. Authors: Bauman, B. D. Publication Date: 2003-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 895571 Report Number(s): DOE/CE/41035-1-FINAL

  2. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  3. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Yanlong; Ji, Qin; Anderson, L.L.; Eyring, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    Recent interest in coprocessing coal with hydrogen rich waste materials in order to produce liquid transportation fuels has given rise to interesting twists on standard coal liquefaction. In general, coprocessing coal with a waste material has been approached with the idea that the waste material would be mixed with the coal under liquefaction conditions with little or no preliminary processing of the waste material other than shredding into smaller size particles. Mixing the waste material with the coal would occur in the primary stage of liquefaction. The primary stage would accomplish the dissolution of the coal and breakdown of the waste material. The products would then be introduced into the secondary stage where upgrading of product would occur. This paper describes the usefulness of oil derived from pyrolysis of waste rubber tires as a reactant in coal coprocessing or coal liquefaction.

  4. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  5. Optimization of scrap tire pyrolysis using a continuous-feed steam environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, T.W.; Frank, S.R.; Rich, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Estimates of the generation of scrap tires produced in the United States are on the order of 2 million tons per year. Although these tires contain a high percentage of useful hydrocarbons, steel and carbon black, approximately 70% are not effectively recycled. Recently, pyrolytic recycling of scrap tire (thermal decomposition in the absence of O{sub 2}) is receiving renewed interest because of its ability to produce valuable hydrocarbon products. We have developed a process which permits a continuous feed processing of scrap tires in a non-combustible stream environment. This system utilizes a soft seal system that operates at atmospheric pressures while minimizing any fugitive emissions. This process increases the efficiency and control of present approaches by lowering the energy requirements while maximizing the collection of valuable products. Initial bench-scale results will be presented.

  6. Pyrolysis of scrap tires and conversion of chars to activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, A.A.; Petrich, M.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the conversion of scrap tires to activated carbon. The authors have been successful in this endeavor, producing carbons with surface areas greater than 500 m[sup 2]/g and significant micropore volumes. Tire shreddings were pyrolyzed in batch reactors, and the pyrolysis chars activated by reaction with superheated steam. Solid products of pyrolysis and activation were studied with nitrogen adsorption techniques. They find that the porosity development during steam activation of tire pyrolysis char is similar to that reported for various other chars. A maximum in micropore volume is observed as a function of conversion, but the total surface area increases monotonically with conversion. They suggest that the activation process consists of micropore formation, followed by pore enlargement. The process conditions used in this study are a good starting point from which to optimize a process to convert tires to activated carbon.

  7. Formation of dl-limonene in used tire vacuum pyrolysis oils. [dipentene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakdel, H.; Roy, C.; Aubin, H.; Jean, G. ); Coulombe, S. )

    1991-09-01

    Tire recycling has become an important environmental issue recently due to the huge piles of tires that threaten the environment. Thermal decomposition of tire, a synthetic rubber material, enables the recovery of carbon black and liquid hydrocarbon oils. Both have potential economic values. Pyrolysis oils obtained under vacuum conditions contain a significant portion of a volatile, naptha-like fraction with an octane number similar to petroleum naphtha fraction, in addition, contains approximately 15% limonene. Potential applications of vacuum pyrolysis oil and carbon black have been investigated. However, the process economics is greatly influenced by the quality of the oil and carbon black products. This paper discusses limonene formation during used tire vacuum pyrolysis and its postulated reaction mechanism. The limonene separation method from pyrolysis oil, as well as its purification in laboratory scale, and structural characterization are discussed. Large-scale limonene separation and purification is under investigation.

  8. EERE Energy Impacts: Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    All of this happens without any action by the driver. Maintaining proper tire pressure is one of the most important-but often overlooked-maintenance tasks for vehicle owners. It's ...

  9. Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently conducted a study that measured the effect of tire pressure on fuel economy at speeds ranging from 40 to 80 miles per hour. The figure below...

  10. Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tire rubbers. 1: Using DTG and TGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Park, J.K.; Chun, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Tire pyrolysis kinetics was investigated to explore an economically viable design for the pyrolysis process. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were found to provide valuable information on pyrolysis kinetics and mechanisms of a heterogeneous compound like scrap tire rubbers. Kinetic parameters of each compositional compound were obtained by analyzing DTG and TGA results with a series of mathematical methods proposed in this study. The pyrolysis kinetics of the scrap tire rubbers tested was well accounted for by the first-order irreversible independent reactions of three compositional compounds. The sidewall and tread rubber exhibited different thermal degradation patterns, suggesting a compositional difference between them. Isothermal pyrolysis results showed that the sidewall rubber would hardly be degraded at low temperature regions (<600 K), whereas it would be more rapidly degraded than the tread rubber at higher temperatures ({>=}746 K). Because of the shorter pyrolysis time, the higher isothermal pyrolysis temperature appeared to be more economically favorable.

  11. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  12. Extraction and identification of fillers and pigments from pyrolyzed rubber and tire samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Zimmerman, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Rubber stocks, specially tires, are composed of natural rubber and synthetic polymers and also of several compounding ingredients, such as carbon black, silica, zinc oxide etc. These are generally mixed and vulcanized with additional curing agents, mainly organic in nature, to achieve certain {open_quotes}designing properties{close_quotes} including wear, traction, rolling resistance and handling of tires. Considerable importance is, therefore, attached both by the manufacturers and their competitors to be able to extract, identify and characterize various types of fillers and pigments. Several analytical procedures have been in use to extract, preferentially, these fillers and pigments and subsequently identify and characterize them under a transmission electron microscope.

  13. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K; Bi,; Saha, Dipendu; Chi, Miaofang; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  14. Wave transmission and mooring-force characteristics of pipe-tire floating breakwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, Volker W.; Westerink, Joannes J.

    1980-10-01

    The results are presented of a series of prototype scale tests of a floating breakwater that incorporates massive cylindrical members (steel or concrete pipes, telephone poles, etc.) in a matrix of scrap truck or automobile tires, referred to as the Pipe-Tire Breakwater (PT-Breakwater). Tests were conducted in the large wave tank at the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC). Breakwater modules were preassembled at SUNY in Buffalo, New York, and then transported to CERC by truck, where final assembly on location was again performed by SUNY personnel. Wave-tank tests were conducted jointly by CERC and SUNY personnel. A series of wave-tank experiments and mooring system load-deflection tests were performed, and are described. Wave-transmission and mooring-load characteristics, based on 402 separate tests, were established and are reported. (LCL)

  15. Thermal plasma pyrolysis of used old tires for production of syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.S.; Gu, B.W.; Looy, P.C.; Chu, F.Y.; Simpson, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    Thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires for the production of syngaswas investigated experimentally and the following conclusions wereobtained: 1. A series of experiments have shown that tire waste can bepyrolyzed in a plasma reactor to produce combustible gas, such asC{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO. The combustion heat value of the produced gas is about 4-7 MJ/m{sup 3}, which is higher than that of blast furnace gas and reforming gas from coals. 2. Zinc oxidecan be captured during pyrolysis by both high temperature filters andlow temperature filters in the quenching chamber. The pollution gases,such as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, are at relatively low levels, about 100-300ppm. 3. Increasing the tire injection quantity will increase theconcentration of hydrocarbons, increase the combustion heat of thepyrolysis product, and decrease the concentration of metal oxide. Withsteam injection, it produced a large quantity of hydrogen and carbonmonoxide with lower concentrations of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The combustion heatis slightly lower with steam injection than that without it. 4. Neitherpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) nor p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) weredetected in the ashes. 8 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  17. Waste tire derived carbon-polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode with long cycle life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boota, M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K.; Gogotsi, Yury; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2/g–1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as supercapacitor electrode. The narrow pore size distribution (PSD) and high surface area led to a good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI/TC). The composite film was highly flexible, conductive and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F/g–1 at 1 mV/s–1 with excellent capacitance retention up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life weremore » ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon via - interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. Here, we anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials with low-cost TC to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life, a key challenge for redox active polymers.« less

  18. Pyrolysis of tire rubber: Porosity and adsorption characteristics of the pyrolytic chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel, G.S.; Fowler, G.D.; Sollars, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    Tire rubber has been pyrolyzed at various temperatures under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting chars have been analyzed for their porosity using nitrogen gas adsorption and for their aqueous adsorption characteristics using phenol, methylene blue, and the reactive dyes Procion Turquoise H-A and Procion Red H-E3B. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were modeled to the BET and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equations to determine effective surface areas, mesopore volumes, and micropore volumes. Results showed that pyrolysis of tire rubber was essentially complete at 500 C and resulted in a char yield of approximately 42 wt%. Pyrolytic chars exhibited BET surface areas up to 85 m{sup 2}/g and micropore volumes up to 0.04 mL/g. Owing to their poorly developed micropore structure, the pyrolytic chars exhibited limited aqueous adsorption capacity for compounds of small molecular weight, such as phenol. However, the chars possessed significantly greater adsorption capacity for species of large molecular weight which was attributed to the presence of large mesopore volumes (up to 0.19 mL/g).

  19. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  20. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  1. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. TEM study of PM2.5 emitted from coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reto Giere; Mark Blackford; Katherine Smith

    2006-10-15

    The research presented here was conducted within the scope of an experiment investigating technical feasibility and environmental impacts of tire combustion in a coal-fired power station. Previous work has shown that combustion of a coal + tire blend rather than pure coal increased bulk emissions of various elements (e.g., Zn, As, Sb, Pb). The aim of this study is to characterize the chemical and structural properties of emitted single particles with dimensions <2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5). This transmission electron microscope (TEM)-based study revealed that, in addition to phases typical of coal fly ash (e.g., aluminum-silicate glass, mullite), the emitted PM2.5 contains amorphous selenium particles and three types of crystalline metal sulfates never reported before from stack emissions. Anglesite, PbSO{sub 4}, is ubiquitous in the PM2.5 derived from both fuels and contains nearly all Pb present in the PM. Gunningite, ZnSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O, is the main host for Zn and only occurs in the PM derived from the coal + tire blend, whereas yavapaiite, KFe{sup 3+}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is present only when pure coal was combusted. It is concluded that these metal sulfates precipitated from the flue gas may be globally abundant aerosols and have, through hydration or dissolution, a major environmental and health impact. 66 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump, Operable Unit 2, Winchester, VA. (Second remedial action), September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-29

    The Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump site is located in a 22-acre drainage area of a sparsely populated rural area in western Frederick County, Virginia. Surface water runoff flows into a north-south tributary that discharges to Hogue Creek, which is 4,000 feet downstream. Bedrock is noted to be highly fractured, and the ground water flow in the overburden aquifer is toward Massey Run. From 1972 to 1983, the site owner conducted a tire disposal operation, which consisted of transporting discarded tires from various locations and storing them on a 5-acre wooded slope behind his home. An estimated 5 to 7 million tires that had been accumulated caught on fire in October 1983 and burned until July 1984. As a result of the fire, a free-flowing oily-tar, which contained anthracene, benzene, cadmium, chromium, ethylbenzene, napthalene, nickel, pyrene, toluene, and zinc, began to seep out of the tire pile into Massey Run and on to Hogue Creek.

  4. Health assessment for Rhinehart (Aka Winchester) Tire Fire National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Frederick County, Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. VAD980831796. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-17

    The Rhinehart (aka Winchester) Tire Fire Site is located near the town of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia. In October 1983, a fire was started in the tires disposed of on the site. Hot oil was released from the melting and pyrolysis of the tires. This oil made its way to Massey Run, a nearby surface water body. The fire was brought under control within a few days, but continued to smolder for six months. The migration of the oil and the residue from the fire have contaminated the site. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. Human exposure to heavy metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds may occur via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption of contaminated groundwater, surface water, sediments and soils.

  5. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  6. Final report on reliability and lifetime prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Wise, Jonathan; Jones, Gary D.; Causa, Al G.; Terrill, Edward R.; Borowczak, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This document highlights the important results obtained from the subtask of the Goodyear CRADA devoted to better understanding reliability of tires and to developing better lifetime prediction methods. The overall objective was to establish the chemical and physical basis for the degradation of tires using standard as well as unique models and experimental techniques. Of particular interest was the potential application of our unique modulus profiling apparatus for assessing tire properties and for following tire degradation. During the course of this complex investigation, extensive relevant information was generated, including experimental results, data analyses and development of models and instruments. Detailed descriptions of the findings are included in this report.

  7. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  8. Mfg & Tech Services | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these challenges. It is through the National Prototype Center (PDF), Oak Ridge Metrology Center, and Development Laboratory that Y-12 can exercise its demonstrated...

  9. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-SLR-MFG-1366

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 TECHNOLOGIES Using new, proprietary manufacturing processes, 1366 Technologies aims to produce higher-quality, lower-cost silicon wafers for solar cells. INVESTING in AMERICAN ENERGY OWNER 1366 Technologies, Inc. LOCATION Bedford, Massachusetts LOAN AMOUNT $150 Million ISSUANCE DATE August 2011 GENERATION CAPACITY 1,000 MW PROJECTED ANNUAL GENERATION 1,927,000 MWh CLIMATE BENEFIT 1,100,000 Metric Tons of CO 2 Prevented Annually

  10. HPC4Mfg: Boosting American Competiveness in Clean Energy Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... that is by accelerating clean energy innovations and energy-efficient solutions into our ... It's clear that solving our climate and energy challenges will require technological ...

  11. DOE High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DOE's national labs to use the labs' high-performance computing (HPC) systems to upgrade their manufacturing processes and bring new clean energy technologies to market. ...

  12. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-SLR-MFG-1366

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using new, proprietary manufacturing processes, 1366 Technologies aims to produce higher-quality, lower-cost silicon wafers for solar cells. INVESTING in AMERICAN ENERGY OWNER 1366 ...

  13. Acetylene from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste tires or coal in the H{sub 2}/Ar plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, W.; Cao, Q.; Lv, Y.; Chang, L.

    2008-07-01

    Acetylene from carbon-containing materials via plasma pyrolysis is not only simple but also environmentally friendly. In this article, the acetylene produced from co-pyrolyzing biomass with waste tire or coal under the conditions of H{sub 2}/Ar DC arc plasma jet was investigated. The experimental results showed that the co-pyrolysis of mixture with biomass and waste tire or coal can improve largely the acetylene relative volume fraction (RVF) in gaseous products and the corresponding yield of acetylene. The change trends for the acetylene yield of plasma pyrolysis from mixture with raw sample properties were the same as relevant RVF. But the yield change trend with feeding rate is different from its RVF. The effects of the feeding rate of raw materials and the electric current of plasmatron on acetylene formation are also discussed.

  14. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  15. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  16. Kicking the Tires | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been doing and would like to do on superconducting radiofrequency cavities, on electron guns and on cryogenic engineering for the ILC. The team also provided a tour, which was...

  17. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  18. CX-003003: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Arizona-City-GoodyearCX(s) Applied: A9, B2.5, B5.1Date: 07/09/2010Location(s): Goodyear, ArizonaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  19. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss083donley2012o.pdf More Documents &...

  20. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss083donley2013o%20.pdf More Documents &...

  1. General Davis kicks the tires on a Safeguards Transporter | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Oct 6, 2015 at 8:00 am Blog archive April 2016 (12) March 2016 (28) February 2016 (21) January 2016 (21) December 2015 (18) November 2015 (11) October 2015 (15) September 2015 (9) ...

  2. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fiber-filled engineered plastic alternatives Re-design a lighter, more compact steel bead * Milestones - Status Identify alternate materials that provide comparable...

  3. System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. A Materials Approach to Fuel-Efficient Tires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laura Ann Salazar

    2003-05-31

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis-polyisoprene, natural rubber is no longer needed for the manufacturing of tires, but vulcanization is still utilized.

  6. Getting Involved in Manufacturing Day – College Educators Edition Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar will help address questions on why and how community colleges, universities, and technical schools can get involved with MFG DAY.  Led by MFG DAY Co-Producers, the webinar will also...

  7. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  8. A Good Year for Solar in Phoenix Area | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Phoenix Area Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE Suntech opens solar panel manufacturing plant in Goodyear, Arizona Will create up to 150 jobs by 2013;...

  9. Overview of the DOE High Efficiency Engine Technologies R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Combustion improvements Turbocompounding Waste heat recovery New generation wide base single tires Tire rubber compound Central tire inflation Hybridization Reduced drivetrain ...

  10. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Materials Data on TiRe (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: A Materials Approach to Fuel-Efficient Tires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by PPG Industries at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a materials approach to fuel...

  14. EERE Success Story-New Tire Technologies Can Improve Fuel Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To reduce weight, the Cooper team replaced the standard steel belt with alternate lightweight materials. Other efforts focused on reducing energy loss (heat dissipation) when a ...

  15. Passive tire pressure sensor and method (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sensor and method You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical ...

  16. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality PDF icon mfg-initiativefactsheetjun2015.pdf More ...

  17. Webinar: High Performance Computing For Manufacturing Spring Solicitation, March 24, 2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be hosting an informational webinar on the High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4Mfg) spring solicitation on March...

  18. Save Energy Now

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Petroleum Refining Forest Products Iron & Steel Food Processing Aluminum Non-Mfg. Other ... conduct plant assessments and train engineering students for careers in industrial ...

  19. Energy Department Announces $3 Million for Industry Access to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy David Danielson. "The HPC4Mfg ... The ultimate goal of their collaboration is to increase our global competitiveness in the ...

  20. HBLED Hot Testing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. LED manufacturer Halma plc-Ocean Optics, Inc Halma plc-Labsphere, Inc Project ... Partners, Subcontractors, and Collaborators: LED mfg., Ocean Optics, and Labsphere are ...

  1. WindOrgChart_06-27-2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administrator Acting Center Director Brian Smith Paul Veers Chief Engineer - Wind Brian Smith Deputy Director Chief Engineer- Water Jochem Weber Windplant Design & Mfg'g. Derek...

  2. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality PDF icon mfg-initiativefactsheetjun2015.pdf More...

  3. LED Product Development and Manufacturing R&D Roundtable Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LED Product Development and Manufacturing R&D Roundtable Summary LED Product Development and Manufacturing R&D Roundtable Summary PDF icon LED Product Dev and Mfg Roundtable ...

  4. Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Russell, Alan

    2014-06-04

    Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

  5. Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Alan

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Broken Spokes, a student-run organization that replaces damaged bicycle tires. ... Airport and Broken Spokes, a student-run organization that replaces damaged bicycle tires. ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire ...

  8. Tomoe Electric Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Tomoe Electric Manufacturing Co Ltd Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 140-0013 Product: Tomoe Electric MFG, a Tokyo-based electric vehicle provider, is...

  9. GE Research and Development | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partner on HPC4Mfg projects to deliver new capabilities in 3D Printing and higher jet engine efficiency More GE Puts Desalination "on Ice" to Produce Clean Water at Low Cost ...

  10. High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Parternship | GE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GE, US DOE Partner on HPC4Mfg projects to deliver new capabilities in 3D Printing and higher jet engine efficiency Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on ...

  11. Midea Washing Appliance: Order (2011-CE-1903)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Midea Washing Appliance Mfg. Co., Ltd. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Midea Washing Appliance had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Midea Washing Appliance: Proposed Penalty (2011-CE-1903)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Midea Washing Appliances Mfg. Co., Ltd. failed to certify a variety of dishwashers as compliant with the applicable water and energy conservation standards.

  13. Table 40. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Manufacturing 460 478 570 -19.4 324 Petroleum and Coal Products* 150 114 127 18.4 325 Chemical Manufacturing 625 685 648 -3.5 327 Nonmetallic Mineral Products Mfg. 1,341 1,207 ...

  14. MESA Other GFP.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MESA Other GFP BARCODE DESCRIPTION MFG MODEL SN COST BLDG ROOM INVT DATE S10345 REFRIGERATOR ABSOCOLD 0000 430308515 206.66 922 136 7222013 0000031174 HEADSET PLNM22 UNIVE...

  15. The Defense Logistics Agency, Hydrogen-Powered Forklift Test...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... DuPont Value Proposition DuPont R&D and Manufacturing Military Universities DuPont CR&D Other Companies Materials Inventions Component Developments OEM's System Mfg's Systems & ...

  16. HQ

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    through High Performance Computing | Department of Energy HPC4Mfg: Boosting American Competiveness in Clean Energy Manufacturing through High Performance Computing HPC4Mfg: Boosting American Competiveness in Clean Energy Manufacturing through High Performance Computing February 23, 2016 - 3:50pm Addthis Supercomputers like these at the Energy Department's national laboratories will play a key role in solving ‪‎manufacturing challenges and building clean ‪‎energy

  17. EERE National Lab Initiatives and Capabilities for Advanced Materials, Manufacturing, and Efficient Building Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AMO Public-Private Partnerships * National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) Institutes * Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) * Critical Materials Institute (CMI) * High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4M) * Cyclotron Rd 2 3 DOE Manufacturing Innovation Institutes 3 Power America Power Electronics Raleigh, NC IACMI Adv. Composites Knoxville, TN ...and one more topic in 2016 (FY16) Smart Mfg. Smart Manufacturing TBA DOD Managed Institutes MCPI Mfg. Modular Chemical

  18. A Good Year for Solar in Phoenix Area | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Good Year for Solar in Phoenix Area A Good Year for Solar in Phoenix Area October 8, 2010 - 3:33pm Addthis A Good Year for Solar in Phoenix Area Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE Suntech opens solar panel manufacturing plant in Goodyear, Arizona Will create up to 150 jobs by 2013; production capacity of 30 MW annually 7th solar plant this year in Phoenix area because of new state tax incentive A ribbon cutting Friday at a new solar plant in Goodyear, Ariz.,

  19. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  20. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) - Data - U.S. Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration (EIA) 2 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 | 1998 | 1994 | 1991 | Archive Data Methodology & Forms all tables + EXPAND ALL Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) Values RSE Table 1.1 By Mfg. Industry & Region (physical units) XLS PDF XLS Table 1.2 By Mfg. Industry & Region (trillion Btu) XLS PDF XLS Table 1.3 By Value of Shipments & Employment Size Category & Region XLS PDF Table 1.4 Number of Establishments Using Energy Consumed

  1. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) - Data - U.S. Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 | 1998 | 1994 | 1991 | Archive Data Methodology & Forms + EXPAND ALL Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) Table 1.1 By Mfg. Industry & Region (physical units) XLS PDF Table 1.2 By Mfg. Industry & Region (trillion Btu) XLS PDF Table 1.3 By Value of Shipments & Employment Size Category & Region XLS PDF Table 1.4 Number of Establishments Using Energy Consumed for All Purpose XLS PDF Table

  2. High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Parternship | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research GE, US DOE Partner on HPC4Mfg projects to deliver new capabilities in 3D Printing and higher jet engine efficiency Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE, US DOE Partner on HPC4Mfg projects to deliver new capabilities in 3D Printing and higher jet engine efficiency NISKAYUNA, NY, February 17,

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tire Inflation Requirement The California Air Resources Board (ARB) enforces regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles operating inefficiently with under inflated tires. These regulations apply to vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. Automotive service providers performing or offering to perform automotive maintenance or repair services in the state must: Check and inflate vehicle tires to the manufacturer recommended tire pressure rating, with

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Vehicle Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight | Department of Energy Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight Presentation given by Cooper Tire at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about improving vehicle fuel

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development The California Energy Commission (CEC) must adopt and implement a state-wide Fuel-Efficient Tire Program that includes a consumer information and education program and minimum tire efficiency standards. The CEC must consult with the California Integrated Waste Management Board on the program's adoption, implementation, and regular review. (Reference California Public Resources Code 25770-2577

  6. Method and apparatus for ultrasonic characterization through the thickness direction of a moving web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Theodore; Hall, Maclin S.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the caliper and/or the ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web of material using ultrasonic pulses generated by a rotatable wheel ultrasound apparatus. The apparatus includes a first liquid-filled tire and either a second liquid-filled tire forming a nip or a rotatable cylinder that supports a thin moving web of material such as a moving web of paper and forms a nip with the first liquid-filled tire. The components of ultrasonic transit time through the tires and fluid held within the tires may be resolved and separately employed to determine the separate contributions of the two tire thicknesses and the two fluid paths to the total path length that lies between two ultrasonic transducer surfaces contained within the tires in support of caliper measurements. The present invention provides the benefit of obtaining a transit time and caliper measurement at any point in time as a specimen passes through the nip of rotating tires and eliminates inaccuracies arising from nonuniform tire circumferential thickness by accurately retaining point-to-point specimen transit time and caliper variation information, rather than an average obtained through one or more tire rotations. Morever, ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web may be determined independent of small variations in the wheel axle spacing, tire thickness, and liquid and tire temperatures.

  7. Final Participant List | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Participant List Final Participant List List of the participants in the 2005 Workshop on Manufacturing for the Hydrogen Economy PDF icon mfg_wkshp_particpicants.pdf More Documents & Publications Roadmap on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Attendees List DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitiation Workshop Participants List

  8. 1366 TECHNOLOGIES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1366 TECHNOLOGIES 1366 TECHNOLOGIES PDF icon DOE-LPO_Project-Posters_SLR-MFG_1366-Technologies.pdf More Documents & Publications Final Report - 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership CX-003600: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008551: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  9. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  10. Progress reported in PET recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

  11. GAT-280 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAT-280 CHEMISTRY-GENERAL 1 URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE: A SURVEY O F THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES R. DeWitt Information and Records Subdivision August 1 2 , 1960 GOODYEAR ATOMIC CORPORATION Portsmouth, Ohio DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for

  12. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  13. Future Mobility in Maryland

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... repair costs and increased fuel consumption and tire wear. * In the Las Vegas ... development of environmentally-friendly energy sources (NSTPRSC). * Speed up project ...

  14. Table 4. Electric power industry capability by primary energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... sulfur, tire-derived fuels, waste heat and miscellaneous technologies. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, ""Annual Electric Generator Report.""" ...

  15. Fermilab Today - Safety Tip of the Week Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With use and aging, the risk of tire failure and accidents increase. George Davidson, head of Fermilab's Transportation Services Department, advises you to routinely inspect...

  16. Bridgestone Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bridgestone Corporation Place: Tokyo, Japan Product: Japan-based tire and rubber maker. References: Bridgestone Corporation1...

  17. Microsoft Word - Final Scientific - Technical Report_DE-EE0005390...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DUNS Number: 005037601 Recipient Organization: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company 701 Lima Ave. ... companies are working to develop. Raw materials are relatively inexpensive and renewable. ...

  18. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient Class 8 Highway...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... * Advanced Lighting Concepts - LightForm TM * Energy Efficient * Aerodynamic - LED lighting * Low-friction tires * Low viscosity oils & lubricants * Carrier lube level ...

  19. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the ...

  20. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... cost of maintenance, tires, repairs, insurance, registration, taxes, and fees, the ... FreedomCar & Fuel Partnership * Industrial gas companies, energy companies, automobile ...

  1. COMP-1h.EPS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tents Tires Toilet seats Tool boxes Tool racks Toothbrushes Toothpaste Transparent tape Trash bags TV cabinets Umbrellas Unbreakable dishes Upholstery Vaporizers Vinyl flooring...

  2. SuperTruck Team Achieves 115% Freight Efficiency Improvement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    including an advanced engine, highly engineered aerodynamic surfaces, wide-based low-rolling resistance tires, a long-haul hybrid system, and engine waste heat recovery. ...

  3. WIPP WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    salt * Paper * Plastic * Tires * Toner cartridges * Used oil and oil filters * Wood pallets * Wood waste (spools, timbers, and crating materials) In FY 2015, 170 metric tons of...

  4. Recycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    recycle LANL innovates recycling paths for various materials. Aerosol cans Asphalt Batteries Cardboard Concrete Light bulbs Metal Pallets Paper Tires Toner cartridges Vegetation...

  5. Fermilab_FactSheet_FOR PRINT.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Today more than 30,000 particle accelerators are used in the industrial processing of plastics, auto tires, computer chips, and many more applications. The accelerators and...

  6. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... sources, and tire-derived fuels). 8 Solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) energy. 9 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, and miscellaneous technologies. ...

  7. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Other Energy Sources include batteries, hydrogen, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuels and other miscellaneous energy sources. In 2011, EIA corrected the NAICS codes of ...

  8. EECBG Success Story: How Elyria, Ohio, Is Putting Money Back...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EECBG Success Story: Florida County Helping Homeowners Save Energy and Money Workers demonstrate the nitrogen tank used to inflate tires in St. Peters, MO. | Courtesy of the City ...

  9. Webinars | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinars Webinars File Sustained Energy Savings Achieved Through Successful Industrial Customer Interaction with Ratepayer Programs (December 10, 2015) PDF icon Advanced Sensors, Controls, Platforms, and Modeling for Manufacturing (October 6, 2015) PDF icon HPC4Mfg: Advancing Innovation (October 1, 2015) PDF icon Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Introduction (January 30, 2007) PDF icon Fan System Assessment Tool Introduction (March 12, 2007) PDF icon AIRMaster+ Introduction (May 15,

  10. Berkeley Lab Joins DOE's New HPC4Manufacturing Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joins DOE's New HPC4Manufacturing Program Berkeley Lab Joins DOE's New HPC4Manufacturing Program September 15, 2015 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is collaborating with Lawrence Livermore and Oak Ridge national laboratories on a new Department of Energy (DOE) program designed to fund and foster public-private R&D projects that enhance U.S. competitiveness in clean energy manufacturing. The High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Program (HPC4Mfg), announced this

  11. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aircraft Workshop 10/14/2008 1 Instrumentation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Fred J. Brechtel, Andy Corless, Chris Marquis, Fred P. Brechtel, Sandeep Rai, Brechtel Mfg. Inc. (fredj@brechtel.com) Tim Bates & Trish Quinn, Atmospheric Chemistry Group, NOAA PMEL Christian Meinig & Scott Stalin, Engineering Dev. Division, NOAA PMEL Intro & Motivation for the development Introduction to each UAS instrument Other aircraft-deployable systems Power plant plume case study OUTLINE: SBIR

  12. Off the road & into the boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, B.

    1995-07-01

    This article addresses the use of discarded automobile tires as fuel in a thermal power plant. The details of Nebraska Public Power`s efforts with tire-derived fuel are outlined, as are the efforts of Wisconsin Power and Light.

  13. Improved rubber nanofillers (Program Document) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: Improved rubber nanofillers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved rubber nanofillers During this task, Silane functionalized TiO2 and HK3Ti4O4(SiO4)3 were sent to Goodyear (GY) for testing. These materials were characterized based on their interaction with the model elastomer, squalene. The Van der Waals interactions and Hamaker Constants for ZnO particles in squalene and rubber materials were characterized and it was determined that a 10-20 nm spacing was

  14. Hexapartite safeguards project team 3: material accounting and control questionnaire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1981-06-16

    Information provided in this report reflects the current design and operating procedures for the GCEP. However, since the installation is currently under construction, facility design and operating procedures discussed in this report are subject to change. Where applicable, the responses are based on material control and accounting practices of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's (GDP) operating contractor (Goodyear Atomic Corporation). These practices meet US Department of Energy (DOE) standards and are assumed to be the reference practices for the GCEP. This report covers data collection and record keeping actions of the operator.

  15. MESA Other GFP.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MESA Other GFP BARCODE DESCRIPTION MFG MODEL SN COST BLDG ROOM INVT DATE S10345 REFRIGERATOR ABSOCOLD 0000 430308515 $206.66 922 136 7/22/2013 0000031174 HEADSET PLNM22 UNIVE PLANTRONICSPLNM22 AV4357H7 $123.99 B01 282 7/2/2012 0000106508 HEADSET PLANTRONICS PLANTRONICSCS50EX N/A $267.95 B01 179 7/17/2013 0000106505 HEADSET PLANTRONICS PLANTRONICSCS50EX N/A $267.95 B01 272 7/17/2013 0000106506 HEADSET PLANTRONICS PLANTRONICSCS50EX N/A $267.95 922 104C 3/1/2013 0000106507 HEADSET PLANTRONICS

  16. Stay informed with current announcements from the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO).

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Leads DOE’s New HPC for Manufacturing Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley and Oak Ridge National Laboratories (LBNL and ORNL) to lead a new US Department of Energy (DOE) program designed to fund and foster public-private R&D projects that enhance US competitiveness in clean energy manufacturing. The High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Program (HPC4Mfg) was announced by David Danielson, DOE assistant secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, during the third annual American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit (AEMC).

  17. Y

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    !i fi? .&.,"(y$ 2 3 Y :ui,i' tj .r _ , .h !fieES N\jLo December ll, 1956 DBCOHTAMWATICHV OP ASSXXA' IB UtAQuPT TOOL & MK;. CMPANY, HAMILTON, CDXO R. C. Heatherton C. E. Schumann Prom Pebrusry 1 to October 5 , 1956, the Asmciats Aircraft Tool & Mfg. Company was engaged in the ka8chining of hollow dtillsd uranium slugei. Qmn caupletion of this work 8 dacontbtion cmmpaign was undertaken by Auwxirte perrcmnel. This required approximtely five weeks, during wb.ich time a total of

  18. Missouri School District Charges Up

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri's Lee's Summit R-7 school district's distribution fleet was tired. Many of the vehicles had racked up more than 300,000 miles and made frequent trips to the shop to repair the 20 plus-year-old parts.

  19. CX-007943: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire CX(s) Applied: C Date: 02/13/2012 Location(s): Kansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. The MEMS Technology Revolution Is Beginning | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Some of the very first MEMS devices were ink-jet print heads and pressure sensors. Later ... devices are used in different parts of a car including the engine, tires and the airbags. ...

  1. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  2. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is ...

  3. CX-003983: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State Energy Program Energy Revolving Loan - First Class Tire ShredderCX(s) Applied: B5.1Date: 09/21/2010Location(s): MichiganOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  4. SuperTruck Team Achieves 115% Freight Efficiency Improvement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    low-rolling resistance tires, a long-haul hybrid system, and engine waste heat recovery. Many of the technologies build on VTO's research in a number of areas such as...

  5. CX-004401: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Use of Scrap Tires for Oil Well StimulationCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 11/08/2010Location(s): Waynesburg, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. Y-12 electromagnetic separation process wins approval

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be very impressed with what Lawrence had prepared for them. According to The New World by Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson, Jr., the committee was entirely too tired from...

  7. CX-006502: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Improving Fuel Efficiency through Innovative Tire Design and MaterialsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/29/2011Location(s): Pearsall, TexasOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. Riverside Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 92131 Region: Southern CA Area Product: Uses scrap tires as the raw material in the production of SynBlack oil, gas, and steel Website: www.rtiworldwide.com Coordinates:...

  9. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Through 2000, also includes non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 8 Solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) energy. 9 Batteries...

  10. EECBG Success Story: Energy Upgrades to Save Small Arizona Town...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Oro Valley Energy Upgrades to Save Small Arizona Town Big Money Workers demonstrate the nitrogen tank used to inflate tires in St. Peters, MO. | Courtesy of the City of St. ...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - Nelson - SWPA Conf June 11, 2008.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powerhouse Fire Detection/Protection Case Study of Corps Powerhouse Fires and Their Impact to Hydropower Presented by Richard Nelson, PE to the The Southwestern Regional Hydropower Conference June 11, 2008, Ft. Worth, TX AIRLINE MECHANIC SOLUTIONS: P: Left inside main tire almost needs replacement. S: Almost replaced left inside main tire. P: Something loose in cockpit S: Something tightened in cockpit P: Dead bugs on windshield. S: Live bugs on back-order. AIRLINE MECHANIC SOLUTIONS: P:

  12. Chairman's Overview | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Workers demonstrate the nitrogen tank used to inflate tires in St. Peters, MO. | Courtesy of the City of St. Peters Workers demonstrate the nitrogen tank used to inflate tires in St. Peters, MO. | Courtesy of the City of St. Peters April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Residents of St. Peters, Missouri are seeing several improvements in their community thanks to a $512,800 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant

  13. Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

    1983-06-14

    Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

  14. Mid-Winter Check In and Getting Ready for Spring | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mid-Winter Check In and Getting Ready for Spring Mid-Winter Check In and Getting Ready for Spring March 4, 2016 - 12:16pm Addthis From tire alignment to accumulated items, now is the time to prep your car—as well as your house—for an energy-savvy start to spring. From tire alignment to accumulated items, now is the time to prep your car-as well as your house-for an energy-savvy start to spring. Drew Bittner Writer/Editor, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Here in

  15. Safeguards Transporter | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Safeguards Transporter General Davis kicks the tires on a Safeguards Transporter Brigadier General Stephen L. Davis, NNSA's Acting Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs, gets a lesson on how to drive a Safeguards Transporter during a recent visit to the Office of Secure Transportation (OST) headquarters in Albuquerque, New Mexico. OST is responsible for transporting...

  16. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  17. Apparatus for weighing and identifying characteristics of a moving vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.; LaForge, J.V.

    1993-11-09

    Apparatus for weighing a vehicle in motion is provided by employing a plurality of elongated fiber-optic sensors defined by an optical fiber embedded in an encasement of elastomeric material and disposed parallel to each other on the roadway in the path of moving vehicles. Each fiber-optic sensor is provided with contact grid means which can be selectively altered to provide the fiber-optic sensors with sensitivities to vehicular weight different from each other for weighing vehicles in an extended weight range. Switch means are used in conjunction with the fiber-optic sensors to provide signals indicative of the speed of the moving vehicle, the number of axles on the vehicle, weight distribution, tire position, and the wheelbase of the vehicle. The use of a generally N-shaped configuration of switch means also provides a determination of the number of tires on each axle and the tire footprint. When switch means in this configuration are formed of optical fibers, the extent of light transmission through the fibers during contact with the tires of the vehicle is indicative of the vehicle weight. 15 figures.

  18. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  19. CX-006546: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck TireCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/19/2011Location(s): San Angelo, TexasOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. Fermilab | Office of Partnerships and Technology Transfer | Fermilab's

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Strengths Fermilab's Technology Strengths Accelerator Technology thumbnail Fermilab is the U.S. accelerator laboratory, dedicated to developing particle accelerators for physics research. This technology also has many applications outside of physics, including medical applications like PET scans and commercial applications like curing rubber tires or shrinkwrapping products. Through the Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC), Fermilab partners with industry and universities

  1. Apparatus for weighing and identifying characteristics of a moving vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Clinton, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN); LaForge, John V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for weighing a vehicle in motion is provided by employing a plurality of elongated fiber-optic sensors defined by an optical fiber embedded in an encasement of elastomeric material and disposed parallel to each other on the roadway in the path of moving vehicles. Each fiber-optic sensor is provided with contact grid means which can be selectively altered to provide the fiber-optic sensors with sensitivities to vehicular weight different from each other for weighing vehicles in an extended weight range. Switch means are used in conjunction with the fiber-optic sensors to provide signals indicative of the speed of the moving vehicle, the number of axles on the vehicle, weight distribution, tire position, and the wheelbase of the vehicle. The use of a generally N-shaped configuration of switch means also provides a determination of the number of tires on each axle and the tire footprint. When switch means in this configuration are formed of optical fibers, the extent of light transmission through the fibers during contact with the tires of the vehicle is indicative of the vehicle weight.

  2. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission; Proceedings of the Symposium, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.I.; Pettersson, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers and discussions concerning the geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission, sources of remotely sensed data, and glossaries of remote sensing and remote data transmission terms, acronyms, and abbreviations are presented. Aspects of remote sensing use covered include the significance of lineaments and their effects on ground-water systems, waste-site use and geotechnical characterization, the estimation of reservoir submerging losses using CIR aerial photographs, and satellite-based investigation of the significance of surficial deposits for surface mining operations. Other topics presented include the location of potential ground subsidence and collapse features in soluble carbonate rock, optical Fourier analysis of surface features of interest in geotechnical engineering, geotechnical applications of U.S. Government remote sensing programs, updating the data base for a Geographic Information System, the joint NASA/Geosat Test Case Project, the selection of remote data telemetry methods for geotechnical applications, the standardization of remote sensing data collection and transmission, and a comparison of airborne Goodyear electronic mapping system/SAR with satelliteborne Seasat/SAR radar imagery.

  3. Managing corporate capabilities:theory and industry approaches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavin, Adam M.

    2007-02-01

    This study characterizes theoretical and industry approaches to organizational capabilities management and ascertains whether there is a distinct ''best practice'' in this regard. We consider both physical capabilities, such as technical disciplines and infrastructure, and non-physical capabilities such as corporate culture and organizational procedures. We examine Resource-Based Theory (RBT), which is the predominant organizational management theory focused on capabilities. RBT seeks to explain the effect of capabilities on competitiveness, and thus provide a basis for investment/divestment decisions. We then analyze industry approaches described to us in interviews with representatives from Goodyear, 3M, Intel, Ford, NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing. We found diversity amongst the industry capability management approaches. Although all organizations manage capabilities and consider them to some degree in their strategies, no two approaches that we observed were identical. Furthermore, we observed that theory is not a strong driver in this regard. No organization used the term ''Resource-Based Theory'', nor did any organization mention any other guiding theory or practice from the organizational management literature when explaining their capabilities management approaches. As such, we concluded that there is no single best practice for capabilities management. Nevertheless, we believe that RBT and the diverse industry experiences described herein can provide useful insights to support development of capabilities management approaches.

  4. Clean-out and Reuse of GCEP Facilities at Portsmouth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, William; Hickman, Mark

    2008-01-15

    PORTS began operations in 1956 to enrich uranium for both civilian and military use. It operated under Goodyear Atomic Corporation and Lockheed-Martin as a government-owned contractor-operated facility until the formation of the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as a government corporation in 1993. In 1998, USEC was privatized as a publicly traded corporation. USEC leases the Portsmouth and Paducah GDPs from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Enrichment operations were terminated at Portsmouth in 2001, although USEC continues to lease and maintain the Portsmouth GDP in Cold Shutdown and conduct some DOE projects there. LPP found that removal of old equipment to allow reuse of a facility can present unexpected challenges. Classified components create significant logistics issues. In this case, teamwork and attention to detail by USEC, LATA/Parallax, and DOE resulted in solutions and success. Lessons learnt: - Transportation logistics are particularly important when shipping waste streams with special requirements. - Investment in extra equipment yields tangible benefits where other resources (cleared drivers) are scarce. - An early start to providing specially qualified drivers, in this case providing security clearances, is essential. Availability is limited, and the time required to qualify new drivers may be lengthy. - A dedicated communications station, rather than reliance on existing resources (shift superintendent), is invaluable.

  5. Effects of the furnace temperature on the CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from the combustion of pulverized bituminous coal, tire-derived fuel and, for a limited number of runs, waste plastics-derived fuel. The particle size cuts of pulverized coal, tire and plastics were 63--75 {micro}m and 180--300 {micro}m, respectively. Combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale drop-tube furnace at gas temperatures, in the range of 1,300--1,600 K, and several fuel mass loadings in the furnace, expressed in terms of global equivalence ratios in the range of 0.4--2.4. The CO, CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions were monitored continuously with infrared absorption and chemiluminescent instruments. Up to sixty 2-7 ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected by capillary gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Results showed that the PAH emission yields (mg/g fuel introduced) increased drastically with increasing bulk equivalence ratio (in the aforementioned range), at fixed furnace temperatures. This was also true for the CO yields, while the CO{sub 2} yields increased with increasing {o}, reached a maximum around stoichiometry and then decreased mildly. NO{sub x} yields decreased precipitously with increasing equivalence ratio. The CO and, especially, the PAH yields from tire-derived and plastics-derived fuels were much higher than those from coal, but the relative amounts of individual PAH components were remarkably similar in the combustion effluent of all fuels. The CO{sub 2} emissions and, especially, the NO{sub x} emissions from tire crumb were lower than those from coal. The CO{sub 2} emissions from plastics were comparable to those from coal, but their NO {sub x} emissions were much lower than those from tire. At fixed bulk equivalence ratios, however, as the furnace gas temperature increased the PAH yields from coal, tire crumb, and plastics decreased drastically, while the CO emission yields increased. At the highest temperature tested herein, 1,600 K ({approx}1,300 C), the effluent of the combustion of the fuels appeared to be devoid of PAHs. No{sub x} yields increased mildly with temperature. The influence of temperature, in this range, on the CO{sub 2} emissions was not significant. 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Ridge station eases Florida's waste-disposal problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1994-10-01

    Two results of Florida's continuing population growth are (1) a critical need for electricity, and (2) a solid-waste disposal crisis. During a recent winter cold snap, electric demand in one service territory surged 25% over generating capacity and 10% over net system capability. Rolling blackouts ensued. At the same time, Florida's fragile wetlands environment is suffering from years of unfettered development. Groundwater sources are contaminated, landfill space is scarce, and illegal tire dumps blight the landscape. The recently constructed Ridge generating station in Polk County, Fla. is addressing both the state's electrical and environmental needs. Ridge, which entered commercial operation in May, burns a unique mix of urban woodwaste and scrap tires to provide 45 MW of critically needed electricity while keeping large quantities of solid waste out of landfills. When pipeline construction at an adjacent landfill is completed, the facility also will burn the methane gases produced when garbage decomposes.

  7. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  8. Waste oils utilized as coal liquefaction solvents on differing ranks of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Liang, J.

    1995-12-31

    To determine the feasibility of using different waste oils as solvent media for coals of differing rank, oil from automobile crankcases, oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of waste rubber tires, and oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of waste plastics, have been heated to 430{degrees}C with coal in tubing reactors a hydrotreated for 1 hour. Analysis of the solvents indicates the presence of heavy metals in the waste automobile oil. Analysis of the plastic oil shows the presence of iron and calcium. The analysis of the tire oil shows the presence of zinc. Conversion yields are compared and results of analysis for the presence of metals in the liquid products are reported.

  9. Chemical reclamation of scrap rubber. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.C.; Chan, S.M.; Culberson, O.L.; Perona, J.J.; Larsen, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolysis of the rubber, and pyrolysis data obtained in a bench-scale flow apparatus. An economic assessment of the plant was made in terms of late 1979 dollars, for ranges in scrap tire costs and prices for the principal products: carbon black and the fuel gases and oil. Profitability at these 1979 costs and prices is somewhat modest by chemical processing industry standards for new processes, but any increases in energy and carbon black prices would cause favorable changes in this assessment.

  10. Recycled materials in geotechnical applications. Geotechnical special publication No. 79

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Elton, D.J.

    1998-07-01

    Recycled materials have the potential for use in a variety of geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications. This proceedings contains 15 papers on field applications and laboratory testing related to recycled materials. Papers cover: geotechnics of industrial by-products; paper mill sludge for landfill cover; mitigation of void development under bridge approach slabs using rubber tire chips; tire shreds as lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls; performance of a highway embankment and hydraulic barriers constructed using waste foundry sand, and recycled materials; lagoon-stored lime for embankment; construction and demolition debris for base and subbase applications; fly ash for fill, pavement, earth structures and aggregate; compaction of contaminated soils-reuse as a road base material; and database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products; and more.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations Box-type trailers that are at least 53 feet long and the heavy-duty tractors that pull these trailers must be equipped with fuel-efficient tires and aerodynamic trailer devices that improve fuel economy and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Tractors and trailers subject to the regulation must either use U.S. Environmental Protection Agency SmartWay certified tractors and trailers or retrofit existing equipment with SmartWay verified

  12. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * SAVANNAH RIVER SITE * AIKEN * SC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haptic seat provides feedback to drivers for improved vehicle fuel economy Engineers at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on development of a new method for providing feedback to drivers of vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency through improved driving habits. Background Today's vehicles provide feedback to the driver on a wide variety of vehicle or driver characteristics. Some of the information provided includes speed, temperatures, tire pressure, radio, GPS, cell

  13. Transportation Efficiency Strategies

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Advanced Technology Vehicles: Overview and Constraints John German, ICCT EIA Energy Conference April 26, 2011 Where Does the Energy Go? http://www.fueleconomy.gov/FEG/atv.shtml Friction reduction Cylinder deactivation DI turbo Aero, tires Variable valves weight High efficient gasoline engine Clean diesel HEV expansion Base engine and vehicle improvements Efficiency/CO2 reduction EV/FCV development for future Fleet tests Research for mass production HCCI No single solution - multi-pronged

  14. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Vehicles: Overview and Constraints John German, ICCT EIA Energy Conference April 26, 2011 Where Does the Energy Go? http://www.fueleconomy.gov/FEG/atv.shtml Friction reduction Cylinder deactivation DI turbo Aero, tires Variable valves weight High efficient gasoline engine Clean diesel HEV expansion Base engine and vehicle improvements Efficiency/CO2 reduction EV/FCV development for future Fleet tests Research for mass production HCCI No single solution - multi-pronged approach

  15. Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies Early Adoption of Fuel Cell Technologies Many private sector organizations-grocers, banks, tire and hardware companies, logistics providers, and others-have begun to realize the value of using fuel cells to support their operations. And they aren't the only ones. Federal agencies across the country are incorporating advanced energy technologies, such as fuel cells, into their facilities. Federal Deployment and Demonstration Government adoption of early market

  16. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Bacon, Larry D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  17. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  18. office of secure transportation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    office of secure transportation Acquisition and Project Management Office volunteers get up-close look at Office of Secure Transportation exercise Contracting professionals from the NNSA Acquisition & Project Management (APM) Field Program Section (FPS) recently served as role players for Office of Secure Transportation (OST) training exercises in Arkansas and Oklahoma. OST Federal Agents transport U.S. nuclear weapons, components and... General Davis kicks the tires on a Safeguards

  19. CAMD Nanofabrication

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research :: Publications :: Infrastructure :: News :: Links :: The emerging fields of nanoscience and nanoengineering are leading to unprecedented understanding and control over the fundamental building blocks of all physical things. This is likely to change the way almost everything—from vaccines to computers to automobile tires to objects not yet imagined—is designed and made. It is anticipated that a new world of industrial products valued at $1trillion/yr and, at least, 2 million nanotech

  20. Trash-fired boiler cuts plant's gas use 30%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, F

    1983-06-27

    A Minneapolis bottling plant will burn trash in a 450-horsepower boiler/incinerator to reduce natural gas consumption 30% and eliminate the costs of hauling and disposing of trash. Combined with a CA1500 heat-recovery system installed in 1982, the project will have a two-year payback. The system is clean enough that even old tires can be burned and still meet air pollution regulations. (DCK)

  1. Argonne rolls out new version of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analysis tool | Argonne National Laboratory rolls out new version of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles analysis tool By Katie Elyce Jones * May 9, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint A rising number of options for alternative fuels, such as natural gas, and advanced vehicles, like electric vehicles, are offering consumers more ways to shrink their environmental "tire tracks," so to speak. Despite the potential benefits, being one of the first businesses or individuals to embrace a new

  2. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  3. Word Pro - S8.lwp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Flow, 2014 (Quadrillion Btu) 1 Blast furnace gas and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 3 Electric energy used in the operation of power plants. 4 Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the point of generation and delivery to the

  4. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  5. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  6. Analysis of the University of Texas at Austin compressed natural gas demonstration bus. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.M.; Matthews, R.; Euritt, M.

    1994-06-01

    A demonstration compressed natural gas (CNG) bus has been operating on The University of Texas at Austin shuttle system since 1992. This CNG vehicle, provided by the Blue Bird Company, was an opportunity for the University to evaluate the effectiveness of a CNG bus for shuttle operations. Three basic operating comparisons were made: (1) fuel consumption, (2) tire wear, and (3) vehicle performance. The bus was equipped with a data logger, which was downloaded regularly, for trip reports. Tire wear was monitored regularly, and performance tests were conducted at the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Center. Overall, the data suggest that fuel costs for the CNG bus are comparable to those for University diesel buses. This is a result of the lower fuel price for natural gas. Actual natural gas fuel consumption was higher for the CNG buses than for the diesel buses. Due to weight differences, tire wear was much less on the CNG buses. Finally, after installation of a closed-loop system, the CNG bus out-performed the diesel bus on acceleration, grade climbing ability, and speed.

  7. Lighting system replacement brings energy costs down, light levels up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radmer, D.J.

    1984-11-08

    The R.J. Frisby Mfg. Co. operates on three shifts and produces precision screw machine products for a variety of industries, including automotive, marine, machine tool, hydraulics and pneumatics, business machines, electrical and electronics, photography, and precision instruments. The required degree of manufacturing precision demands high light levels in manufacturing areas. When the 100,000 sq ft plant was built in 1973, mercury vapor lighting was installed consistent with the current state of the art for lighting such facilities. In the ensuing years, it became apparent that the soaring electric bills that came in the wake of the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 would have to be controlled. Estimates by the U.S. Department of Energy indicated that electric energy costs were likely to rise by 160 percent over the next 10 yr. Based on this estimate, and the fact that lighting accounted for $70,000, or half of the annual electric bill, it was estimated that $900,000 to $1,000,000 would be spent for lighting energy over the next decade. The concern over the probability of rapidly escalating electrical costs was soon justified when, in three steps over one 12 mo period, the electric energy rate increased from $0.0305/kwh to $0.0416/kwh -more than a 36 percent increase. During that same period, the demand charge was raised in two steps from $3.75/kw to $4.85/kw --more than a 29 percent increase.

  8. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  9. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output Emissions by Type of Generating Unit, 2010 Emissions by Sector, 1989-2010 314 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 5.0 (s) 0.2 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Million Metric Tons of Gas Sulfur Dioxide ¹ For carbon dioxide: municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources; tire-derived fuel, and geothermal. For sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides: blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other

  10. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act Newsletter - Issue 3

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 3 3 J J J u u u n n n e e e 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 9 DOE Economic Stimulus Funds Bringing New Jobs to Paducah John Crowder is back on the job. Crowder, who was laid off from his 19-year job as a maintenance mechanic at General Tire in Mayfield, Kentucky in late 2005, had given up hope of finding a full-time position until a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor posted openings for experienced workers to accelerate removal of inactive facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP)

  11. What Eco-Driving Techniques Do You Use on the Road? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eco-Driving Techniques Do You Use on the Road? What Eco-Driving Techniques Do You Use on the Road? July 22, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Tuesday, you read about eco-driving and how it can improve fuel economy and reduce your greenhouse gas emissions. Simple measures such as observing the speed limit, planning your trips, and keeping your tires properly inflated can make a big difference in your savings. What eco-driving techniques do you use on the road? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share

  12. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  13. Junior Solar Sprint Inside Tips on Parts and Construction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL/BK-820-30827 Revised 8/23/01 Inside Tips on Parts and Construction Written by: Robert Haehnel 2 Parts is Parts: So you are ready to build the ultimate JSS car. You have the perfect design, and the ultimate gear ratio and tire size combination. But you just visited every hobby store in the Upper Valley and could not find a single gear or pulley that would fit your motor. Now what do you do? It is time to cannibalize! The best place to find gears and pulleys of all different sizes is in old

  14. DOE/CE/41035-1-FINAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    i- , : --) DOE/CE/41035-1-FINAL February 2003 HIGH VALUE SCRAP TIRE RECYCLE 'Project Final Report on VISTAMER~ Polymer Paints By: Bernard D. Bauman Composite Particles, Inc. P.0. Box 218803 Houston, TX 77218-8803 Work Perlbrmed Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FCO2-93CE41035 For U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any

  15. Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Rudnick, Thomas Jeffery

    2005-07-05

    A sensor array is configured based upon capacitive sensor techniques to measure stresses at various positions in a sheet simultaneously and allow a stress map to be obtained in near real-time. The device consists of single capacitive elements applied in a one or two dimensional array to measure the distribution of stresses across a mat surface in real-time as a function of position for manufacturing and test applications. In-plane and normal stresses in rolling bodies such as tires may thus be monitored.

  16. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G. E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  17. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  18. Summary of the issues with regard to the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and exposure of polycyclic organic matter (POM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Polycyclic organic matter (POM) is emitted from a variety of sources in the environment. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (includes tire wear), asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing, catalytic cracking residential coal combustion, industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, and iron and steel processes is presented. The contribution of the POM fraction to the carcinogenicity of the mixture is evaluated for gasoline engine exhaust condensate and coal combustion effluent and appears to contribute the majority of the carcinogenic potential for those mixtures. Evidence of the mutagenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (including tire wear), industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, iron and steel processes, forest fires and open burning, residential solid fuel (wood) combustion, commercial and other incineration, commercial/industrial oil combustion, residential oil combustion, and asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing is also presented. The problem in the use of a chemical surrogate to sample for POM-containing emissions is discussed. A discussion of the problems in evaluating the carcinogenic potential of different POM-containing mixtures is also presented.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  20. Evaluation of a New Remote Handling Design for High Throughput Annular Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law; Lawrence L. Macaluso

    2009-09-01

    Advanced designs of nuclear fuel recycling plants are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Previous efforts defined and characterized the performance of commercial 5 cm and 12.5 cm single-stage ACCs in a cold environment. The next logical step, the design and evaluation of remote capable pilot scale ACCs in a hot or radioactive environment was reported earlier. This report includes the development of remote designs for ACCs that can process the large throughput rates needed in future nuclear fuel recycling plants. Novel designs were developed for the remote interconnection of contactor units, clean-in-place and drain connections, and a new solids removal collection chamber. A three stage, 12.5 cm diameter rotor module has been constructed and evaluated for operational function and remote handling in highly radioactive environments. This design is scalable to commercial CINC ACC models from V-05 to V-20 with total throughput rates ranging from 20 to 650 liters per minute. The V-05R three stage prototype was manufactured by the commercial vendor for ACCs in the U.S., CINC mfg. It employs three standard V-05 clean-in-place (CIP) units modified for remote service and replacement via new methods of connection for solution inlets, outlets, drain and CIP. Hydraulic testing and functional checks were successfully conducted and then the prototype was evaluated for remote handling and maintenance suitability. Removal and replacement of the center position V-05R ACC unit in the three stage prototype was demonstrated using an overhead rail mounted PaR manipulator. This evaluation confirmed the efficacy of this innovative design for interconnecting and cleaning individual stages while retaining the benefits of commercially reliable ACC equipment for remote applications in the nuclear industry. Minor modifications and suggestions for improved manual remote servicing by the remote handling specialists were provided but successful removal and replacement was demonstrated in the first prototype.

  1. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L.; Chen, Guang Jiong

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  2. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  3. Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

  4. Product Life-Cycle Management: The future of product and packaging design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, L.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Product Life-Cycle Management (PLCM) is the control of environmental impacts associated with all the life phases of a product, from design through manufacture, packaging and disposal. PLCM dictates that products be manufactured using less harmful chemicals and fewer resources. Product packaging must be minimal and made of renewable and recyclable resources. Both the product and the package must contain recycled material. Packaging and products must also be collected for recycle at the end of their intended use, requiring infrastructure to collect, transport and process these materials. European legislation now requires the return and recycle of packaging materials by the end of 1993. Requirements are also being imposed on manufacturers of automobile related products; automotive batteries, tires and even automobiles themselves must now be accepted back and recycled. Increasing public concerns and awareness of environmental impacts plus the decreasing availability of natural resources will continue to push product life-cycle legislation forward.

  5. Structuring small projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pistole, C.O.

    1995-11-01

    One of the most difficult hurdles facing small project developers is obtaining financing. Many major banks and institutional investors are unwilling to become involved in projects valued at less than $25 million. To gain the interest of small project investors, developers will want to present a well-considered plan and an attractive rate of return. Waste-to-energy projects are one type that can offer diversified revenue sources that assure maximum profitability. The Ripe Touch Greenhouse project, a $14.5 million waste tire-to-energy facility in Colorado, provides a case study of how combining the strengths of the project partners can help gain community and regulatory acceptance and maximize profit opportunities.

  6. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  7. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  8. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  9. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  10. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  11. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Jordan, John K.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  12. Incinerator thermal release valve risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.B.

    1998-12-31

    Human health risk assessments were conducted on emissions from several types of incinerators--a hazardous waste combustor, a medical waste/tire combustor, and a refuse derived fuel combustor in three different states. As part of these studies, the short-term emissions from thermal release valves operating during upset conditions were additionally evaluated. The latter assessments addressed two specific risk-related questions: (1) what are the incremental long-term risks/hazards associated with these short-term emissions; (2) what are the acute health hazards associated with these emissions? For each study, emission estimates for both the incinerator stack and the thermal release valve were obtained from the facility. Stack testing was utilized to obtain stack gas concentrations of emissions at one facility; engineering estimates were used to ascertain emissions from the thermal release valve. The two facilities were proposed incinerators, so literature-derived emissions were used throughout.

  13. Microsoft Word - S05827_WCR_Final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    HTH-1RC Data This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Well Completion Report for CAU 443 CNTA December 2009 Doc. No. S05827 Page E-1 Table E-1. HTH-1RC_Chronology Date Time Depth (ft bgs) Activity 05/26/09 15:45 - 21:00 NA DH rig (LK17) arrives on site, rig is inspected, tire replaced, and rig was moved to HTH-1 pad. 05/26/09 23:30 NA Fishing tool was run 180 ft down HTH-1 and the bladder pump was retrieved. 05/27/09 01:00 NA Rig is moved off HTH-1 and goes to UC-1-P-1S

  14. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  15. Screening of low cost sorbents for arsenic and mercury capture in gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cedric Charpenteau; Revata Seneviratne; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-09-15

    A novel laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor has been developed to investigate trace metal capture on selected sorbents for cleaning the hot raw gas in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. The new reactor design is presented, together with initial results for mercury and arsenic capture on five sorbents. It was expected that the capture efficiency of sorbents would decrease with increasing temperature. However, a commercial activated carbon, Norit Darco 'Hg', and a pyrolysis char prepared from scrap tire rubber exhibit similar efficiencies for arsenic at 200 and at 400{sup o}C (70% and 50%, respectively). Meta-kaolinite and fly ash both exhibit an efficiency of around 50% at 200{sup o}C, which then dropped as the test temperature was increased to 400{sup o}C. Activated scrap tire char performed better at 200{sup o}C than the pyrolysis char showing an arsenic capture capacity similar to that of commercial Norit Darco 'Hg'; however, efficiency dropped to below 40% at 400{sup o}C. These results suggest that the capture mechanism of arsenic (As4) is more complex than purely physical adsorption onto the sorbents. Certain elements within the sorbents may have significant importance for chemical adsorption, in addition to the effect of surface area, as determined by the BET method. This was indeed the case for the mercury capture efficiency for all four sorbents tested. Three of the sorbents tested retained 90% of the mercury when operated at 100{sup o}C. As the temperature increased, the efficiency of activated carbon and pyrolysis char reduced significantly. Curiously, despite having the smallest Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, a pf-combustion ash was the most effective in capturing mercury over the temperature range studied. These observations suggest that the observed mercury capture was not purely physical adsorption but a combination of physical and chemical processes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  18. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical feasibility of this new PCP system was determined by designing the details of the system and conducting a detail analysis of the system--both steady and unsteady analyses. Through the detailed design and analyses, it was found that no technical problem or hurdle exist that would otherwise prevent commercial use of the system today. Still, since it is a new technology, it will be prudent and advantageous to run a demonstration project before this technology is used.

  19. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  1. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  2. The IBA Easy-E-Beam Integrated Processing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  3. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-05-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

  4. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  5. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  6. Jobs, tax revenue persuade Oklahoma to waive buyback rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, V.

    1985-10-28

    The chance to add up to 900 new jobs and $54 million in tax revenues led Oklahoma regulators to agree to a one-time waiver of a controversial state ruling that discourages long-term buyback rates for cogenerators. The ruling will allow a 100 MW cogeneration project to proceed with its plan to sell steam to the Firestone tire plant and electricity to the local utility. Economic forecasts show that the deal will give the Oklahoma facility the lowest operating cost for any Firestone plant in the country. It will also make Oklahoma more attractive to new businesses and industry. Regulators emphasize that the waiver of rule 58-H applies only to this project, with future proposals to be judged on their own merits. Despite its large gas surplus, the state has virtually no cogeneration, which requires a steady, low-cost fuel supply, an expanding requirement for electricity, and the presence of large industrial steam users. Other issues the commission considered were the capacity and energy buyback rates.

  7. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  8. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  9. The theory and a technique for an efficiency enhancing two stage bottoming cycle for piston/cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, F.; Zeh, D.

    1995-12-31

    While there is now much interest in electric vehicles or various hybrids, the most benefit may result from a revolutionary modification and efficiency improvement of the conventional internal combustion Otto cycle engine, by recovering a large portion of the availability that exists at the end of the power stroke. This paper will describe the theory and a potentially practical method for achieving a 50% improvement in power output and fuel efficiency. While the topping cycle will remain the internal combustion piston/cylinder engine, a two stage bottom cycle will be used. The first bottom stage is a single process consisting of a turbine installed in the exhaust stream to extract power from the excess pressure that exists when the engine exhaust valve opens. The second bottom stage is a complete external combustion gas turbine cycle consisting of a compressor, exhaust gas to compressed air heat exchanger and a turbine. Such a two stage bottoming cycle can be practical and may increase the power output by about 50%. This means that a car that achieves 30 mpg without a bottoming cycle can achieve 45 mpg with this bottoming cycle. Alternatively if the performance of cars can be improved to 66 mpg by means of decreasing the power requirements with smaller size and frontal area, better aerodynamics, lower rolling resistance tires and better transmission and drive trains, this vehicle can be extended to 100 mpg with this combined cycle engine.

  10. Design of wheel motor using Maxwell 2D simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.H.; Tseng, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a high efficiency direct wheel motor drive for electric vehicles (EVs). The proposed motor is a permanent magnet square-wave motor whose rotor with rare earth magnets forms the outside of the motor to be set within each rear wheel tire to realize the direct drive. The inner stator with its windings is rigidly linked to the suspension and frame structure of the vehicle. In order to achieve the direct drive without any mechanical transmission for EVs, the wheel motor has been designed as a low-speed high-torque motor. The design and optimization of the motor was done with the aid of finite element electromagnetic field analysis using the Maxwell 2D Simulator software. The motor parameters and characteristics can be accurately calculated and predicted in terms of field computation and analysis results. The design procedure of the 6.6 kW, 1,000 rpm wheel motor and its technical data are given in this paper.

  11. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  12. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the ability of the gasifier to operate with alternative feedstocks at up to 80% moisture, a decision was made to investigate a pumping system for delivering the as-received fuel across the pressure boundary. High-temperature drop-tube furnace tests were conducted to determine if explosive fragmentation of high-moisture sludge droplets could be expected, but showed that these droplets underwent a shrinking and densification process that implies that the sludge will have to be well dispersed when injected into the gasifier. Fuel dispersion nozzles have been obtained for measuring how well the sludge can be dispersed in the second stage of the gasifier. Future work will include leasing a Schwing America pump to test pumping sewage sludge against 400 psig. In addition, sludge dispersion testing will be completed using two different dispersion nozzles to determine their ability to generate sludge particles small enough to be entrained out of the E-Gas entrained-flow gasifier.

  13. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the ability of the gasifier to operate with alternative feedstocks at up to 80% moisture, a decision was made to investigate a pumping system for delivering the as-received fuel across the pressure boundary into the second stage of the gasifier. A high-pressure feed pump and fuel dispersion nozzles were tested for their ability to cross the pressure boundary and adequately disperse the sludge into the second stage of the gasifier. These results suggest that it is technically feasible to get the sludge dispersed to an appropriate size into the second stage of the gasifier although the recycle syngas pressure needed to disperse the sludge would be higher than originally desired. A preliminary design was prepared for a sludge-receiving, storage, and high-pressure feeding system at the Wabash River Plant. The installed capital costs were estimated at approximately $9.7 million, within an accuracy of {+-}10%. An economic analysis using DOE's IGCC Model, Version 3 spreadsheet indicates that in order to justify the additional capital cost of the system, Global Energy would have to receive a tipping fee of $12.40 per wet ton of municipal sludge delivered. This is based on operation with petroleum coke as the primary fuel. Similarly, with coal as the primary fuel, a minimum tipping of $16.70 would be required. The availability of delivered sludge from Indianapolis, Indiana, in this tipping-fee range is unlikely; however, given the higher treatment costs associated with sludge treatment in Chicago, Illinois, delivery of sludge from Chicago, given adequate rail access, might be economically viable.

  14. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  16. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  17. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  18. Hybrid options for light-duty vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, F., Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.

    1999-07-19

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer great promise in improving fuel economy. In this paper, we analyze why, how, and by how much vehicle hybridization can reduce energy consumption and improve fuel economy. Our analysis focuses on efficiency gains associated solely with vehicle hybridization. We do not consider such other measures as vehicle weight reduction or air- and tire-resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. The analysis starts with understanding the energy inefficiencies of light-duty vehicles associated with different operation modes in US and Japanese urban and highway driving cycles, with the corresponding energy-saving potentials. The potential for fuel economy gains due to vehicle hybridization can be estimated almost exclusively on the basis of three elements: the reducibility of engine idling operation, the recoverability of braking energy losses, and the capability of improving engine load profiles to gain efficiency associated with specific HEV configurations and control strategies. Specifically, we evaluate the energy efficiencies and fuel economies of a baseline MY97 Corolla-like conventional vehicle (CV), a hypothetical Corolla-based minimal hybrid vehicle (MHV), and a MY98 Prius-like full hybrid vehicle (FHV). We then estimate energy benefits of both MHVs and FHVs over CVs on a performance-equivalent basis. We conclude that the energy benefits of hybridization vary not only with test cycles, but also with performance requirements. The hybrid benefits are greater for ''Corolla (high) performance-equivalent'' vehicles than for ''Prius (low) performance-equivalent'' vehicles. An increasing acceleration requirement would result in larger fuel economy benefits from vehicle hybridization.

  19. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.

    1998-04-16

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants.

  20. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  1. Comprehensive characterization report on Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, A.B.; White, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Winter Quarters Bay is a small embayment located adjacent to the United States largest base in Antarctica, McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station, which is managed by the National Science Foundation`s Office of Polar Programs, was constructed in 1955, has been in constant use since that time, and has a population of about 1,000 persons during the summer and about 250 people for the winter. The bay offers shelter for ships and an ice dock is used during January and February to off load fuel and cargo. During earlier times, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of the bay, doused with several thousand gallons of fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased and the site has been regraded to cover the waste. The bottom of the bay is littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, all sorts of metal objects, cables, etc., especially the southeastern side where dumping took place. The sediments are gravel in some places yet fine and fluid at other sites with coarse particles intermixed. The original benthic community is not well recorded but significant ecological changes have occurred. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. This report summarizes available information on Winter Quarters Bay and was originally intended to be used by workshop participants to become familiar with the bay prior to becoming updated with unpublished data by various Antarctic investigators. The proposed workshop was to assist the National Science Foundation in determining whether and how the bay should be remediated and to develop an integrated research plan if additional data were needed. However, plans changed, the workshop was never conducted, but the briefing report was prepared. Most of this report reviews and summarizes other published data. The only new data are those from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory`s investigation into the distribution of organic contaminants in the bay and sediment toxicity testing.

  2. Development of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, E L; Sekhar, P K; Mukundan, R; Williamson, T; Garzon, F H; Woo, L Y; Glass, R R

    2010-01-06

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features. Some of these devices (e.g. yaw sensors for dynamic stability control systems or tire presure warning RF-based devices) may be used on fuel cell vehicles without any modification. However the use of hydrogen as a fuel will dictate the development of completely new technologies for such requirements as the detection of hydrogen leaks, sensors and systems to continuously monitor hydrogen fuel purity and protect the fuel cell stack from poisoning, and for the important, yet often taken for granted, tasks such as determining the state of charge of the hydrogen fuel storage and delivery system. Two such sensors that rely on different transduction mechanisms will be highlighted in this presentation. The first is an electrochemical device for monitoring hydrogen levels in air. The other technology covered in this work, is an acoustic-based approach to determine the state of charge of a hydride storage system.

  3. Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel

    2004-09-30

    Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag, a fraction which increases with speed and crosswind. Thanks to better tools and increased awareness, recent years have seen substantial aerodynamic improvements by the truck industry, such as tractor/trailer height matching, radiator area reduction, and swept fairings. However, there remains substantial room for improvement as understanding of turbulent fluid dynamics grows. The group's research effort focused on vortex particle methods, a novel approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Where common CFD methods solve or model the Navier-Stokes equations on a grid which stretches from the truck surface outward, vortex particle methods solve the vorticity equation on a Lagrangian basis of smooth particles and do not require a grid. They worked to advance the state of the art in vortex particle methods, improving their ability to handle the complicated, high Reynolds number flow around heavy vehicles. Specific challenges that they have addressed include finding strategies to accurate capture vorticity generation and resultant forces at the truck wall, handling the aerodynamics of spinning bodies such as tires, application of the method to the GTS model, computation time reduction through improved integration methods, a closest point transform for particle method in complex geometrics, and work on large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling.

  4. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of selecting the hybrid over the conventional vehicle at various fuel prices is illustrated. These results are based on data from various OECD motions on fuel price, annual miles of travel per vehicle, and driving cycles assumed to be applicable in those nations. Scatter in results plotted as a function of average speed, related to details of driving cycles and the vehicles selected for analysis, is discussed.

  5. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Lynn C.

    2013-04-10

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit. Noise dosimetry sampling was performed on a random basis and was representative of the different work activities within the four shops. Twenty three percent of the noise samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 85 decibels for an 8-hour time-weightedaverage. Work activities where noise levels were higher included use of impact wrenches and grinding wheels.

  6. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP combined with sorbent enhancement, (2) Hg oxidation and control using wet and dry scrubbers, (3) enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel (TDF) and oxidizing catalysts, and (4) testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter insert.

  7. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam; Thomas, Neil; LaClair, Tim J; Barker, Alan M; Knee, Helmut E

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for the collection of one year of operational data. The Part-2 FOT involved the towing and recovery and utility vocations for a second year of data collection. The vehicles that participated in the MTDC project did so through gratis partnerships in return for early access to the results of this study. Partnerships such as these are critical to FOTs in which real-world data is being collected. In Part 1 of the project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established partnerships with the H.T. Hackney Company (HTH), one of the largest wholesale distributors in the country, distributing products to 21 states; and with Knoxville Area Transit (KAT), the city of Knoxville s transit system, which operates across Knoxville and parts of Knox County. These partnerships and agreements provided ORNL access to three Class-7 day-cab tractors that regularly haul 28 ft pup trailers (HTH) and three Class-7 buses for the collection of duty cycle data. In addition, ORNL collaborated with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to determine if there were possible synergies between this duty cycle data collection effort and FMCSA s need to learn more about the operation and duty cycles of medium trucks. FMCSA s primary interest was in collecting safety data relative to the driver, carrier, and vehicle. In Part 2 of the project, ORNL partnered with the Knoxville Utilities Board, which made available three Class-8 trucks. Fountain City Wrecker Service was also a Part 2 partner, providing three Class-6 rollback trucks. In order to collect the duty cycle and safety-related data, ORNL developed a data acquisition system (DAS) that was placed on each test vehicle. Each signal recorded in this FOT was collected by means of one of the instruments incorporated into each DAS. Other signals were obtained directly from the vehicle s J1939 and J1708 data buses. A VBOX II Lite collected information available from a global positioning system (GPS), including speed, acceleration, and spatial location information at a rate of 5 Hz for the Part 1 FOT. For the Part 2 FOT, this information was obtained from DAS-based GPS instrumentation. The Air-Weigh LoadMaxx, a self-weighing system that determines the vehicle s gross weight by means of pressure transducers, was used to collect vehicle payload information for the combination, urban transit, and towing and recovery vehicles. A cellular modem, the Raven X EVDO V4221, facilitated the communication between the eDAQ-lite (the data collection engine of the system) and the user. The modem functioned as a wireless gateway, allowing data retrievals and system checks to be performed remotely. Also, in partnership with FMCSA, two additional safety sensors were installed on the combination vehicles: the MGM e-Stroke brake monitoring system and the Tire SafeGuard tire pressure monitoring system. All of these sensors posted data to the J1939 data bus, enabling the signals to be read withou...

  8. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so through gratis partnerships in return for early access to the results of this study. Partnerships such as these are critical to FOTs in which real-world data is being collected. In Part 1 of the project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL) established partnerships with the H.T. Hackney Company, one of the largest wholesale distributors in the country, distributing products to 21 states; and with the Knoxville Area Transit (KAT), the City of Knoxville s transit system, operating services across the city of Knoxville and parts of Knox co. These partnerships and agreements provided ORNL access to three Class-7 2005/2007 International day-cab tractors, model 8600, which regularly haul 28 ft pup trailers (H.T. Hackney Co) and three Class-7 2005 Optima LF-34 buses (KAT), for collection of duty cycle data. In addition, ORNL has collaborated with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to determine if there were possible synergies between this duty cycle data collection effort and FMCSA s need to learn more about the operation and duty cycles of the second-largest fuel consuming commercial vehicle category in the US. FMCSA s primary interest was in collecting safety data relative to the driver, carrier, and vehicle. In order to collect the duty cycle and safety-related data, ORNL developed a data acquisition and wireless communication system that was placed on each test vehicle. Each signal recorded in this FOT was collected by means of one of the instruments incorporated into each data acquisition system (DAS). Native signals were obtained directly from the vehicle s J1939 and J1708 data buses. A VBOX II Lite collected Global Positioning System related information including speed, acceleration, and spatial location information at a rate of 5 Hz, and communicated this data via the CAN (J1939) protocol. The Air-Weigh LoadMaxx, a self-weighing system which determines the vehicle s gross weight by means of pressure transducers and posts the weight to the vehicle s J1939 data bus, was used to collect vehicle payload information. A cellular modem, the Raven X EVDO V4221, facilitated the communication between the eDAQ-lite (the data collection engine of the system) and the user, via the internet. The modem functioned as a wireless gateway, allowing data retrievals and system checks to be performed remotely. Also, and in partnership with FMCSA, two additional safety sensors were installed on the combination vehicles: the MGM e-Stroke brake monitoring system and the Tire SafeGuard tire pressure monitoring system. Both of these systems posted data to the J1939 data bus, enabling these signals to be read without any additional DAS interface hardware. Seventy-three signals from the different deployed sensors and available vehicle systems were collected. Because of the differences in vehicle data buses (i.e., J1939 and J1708 data buses), not all desired signals were available for both types of vehicles. The s...

  9. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Casuccio; Michael Potter; Fred Schwerer; Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. Scott Story

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet or bloom disposition; and alloy development. Additional benefits of ASCAT include the identification of inclusions that tend to clog nozzles or interact with refractory materials. Several papers outlining the benefits of the ASCAT have been presented and published in the literature. The paper entitled ''Inclusion Analysis to Predict Casting Behavior'' was awarded the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Medal in 2004 for special merit and importance to the steel industry. The ASCAT represents a quantum leap in inclusion analysis and will allow steel producers to evaluate the quality of steel and implement appropriate process improvements. In terms of performance, the ASCAT (1) allows for accurate classification of inclusions by chemistry and morphological parameters, (2) can characterize hundreds of inclusions within minutes, (3) is easy to use (does not require experts), (4) is robust, and (5) has excellent image quality for conventional SEM investigations (e.g., the ASCAT can be utilized as a dual use instrument). In summary, the ASCAT will significantly advance the tools of the industry and addresses an urgent and broadly recognized need of the steel industry. Commercialization of the ASCAT will focus on (1) a sales strategy that leverages our Industry Partners; (2) use of ''technical selling'' through papers and seminars; (3) leveraging RJ Lee Group's consulting services, and packaging of the product with a extensive consulting and training program; (4) partnering with established SEM distributors; (5) establishing relationships with professional organizations associated with the steel industry; and (6) an individualized plant by plant direct sales program.

  10. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi