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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

9,248,559 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of January 16, 2015  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOEís Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

2

9,981,117 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of April 2, 2015 | Department...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

3

9,449,421 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 12, 2015...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

4

9,805,742 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 27, 2015...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

5

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only active lithium carbonate plant in the United States was a brine operation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

94 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only active lithium carbonate plant in the United States was a brine operation in Nevada. Two companies produced a large array of downstream lithium compounds in the United States from domestic or South

6

(Data in metric tons of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

146 SILVER (Data in metric tons 1 of silver content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production.S. refiners of commercial-grade silver, with an estimated total output of 6,500 tons from domestic and foreign to minimize odor, electroplating, hardening bearings, inks, mirrors, solar cells, water purification, and wood

7

(Data in metric tons of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

146 SILVER (Data in metric tons 1 of silver content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production.S. refiners of commercial-grade silver, with an estimated total output of 6,500 tons from domestic and foreign, hardening bearings, inks, mirrors, solar cells, water purification, and wood treatment to resist mold

8

(Data in metric tons of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

146 SILVER (Data in metric tons 1 of silver content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production, with an estimated total output of 2,500 tons from domestic and foreign ores and concentrates, and from old and new, mirrors, solar cells, water purification, and wood treatment. Silver was used for miniature antennas

9

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content, unless noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combined production accounted for nearly 80% of the U.S. total. The trend for recent U.S. gold exploration68 GOLD (Data in metric tons1 of gold content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: Gold was recovered as a byproduct of processing base metals, chiefly copper. Twenty-five lode mines yielded

10

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hafnium metal was insignificant. Import Sources (1997-2000): Zirconium ores and concentrates: South Africa%; Germany, 7%; United Kingdom, 2%; and other, 9%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12 Stockpile, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held over 500 tons of zirconium in various forms. DOE also

11

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Import Sources (1995-98): Zirconium ores and concentrates: South Africa, 53%; Australia, 45%; and other Kingdom, 4%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12/31/99 Zirconium ores and concentrates 2615.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held over 500 tons of zirconium in various forms. DOE also maintained a supply

12

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hafnium metal was insignificant. Import Sources (1998-2001): Zirconium ores and concentrates: South Africa%; Germany, 8%; United Kingdom, 3%; and other, 9%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12,838 short tons) of zirconium ore (baddeleyite) during fiscal year 2002. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE

13

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was insignificant. Import Sources (1996-99): Zirconium ores and concentrates: South Africa, 56%; Australia, 41, 4%; and other, 9%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12/31/00 Zirconium ores.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held over 500 tons of zirconium in various forms. DOE also maintained a stockpile

14

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metal recycled by the titanium industry totaled about 18,000 tons in 2001. Estimated use of titanium as scrap and in the form of ferrotitanium made from scrap by the steel industry was about 6,000 tons; by the superalloy industry, 900 tons; and, in other industries, 700 tons. Old scrap reclaimed totaled about 500 tons

15

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2002 declined to 1.13 million metric tons and was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- and nickel-base scrap), brass mills recovered 70%; copper smelters and refiners, 8%; ingot makers, 1156 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic, accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in three other States. Although

16

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2000 declined to 1.45 million metric tons and was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scrap, brass mills recovered 67%; copper smelters and refiners,18%; ingot makers, 11%; and miscellaneous52 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic, and Montana, accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in three other

17

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2001 declined to 1.34 million metric tons and was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scrap (including aluminum- and nickel-base scrap), brass mills recovered 65%; copper smelters54 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic, accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in three other States. Although

18

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 1999 declined to 1.66 million metric tons and was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mills. Of the total copper recovered from scrap, brass mills recovered 67%; copper smelters and refiners56 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic, Nevada, and Montana, accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines

19

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 1998 declined to 1.85 million metric tons and was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, copper smelters and refiners recovered 23%; ingot makers, 10%; brass mills, 63%; and miscellaneous56 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic, Nevada, and Montana, accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines

20

TITANIUM MINERAL CONCENTRATES1 (Data in thousand metric tons of contained TiO2 unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and pigment industries. Global production of titanium mineral concentrates was expected to increase during half of 2015. In Western Australia, the heavy-mineral resource, data for at the Keysbrook project were172 TITANIUM MINERAL CONCENTRATES1 (Data in thousand metric tons of contained TiO2 unless otherwise

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the atmosphere. o Accounts for 20% of methane emissions from human sources. Globally cattle produce about 80 million metric tons of methane annually. o Accounts for 28% of global methane emissions

Toohey, Darin W.

22

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E E E E E Recycling: New scrap metal recycled by the titanium industry was about 25,000 tons in 1996 industry was 4,700 tons; by the superalloy industry, 730 tons; and in other industries, 510 tons. Old scrap nation (MFN) Non-MFN3 12/31/96 12/31/96 Waste and scrap metal 8108.10.1000 Free Free. Unwrought metal

23

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2012 increased by 4% to about 1.15 million tons,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined or remelted scrap contributed about48 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2012 increased by 4% to about 1.15 million tons

24

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2011 increased slightly to about 1.1 million tons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined or remelted scrap contributed about48 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2011 increased slightly to about 1.1 million tons

25

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manufacturers, foundries, and chemical plants, 11%; ingot makers,10%; and copper smelters and refiners, 548 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons

26

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stockpile Center continued to solicit offers for the sale of titanium sponge held in the Government-grade sponge. For fiscal year 2001, 4,540 tons of titanium sponge is being offered for sale. Stockpile Status for disposal FY 2000 FY 2000 Titanium sponge 19,100 3,390 19,100 4,540 4,240 Ev

27

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumption E E E E E Recycling: New scrap metal recycled by the titanium industry totaled about 29,000 tons and automotive industries led to an increase in global production of TiO2 pigment compared with that in 2009

28

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2009 declined by about 9% to 1.2 million tons and its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

makers, 11%; and copper smelters and refiners, 6%. Copper in all old and new, refined or remelted scrap48 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic--Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, and Montana--accounted for more than 99% of domestic production; copper also

29

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2008 increased by about 12% to 1.3 million tons and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plants, 14%; ingot makers, 9%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined50 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic--Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, and Montana--accounted for more than 99% of domestic production; copper also

30

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2004 rose to 1.16 million tons and was valued at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scrap (including aluminum- and nickel-base scrap), brass mills recovered 71%; copper smelters54 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in four other States. Although copper was recovered

31

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2007 declined nominally to 1.19 million tons, but its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plants, 11%; ingot makers, 9%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined54 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic--Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, and Montana--accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also

32

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2006 rose to more than 1.2 million tons and was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manufacturers, foundries, and chemical plants, 12%; ingot makers, 10%; and copper smelters and refiners, 452 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Mexico, Nevada, and Montana--accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines

33

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2003 declined to 1.12 million tons and was valued at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- and nickel-base scrap), brass mills recovered 70%; copper smelters and refiners, 6%; ingot makers, 1254 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in three other States. Although copper

34

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2005 fell nominally to 1.15 million tons and was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(including aluminum- and nickel-base scrap), brass mills recovered 73%; copper smelters and refiners, 556 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Mexico, Nevada, and Montana, accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines

35

9,030,305 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of January 6, 2015 ...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed...

36

9,959,066 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of March 26, 2015 |...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed...

37

9,932,381 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of March 18, 2015 |...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed...

38

9,894,105 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of March 12, 2015 |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed...

39

8,993,963 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of December 17, 2014...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed...

40

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine in the United States was a brine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

94 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine in the United States was a brine operation in Nevada. The mine's production capacity was expanded in 2012, and a new lithium hydroxide plant opened in North

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

(Data in metric tons of lithium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

100 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China, Russia, and the United States were large producers also. Australia, Canada, and Zimbabwe were major producers of lithium

42

(Data in metric tons of lithium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

98 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China, Russia, and the United States were large producers also. Australia, Canada, and Zimbabwe were major producers of lithium

43

(Data in metric tons of lithium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

96 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China, Russia, and the United States were large producers also. Australia, Canada, and Zimbabwe were major producers of lithium

44

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine operating in the United States was a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

94 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine operating in the United States was a brine operation in Nevada. Two companies produced a large array of downstream lithium compounds in the United States from

45

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2009, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

44 CLAYS (Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2009, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies operated approximately 830% drilling mud, 17% foundry sand bond, 14% iron ore pelletizing, and 20% other uses; common clay--57% brick

46

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2008, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

46 CLAYS (Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2008, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 190 companies operated approximately 830% drilling mud, 17% foundry sand bond, 14% iron ore pelletizing, and 20% other uses; common clay--57% brick

47

(Data in metric tons of contained lithium, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world, followed by China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but growing through the recycling of lithium batteries. Import Sources (1994-97): Chile, 96%; and other, 4 lithium salts from battery recycling and lithium hydroxide monohydrate from former Department of Energy102 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of contained lithium, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production

48

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Limited shipments of tungsten concentrates were made from a California mine in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

178 TUNGSTEN (Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and primary products, wrought and unwrought tungsten, and waste and scrap: China, 43%; Germany, 11%; Canada,630 1,450 Events, Trends, and Issues: World tungsten supply was dominated by Chinese production

49

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: A tungsten mine in California produced concentrates in 2012. Approximately eight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TUNGSTEN (Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and concentrates, intermediate and primary products, wrought and unwrought tungsten, and waste and scrap: China, 45,200 3,630 1,610 Events, Trends, and Issues: World tungsten supply was dominated by Chinese production

50

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: One mine in California produced tungsten concentrates in 2010. Approximately  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TUNGSTEN (Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production. Import Sources (2006≠09): Tungsten contained in ores and concentrates, intermediate and primary products, Trends, and Issues: World tungsten supply is dominated by Chinese production and exports. China

51

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: A mine in California produced tungsten concentrates in 2009. Approximately eight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TUNGSTEN (Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production. Import Sources (2005-08): Tungsten contained in ores and concentrates, intermediate and primary products, and Issues: World tungsten supply was dominated by Chinese production and exports. China's Government limited

52

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: A tungsten mine in California produced concentrates in 2013. Approximately eight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

174 TUNGSTEN (Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and concentrates, intermediate and primary products, wrought and unwrought tungsten, and waste and scrap: China, 45,100 2,300 2,240 Events, Trends, and Issues: World tungsten supply was dominated by Chinese production

53

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: One mine in California produced tungsten concentrates in 2011. Approximately  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TUNGSTEN (Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production (2007≠10): Tungsten contained in ores and concentrates, intermediate and primary products, wrought: World tungsten supply is dominated by Chinese production and exports. China's Government regulates its

54

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production, which had remained unchanged in 1995, resumed the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recovered from scrap, copper smelters and refiners recovered 26%; ingot makers, 10%; brass mills, 5752 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in six other States. While copper was recovered

55

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 1995 continued its upward trend, begun in 1984, rising  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in new scrap was consumed at brass mills. Of the total copper recovered from scrap, copper smelters50 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless noted) Domestic Production, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Montana, and Michigan, accounted for 97% of domestic production; copper

56

Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric Tons of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergyIDIQBusiness CompetitionDepartmentand Reduce Energy Costs |HelpCarbon

57

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 1997 was essentially unchanged at 1.9 million metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

52 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Mexico, Nevada, and Montana, accounted for 98% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines in six other States. While copper was recovered at about 35 mines operating in the United States, 15

58

E-Print Network 3.0 - air quality metrics Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(annually) 2. Particulate matter (PM10) a. Health hazard b. Visibility air quality 3. Dioxins... . Greenhouse gas b. Heating agent c. 40 million metric tons of carbon emissions...

59

(Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production of copper in 2010 declined by about 5% to 1.12 million  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plants, 14%; ingot makers, 11%; and copper smelters and refiners, 5%. Copper in all old and new, refined48 COPPER (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production of copper in 2010 declined by about 5% to 1.12 million tons

60

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Transportation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for) Electricity Export 1 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Computer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for) Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy...

62

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons of zirconium oxide (ZrO ) equivalent, unless otherwise noted)2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and concentrates: Australia, 51%; South Africa, 48%; and other, 1%. Zirconium, wrought, unwrought, waste and scrap: France, 69%; Australia, 21%; Germany, 8%; and United Kingdom, 2%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held over 500 tons of zirconium in various forms. DOE also

63

DOE Partner Begins Injecting 50,000 Tons of CO2 in Michigan Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Building on an initial injection project of 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide into a Michigan geologic formation, a U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 50,000 additional tons into the formation, which is believed capable of storing hundreds of years worth of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

64

Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDITOhioOglesby,Sullivan,Information FeedColombia: Energy7Common Carbon

65

(Data in metric tons of tin content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined domestically since 1993. Production of tin at the only U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined domestically since 1993. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter, at Texas City, TX, stopped in 1989. Twenty-five firms used about 92% of the primary tin consumed

66

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

170 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms used about 90% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2012. The major uses were as follows

67

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined domestically since 1993. Production of tin at the only U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

174 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined domestically since 1993. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter, at Texas City, TX, stopped in 1989. Twenty-five firms used about 80% of the primary tin consumed

68

(Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1998, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

180 TIN (Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1998, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter, at Texas City, TX, stopped in 1989. Twenty-five firms consumed about 85% of the primary tin. The major uses

69

(Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1997, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

178 TIN (Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1997, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter, at Texas City, TX, stopped in 1989. Twenty-five firms consumed about 85% of the primary tin. The major uses

70

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

172 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms used about 81% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2006. The major uses were as follows

71

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

172 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms used about 86% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2008. The major uses were as follows

72

(Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1999, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TIN (Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1999, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter, at Texas City, TX, stopped in 1989. Twenty-five firms consumed about 97% of the primary tin. The major uses

73

(Data in metric tons of tin content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined domestically since 1993. Production of tin at the only U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

174 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined domestically since 1993. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter, at Texas City, TX, stopped in 1989. Twenty-five firms used about 77% of the primary tin consumed

74

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms used about 81% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2005. The major uses were as follows

75

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

170 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms used about 84% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2009. The major uses were as follows

76

(Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1996, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

178 TIN (Data in metric tons of contained tin, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1996, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter, at Texas City, TX, stopped in 1989. Twenty-five firms consumed about 85% of the primary tin. The major uses

77

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

168 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms accounted for about 90% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2013. The major uses for tin

78

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

170 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms used about 91% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2010. The major uses were as follows

79

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

176 TIN (Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989, respectively. Twenty-five firms used about 84% of the primary tin consumed domestically in 2007. The major uses were as follows

80

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual carbon balance Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rate in Virginia (metric tons... ;8 Table 6. Estimate the gross value of your carbon offset Year Rate1 Acres Annual tonnage Estimated annual... in our atmosphere are...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

(Data in metric tons of contained lithium, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States was the largest producer and consumer of lithium minerals and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,000 tons of the material from the Department of Energy's stockpile, while the remaining 10,000 tons,700 1,800 150,000 160,000e Bolivia -- -- -- 5,400,00 Brazil 32 32 910 NA Canada 660 660 180,000 360

82

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2013, 5 companies operated 10 primary aluminum smelters; 3 smelters were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2013, 5 companies operated 10 primary aluminum smelters; 3 smelters were closed temporarily, and Issues: In February 2013, the owner of the 270,000-ton-per-year Hannibal, OH, smelter filed for chapter in October. In June, the Sebree, KY, smelter was sold as part of a corporate restructuring. Expansion

83

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1999, clays were produced in most States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and 32% other uses; bentonite--26% foundry sand bond, 23% pet waste absorbent, 20% drilling mud, 16% iron,710 Total3 43,000 43,100 41,800 41,600 42,200 Imports for consumption 35 45 64 86 97 Exports 4,680 4,830 5,080 5,230 4,700 Consumption, apparent 38,500 38,300 36,800 36,500 37,600 Price, average, dollars per ton

84

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1998, clays were produced in most States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% foundry sand bond, 23% drilling mud, 17% pet waste absorbent, 15% iron ore pelletizing, and 9% other uses,100 43,100 42,000 43,0003 Imports for consumption 36 35 45 64 75 Exports 4,620 4,680 4,830 5,080 5,100 Consumption, apparent 37,600 38,500 38,300 37,000 38,000 Price, average, dollars per ton: Ball clay 43 46 44

85

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2003, clay and shale production was reported in all States except Alaska,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; bentonite-- 25% pet waste absorbent, 21% drilling mud, 21% foundry sand bond, 15% iron ore pelletizing,300 Imports for consumption: Artificially activated clay and earth 17 18 21 27 20 Kaolin 57 63 114 158 275,980 Consumption, apparent 37,500 35,600 34,800 34,600 34,600 Price, average, dollars per ton: Ball clay 40 42 42

86

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

by at least 3 billion metric tons in total by 2030, equal to more than a year's carbon pollution from the entire U.S. electricity system. Furnace fans are used to circulate air...

87

Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

88

5 DECEMBER 2014 VOL 346 ISSUE 6214 1189SCIENCE sciencemag.org he social cost of carbon (SCC) is a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

climate change damages associated with a one-metric-ton reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions- til a federal court held in 2008 that carbon emission reductions have nonzero value. After a brief to 2015. The SCC is the difference in damage valuations with and without the extra ton of CO2 in 2015

Napp, Nils

89

Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide. Introduction Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per capita are released annually into the atmosphere.1a,b CarbonStorage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks

Yaghi, Omar M.

90

New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project, since its start in 2007óentitled ďNetworks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storageĒ (2007-10) and ďNew pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospacesĒ (2010-13)óis in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Programís comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007ómetal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storageósorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (ď5.5 wt%Ē) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have demonstrated the predicted increase in binding energy experimentally, currently at ~10 kJ/mol. The synthetic route for incorporation of boron at the outset is to create appropriately designed copoly- mers, with a boron-free and a boron-carrying monomer, followed by pyrolysis of the polymer, yielding a bo- ron-substituted carbon scaffold in which boron atoms are bonded to carbon atoms by synthesis. This is in contrast to a second route (funded by DE-FG36-08GO18142) in which first high-surface area carbon is cre- ated and doped by surface vapor deposition of boron, with incorporation of the boron into the lattice the final step of the fabrication. The challenge in the first route is to create high surface areas without compromising sp2 boron-carbon bonds. The challenge in the second route is to create sp2 boron-carbon bonds without com- promising high surface areas.

Pfeifer, Peter [University of Missouri; Wexler, Carlos [University of Missouri; Hawthorne, M. Frederick [University of Missouri; Lee, Mark W. [University of Missouri; Jalistegi, Satish S. [University of Missouri

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

Transport mode and network architecture : carbon footprint as a new decision metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis examines the tradeoffs between carbon footprint, cost, time and risk across three case studies of United States' perishable or consumer packaged goods firms and their transportation partners. Building upon ...

Andrieu, Nelly

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

93

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; South Africa, 37%; China, 3%; Canada, 1%; and other, 2%. Zirconium, unwrought, including powder: France coatings, and sandblasting. The leading consumers of zirconium and hafnium metal are the nuclear energy Kingdom, 5%; and other, 9%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12-31-08 Zirconium ores

94

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sources (2002-05): Zirconium ores and concentrates: Australia, 57%; South Africa, 35%; China, 4%; Canada consumers of zirconium and hafnium metal are the nuclear energy and chemical process industries. Salient%; Japan, 4%; and other, 2%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12-31-06 Zirconium ores

95

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentrates: South Africa, 52%; Australia, 43%; and other, 5%. Zirconium, unwrought, including powder: Japan. The leading consumers of zirconium metal and hafnium metal are the nuclear energy and chemical process, 58%; Australia, 24%; Germany, 11%; other, 7%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12

96

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; South Africa, 46%; China, 3%; Russia, 1%; and other, 1%. Zirconium, unwrought, including powder: France coatings, and sandblasting. The leading consumers of zirconium and hafnium metal are the nuclear energy, 21%; Canada, 8%; United Kingdom, 6%; and other, 5%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12

97

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was insignificant. Import Sources (2008­11): Zirconium mineral concentrates: Australia, 52%; South Africa, 42. The leading consumers of zirconium metal and hafnium metal are the nuclear energy and chemical process: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12­31­12 Zirconium ores and concentrates 2615.10.0000 Free

98

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentrates: Australia, 49%; South Africa, 44%; and other, 7%. Zirconium, unwrought, including powder: Germany. The leading consumers of zirconium metal and hafnium metal are the nuclear energy and chemical process, 17%; United Kingdom, 5%; and other, 9%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12-31-11 Zirconium

99

ZIRCONIUM AND HAFNIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; South Africa, 32%; China, 4%; Canada, 2%; and other, 1%. Zirconium, unwrought, including powder: France coatings, and sandblasting. The leading consumers of zirconium and hafnium metal are the nuclear energy, 2%; Austria, 1%; and other, 1%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12-31-07 Zirconium ores

100

(Data in metric tons of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

odor, electronics and circuit boards, electroplating, hardening bearings, inks, mirrors, solar cells,250 1,250 1,280 Refinery: Primary 2,210 791 779 796 800 Secondary (new and old scrap) 1,110 1,220 1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy Department Sponsored Project Captures One Millionth Metric Ton of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles asSecondCareer Awards | U.S. DOE Office ofCO2 |

102

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, ammonia and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.) ~Indirect: Phosphorus in excess causes eutrophication

Toohey, Darin W.

103

Reading the Tea Leaves: How Utilities in the West Are Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in their Resource Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and are currently in theper metric ton CO 2 . Under RGGI, a cap on CO 2 emissions in

Barbose, Galen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The Governmentalization of ďLifestyleĒ and the Biopolitics of Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tim Jackson, ďThe Carbon Footprint of UK Households 1990-tried to quantify the carbon footprints (or similar metrics)

Lipschutz, Ronnie D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Metrics for enterprise transformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

plutonium to meet the non-proliferation goals agreed to by the United States and Russia in September 2000. Eliminating immobilization from the disposition pathway saves...

107

DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Energy and NTI Announce Key Nonproliferation Project with Kazakhstan U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting 20,000 Russian Nuclear...

108

9,355,469 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of January 29, 2015...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Unit of the Anadarko Basin. Learn more about the DOE's RCSP Program. Major Demonstrations Air Products.jpg Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., is...

109

(Data in metric tons1 of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, electronics, electroplating, medical and wound care, mirrors, solar energy, and water purification. Salient base8 2004 2005e United States 1,250 1,300 25,000 80,000 Australia 2,240 2,250 31,000 37,000 Canada 1

110

(Data in metric tons1 of silver content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,250 2,000 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 220 232 109 -- -- Consumption, apparent NA NA 4 and technical uses. Industrial and technical uses include photographic materials, electrical products, catalysts,360 1,700 1,700 Imports for consumption2 3,250 3,010 2,540 3,330 2,800 Exports2 2,890 2,950 3,080 2

111

(Data in metric tons1 of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

odor, electronics and circuit boards, electroplating, hardening bearings, inks, mirrors, solar cells,230 1,230 Refinery: Primary 2,530 2,210 791 779 1,600 Secondary (new and old scrap) 981 1,110 1,220 1

112

(Data in metric tons1 of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

boards, electroplating, hardening bearings, mirrors, solar cells, wood treatment to resist mold,140 1,220 Refinery: Primary 2,580 1,140 2,530 3,150 2,500 Secondary (old scrap) 1,010 1,920 980 1,500 1

113

(Data in metric tons1 of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

odor, electronics and circuit boards, electroplating, hardening bearings, inks, mirrors, solar cells,260 1,120 Refinery: Primary 1,140 2,530 3,150 4,110 2,500 Secondary (old scrap) 1,920 980 1,500 1,540 1

114

(Data in metric tons1 of silver content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, hardening bearings, mirrors, solar cells, wood treatment to resist mold, and water purification. Silver,580 2,580 1,140 2,530 1,000 Secondary 1,030 1,010 1,920 980 1,050 Imports for consumption2 4,300 4,510 4

115

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and the U.S. Department of Defense administers a Government-wide secondary precious metals recovery program 1999 2000 2001e Production: Mine 362 366 341 353 350 Refinery: Primary 270 277 265 197 220 Secondary

116

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and the U.S. Department of Defense administers a Governmentwide secondary precious-metals recovery program 2008e Production: Mine 258 256 252 238 230 Refinery: Primary 222 195 181 176 170 Secondary (new and old

117

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1997 1998 1999e Production: Mine 317 326 362 366 340 Refinery: Primary (2 ) (2 ) 270 277 260 Secondary above) and the U.S. Department of Defense administers a Government-wide secondary precious metals recovery program. Prepared by Earle B. Amey [(703) 648-4969, eamey@usgs.gov, fax: (703) 648-7757] #12

118

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006e Production: Mine 298 277 258 256 260 Refinery: Primary 196 194 222 163 180 Secondary (new and old above), and the U.S. Department of Defense administers a Government wide secondary precious-metals recovery program. Events, Trends, and Issues: Domestic gold mine production in 2006 was estimated to be 2

119

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and the U.S. Department of Defense administers a Government-wide secondary precious metals recovery program Secondary (new and old scrap) 163 143 82 83 85 Imports2 278 221 223 193 125 Exports2 522 523 547 489 165

120

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007e Production: Mine 277 258 256 252 240 Refinery: Primary 194 222 195 181 190 Secondary (new and old above), and the U.S. Department of Defense administers a Governmentwide secondary precious-metals recovery program. Events, Trends, and Issues: Domestic gold mine production in 2007 was estimated to be 6

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

(Data in metric tons1 of gold content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

above) and the U.S. Department of Defense administers a secondary precious metals recovery program Secondary (new and old scrap) 143 82 83 89 95 Imports2 221 223 194 217 220 Exports2 523 547 489 257 320

122

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons, unless noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and lacquers, 47%; paper, 24%; plastics, 18%; and other, 11%. Other uses of TiO2 included catalysts, ceramics level in 1995 and demand decreased slightly. A shift in the global supply demand scenario pushed demand

123

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

import reliance 2 as a percentage of apparent consumption E E E E E Recycling: New scrap metal recycled in 2011. Increased consumption and production of TiO2 pigment was led by China. To meet rising domestic

124

TITANIUM AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE1 (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a percentage of apparent consumption E E E E E Recycling: New scrap metal recycled by the titanium industry. Consumption and production of TiO2 pigment was led by China, and several TiO2 pigment producers in China

125

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rare earths consumed in the United States was more than $500 million. Principal uses were in petroleum and Foreign). Government Stockpile: Stockpile Status--9-30-95 Uncommitted Committed Authorized Disposals was reported in the first half of the year. China remained a major source of separated rare-earth compounds

126

DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department ofTheEnergyWeapons Stockpile | Department of

127

DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FYBeauTransition Documents - 2008 DOEDOEDOE

128

U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept. of Energy, Office ofNuclear Weapons StrategyU.S.Department

129

Tons of Heavy Metals in Mill Creek Sediments Heather Freeman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

objectives for this summer research were to: 1.) determine how much heavy metal pollution has accumulatedTons of Heavy Metals in Mill Creek Sediments Heather Freeman 8/30/99 Geology Department Advisors: Dr. Kees DeJong Dr. Barry Manyard Dr. David Nash #12;Tons of heavy metals in Mill Creek sediments

Maynard, J. Barry

130

Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

The U.S. Department of Energy today released a report - 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry - detailing U.S. biomass feedstock...

131

Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

Hamada, Michael S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007:1Ė12 Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers 12.ISSUE PAPER Generalized utility metrics for supercomputersproblem of ranking the utility of supercom- puter systems

Strohmaier, Erich

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Quotients of Metric Spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the properties of quotient spaces of metric spaces. We will use "iff" as an abbreviation for "if and only if". If f is a function from X onto Y, we will write f: X --->> Y....

Herman, Robert A.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6 Growth in...

137

Cyber threat metrics.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Carbon Price Drivers:Carbon Price Drivers:Carbon Price Drivers:Carbon Price Drivers: AAAAnnnn UpdatedUpdatedUpdatedUpdated Literature ReviewLiterature ReviewLiterature ReviewLiterature Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as unexpected fluctuations in energy demand, energy prices (e.g., oil, gas, coal) and weather conditions1 Carbon Price Drivers:Carbon Price Drivers:Carbon Price Drivers:Carbon Price Drivers: AAAAnnnn the factors that shape the price of carbon, where one European Union Allowance is equal to one ton of CO2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF SRS 70 TON CASK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this work was to perform the thermal calculations to evaluate the Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel assembly temperatures inside the SRS 70-Ton Cask loaded with various bundle powers. MTR fuel consists of HFBR, MURR, MIT, and NIST. The MURR fuel was used to develop a bounding case since it is the fuel with the highest heat load. The results will be provided for technical input for the SRS 70 Ton Cask Onsite Safety Assessment. The calculation results show that for the SRS 70 ton dry cask with 2750 watts total heat source with a maximum bundle heat of 670 watts and 9 bundles of MURR bounding fuel, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are below about 263 C. Maximum top surface temperature of the plastic cover is about 112 C, much lower than its melting temperature 260 C. For 12 bundles of MURR bounding fuel with 2750 watts total heat and a maximum fuel bundle of 482 watts, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are bounded by the 9 bundle case. The component temperatures of the cask were calculated by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach. The modeling calculations were performed by considering daily-averaged solar heat flux.

Lee, S.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

140

Performance Metrics for Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial building owners and operators have requested a standard set of key performance metrics to provide a systematic way to evaluate the performance of their buildings. The performance metrics included in this document provide standard metrics for the energy, water, operations and maintenance, indoor environmental quality, purchasing, waste and recycling and transportation impact of their building. The metrics can be used for comparative performance analysis between existing buildings and industry standards to clarify the impact of sustainably designed and operated buildings.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Wang, Na; Romero, Rachel L.; Deru, Michael P.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Farm Buildings Pocketbook in Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some useful advice giving standards, dimensions and data in metric for those interested in the design of farm buildings

Anonymous

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area - Vault held waste...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area - Vault held waste tanks with contamination from Hanford's former laboratory facilities 1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area -...

143

RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

144

Metrics for Energy Resilience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

All conformally flat pure radiation metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The complete class of conformally flat, pure radiation metrics is given, generalising the metric recently given by Wils.

S. Brian Edgar; Garry Ludwig

1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

146

KCP relocates 18-ton machine | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNational Nuclear SecurityNationalApply for Our Jobs / HowSecurityrelocates 18-ton

147

Degenerate Metric Phase Boundaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure of boundaries between degenerate and nondegenerate solutions of Ashtekar's canonical reformulation of Einstein's equations is studied. Several examples are given of such "phase boundaries" in which the metric is degenerate on one side of a null hypersurface and non-degenerate on the other side. These include portions of flat space, Schwarzschild, and plane wave solutions joined to degenerate regions. In the last case, the wave collides with a planar phase boundary and continues on with the same curvature but degenerate triad, while the phase boundary continues in the opposite direction. We conjecture that degenerate phase boundaries are always null.

Ingemar Bengtsson; Ted Jacobson

1999-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

148

ARM - 2007 Performance Metrics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011AstudiesRing Under7 Performance Metrics Science

149

ARM - 2009 Performance Metrics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011AstudiesRing Under79 Performance Metrics Science

150

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

151

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant. [1500 and 210 metric tons heavy metal per year  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The second volume describes the requirements and functions of materials measurement and accounting systems (MMAS) and conceptual designs for an MMAS incorporating both conventional and near-real-time (dynamic) measurement and accounting techniques. Effectiveness evaluations, based on recently developed modeling, simulation, and analysis procedures, show that conventional accountability can meet IAEA goal quantities and detection times in these reference facilities only for low-enriched uranium. Dynamic materials accounting may meet IAEA goals for detecting the abrupt (1-3 weeks) diversion of 8 kg of plutonium. Current materials accounting techniques probably cannot meet the 1-y protracted-diversion goal of 8 kg for plutonium.

Hakkila, E.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Barnes, J.W.; Scheinman, L.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The approximate distribution in 2002 by end use was as follows: petroleum refining catalysts, 27%; glass polishing. The estimated value of refined rare earths consumed in the United States was more than $1 billion-earth metals, alloy 1,780 2,470 1,420 1,450 1,130 Cerium compounds 3,990 4,310 3,850 2,540 2,630 Mixed REOs 5

154

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 2001 by end use was as follows: glass polishing and ceramics, 34%; petroleum refining catalysts, 16-earth products. Domestic ore production was valued at an estimated $28 million. The estimated value of refined, alloy 953 1,780 2,470 1,420 1,520 Cerium compounds 4,940 3,990 4,310 3,850 2,660 Mixed REO's 2,530 5

155

RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, was as follows: chemical catalysts, 22%; metallurgical applications and alloys, 21%; petroleum refining catalysts, and importer of rare-earth products in 2010. The estimated value of refined rare earths imported by the United) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 867 784 564 188 250 Cerium compounds 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,500 1,400 Mixed REOs

156

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; permanent magnets, 16%; petroleum refining catalysts, 12%; metallurgical additives and alloys, 9%; rare-earth products. Domestic ore production was valued at an estimated $28 million. The estimated value of refined, alloy 529 953 1,780 2,470 1,670 Cerium compounds 1,810 4,940 3,990 4,310 4,940 Mixed REOs 974 2,530 5

157

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, televisions, computer monitors, radar, and X-ray intensifying film, 10%; petroleum refining catalysts, 8 continued to be a major exporter and consumer of rare-earth products in 2006. The estimated value of refined-earth metals, alloy 1,450 1,130 804 880 947 Cerium compounds 2,540 2,630 1,880 2,170 2,530 Mixed REOs 1,040 2

158

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; glass polishing and ceramics, 14%; metallurgical additives and alloys, 13%; petroleum refining catalysts continued to be a major exporter and consumer of rare-earth products in 2004. The estimated value of refined,980 Mixed REOs 2,190 2,040 1,040 2,150 1,540 Rare-earth chlorides 1,330 2,590 1,800 1,890 1,520 Rare

159

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, televisions, and x-ray-intensifying film, 14%; chemicals and petroleum refining catalysts, 11%; ceramics, 3, and importer of rare-earth products in 2008. The estimated value of refined rare earths imported by the United,880 2,170 2,590 2,680 2,180 Mixed REOs 1,660 640 1,570 2,570 2,750 Rare-earth chlorides 1,310 2,670 2

160

RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of rare earths by end use was as follows: automotive catalytic converters, 25%; petroleum refining, and consumer of rare-earth products in 2007. The estimated value of refined rare earths consumed in the United -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 1,130 804 880 867 831 Cerium compounds 2,630 1,880 2,170 2,590 3,090 Mixed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalytic converters, 9%; glass polishing and ceramics, 6%; permanent magnets, 5%; petroleum refining, and importer of rare-earth products in 2009. The estimated value of refined rare earths imported by the United) -- -- -- -- 20 Rare-earth metals, alloy 880 867 784 679 210 Cerium compounds 2,170 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,190 Mixed

162

TITANIUM MINERAL CONCENTRATES1 (Data in thousand metric tons of contained TiO2 unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mine tailings at Green Cove Springs, FL, ceased. At the Stony Creek mining operation, development to have decreased significantly. While mining continued at Starke, FL, and Stony Creek, VA, reprocessing operations in Sorel, Quebec, Canada. In response to uncertain market conditions, mining and TiO2 slag

163

TITANIUM MINERAL CONCENTRATES1 (Data in thousand metric tons of contained TiO2 unless otherwise noted)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a percentage of estimated consumption 76 78 68 65 68 Recycling: None. Import Sources (2007≠10): South Africa of titanium minerals was led by China. Although world mine production increased in 2011, a shortage

164

10,045,885 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of April 16, 2015 | Department of  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-TypeWelcome toFarmRenewableGschneidner,Energy

165

9,997,638 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of April 9, 2015 | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataCombinedDepartment2015 Information

166

Contraction semigroups on metric graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main objective of the present work is to study contraction semigroups generated by Laplace operators on metric graphs, which are not necessarily self-adjoint. We prove criteria for such semigroups to be continuity and positivity preserving. Also we provide a characterization of generators of Feller semigroups on metric graphs.

Vadim Kostrykin; Jurgen Potthoff; Robert Schrader

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

167

August 2003 IT SECURITY METRICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, efficiency, effectiveness, and the impact of the security controls. The process steps need not be sequen tial metrics program and provides examples of metrics based on the criti cal elements and security controls and techniques contained in NIST SP 800-26, Security Self-Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems

168

Variable metric conjugate gradient methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs deep beneath geological structures, and 30,000 to 35,000 million tonnes (33,069 to 38,580 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs on a regional dip >1,219 m (4,000 ft) deep. The major part of this effort assessed each of the three geological sinks: coals, oil reservoirs, and saline reservoirs. We linked and integrated options for capture, transportation, and geological storage with the environmental and regulatory framework to define sequestration scenarios and potential outcomes for the region. Extensive use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and visualization technology was made to convey results to project sponsors, other researchers, the business community, and the general public. An action plan for possible technology validation field tests involving CO{sub 2} injection was included in a Phase II proposal (successfully funded) to the U.S. Department of Energy with cost sharing from Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

Robert Finley

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

170

Case studies of the potential effects of carbon taxation on the stone, clay, and glass industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This case study focuses on the potential for a carbon tax ($25 and $100 per metric ton of carbon) to reduce energy use and associated carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions in three subsectors of the stone, clay, and glass industry: hydraulic cement, glass and glass products, and other products. A conservation supply curve analysis found that (1) opportunities for reducing fossil fuel use in the subsectors are limited (15% reduction under $100 tax) and (2) the relationship between the tax and reduced CO[sub 2] emissions is nonlinear and diminishing. Because cement manufacturing produces a significant amount of CO[sub 2], this subsector was analyzed. A plant-level analysis found more opportunities to mitigate CO[sub 2] emissions; under a $100 tax, fossil fuel use would decrease 52%. (A conservative estimate lies between 15% and 52%). It also confirmed the nonlinear relationship, suggesting significant benefits could result from small taxes (32% reduction under $25 tax). A fuel share analysis found the cement industry could reduce carbon loading 11% under a $100 tax if gas were substituted for coal. Under a $100 tax, cement demand would decrease 17% and its price would increase 32%, a substantial increase for a material commodity. Overall, CO[sub 2] emissions from cement manufacturing would decrease 24--33% under a $100 tax and 10--18% under a $25 tax. Much of the decrease would result from the reduced demand for cement.

Bock, M.J.; Boyd, G.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Rosenbaum, D.I. (Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Economics); Ross, M.H. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Case studies of the potential effects of carbon taxation on the stone, clay, and glass industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This case study focuses on the potential for a carbon tax ($25 and $100 per metric ton of carbon) to reduce energy use and associated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in three subsectors of the stone, clay, and glass industry: hydraulic cement, glass and glass products, and other products. A conservation supply curve analysis found that (1) opportunities for reducing fossil fuel use in the subsectors are limited (15% reduction under $100 tax) and (2) the relationship between the tax and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions is nonlinear and diminishing. Because cement manufacturing produces a significant amount of CO{sub 2}, this subsector was analyzed. A plant-level analysis found more opportunities to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions; under a $100 tax, fossil fuel use would decrease 52%. (A conservative estimate lies between 15% and 52%). It also confirmed the nonlinear relationship, suggesting significant benefits could result from small taxes (32% reduction under $25 tax). A fuel share analysis found the cement industry could reduce carbon loading 11% under a $100 tax if gas were substituted for coal. Under a $100 tax, cement demand would decrease 17% and its price would increase 32%, a substantial increase for a material commodity. Overall, CO{sub 2} emissions from cement manufacturing would decrease 24--33% under a $100 tax and 10--18% under a $25 tax. Much of the decrease would result from the reduced demand for cement.

Bock, M.J.; Boyd, G.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Rosenbaum, D.I. [Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ross, M.H. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Daylight metrics and energy savings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Normalization of Process Safety Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and organizational risks, there is an emerging need to evaluate the process safety implementation across an organization through measurements. Thus, the process safety metric is applied as a powerful tool that measures safety activities, status, and performance...

Wang, Mengtian

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

175

Segmental alternations and metrical theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

Vaysman, Olga

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Characterization of Arsenic Contamination on Rust from Ton Containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The speciation and spatial distribution of arsenic on rusted steel surfaces affects both measurement and removal approaches. The chemistry of arsenic residing in the rust of ton containers that held the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard) and 2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine (Lewisite) is of particular interest, because while the agents have been decontaminated, residual arsenic could pose a health or environmental risk. The chemistry and distribution of arsenic in rust samples was probed using imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Arsenic in the +3 and or +5 oxidation state is homogeneously distributed at the very top-most layer of the rust samples, and is intimately associated with iron. Sputter depth profiling followed by SIMS and XPS shows As at a depth of several nm, in some cases in a reduced form. The SEM/EDX experiments show that As is present at a depth of several microns, but is inhomogeneously distributed; most locations contained oxidized As at concentrations of a few percent, however several locations showed very high As in a metallic form. These results indicate that the rust material must be removed if the steel containers are to be cleared of arsenic.

Gary S. Groenewold; Recep Avci; Robert V. Fox; Muhammedin Deliorman; Jayson Suo; Laura Kellerman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A relevance of documentation metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A RELEVANCE OF DOCUMENTATION METRIC A Thesis by JUSTIN WILLIAM PATTERSON Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1996 Major... Subject: Computer Science A RELEVANCE OF DOCUMENTATION METRIC A Thesis by JUSTIN WILLIAM PATTERSON Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by...

Patterson, Justin William

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

DAYLIGHTING METRICS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is now widely accepted that the standard method for daylighting evaluation- the daylight factor- is due for replacement with metrics founded on absolute values for luminous quantities predicted over the course of a full year using sun and sky conditions derived from standardised climate files. The move to more realistic measures of daylighting introduces significant levels of additional complexity in both the simulation of the luminous quantities and the reduction of the simulation data to readily intelligible metrics. The simulation component, at least for buildings with standard glazing materials, is reasonably well understood. There is no consensus however on the composition of the metrics, and their formulation is an ongoing area of active research. Additionally, non-domestic and residential buildings present very different evaluation scenarios and it is not yet clear if a single metric would be applicable to both. This study uses a domestic dwelling as the setting to investigate and explore the applicability of daylighting metrics for residential buildings. In addition to daylighting provision for task and disclosing the potential for reducing electric lighting usage, we also investigate the formulation of metrics for non-visual effects such as entrainment of the circadian system.

unknown authors

179

ORIGINAL PAPER Sustainability metrics for eco-technologies assessment, Part II.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a sustainability analysis of CO2 reuse to produce dimethyl carbonate (DMC) via eth- ylene oxide (ROUTE A) and via-to-gate in assessing pro- cess sustainability during LCA. Keywords Sustainability metrics √Ā CO2 sequestration √Ā LCA for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production. The study aimed to assess sustainability and pointed towards routes

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

180

COSMOS{sup SM} based composite metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process improvement is one of the goals of many organizations. Metrics for measuring process improvement are key to consistent, focused improvement. This paper introduces an approach for developing robust metrics suitable for measuring the improvement in complex processes. The approach uses the Cosmos framework to guide the user in where to collect metrics and it uses the composite metric to guide the user in how to collect metrics.

Culross, M.J.; Leslie, M.D.; Toland, J.A. [Raytheon E-Systems, Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Horizon thermodynamics and composite metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the conditions under which the thermodynamic behaviour of gravity can be explained within an emergent gravity scenario, where the metric is defined as a composite operator. We show that due to the availability of a boundary of a boundary principle for the quantum effective action, Clausius-like relations can always be constructed. Hence, any true explanation of the thermodynamic nature of the metric tensor has to be referred to an equilibration process, associated to the presence of an H-theorem, possibly driven by decoherence induced by the pregeometric degrees of freedom, and their entanglement with the geometric ones.

Lorenzo Sindoni

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

183

Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery Act Funds  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project reached its primary American Recovery and Reinvestment Act milestone ahead of schedule on Wednesday with the disposal of 2 million tons of...

184

Why is the metric invertible?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We raise, and provide an (unsatisfactory) answer to, the title's question: why, unlike all other fields, does the gravitational "metric" variable not have zero vacuum? After formulating, without begging it, we exhibit additions to the conventional action that express existence of the inverse through a field equation.

S. Deser

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Lorentzian Metrics from Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The following issue is raised and discussed; when do families of foliations by hypersurfaces on a given four dimensional manifold become the null surfaces of some unknown, but to be determined, metric $g_{ab}(x)$? It follows from these results that one can use these surfaces as fundamental variables for GR.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

186

Combined heat and power: How much carbon and energy can it save for manufacturers?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a September 1997 National Laboratory study for the US Department of Energy, the authors estimated the potential for reducing industrial energy consumption and carbon emissions using advanced technologies for combined heat and power (CHP) for the year 2010. In this paper the authors re-analyze the potential for CHP in manufacturing only. The authors also refine the assessment by more accurately estimating the average efficiency of industrial boilers most likely to be replaced by CHP. The authors do this with recent GRI estimates of the age distribution of industrial boilers and standard age-efficiency equations. The previous estimate was based on use of the best CHP technology available, such as the about-to-be commercialized industrial advanced turbine system (ATS). This estimate assumes the use of existing off-the-shelf CHP technologies. Data is now available with which to develop a more realistic suite of penetration rates for existing and new CHP technologies. However, potential variation in actions of state and federal electricity and environmental regulators introduces uncertainties in the use of existing and potential new CHP far greater than those in previous technology penetration estimates. This is, thus, the maximum cost-effective technical potential for the frozen technology case. The authors find that if manufacturers in 1994 had generated all their steam and electric needs with existing CHP technologies, they could have reduced carbon equivalent (carbon dioxide) emissions by up to 30 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MtC) or nearly 20%. This result is consistent with carbon and energy savings found in other studies. For example, the aforementioned laboratory study found that just three CHP technologies, fuel cells, advanced turbines, and integrated combined cycle technologies, accounted for nearly 10% of the study's projected carbon savings of 400 MtC by 2010--enough to reduce projected US 2010 emissions to 1990 levels.

Kaarsberg, T.M.; Roop, J.M.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

METRIC CHARACTERIZATIONS OF SPHERICAL AND EUCLIDEAN BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUILDINGS Ruth Charney and Alexander Lytchak 0 of spaces satisfying CAT-inequalities are spherical and Euclidean buildings which come equipped with a natural piecewise spherical or Euclidean metric. Buildings also satisfy other nice metric properties

Charney, Ruth

188

The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that uses a carbon tax to reduce capital taxes would achieve two goals: reducing CO2 emissions significantly and expanding short-run employment and the economy. We examine three ways to reduce the deficit by an equal amount. We find that raising marginal tax rates on labor income has advantages over raising tax rates on capital income or establishing a carbon tax. A labor tax increase leaves GDP close to its baseline, reduces consumption very slightly and expands net exports slightly. Investment remains essentially unchanged. In contrast, a capital tax increase causes a significant and persistent drop in investment and much larger reductions in GDP. A carbon tax falls between the two: it lowers GDP more than a labor tax increase because it reduces investment. However, its effects on investment and GDP are more moderate than the capital tax increase, and it also significantly reduces CO2 emissions. A carbon tax thus offers a way to help reduce the deficit and improve the environment, and do so with minimal disturbance to overall economic activity.

McKibbin, Warwick [Australian National Univ. (Australia); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Morris, Adele [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Wilcoxen, Peter [Syracuse University, NY (United States); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Cai, Yiyong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian National Univ. (Australia)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

189

Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO{sub 2}e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a projectís success.

Walker, Iain; Fisher, Jeremy; Less, Brennan

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Historic Energy Efficiency Rules Would Save Consumers Money and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and federal buildings set in the first and second terms combined will reduce carbon pollution by at least 3 billion metric tons cumulatively by 2030 -- equivalent to nearly...

191

Energy Department Announces Next Phase of L Prizeģ Competition...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

11 terawatt-hours of electricity per year - approximately equivalent to the annual electricity consumption of Washington, D.C. - and avoid 7 million metric tons of carbon...

192

Recovery Act | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of metric tons per year. Utility to Purchase Low-Carbon Power from Innovative Clean Coal Plant Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory demonstrated coal gasification in...

193

Daylight metrics and energy savings J. Mardaljevic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-4585E Daylight metrics and energy savings Authors: J. Mardaljevic Institute of Energy 2009; 0: 1­23 ! Daylight metrics and energy savings J. Mardaljevic a , L. Heschong b , E.S. Lee c comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor

194

Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Macknick, J.; Mann, M.; Pless, J.; Munoz, D.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Design and Development of Performance Metrics for Elite Runners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metric with distance for Jimmy for both feet Figure 5.29:metric vs. Distance for Jimmy Figure 5.32: Over-strideCDEL metric vs. Distance for Jimmy Figure 5.35: CDEL metric

Mittal, Nikhil R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

I read with interest the report entitled, "Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System." Unfortunately your analysis does not take into consideration renewable power production using a Solena Group gasification process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In these tanks, we will sequester the carbon by growing algae that we would harvest and use as a biomass feedstock for the renewable power plant. This service would cost $50 per ton of carbon sequestered. Do you

197

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Sensitivity of injection costs to input petrophysical parameters in numerical geologic carbon sequestration models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulations are widely used in feasibility studies for geologic carbon sequestration. Accurate estimates of petrophysical parameters are needed as inputs for these simulations. However, relatively few experimental values are available for CO2-brine systems. Hence, a sensitivity analysis was performed using the STOMP numerical code for supercritical CO2 injected into a model confined deep saline aquifer. The intrinsic permeability, porosity, pore compressibility, and capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters (residual liquid saturation, residual gas saturation, and van Genuchten alpha and m values) were varied independently. Their influence on CO2 injection rates and costs were determined and the parameters were ranked based on normalized coefficients of variation. The simulations resulted in differences of up to tens of millions of dollars over the life of the project (i.e., the time taken to inject 10.8 million metric tons of CO2). The two most influential parameters were the intrinsic permeability and the van Genuchten m value. Two other parameters, the residual gas saturation and the residual liquid saturation, ranked above the porosity. These results highlight the need for accurate estimates of capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters for geologic carbon sequestration simulations in addition to measurements of porosity and intrinsic permeability.

Cheng, C. L.; Gragg, M. J.; Perfect, E.; White, Mark D.; Lemiszki, P. J.; McKay, L. D.

2013-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gsf, ton/m 2 ), boiler efficiency (%), pumping efficiency (to evaluate the efficiency of chiller and boiler systems in

Mathew, Paul; Rumsey Engineers

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Christopher R. Knittel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers Program Christopher R. Knittel of the implied cost of carbon dioxide reductions under the Cash for Clunker program. The estimates suggest pollutants. Conservative estimates of the implied carbon dioxide cost exceed $365 per ton; best case scenario

Rothman, Daniel

203

Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

204

Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Metric Construction | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalwayHydrothermalMcFarlandSurveyREDD Projects | OpenMetric

206

BNL | CFN Strategic Plan | Metrics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusA t iBudget2/4/13 Page 1 of 2BNLBusinessMetrics

207

Radiation-dominated area metric cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide further crucial support for a refined, area metric structure of spacetime. Based on the solution of conceptual issues, such as the consistent coupling of fermions and the covariant identification of radiation fields on area metric backgrounds, we show that the radiation-dominated epoch of area metric cosmology is equivalent to that epoch in standard Einstein cosmology. This ensures, in particular, successful nucleosynthesis. This surprising result complements the previously derived prediction of a small late-time acceleration of an area metric universe.

Frederic P. Schuller; Mattias N. R. Wohlfarth

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

208

Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1991. The Potential for Electricity Efficiency Improvementswww.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/eia860.html>. FigureA STANDARD METRIC FOR ELECTRICITY SAVINGS Jonathan Koomey*,

Koomey, Jonathan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Implicit Multifunction Theorems in complete metric spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implicit Multifunction Theorems in complete metric spaces. Huynh Van Ngai ? Nguyen Huu TronÜ and. Michel Thťra á. Abstract. In this paper, we establish some†...

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

210

Planning for the 400,000 tons/year AISI ironmaking demonstration plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has formulated a four-year program to design, construct, and operate a 400,000 net ton per year ironmaking demonstration plant. The plant will employ the coal-based ironmaking process developed under a 1989 cooperative agreement with DOE. AISI will manage the design and construction to be completed in the first two years and operate the plant for the second two years with a variety or ores, coals, and fluxes. Campaigns of increasing length are planned to optimize operations. After successful operation, the plant will be taken over by the host company. Results of studies to date indicate that, on a commercial scale, the AISI process will use 27% less energy and have variable operating costs $10 per ton lower and capital costs of $160 per annual ton, compared to the $250 per annual ton rebuild cost for the coke oven-blast furnace process it will replace. The process will enable the domestic steel industry to become more competitive by reducing its capital and operating cost. Furthermore, by eliminating the pollution problems associated with coke production and by completely enclosing the smelting reactions, this process represents a major step towards an environmentally friendly steel industry.

Aukrust, E. (LTV Steel Corp., Cleveland, OH (United States). AISI Direct Steelmaking Program)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

2 million tons per year: A performing biofuels supply chain for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 2 million tons per year: A performing biofuels supply chain for EU aviation NOTE It is understood that in the context of this text the term "biofuel(s) use in aviation" categorically implies "sustainably produced biofuel(s)" according to the EU legislation. June 2011 #12;2 This technical paper was drafted

212

QUANTIFYING FOREST ABOVEGROUND CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LIDAR A report on field monitoring, remote sensing MMV, GIS integration, and modeling results for forestry field validation test to quantify aboveground tree biomass and carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sound policy recommendations relating to the role of forest management in mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) depend upon establishing accurate methodologies for quantifying forest carbon pools for large tracts of land that can be dynamically updated over time. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing is a promising technology for achieving accurate estimates of aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, not much is known about the accuracy of estimating biomass change and carbon flux from repeat LiDAR acquisitions containing different data sampling characteristics. In this study, discrete return airborne LiDAR data was collected in 2003 and 2009 across {approx}20,000 hectares (ha) of an actively managed, mixed conifer forest landscape in northern Idaho, USA. Forest inventory plots, established via a random stratified sampling design, were established and sampled in 2003 and 2009. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was used to establish statistical relationships between inventory data and forest structural metrics derived from the LiDAR acquisitions. Aboveground biomass maps were created for the study area based on statistical relationships developed at the plot level. Over this 6-year period, we found that the mean increase in biomass due to forest growth across the non-harvested portions of the study area was 4.8 metric ton/hectare (Mg/ha). In these non-harvested areas, we found a significant difference in biomass increase among forest successional stages, with a higher biomass increase in mature and old forest compared to stand initiation and young forest. Approximately 20% of the landscape had been disturbed by harvest activities during the six-year time period, representing a biomass loss of >70 Mg/ha in these areas. During the study period, these harvest activities outweighed growth at the landscape scale, resulting in an overall loss in aboveground carbon at this site. The 30-fold increase in sampling density between the 2003 and 2009 did not affect the biomass estimates. Overall, LiDAR data coupled with field reference data offer a powerful method for calculating pools and changes in aboveground carbon in forested systems. The results of our study suggest that multitemporal LiDAR-based approaches are likely to be useful for high quality estimates of aboveground carbon change in conifer forest systems.

Lee Spangler; Lee A. Vierling; Eva K. Stand; Andrew T. Hudak; Jan U.H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Clifford torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

Leclercq, Remi

214

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Cli#11;ord torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

Jakobson, Dmitry

215

Reparametrization invariance of the classical metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is a statement on the parametrization dependence of the classical metric in the recent paper of N.E.J. Bjerrum-Bohr, J.F. Donoghue, B.R. Holstein, gr-qc/0610096. I completely disagree with this statement. Here I show reparametrization invariance of the classical metric.

G. G. Kirilin

2006-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

216

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Topology on locally finite metric spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The necessity of a theory of General Topology and, most of all, of Algebraic Topology on locally finite metric spaces comes from many areas of research in both Applied and Pure Mathematics: Molecular Biology, Mathematical Chemistry, Computer Science, Topological Graph Theory and Metric Geometry. In this paper we propose the basic notions of such a theory and some applications: we replace the classical notions of continuous function, homeomorphism and homotopic equivalence with the notions of NPP-function, NPP-local-isomorphism and NPP-homotopy (NPP stands for Nearest Point Preserving); we also introduce the notion of NPP-isomorphism. We construct three invariants under NPP-isomorphisms and, in particular, we define the fundamental group of a locally finite metric space. As first applications, we propose the following: motivated by the longstanding question whether there is a purely metric condition which extends the notion of amenability of a group to any metric space, we propose the property SN (Small Neighb...

Capraro, Valerio

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the gridís capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Supply Chain Network Sustainability Under Competition and Frequencies of Activities from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to approximately 350 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions ­ 5% of the total US greenhouse gas emissions emissions. The company's CO2-equivalent emissions per million SEK ($148, 500) of sales were 3.16 metric tons by 32%; Improving energy efficiency in its stores; and offsetting using Gold Standard-verified carbon

Nagurney, Anna

220

adaptive metric knn: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

We also prove that the set of points where a path with values in a metric space Maleva, Olga 97 SOBOLEV METRICS ON THE MANIFOLD OF ALL RIEMANNIAN METRICS Mathematics Websites...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

SAPHIRE 8 Quality Assurance Software Metrics Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this review of software metrics is to examine the quality of the metrics gathered in the 2010 IV&V and to set an outline for results of updated metrics runs to be performed. We find from the review that the maintenance of accepted quality standards presented in the SAPHIRE 8 initial Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of April, 2010 is most easily achieved by continuing to utilize the tools used in that effort while adding a metric of bug tracking and resolution. Recommendations from the final IV&V were to continue periodic measurable metrics such as McCabe's complexity measure to ensure quality is maintained. The four software tools used to measure quality in the IV&V were CodeHealer, Coverage Validator, Memory Validator, Performance Validator, and Thread Validator. These are evaluated based on their capabilities. We attempted to run their latest revisions with the newer Delphi 2010 based SAPHIRE 8 code that has been developed and was successful with all of the Validator series of tools on small tests. Another recommendation from the IV&V was to incorporate a bug tracking and resolution metric. To improve our capability of producing this metric, we integrated our current web reporting system with the SpiraTest test management software purchased earlier this year to track requirements traceability.

Kurt G. Vedros

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1998, little if any tungsten concentrate was produced from U.S. mines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, oil and gas drilling, mining plan Disposals Material inventory inventory for disposal FY 1998 FY 1998 Carbide powder 871

223

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last recorded production of tungsten concentrates in the United States was in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and wear- resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, oil and gas drilling, mining, and construction--9-30-006 Uncommitted Committed Authorized Disposal plan Disposals Material inventory inventory

224

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last recorded production of tungsten concentrates in the United States was in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parts to be used as cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, oil and gas plan Disposals Material inventory inventory for disposal FY 1999 FY 1999 Carbide powder 760 111 760 454

225

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: A mine in California restarted operations and made its first shipment of tungsten  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the metalworking, mining, oil- and gas-drilling, and construction industries. The remaining tungsten was consumed inventory inventory for disposal FY 2007 FY 2007 Ferrotungsten 6 136 Metal powder 268 268 136 34 Ores

226

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1997, little if any tungsten concentrate was produced from U.S. mines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, oil and gas drilling, mining inventory inventory for disposal FY 1997 FY 1997 Carbide powder 871 -- -- -- -- Ferrotungsten 385

227

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2000. Domestically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistics--United States: 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports fluctuations. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery productione Reserves2 Reserve

228

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2002. Domestically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistics--United States: 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery productione Reserves3 Reserve base3 2001

229

(Data in metric tons, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1995. Domestic indium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, refinery NA NA NA NA -- Imports for consumption 36.3 36.3 73.4 70.2 73.0 Exports NA NA NA NA NA marketed through a U.S. company. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

230

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2001. Domestically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--United States: 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports for consumption 85.5 75 77 fluctuations caused by economic uncertainties. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

231

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1997. Domestically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--United States: 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports for consumption 73.4 70 for the indium market remains promising. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

232

(Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2002, the United States consumed about 14% of world chromite ore production in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-2001): Chromium contained in chromite ore and chromium ferroalloys and metal: South Africa, 50%; Kazakhstan, 20, Kazakhstan, and South Africa) accounted for about 76% of world production. South Africa alone accounts States -- -- -- 7,000 India 1,680 1,900 18,000 39,000 Kazakhstan 2,050 2,300 410,000 410,000 South Africa

233

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, vehicles with an internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Most commercially that was prone to dangerous overheating. Interest continued in lithium batteries for hybrid electric vehicles lithium batteries were being used increasingly in portable electronic devices and electrical tools

234

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

companies were pursuing the development of lithium batteries for hybrid electric vehicles--vehicles with an internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Most commercially available hybrid rechargeable lithium batteries were being used increasingly in portable electronic devices and electrical tools

235

(Data in metric tons of lithium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the largest lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for electric vehicles (EVs) continued; acceptance, however, of battery-powered EVs was not expanding significantly. Hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles with an internal combustion engine and a battery- powered electric motor, have been more popular than pure EVs. Commercially available hybrid vehicles do not use

236

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

batteries for hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles with an internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor, continued. Commercially available hybrid vehicles do not use lithium batteries, although

237

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vehicles, vehicles with an internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Most increasingly in portable electronic devices and electrical tools. Salient Statistics--United States: 2003 2004 two major automobile companies were pursuing the development of lithium batteries for hybrid electric

238

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor, continued. Commercially available hybrid vehicles do, and cordless tools. Interest in lithium batteries for hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles with an internal batteries were growing in popularity for powering video cameras, portable computers and telephones

239

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2002, clay and shale production was reported in all States except Alaska,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be as follows: ball clay--35% floor and wall tile, 22% sanitaryware, and 43% other uses; bentonite--28% pet for consumption: Artificially activated clay and earth 19 17 18 21 20 Kaolin 53 57 63 114 155 Other 14 16 16 13 49, not elsewhere classified 432 329 357 344 464 Total3 5,230 4,800 5,260 4,970 4,990 Consumption, apparent 36

240

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, clay and shale production was reported in all States except Alaska,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% floor and wall tile, 22% sanitaryware, and 43% other uses; bentonite--26% pet waste absorbent, 25,280 9,450 9,160 8,800 9,030 Total3 41,800 41,600 42,200 40,800 40,600 Imports for consumption classified 390 432 329 357 363 Total3 5,080 5,230 4,800 5,260 5,130 Consumption, apparent 36,800 36,500 37

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2004, clay and shale production was reported in 41 States. About 240  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--31% floor and wall tile, 20% sanitaryware, and 49% other uses; bentonite--25% pet waste absorbent, 20,800 8,110 8,010 7,680 8,780 Total3 40,800 39,600 39,300 40,000 48,900 Imports for consumption, not elsewhere classified 357 344 449 420 516 Total3 5,260 4,970 4,960 4,980 5,580 Consumption, apparent 35

242

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1997, clays were produced in most States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% pet waste absorbent, and 17% drilling mud; common clay--50% brick, 27% cement, and 15% lightweight,100 43,9003 Imports for consumption 39 36 35 45 53 Exports 4,150 4,620 4,680 4,830 4,970 Consumption,900 4,900e Mill 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 Net import reliance as a percent of5 apparent consumption

243

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, clays were produced in all States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% sanitaryware, 10% pottery, and 37% other uses; bentonite--24% foundry sand bond, 22% pet waste absorbent, 18,530 Kaolin 9,180 9,280 9,450 9,160 8,870 Total3 43,100 41,800 41,600 42,200 40,700 Imports for consumption 45 64 86 90 97 Exports 4,830 5,080 5,230 4,800 5,060 Consumption, apparent 38,300 36,800 36,500 37

244

(Data in metric tons of tungsten, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1996, one mine in California produced tungsten concentrate. The mine operated at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

38 63 44 10 32 Government stockpile shipments, concentrate -- -- -- -- -- Consumption: Reported and equipment, 80%; electrical and electronic machinery and equipment and transportation, 9%; lamps and lighting shipments W W W W W Imports for consumption, concentrate 2,500 1,700 3,000 4,200 3,100 Exports, concentrate

245

(Data in metric tons of tin content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1995, there was no domestic tin mine production. Production of tin at the only  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,600 2,560 2,000 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 6,195 6,310 6,022 5,620 5,000 Consumption and containers, 32%; electrical, 23%; construction, 9%; transportation, 11%; and other, 25%. The estimated value of primary metal consumption in 1995, based on the New York composite price, was $300 million. Salient

246

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1995, one mine in California produced tungsten concentrate. The mine operated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, concentrate 21 38 63 44 -- Government stockpile shipments, concentrate -- -- -- -- -- Consumption: Reported and equipment, 77%; electrical and electronic machinery and equipment and transportation, 10%; lamps, mine shipments W W W W W Imports for consumption, concentrate 7,800 2,500 1,700 3,000 5,500 Exports

247

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China, and the United the recycling of lithium batteries. Import Sources (2005-08): Chile, 63%; Argentina, 35%; China, 1%; and other in 2009. Many claims in Nevada, as well as in Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, and Canada, have been leased

248

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2005, 6 companies operated 15 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

547 550 542 554 Norway 1,320 1,350 1,320 1,380 Russia 3,590 3,650 3,640 3,760 South Africa 863 830 850%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12-31-05 Unwrought (in coils) 7601.10.3000 2.6% ad val aluminum production decreased slightly owing to cutbacks attributed to increased energy and alumina costs

249

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2006, 5 companies operated 13 primary aluminum smelters; 6 smelters were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,800 South Africa 851 890 860 900 United Arab Emirates, Dubai 75%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12-31-06 Unwrought (in coils) 7601.10.3000 2.6% ad val aluminum production decreased slightly owing to cutbacks attributed to increased energy and alumina costs

250

(Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon metal and alloys (excluding semiconductor-grade silicon)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; China, 16%; South Africa, 13%; Canada, 12%; and other, 39%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations metal: Brazil, 37%; South Africa, 25%; Canada, 14%; Norway, 6%; and other, 18%. Total: Brazil, 20 energy costs. Demand for silicon metal comes primarily from the aluminum and chemical industries

251

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2002, 11 companies operated 16 primary aluminum reduction plants; 6 smelters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2002, 11 companies operated 16 primary aluminum reduction plants; 6 smelters were temporarily idled. The 11 smelters east of the Mississippi River accounted for 75% of the production; whereas the remaining 11 smelters, which included the 9 Pacific Northwest smelters, accounted for only 25%. Based upon

252

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2009, 6 companies operated 13 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2009, 6 companies operated 13 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were closed the entire year, and demolition of 1 smelter that had been idle since 2000 was completed in 2009. Of the operating smelters, three were temporarily idled and parts of four others were temporarily closed in 2009. Based

253

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2008, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2008, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were temporarily idled primary aluminum production increased substantially owing to smelter restarts after new power contracts, production was curtailed at two smelters owing to high electricity prices, power supply issues, and a sharp

254

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

three-fourths of production. Three primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined 92 Employment: Mine and mill, numbere 2,700 2,500 2,400 2,500 2,600 Smelter primary, numbere 1,000 1 production of zinc concentrate by about 3% in 2000. U.S. mine production greatly exceeded smelter capacity

255

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2012, 5 companies operated 10 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2012, 5 companies operated 10 primary aluminum smelters; 4 smelters were closed temporarily quarter of 2012, the leading U.S. aluminum producer announced that its smelter in Alcoa, TN, which had potlines at its Rockdale, TX, smelter also would be permanently closed. Failure to obtain favorable power

256

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%. Three primary and eight secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1999. Of zinc metal,500 Smelter primary, numbere 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 Net import reliance3 as a percent of apparent. The planned tripling of refinery capacity at the Clarksville, TN, smelter was suspended by Pasminco Ltd

257

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, 12 companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants. Montana,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Issues: Domestic primary aluminum production decreased owing in large part to the smelter production cutbacks caused by increased energy costs, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Domestic smelters aluminum smelter in Hawesville, KY. The acquisition was subject to the completion of a labor agreement

258

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2010, five companies operated nine primary aluminum smelters; six smelters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2010, five companies operated nine primary aluminum smelters; six smelters were closed the entire year. Demolition of two smelters that had been idle for several years was started in 2010. Based: During the first half of 2010, production from domestic primary aluminum smelters had stabilized after

259

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2007, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 5 smelters were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2007, 6 companies operated 14 primary aluminum smelters; 5 smelters were temporarily idled primary aluminum production increased substantially owing to smelter restarts after new power contracts were obtained by producers. Domestic smelters operated at about 69% of rated or engineered capacity

260

(Data in thousand metric tons of metal unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2011, 5 companies operated 10 primary aluminum smelters; 5 smelters were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: In 2011, 5 companies operated 10 primary aluminum smelters; 5 smelters were closed the entire year. One smelter that was closed in 2009 was reopened during the first quarter of 2011. Five potlines that were closed in late 2008 and early 2009 at four other smelters were also restarted in early 2011. Based

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-fourths of production. Three primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial,500 2,600 2,400 Smelter primary, numbere 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 900 Net import reliance3 greatly exceeded smelter capacity, necessitating exports of concentrate. More than one-third of all

262

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2012, clay and shale production was reported in 40 States. About 180 companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,200 4,300 Net import reliance 5 as a percentage of apparent consumption E E E E E Recycling and pet litter were expected to decline. Fuller's earth could see slight gains as sales increase

263

(Data in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2013, clay and shale production was reported in 40 States. About 180 companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,350 Net import reliance 5 as a percentage of apparent consumption E E E E E Recycling: Insignificant. Bentonite sales declined slightly because sales to most markets, except pet litter, appeared to have declined. Fuller's earth saw slight gains, mainly because of sales increases for pet litters and fluid

264

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

accounted for 86% of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters Production: Mine, zinc in ore1 842 780 768 739 760 Primary slab zinc 203 182 187 189 250 Secondary slab zinc a major price recovery that started in the third quarter of 2004 and picked up renewed momentum

265

(Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States consumes about 14% of world chromite ore production in various  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1998 1999e Production: Mine -- -- -- -- -- Secondary 112 98 120 105 103 Imports for consumption 416 362 (excludes secondary) 298 277 345 e 280 196 Apparent3 (includes secondary) 565 467 488 531 522 Price enhancements that improve recovery and reduce cost, such as agglomeration and preheating of furnace feed

266

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2008. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Data on the quantity of secondary indium recovered from scrap were not available. Indium is most loop--from collection of scrap to production of secondary materials--now takes less than 30 days. ITO to dissolve the ITO, from which the indium is recovered. Indium recovery from tailings was thought to have

267

(Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, the United States consumed about 13% of world chromite ore production in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--United States:1 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000e Production: Mine -- -- -- -- -- Secondary 98 120 104 118 110 Imports Consumption: Reported2 (excludes secondary) 275 333 277 298 280 Apparent3 (includes secondary) 467 490 531 558 was then expanded through the addition of furnaces and plant enhancements that improved recovery and reduced cost

268

By Joseph Gambogi Titanium comprises about 0.62% of the Earth's crust and At yearend, only 267 metric tons of rutile were left in the NDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and plastics. Other minor uses of titanium minerals include ceramics, chemicals, welding rod coatings, heavy slightly. and Shieldalloy Metallurgical Corp., Newfield, NJ. The two Owing to increased demand

269

(Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor-and solar-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal (excluding semiconductor- and solar- grade and aluminum alloys and the chemical industry. The semiconductor and solar industries, which manufacture chips China, 49%; Russia, 20

270

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2009. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global indium consumption. ITO thin-film coatings were primarily used for electrically conductive ITO is deposited as a thin-film coating onto a substrate, is highly inefficient; approximately 30 and the weaker won. In December 2008, China began a 4-year, 13% subsidy program in certain agricultural regions

271

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2007. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar power. Research was underway to develop a low-cost manufacturing process for flexible CIGS solar collection of scrap to fabrication of secondary indium products. A recycler may have millions of dollars%. Mainstream LCD devices were also trending toward larger panel sizes, which require more indium per unit

272

(Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Chile was the leading lithium chemical producer in the world; Argentina, China, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States is extremely difficult because of the large number of compounds used in a wide variety of end uses are estimated as follows: ceramics and glass, 31%; batteries, 23%; lubricating greases, 9%; air treatment, 6 conditions improved for lithium-based products in 2010. Sales volumes for the major lithium producers were

273

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2003. Two companies,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the curtailment of primary refining capacity have added an extra incentive to the recovery of secondary indium be compared with Japan where the decline in domestic zinc refining has stimulated an aggressive recycling in the world economy. The report of reduced production from mines that produce byproduct indium had a negative

274

(Data in metric tons of contained lithium, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States was the largest producer and consumer of lithium minerals and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Joyce A. Ober, (703) 648-7717. #12;97 LITHIUM Events, Trends, and Issues: The Department of Energy (DOE,000 Bolivia -- -- -- 5,400,000 Brazil 32 32 910 NA Canada 630 650 180,000 360,000 Chile 2,000 2,100 1

275

EAC Presentation: Metrics and Benefits Analysis for the ARRA...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Metrics and Benefits Analysis for the ARRA Smart Grid Programs - March 10, 2011 EAC Presentation: Metrics and Benefits Analysis for the ARRA Smart Grid Programs - March 10, 2011...

276

Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performanc...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process...

277

Invariant torsion and G_2-metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce and study a notion of invariant intrinsic torsion geometry which appears, for instance, in connection with the Bryant-Salamon metric on the spinor bundle over S^3. This space is foliated by six-dimensional hypersurfaces, each of which carries a particular type of SO(3)-structure; the intrinsic torsion is invariant under SO(3). The last condition is sufficient to imply local homogeneity of such geometries, and this allows us to give a classification. We close the circle by showing that the Bryant-Salamon metric is the unique complete metric with holonomy G_2 that arises from SO(3)-structures with invariant intrinsic torsion.

Diego Conti; Thomas Bruun Madsen

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

278

Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian (ppN) contributions and gravito-magnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hyphoteses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravito-magnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories one from another.

M. Sereno

2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

Susan Capalbo

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

Johnson, C.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Contributions to Metric Number Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contributions to Metric Number Theory Paul Rowe Technical Report RHUL≠MA≠2002≠2 5 December 2002, Professor Glyn Harman, for sug- gestions of problems to attempt, helpful advice on methods and help

Dent, Alexander W.

283

New Description of Self-Dual Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that Pleba\\'nski's equation for self-dual metrics is equivalent to a pair of equations describing canonical transformations in 2-dimensional phase spaces. Examples of linearizations of these equations are given.

J. Tafel

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

284

Microsoft Word - QER Resilience Metrics - Technical Workshp ...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

on developing a long-term roadmap on resilience metrics for electric power, gas, and oil infrastructure and their proposed uses. Location The session will be held on be held...

285

Technical Workshop: Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

NGOs to discuss the state of play of and need for resilience metrics and how they vary by natural gas, liquid fuels and electric grid infrastructures. Issues important to...

286

Geodesic completeness of diagonal $G_2$ metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this talk a sufficient condition for a diagonal orthogonally transitive cylindrical $G_2$ metric to be geodesically complete is given. The condition is weak enough to comprise all known diagonal perfect fluid cosmological models that are non-singular.

L. FernŠndez-Jambrina

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management Challenge Many organisations are facing increasing cost challenges and pressure to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions consideration is the carbon dioxide emissions per square metre of floor space. While an important metric

288

A Specification Logic for Termination Reasoning Ton-Chanh Le, Cristian Gherghina, Aquinas Hobor, and Wei-Ngan Chin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Specification Logic for Termination Reasoning Ton-Chanh Le, Cristian Gherghina, Aquinas Hobor a logical framework for specifying and proving asser- tions about program termination. Although termination. Here we propose to integrate termination requirements directly into our specification logic

Hobor, Aquinas

289

The Scale of the Energy Challenge 22,000 gallons of fuel oil 150 tons of coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and rooftops in the United States. The total land area required by nuclear power plants is small! √? 20 15The Scale of the Energy Challenge Biomass Wind Nuclear Solar 22,000 gallons of fuel oil 150 tons

Hochberg, Michael

290

Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors Using Carbon Nanotube Electrode Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure and behavior of the electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) are described. The use of activated carbon electrodes is discussed and the limitations on voltage and accessible surface area are presented. Metrics ...

Schindall, Joel E.

291

Product Concept Metrics: a Preliminary Study Working Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metrics for product concept evaluation and screening is a relatively unstudied topic of product development.

Takala, Roope

292

Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation proposes a suite of metrics for evaluating the performance of solar power forecasting.

Zhang, J.; Hodge, B.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H.; Banunarayanan, V.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

294

Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Report: An Updated Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Case...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source" " (million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent, unless otherwise noted)" ,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016...

297

Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Flowing Liquid Crystal Simulating the Schwarzschild Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to simulate the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric through a flowing liquid crystal in its nematic phase. Inside a liquid crystal in the nematic phase, a traveling light ray feels an effective metric, whose properties are linked to perpendicular and parallel refractive indexes, $n_o$ e $n_e$ respectively, of the rod-like molecule of the liquid crystal. As these indexes depend on the scalar order parameter of the liquid crystal, the Beris-Edwards hydrodynamic theory is used to connect the order parameter with the velocity of a liquid crystal flow at each point. This way we calculate a radial velocity profile that simulates the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric, in the region outside of Schwarzschild's radius, in the nematic phase of the liquid crystal. In our model, the higher flow velocity can be of the order of some meters per second.

Erms R. Pereira; Fernando Moraes

2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

A theory of metrics with maximal acceleration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a geometric theory for spacetimes whose world lines associated with physical particles have an upper bound for the proper acceleration. After some fundamental remarks on the requirements that classical dynamics for point particles must hold good, the notion of generalized metric and a theory of maximal acceleration are introduced. A perturbative approach to metrics of maximal acceleration is discussed. Then several of their physical and kinematical properties are investigated. These include a discussion of the fundamental causal theory concepts and the introduction of the associated notions of Euclidean length and celerity function. Finally, we discuss the corresponding modification of the Einstein's mass-energy relation.

Ricardo Gallego Torromť

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

300

FY 2015 METRIC SUMMARY | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005DepartmentDecember U.S. Department-5 METRIC SUMMARY FY 2015 METRIC

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nationís finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nationís balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Johnson, C.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Johnson, C.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Performance Metrics Research Project - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL began work for DOE on this project to standardize the measurement and characterization of building energy performance. NREL's primary research objectives were to determine which performance metrics have greatest value for determining energy performance and to develop standard definitions and methods of measuring and reporting that performance.

Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Metrics for a Sustainable Produced By  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metrics for a Sustainable EcoVillage #12;2 Produced By: Nam Nguyen Master of Urban and Regional Project Manager Project for Pride in Living (PPL) Jeffrey Skrenes Housing Director Hawthorne Neighborhood Council Photo source: Unless otherwise noted, photos are provided by People for Pride in Living

Levinson, David M.

306

Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

Dorning, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Metrics for Measuring ProgressToward Implementation of the Smart...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Metrics for Measuring ProgressToward Implementation of the Smart Grid (June 2008) Metrics for Measuring ProgressToward Implementation of the Smart Grid (June 2008) Results of the...

308

Evaluation Criteria for Human-Automation Performance Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous research has identified broad metric classes for human-automation performance to facilitate metric selection, as well as understanding and comparison of research results. However, there is still lack of an objective ...

Pina, Patricia Elena

309

Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Competing complexity metrics and adults' production of complex sentences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The adequacy of 11 metrics for measuring linguistic complexity was evaluated by applying each metric to language samples obtained from 30 different adult speakers, aged 60-90 years. The analysis then determined how well ...

Kemper, Susan; Cheng, Hintat

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Financial Metrics Data Collection Protocol, Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brief description of data collection process and plan that will be used to collect financial metrics associated with sustainable design.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Wang, Na

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

312

Proposal to Increase the Amount of the Contract about to be Awarded for the Supply of 12 Tons of Heavy Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal to Increase the Amount of the Contract about to be Awarded for the Supply of 12 Tons of Heavy Water

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tons/gsf), boiler efficiency (%), pump- ing efficiency (hp/F W/gpm H7 Reheat Energy Use Factor Boiler Rated EfficiencyBoiler Part Load Efficiency Energy Recovery System

Mathew, Paul

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Dynamic C-metrics in (Gauged) Supergravities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct an exact time-dependent charged dilaton C-metric in four-dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ gauged supergravity. The scalar field drives the time evolution by transferring energy to the black holes, thereby causing their masses to increase and their acceleration to decrease. The values of the electric/magnetic and scalar charges determine three regions of potential time evolution. This solution holographically describes a strongly-coupled three-dimensional conformal field theory on the background of an evolving black hole. We also find new static charged dilaton C-metrics, which arise in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories whose scalar potential can be expressed in terms of a superpotential.

H. Lu; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

316

Complex geometry and pre-metric electromagnetism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The intimate link between complex geometry and the problem of the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism is explored. In particular, the relationship between 3+1 decompositions of R4 and the decompositions of the vector space of bivectors over R4 into real and imaginary subspaces relative to a choice of complex structure is emphasized. The role of the various scalar products on the space of bivectors that are defined in terms of a volume element on R4 and a complex structure on the space of bivectors that makes it C-linear isomorphic to C3 is discussed in the context of formulation of a theory of electromagnetism in which the Lorentzian metric on spacetime follows as a consequence of the existence of electromagnetic waves, not a prior assumption.

D. H. Delphenich

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

317

Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices.

Sadeghi, Ali, E-mail: ali.sadeghi@unibas.ch; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan [Department of Physics, Universitšt Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)] [Department of Physics, Universitšt Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Lill, Markus A. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Purdue University, 575 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Purdue University, 575 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

Optical metrics and birefringence of anisotropic media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The material tensor of linear response in electrodynamics is constructed out of products of two symmetric second rank tensor fields which in the approximation of geometrical optics and for uniaxial symmetry reduce to "optical" metrics, describing the phenomenon of birefringence. This representation is interpreted in the context of an underlying internal geometrical structure according to which the symmetric tensor fields are vectorial elements of an associated two-dimensional space.

Alexander B. Balakin; Winfried Zimdahl

2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

319

Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the gridís capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Non-metric gravity: A status report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the status of a certain (infinite) class of four-dimensional generally covariant theories propagating two degrees of freedom that are formulated without any direct mention of the metric. General relativity itself (in its Plebanski formulation) belongs to the class, so these theories are examples of modified gravity. We summarize the current understanding of the nature of the modification, of the renormalizability properties of these theories, of their coupling to matter fields, and describe some of their physical properties.

Kirill Krasnov

2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Metric perturbation theory of quantum dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theory of quantum dynamics based on a discrete structure underlying the space time manifold is developed for single particles. It is shown that at the micro domain the interaction of particles with the underlying discrete structure results in the quantum space time manifold. Regarding the resulting quantum space-time as perturbation from the Lorentz metric it is shown it is possible to discuss the dynamics of particles in the quantum domain.

Antony L Tambyrajah

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

322

26The Frequency of Large Meteor Impacts On February 14, 2013 a 10,000 ton meteor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over the town of Chelyabinsk and the explosion caused major damage to the town injuring 1,000 people `discovered' for many decades afterwards, the Chelyabinsk Meteor was extensively videoed by hundreds explodes with an energy of 4.2x109 Joules. How many tons of TNT did the Chelyabinsk Meteor yield

323

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

University of Maryland Sustainability Metrics Report 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plan articulates a vision for a greener campus, stating that the campus will cut energy use, reduce its carbon footprint, expand green spaces, and build and retrofit buildings to strict environmental standards on: Campus ­ developing a carbon-neutral and resource-efficient campus infrastructure; Culture

Anisimov, Mikhail

326

High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

1000Ėton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented.

Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V. [The D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), 3 Doroga na Metallostroy, Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

328

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Global hyperbolicity for spacetimes with continuous metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the definition of global hyperbolicity in terms of the compactness of the causal diamonds and non-total imprisonment can be extended to spacetimes with continuous metrics, while retaining all of the equivalences to other notions of global hyperbolicity. In fact, global hyperbolicity is equivalent to the compactness of the space of causal curves and to the existence of a Cauchy hypersurface. Furthermore, global hyperbolicity implies causal simplicity, stable causality and the existence of maximal curves connecting any two causally related points.

Clemens Sšmann

2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

330

Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based on the two case studies and evaluation of the seven assessments, the security ideals demonstrated their value in guiding security thinking. Further, the final set of core technical metrics has been demonstrated to be both usable in the control system environment and provide significant coverage of standard security issues.

Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

A study on metrics for simulation programming languages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proposes models for metrics specially designed for use in simulation modeling which can help in evaluating the performance and resource requirements of simulation programming languages. Certain existing software metrics for general purpose programming... GPSS and SIMAN. With these characteristics and the existing metrics, models were developed for evaluation of software and hardware requirements for a given simulation problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank Dr. Sallie Sheppard, Chairperson of my committee...

Nallapati, Kumar V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Methodology for Estimating ton-Miles of Goods Movements for U.S. Freight Mulitimodal Network System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ton-miles is a commonly used measure of freight transportation output. Estimation of ton-miles in the U.S. transportation system requires freight flow data at disaggregated level (either by link flow, path flows or origin-destination flows between small geographic areas). However, the sheer magnitude of the freight data system as well as industrial confidentiality concerns in Census survey, limit the freight data which is made available to the public. Through the years, the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working in the development of comprehensive national and regional freight databases and network flow models. One of the main products of this effort is the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), a public database released by the ORNL. FAF provides to the general public a multidimensional matrix of freight flows (weight and dollar value) on the U.S. transportation system between states, major metropolitan areas, and remainder of states. Recently, the CTA research team has developed a methodology to estimate ton-miles by mode of transportation between the 2007 FAF regions. This paper describes the data disaggregation methodology. The method relies on the estimation of disaggregation factors that are related to measures of production, attractiveness and average shipments distances by mode service. Production and attractiveness of counties are captured by the total employment payroll. Likely mileages for shipments between counties are calculated by using a geographic database, i.e. the CTA multimodal network system. Results of validation experiments demonstrate the validity of the method. Moreover, 2007 FAF ton-miles estimates are consistent with the major freight data programs for rail and water movements.

Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL] [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL] [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Spherically Symmetric, Metrically Static, Isolated Systems in Quasi-Metric Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The gravitational field exterior respectively interior to a spherically symmetric, isolated body made of perfect fluid is examined within the quasi-metric framework (QMF). It is required that the gravitational field is "metrically static", meaning that it is static except for the effects of the global cosmic expansion on the spatial geometry. Dynamical equations for the gravitational field are set up and an exact solution is found for the exterior part. Besides, equations of motion applying to inertial test particles moving in the exterior gravitational field are set up. By construction the gravitational field of the system is not static with respect to the cosmic expansion. This means that the radius of the source increases and that distances between circular orbits of inertial test particles increase according to the Hubble law. Moreover it is shown that if this model of an expanding gravitational field is taken to represent the gravitational field of the Sun (or isolated planetary systems), this has no serious consequences for observational aspects of planetary motion. On the contrary some observational facts of the Earth-Moon system are naturally explained within the QMF. Finally the QMF predicts different secular increases for two different gravitational coupling parameters. But such secular changes are neither present in the Newtonian limit of the quasi-metric equations of motion nor in the Newtonian limit of the quasi-metric field equations valid inside metrically static sources. Thus standard interpretations of space experiments testing the secular variation of G are explicitly theory-dependent and do not apply to the QMF.

Dag ōstvang

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

334

Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-≠?year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-≠?burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-≠?fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

Reitze, Arnold

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

335

Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2014) Conceptual Framework for Developing...

336

Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

"ResilienceĒ describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish ďproper operationĒ and ďimpact.Ē A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

Craig G. Rieger

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Metric space formulation of quantum mechanical conservation laws  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that conservation laws in quantum mechanics naturally lead to metric spaces for the set of related physical quantities. All such metric spaces have an "onion-shell" geometry. We demonstrate the power of this approach by considering many-body systems immersed in a magnetic field, with a finite ground state current. In the associated metric spaces we find regions of allowed and forbidden distances, a "band structure" in metric space directly arising from the conservation of the $z$ component of the angular momentum.

P. M. Sharp; I. D'Amico

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

338

Integration of Sustainability Metrics into Design Cases and State...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

quantify and assess key sustainability metrics which allow for conversion pathway evaluation and comparison. c) For certain pathways, full LCA is performed for sensitivity cases...

339

Office of HC Strategy Budget and Performance Metrics (HC-50)...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and partner agencies on strategic human capital management, performance metrics, workforce analysis and succession planning. Leadership Tony Nguyen Director of the Office...

340

On isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution of Einstein equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The known static isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution of Einstein equation cannot cover with the range of r<2MG, a new isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution is obtained. The new isotropic metric has the characters: (1) It is dynamic and periodic. (2) It has infinite singularities of the spacetime. (3) It cannot cover with the range of 0metric.

T. Mei

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Moniz: Tesla Repayment Shows the Strength of Energy Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

19 new clean energy power plants that are adding enough solar, wind and geothermal capacity to power a million homes and displace 7 million metric tons of carbon dioxide every...

342

Carbon Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Capture Pre-Combustion Post-Combustion CO2 Compression Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Program Plan Capture Handbook Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from...

343

Symplectic fusion rings and their metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fusion of fields in a rational conformal field theory gives rise to a ring structure which has a very particular form. All such rings studied so far were shown to arise from some potentials. In this paper the fusion rings of the WZW models based on the symplectic group are studied. It is shown that they indeed arise from potentials which are described. These potentials give rise to new massive perturbations of superconformal hermitian symmetric models. The metric of the perturbation is computed and is shown to be given by solutions of the sinh--gordon equation. The kink structure of the theories is described, and it is argued that these field theories are integrable. The $S$ matrices for the fusion theories are argued to be non--minimal extensions of the $G_k\\times G_1/ G_{k+1}$ $S$ matrices with the adjoint perturbation, in the case of $G=SU(N)$.

D. Gepner; A. Schwimmer

1992-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Metrics correlation and analysis service (MCAS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The complexity of Grid workflow activities and their associated software stacks inevitably involves multiple organizations, ownership, and deployment domains. In this setting, important and common tasks such as the correlation and display of metrics and debugging information (fundamental ingredients of troubleshooting) are challenged by the informational entropy inherent to independently maintained and operated software components. Because such an information 'pond' is disorganized, it a difficult environment for business intelligence analysis i.e. troubleshooting, incident investigation and trend spotting. The mission of the MCAS project is to deliver a software solution to help with adaptation, retrieval, correlation, and display of workflow-driven data and of type-agnostic events, generated by disjoint middleware.

Baranovski, Andrew; Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Hesselroth, Ted; Mhashilkar, Parag; Levshina, Tanya; /Fermilab

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Bi-metric Gravity and "Dark Matter"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a bi-metric theory of gravity containing a length scale of galactic size. For distances less than this scale the theory satisfies the standard tests of General Relativity. For distances greater than this scale the theory yields an effective gravitational constant much larger than the locally observed value of Newton's constant. The transition from one regime to the other through the galactic scale can explain the observed rotation curves of galaxies and hence the effects normally attributed to the presence of dark matter. Phenomena on an extragalactic scale such as galactic clusters and the expansion of the universe are controlled by the enhanced gravitational coupling. This provides an explanation of the missing matter normally invoked to account for the observed value of Hubble's constant in relation to observed matter.

I. T. Drummond

2000-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

346

Merging electromagnetism with space-time metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work, it is shown that the electromagnetism may be directly associated to the four-dimensional space-time geometry. The starting point is an analysis of the geodesic equation of general relativity where it is verified that it contains implicitly the effects of the Coulomb and the Lorentz forces. Consequently, some components of the metric tensor are identified with the components of the four-vector electromagnetic potential. Then, it is constructed a low-field equation for the electromagnetism in the same structure of the Einstein field equations for the gravitation, relating the curvature of space-time to sources of charge and current density. In this framework, all the Maxwell equations are implicit. A proof of consistency with the framework of quantum mechanics is shown.

C. A. Duarte

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Optimal realizations of generic 5-point metrics Jack Koolen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.moulton@cmp.uea.ac.uk FAX: +44 1603 593345 5 October, 2007 1 #12;Abstract Given a metric d on a finite set X, a realization classes [12]. An explicit description of Type I,II and III metrics is presented in Section 2. Now, suppose

349

Estimation of Photovoltaic System Reliability and Performance Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Estimation of Photovoltaic System Reliability and Performance Metrics Sairaj V. Dhople, Student reliability and perfor- mance analysis of grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems is for- mulated using Markov and energy yield, and reliability metrics such as availability. The paper also provides an analytical method

Liberzon, Daniel

350

Metrics for Evaluating Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With numerous options for the future of natural gas, how do we know we're going down the right path? How do we designate a metric to measure and demonstrate change and progress, and how does that metric incorporate all stakeholders and scenarios?

Mann, M. K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Metrics to Characterize Airport Operational Performance Using Surface Surveillance Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tower BOS Boston General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport EDCT Expected Departure Clearance International Airport, and are therefore evaluated and discussed using this airport as an example. These metricsMetrics to Characterize Airport Operational Performance Using Surface Surveillance Data Harshad

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

352

Distance Metric Learning for Large Margin Nearest Neighbor Classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distance Metric Learning for Large Margin Nearest Neighbor Classification Kilian Q. Weinberger}@cis.upenn.edu Abstract We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for k-nearest neigh- bor (kNN) classification in kNN classification--for example, achieving a test error rate of 1.3% on the MNIST handwritten digits

Weinberger, Kilian

353

Regular Black Hole Metric with Three Constants of Motion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

According to the no-hair theorem, astrophysical black holes are uniquely characterized by their masses and spins and are described by the Kerr metric. Several parametric spacetimes which deviate from the Kerr metric have been proposed in order to test this theorem with observations of black holes in both the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave spectra. Such metrics often contain naked singularities or closed timelike curves in the vicinity of the compact objects that can limit the applicability of the metrics to compact objects that do not spin rapidly, and generally admit only two constants of motion. The existence of a third constant, however, can facilitate the calculation of observables, because the equations of motion can be written in first-order form. In this paper, I design a Kerr-like black hole metric which is regular everywhere outside of the event horizon, possesses three independent constants of motion, and depends nonlinearly on four free functions that parameterize potential deviations from ...

Johannsen, Tim

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that the cost per ton to sequester carbon ranges from $6.54 on site index 80 land at a 12.5% ARR to $36.68 on site index 40 land at an ARR of 0.5%. Results also indicate that the amount of carbon stored during one rotation ranges between 38 tons per acre on site index 40 land to 58 tons per acre on site index 80 land. The profitability of afforestation on these AML sites in West Virginia increases as the market price for carbon increases from $0 to $100 per ton.

Gary D. Kronrad

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

356

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-119 Betweenness Centrality Metrics for Assessing Electrical Power Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-119 Betweenness Centrality Metrics for Assessing. Hawick}, title = {Betweenness Centrality Metrics for Assessing Electrical Power Network Robustness Metrics for Assessing Electrical Power Network Robustness against Fragmentation and Node Failure K

Hawick, Ken

358

Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24 practical diagnostics range from a few hundred dollars to many thousands of dollars. The higher costs are associated with infrared thermography and state-of-the-art automated diagnostic systems. Most tests can be performed in one hour or less, using equipment priced toward the lower end of the cost spectrum.

Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

2002-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

359

Metrication of ASME Pressure Technology Codes and Standards: Status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is not universal agreement on metrication. Most agree that it is necessary--sometime, maybe for the next generation, but not now; some agree that it is eventually necessary, and even desirable, but that it is too early; some believe that it is too late, already. Currently, for many pressure technology code users, metrication is neither needed nor wanted; for some, the opposite is true. However, Society leadership indicates that such may not hold for the future, and it is unlikely that the rest of the world will decide to convert to the inch-pound system. Therefore, it seems logical to at least begin the metrication process, which will take years to complete. The first step is accomplished by providing a dual system for reference and familiarity, using the soft side of hard conversion. This leaves the inch-pound system essentially intact, while affording the opportunity for limited use of metric standards and time for true metric sizes and products to become part of PTCS. The eventual goal, is not being metric for the sake of being metric, but to be globally consistent for economic reasons, and to facilitate the movement towards a smaller number of standard sizes worldwide.

Hollinger, G.L. [Babcock and Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

Dr. Steven D. Dietz

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Momentum space metric, non-local operator, and topological insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Momentum space of a gapped quantum system is a metric space: it admits a notion of distance reflecting properties of its quantum ground state. By using this quantum metric, we investigate geometric properties of momentum space. In particular, we introduce a non-local operator which represents distance square in real space and show that this corresponds to the Laplacian in curved momentum space, and also derive its path integral representation in momentum space. The quantum metric itself measures the second cumulant of the position operator in real space, much like the Berry gauge potential measures the first cumulant or the electric polarization in real space. By using the non-local operator and the metric, we study some aspects of topological phases such as topological invariants, the cumulants and topological phase transitions. The effect of interactions to the momentum space geometry is also discussed.

Shunji Matsuura; Shinsei Ryu

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

362

Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Making Data Count: A Data Metrics Pilot Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and their technology platform for tracking usage and reachtechnology platform to process, anonymize and disseminate usagetechnology platform to track and collect the data metrics. We will also obtain ďusageĒ

Lin, Jennifer; Cruse, Patricia; Fenner, Martin; Strasser, Carly

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the Bondi-Sachs metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the Hilbert action for the Bondi-Sachs metrics. It yields the Einstein vacuum equations in a closed form. Following the Dirac approach to constrained systems we investigate the related Hamiltonian formulation.

J. Korbicz; J. Tafel

2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Consistent metric combinations in cosmology of massive bigravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Massive bigravity models are interesting alternatives to standard cosmology. In most cases however these models have been studied for a simplified scenario in which both metrics take homogeneous and isotropic forms (Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker; FLRW) with the same spatial curvatures. The interest to consider more general geometries arises in particular in view of the difficulty so far encountered in building stable cosmological solutions with homogeneous and isotropic metrics. Here we consider a number of cases in which the two metrics take more general forms, namely FLRW with different spatial curvatures, Lema\\^{i}tre, Lema\\^{i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB), and Bianchi I, as well as cases where only one metric is linearly perturbed. We discuss possible consistent combinations and find that only some special cases of FLRW-Lema\\^{i}tre, LTB-LTB and FLRW-Bianchi I combinations give consistent, non-trivial solutions.

Henrik Nersisyan; Yashar Akrami; Luca Amendola

2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

367

Improving enterprise decision-making : the benefits of metric commonality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research is to identify a new approach in managing, and making internal program-level decisions from, externally tracked performance metrics. Industry observations indicate the increasing challenge ...

Friedman, Alissa H. (Alissa Heather)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

algorithm performance metrics: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: New set of metrics for the computational performance of IS-ENES Earth System Models TRCMGC1473 U performance of Earth System Models is developed and used for an...

369

Conformal Gravity and the Alcubierre Warp Drive Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an analysis of the classic Alcubierre metric based on conformal gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting warp drive remain the same as in the original study by Alcubierre, namely that effective super-luminal motion is a viable outcome of the metric. We show that for particular choices of the shaping function, the Alcubierre metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the weak energy condition, as was the case of the original solution. In particular, the resulting warp drive does not require the use of exotic matter. Therefore, if conformal gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, super-luminal motion via an Alcubierre metric might be a realistic solution, thus allowing faster-than-light interstellar travel.

Varieschi, Gabriele U

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Conformal Gravity and the Alcubierre Warp Drive Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an analysis of the classic Alcubierre metric based on conformal gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting warp drive remain the same as in the original study by Alcubierre, namely that effective super-luminal motion is a viable outcome of the metric. We show that for particular choices of the shaping function, the Alcubierre metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the weak energy condition, as was the case of the original solution. In particular, the resulting warp drive does not require the use of exotic matter. Therefore, if conformal gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, super-luminal motion via an Alcubierre metric might be a realistic solution, thus allowing faster-than-light interstellar travel.

Gabriele U. Varieschi; Zily Burstein

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

371

PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH Abstract. We use a wave packet the Simons Foundation (# 266371 to Hart Smith). 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH H¨ormander's theorem [9] on propagation

Smith, Hart F.

372

A topological metric in 2+1-dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Real-valued triplet of scalar fields as source gives rise to a metric which tilts the scalar, not the light cone, in 2+1-dimensions. The topological metric is static, regular and characterized by an integer $\\kappa =\\pm 1,\\pm 2,...$. The problem is formulated as a harmonic map of Riemannian manifolds in which the integer $\\kappa $ equals to the degree of the map.

Mazharimousavi, S Habib

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

Greene, D.L.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

Kisholoy Goswami

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

376

Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

formation. The project is part of the development phase of the Department's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative, which is helping develop and deploy carbon...

377

Bechtel Presents: Ivanpah Solar Project Date: Thursday, November 10, 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and will nearly double the amount of commercial solar thermal electricity produced in the United States today) technology. It will displace 450,000 tons (408,000 metric tons) of carbon dioxide emissions per year Scope: $2 Billion Dollars--The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, in the Mojave Desert northwest

Reisslein, Martin

378

Assignment Carbon Footprints Name__Lachniet__ 1) See Figure 1.1a at the back of the assignment (from IPCC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assignment Carbon Footprints Name__Lachniet__ 1) See Figure 1.1a at the back capita, relative to other countries. 3) Use the carbon footprint calculator at 1) http utility bill. Use the # of people living in your house. a) What is your carbon footprint, in metric

Lachniet, Matthew S.

379

A FLUKA Study of $\\beta$-delayed Neutron Emission for the Ton-size DarkSide Dark Matter Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the published cosmogenic background study for a ton-sized DarkSide dark matter search, only prompt neutron backgrounds coincident with cosmogenic muons or muon induced showers were considered, although observation of the initiating particle(s) was not required. The present paper now reports an initial investigation of the magnitude of cosmogenic background from $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission produced by cosmogenic activity in DarkSide. The study finds a background rate for $\\beta$-delayed neutrons in the fiducial volume of the detector on the order of < 0.1 event/year. However, detailed studies are required to obtain more precise estimates. The result should be compared to a radiogenic background event rate from the PMTs inside the DarkSide liquid scintillator veto of 0.2 events/year.

Empl, Anton

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF{sub 6} in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF{sub 6} is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF{sub 6} may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF{sub 6} cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail.

Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last reported U.S. production of tungsten concentrates was in 1994. In 2004,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in cemented carbide parts for cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, mining, oil inventory inventory for disposal FY 2004 FY 2004 Ferrotungsten 233 3 233 136 Metal powder 463 463 136

382

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last reported U.S. production of tungsten concentrates was in 1994. In 2002,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parts for cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, oil and gas drilling Authorized Disposal plan Disposals Material inventory inventory for disposal FY 2002 FY 2002 Carbide powder

383

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last recorded U.S. production of tungsten concentrates was in 1994. In 2001,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, oil and gas drilling, mining Authorized Disposal plan Disposals Material inventory inventory for disposal FY 2001 FY 2001 Carbide powder

384

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last reported U.S. production of tungsten concentrates was in 1994. In 2003,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in cemented carbide parts for cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, oil- and gas--9-30-036 Uncommitted Committed Authorized Disposal plan Disposals Material inventory inventory

385

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last reported U.S. production of tungsten concentrates was in 1994. In 2005,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in cemented carbide parts for cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, mining, oil Material inventory inventory for disposal FY 2005 FY 2005 Ferrotungsten 105 105 7 136 121 Metal powder 266

386

(Data in metric tons of tungsten content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The last reported U.S. production of tungsten concentrates was in 1994. In 2006,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in cemented carbide parts for cutting and wear-resistant materials primarily in the metalworking, mining, oil Material inventory inventory for disposal FY 2006 FY 2006 Ferrotungsten 7 136 133 Metal powder 266 266

387

(Data in thousand metric tons of boric oxide (B O ), unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The estimated value of boric oxide contained in minerals and compounds produced in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reduce debt. The company leased the facilities for a term of 15 years. Electricity and steam produced), 14% (Foreign). Government Stockpile: None. Prepared by Phyllis A. Lyday, (703) 648-7713 [Fax: (703, insulating and reinforcing fiberglass, and agriculture. One company sold its electric and steam generating

388

(Data in metric tons of tin content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Tin has not been mined or smelted in the United States since 1993 and 1989,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,410 9,800 3,170 5,630 6,200 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 4,540 60 -- -- -- Consumption: electrical, 29%; cans and containers, 18%; construction, 13%; transportation, 12%; and other, 28 as follows: primary metal consumed, $980 million; imports for consumption, refined tin, $1.36 billion

389

(Data in metric tons of silver content, unless otherwise noted)1 Domestic Production and Use: Silver, produced by about 76 mines in 16 States, had an estimated value of $338  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,8002 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 186 220 232 109 250 Consumption, apparent NA NA NA 4,980 5 and technical uses. Industrial and technical uses include photographic materials, electrical products, catalysts NA 1,360 1,700 Imports for consumption 2,600 3,250 3,010 2,540 2,6002 Exports 967 2,890 2,950 3,080 3

390

(Data in metric tons of tin content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2001, no tin was mined domestically. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin smelter,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,770 6,640 6,800 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 11,700 12,200 765 12,000 12,000 Consumption: cans and containers, 30%; electrical, 20%; construction, 10%; transportation, 10%; and other, 30: primary metal consumed, $278 million; imports for consumption, refined tin, $326 million; and secondary

391

(Data in metric tons of tin content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, no tin was mined domestically. Production of tin at the only U.S. tin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,020 6,770 7,000 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 11,800 11,700 12,200 765 12,000 Consumption: cans and containers, 30%; electrical, 20%; construction, 10%; transportation, 10%; and other, 30: primary metal consumed, $318 million; imports for consumption, refined tin, $391 million; and secondary

392

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2007. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2007. All yttrium Number Normal Trade Relations 12-31-07 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth-bearing materials and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth

393

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All yttrium. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

394

[Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted] Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All yttrium. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

395

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium

396

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2008. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2008. All yttrium 12-31-08 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

397

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnsite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnäsite at Mountain Pass, CA, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnäsite, a rare-earth Number Normal Trade Relations 12/31/02 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth

398

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2006. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2006. All yttrium-31-06 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

399

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All yttrium Normal Trade Relations 12-31-10 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth-bearing materials and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds

400

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2003.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2003. Yttrium Relations 12/31/03 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805

402

[Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted] Domestic Production and Use: Rare earths were mined by one U.S. company in 2013. Bastnasite, a rare-earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to represent 0.12 percent of the rare-earth elements in the Mountain Pass bastnasite ore. The leading end uses Production and Use: Rare earths were mined by one U.S. company in 2013. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluorocarbonate mineral, was mined as a primary product at Mountain Pass, CA. Domestic production of rare-earth

403

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2004. Yttrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2004. Yttrium Relations 12-31-04 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

404

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed

405

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5

406

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth/31/96 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium

407

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2005. All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2005. All yttrium-31-05 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

408

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth/31/98 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium

409

(Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite at Mountain Pass, CA, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth Number Normal Trade Relations 12/31/01 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth

410

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2013, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials included galvanizing residues and crude zinc oxide processed from electric arc furnace dust. Import Sources (2009­12): Ore and concentrate: Peru, 76%; Ireland, 8%; Mexico, 8%; Canada, 7%; and other, 1%. Metal: Canada, 72%; Mexico, 13%; Peru, 7%; Spain, 2%; and other, 6%. Waste and scrap: Canada, 65

411

(Data in thousand metric tons of boric oxide (B2O3) unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The estimated value of boric oxide contained in minerals and compounds produced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Salta Mining and Energy Resources, located in Salta Province in northern Argentina, increased exports,000 9,000 Bolivia 68 60 NA NA Chile 590 460 NA NA Chin

412

(Data in thousand metric tons of boric oxide (B2O3), unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The estimated value of boric oxide contained in minerals and compounds produced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; Bolivia, 9%; Italy 6%; and other, 7%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12/31/02 Borates: Refined lime and energy requirements wi

413

(Data in thousand metric tons of boric oxide (B2O3) unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Data for boron production and consumption in 2008 in the United States were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%; Chile, 24%; Bolivia, 8%; Peru, 5%; and other, 8%. Tariff: Item Number Normal Trade Relations 12 of boron-free reinforcement-grade fiberglass in Europe and the United States. The continued rise in energy Reserves6 Reserve base6 2007 2008e United States W W 40,000 80,000 Argentina 550 670 2,000 9,000 Bolivia 50

414

Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal andoptical properties. They are harder than diamond yet exible, have betterelectrical conductor than copper, but can alsoÖ (more)

Fredriksson, Tore

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forecasting solar energy generation is a challenging task due to the variety of solar power systems and weather regimes encountered. Forecast inaccuracies can result in substantial economic losses and power system reliability issues. This paper presents a suite of generally applicable and value-based metrics for solar forecasting for a comprehensive set of scenarios (i.e., different time horizons, geographic locations, applications, etc.). In addition, a comprehensive framework is developed to analyze the sensitivity of the proposed metrics to three types of solar forecasting improvements using a design of experiments methodology, in conjunction with response surface and sensitivity analysis methods. The results show that the developed metrics can efficiently evaluate the quality of solar forecasts, and assess the economic and reliability impact of improved solar forecasting.

Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H. F.; Banunarayanan, V.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A phase transition model for metric fluctuations in vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regarding metric fluctuations as generating {\\it roughness} on the fabric of the otherwise smooth vacuum, it is shown that in its simplest form, the effect can be described by the scalar $\\phi^4$ model. The model exhibits a second order phase transition between a smooth (low-temperature) phase and a rough (high-temperature) one, corroborating the absence of metric fluctuations at low energies. In the rough phase near the critical point, vacuum is characterized by a power-law behavior for the fluctuating field with critical exponent $\\beta \\approx 0.33$.

M. Mehrafarin

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Evaluation of the Design Metric to Reduce the Number of Defects in Software Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Software design is one of the most important and key activities in the system development life cycle (SDLC) phase that ensures the quality of software. Different key areas of design are very vital to be taken into consideration while designing software. Software design describes how the software system is decomposed and managed in smaller components. Object-oriented (OO) paradigm has facilitated software industry with more reliable and manageable software and its design. The quality of the software design can be measured through different metrics such as Chidamber and Kemerer (CK) design metrics, Mood Metrics & Lorenz and Kidd metrics. CK metrics is one of the oldest and most reliable metrics among all metrics available to software industry to evaluate OO design. This paper presents an evaluation of CK metrics to propose an improved CK design metrics values to reduce the defects during software design phase in software. This paper will also describe that whether a significant effect of any CK design metri...

Qureshi, M Rizwan Jameel; 10.5815/ijitcs.2012.04.02

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer Total Organic Carbon Analyzer The carbon analyzer is used to analyze total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), total organic carbon (TOC), purgeable...

420

METRIC PROPERTIES AND EXCEPTIONAL SETS OF THE OPPENHEIM EXPANSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METRIC PROPERTIES AND EXCEPTIONAL SETS OF THE OPPENHEIM EXPANSIONS OVER THE FIELD OF LAURENT SERIES in a large class of Oppenheim expansions of Laurent series, including Luroth, Engel, Sylvester expansions properties fail to hold. Key Words and Phrases Oppenheim expansions, Laurent series, #12;nite #12;eld

Fan, Ai-Hua

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Why Metrics Matter: Evaluating Policy Choices for Reactive Nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for reducing Nr releases into the air are also lower. These findings have major implications for the use and support improved coordination between the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts while restoring the Chesapeake for the interest in metrics related to pollutants is the role they play now and in future regulation. Current

Tufts University

422

Thermodynamics and the naked singularity in the Gamma-metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate a possible way of establishing a parallel between the third law of black hole mechanics, and the strong version of the third law of thermodynamics. We calculate the surface gravity and area for a naked singular null surface in the Gamma-metric and explain in what sense this behaviour violates thermodynamics.

K. Lochan; D. Malafarina; T. P. Singh

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

423

type Riemannian metric on the space of planar curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Computational Anatomy (MFCA'06) inria-00635881,version1-26Oct2011 Author manuscript, published in "1st MICCAI (MFCA'06) 41 inria-00635881,version1-26Oct2011 #12;2.2 Closure of open curves in H1 metric A generic z

Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

424

A Case Study in Developing Process Unit Energy Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the 2005 IETC Conference, KBC (Davis and Knight) submitted a paper on Integrating Process Unit Energy Metrics into a Plant Energy Managemenet System. For the 2006 conference, KBC wishes to submit a paper that details an actual case study where...

Davis, J. L.; Van Atta, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Instruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power savings, and with an average performance loss of a very modest 1.9%. I. INTRODUCTION NewInstruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric Ziad Youssfi and Michael Shanblatt Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 ziad

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

426

Geodesic completeness for meromorphic metrics; the case of coercive ones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geodesic completeness for meromorphic metrics; the case of coercive ones Claudio Meneghini August 5, 2004 #12;0.1. FOREWORD 1 0.1 Foreword This thesis is concerned with extending the idea of geodesic now confine ourselves to remarking that geodesics, and, more generally, paths, will be defined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

Degree of geodesic mobility of Lorentzian metric Aleksandra Fedorova  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degree of geodesic mobility of Lorentzian metric Aleksandra Fedorova FSU, Jena March 24, 2012 Aleksandra Fedorova ( FSU, Jena ) Degree of mobility March 24, 2012 1 / 22 #12;Outline 1 Degree of geodesic March 24, 2012 2 / 22 #12;Geodesically equivalent connections M -- manifold, and ¬Į are affine

Rossak, Wilhelm R.

428

MODELS AND METRICS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT COMPUTER SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELS AND METRICS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT COMPUTER SYSTEMS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT promising energy-efficient technolo- gies, and models to understand the effects of resource utilization decisions on power con- sumption. To facilitate energy-efficiency improvements, this dissertation presents

Kozyrakis, Christos

429

HAMILTON JACOBI EQUATIONS ON METRIC SPACES AND TRANSPORT ENTROPY INEQUALITIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HAMILTON JACOBI EQUATIONS ON METRIC SPACES AND TRANSPORT ENTROPY INEQUALITIES N. GOZLAN, C. ROBERTO, P-M. SAMSON Abstract. We prove an Hopf-Lax-Oleinik formula for the solutions of some Hamilton that the log-Sobolev inequality is equivalent to an hypercontractivity property of the Hamilton-Jacobi semi

Boyer, Edmond

430

Computing K3 and CY n-fold Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivative expnsion in the context of IIB string scattering compactified on non-trivial K3 and other Calabi-Yau manifolds is formulated. The scattering data in terms of automorphic functions can be inverted to find the these metrics. The solutions are parameterized by the moduli information, and the metrics may be found to any desired accuracy in derivatives. Metric information to low orders in derivatives allows for a counting of curves inside the manifold; in addition, the coefficients of these exponential terms via D-brane wrappings are polynomials that may admit an invariant interpretation in cohomology. An interesting case pertaining to M-theory compactifications is the collection of seven-dimensional $G_2$ manifolds; they can also be obtained when the moduli space degenerates into cases, such as a toroidal one or other limit in which modular functions on the space are known. Note: this work was written two years ago; the recipe without the explicit form of the scattering and metrics is given.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

431

Methods, Metrics and Motivation for a Green Computer Science Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and, more recently, economically sensible [13]. "Going Green" implies reducing your energy useMethods, Metrics and Motivation for a Green Computer Science Program Mujtaba Talebi and Thomas Way are uniquely positioned to promote greater awareness of Green Computing, using the academic setting

Way, Thomas

432

Linear harmonic oscillator in spaces with degenerate metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the help of contraction method we study the harmonic oscillator in spaces with degenerate metrics, namely, on Galilei plane and in the flat 3D Cayley-Klein spaces $R_3(j_2,j_3).$ It is shown that the inner degrees of freedom are appeared which physical dimensions are different from the dimension of the space.

N. A. Gromov

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

433

Metric approach for sound propagation in nematic liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the eikonal approach, we describe sound propagation near to topological defects of nematic liquid crystal as geodesics of a non-euclidian manifold endowed with an effective metric tensor. The relation between the acoustics of the medium and this geometrical description is given by Fermat's principle. We calculate the ray trajectories and propose a diffraction experiment to retrieve informations about the elastic constants.

E. Pereira; S. Fumeron; F. Moraes

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

New set of metrics for the computational performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New set of metrics for the computational performance of IS-ENES Earth System Models TR/CMGC/14/73 U performance of Earth System Models is developed and used for an initial performance analysis of the EC models.................................................................................................................................5 2.1 List of Participating Earth System Models

435

Code design based on metric-spectrum and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduced nested search methods to design (n, k) block codes for arbitrary channels by optimizing an appropriate metric spectrum in each iteration. For a given k, the methods start with a good high rate code, say k/(k + 1), and successively...

Papadimitriou, Panayiotis D.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

436

EA-1835: Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) Phase II Michigan Basin Project in Chester Township, Michigan  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide approximately $65.5 million in financial assistance in a cost-sharing arrangement with the project proponent, MRCSP. MRCSP's proposed project would use CO2 captured from an existing natural gas processing plant in Chester Township, pipe it approximately 1 mile to an injection well, and inject it into a deep saline aquifer for geologic sequestration. This project would demonstrate the geologic sequestration of 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 over a 4-year period. The project and EA are on hold.

437

Chemical reactions of UF{sub 6} with water on ingress to damaged model 48X 10 ton cylinder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemistry studies of the effects of water flooding in Model 48X 10-ton UF{sub 6} storage cylinders, as a result of impact fractures, were conducted to support the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review of the Paducah Tiger Overpack for transportation of those cylinders. The objectives of the study were to determine the maximum amount of water that could be admitted to the interior of such a damaged cylinder, the resulting geometries and chemical compositions from reactions of water with the UF{sub 6} contents of the cylinder, and the end-state water moderated and reflected configurations for input to nuclear criticality safety analyses. The case identified for analysis was the flooding of the inside of a cylinder, submerged horizontally in 3 ft of water. The flooding was driven by an initial pressure drop of 13 psig, through an assumed fracture (1/32 in. wide {times} 1/2 in. deep {times} 18 in. long) in the barrel of the cylinder. During the initial addition of water, transient back pressures occur from the effects of the heats of reaction and solution at the water/UF{sub 6} interface, with some chugging as more water is added to alternately coot the reaction surface and then heat it again as the added water reacts with more UF{sub 6}.

Rothman, A.B.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Inside this issue: Carpooling and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the purchase of green power and carbon offsets. The energy and electricity usage for the building, 470 metric tons of carbon were offset. This is equivalent to planting 174 acres of trees or taking 160 UAlbany Shuttle Runs on Hybrid Power for the Summer Routes University Hall goes carbon neutral Check out

Kidd, William S. F.

439

The Ecological Society of America www.frontiersinecology.org Avoiding greenhouse-gas emissions by reducing the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon stocks) ­ or voluntary offset markets, several studies have sug- gested that offsetting- vation would entail might be too great to be offset by carbon payments. For example, several studies have per metric ton of carbon dioxide (tCO2; Stern 2007). Others have estimated that a 50% cut in global

Vermont, University of

440

* Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Degree with Honors from the University of Maine Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the importance of carbon mitigation and fossil fuel offset grows. A mixture of spruce-fir and mixed hardwood of Maine Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies 1 NORTHEAST FORESTS: AN ASSESMENT OF CURRENT CARBON STOCKS. As atmospheric carbon continues to rise and U.S. fossil fuel use moves beyond 2000 million metric tons per year

Lovett, Gary M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DOE Partnership Completes Successful CO2 Injection Test in the Mount Simon Sandstone  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership, one of seven partnerships in the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program, has successfully injected 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the Mount Simon Sandstone, a deep saline formation that is widespread across much of the Midwest.

442

Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3) sustainability indicators or performance metrics forof situated performance metrics or indicators that arenít3) sustainability indicators or performance metrics for

Shelby, Ryan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

A Structure-Based Distance Metric for High-Dimensional Space...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Structure-Based Distance Metric for High-Dimensional Space Exploration with Multi-Dimensional Scaling. A Structure-Based Distance Metric for High-Dimensional Space Exploration...

444

Choosing good distance metrics and local planners for probabilistic roadmap motion planning methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a comparative evaluation of different distance metrics and local planners within the context of probabilistic roadmap methods for motion planning. Both C-space and Workspace distance metrics and local planners are considered...

Bayazit, Osman Burchan

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

447

Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

None

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

448

An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern Indiana, and an immiscible CO{sub 2} flood pilot was conducted in the Jackson sandstone (Mississippian System Big Clifty Sandstone Member) at the Sugar Creek Field in Hopkins County, western Kentucky. Up to 12% incremental oil recovery was estimated based on these pilots. A CO{sub 2} huff ‚??n‚?? puff (HNP) pilot project was conducted in the Cypress Sandstone in the Loudon Field. This pilot was designed to measure and record data that could be used to calibrate a reservoir simulation model. A pilot project at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois, tested the potential storage of CO{sub 2} in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} storage and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot results from all four sites showed that CO{sub 2} could be injected into the subsurface without adversely affecting groundwater. Additionally, hydrocarbon production was enhanced, giving further evidence that CO{sub 2} storage in oil reservoirs and coal beds offers an economic advantage. Results from the MVA program at each site indicated that injected CO{sub 2} did not leave the injection zone. Topical reports were completed on the Middle and Late Devonian New Albany Shale and Basin CO{sub 2} emissions. The efficacy of the New Albany Shale as a storage sink could be substantial if low injectivity concerns can be alleviated. CO{sub 2} emissions in the Illinois Basin were projected to be dominated by coal-fired power plants.

Robert Finley

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Energy Metrics for Power Efficient Crosslink and Mesh Topologies Inna Vaisband, Eby G. Friedman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

described. Metrics to determine the most energy efficient non-tree topology are provided based on closed are also provided to compare the energy characteristics of non-tree topologies. The metrics and designEnergy Metrics for Power Efficient Crosslink and Mesh Topologies Inna Vaisband, Eby G. Friedman

Ginosar, Ran

450

Data Mining in Metric Space: An Empirical Analysis of Supervised Learning Performance Criteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Error, Cross Entropy, and Prob- ability Calibration. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) shows- terpreted as probabilities: squared error, cross entropy, and calibration, lay in one part of metric space metrics such as ROC area and average precision. We introduce a new metric, SAR, that combines squared

Caruana, Rich

451

RELATION OF THE WAVE{PROPAGATION METRIC TENSOR TO THE CURVATURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RELATION OF THE WAVE{PROPAGATION METRIC TENSOR TO THE CURVATURES OF THE SLOWNESS AND RAY The contravariant components of the wave{propagation metric tensor equal half the second{order partial derivatives. The relations of the wave{ propagation metric tensor to the curvature matrix and Gaussian curvature

Cerveny, Vlastislav

452

Review of corrosion in 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature review was conducted to determine the type, extent and severity of corrosion found in the 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders. Also discussed in this review is corrosion found in the valves and plugs used in the cylinders. Corrosion of the cylinders is a gradual process which occurs slowly over time. Understanding corrosion of the cylinders is an important concern for long term storage of the UF{sub 6} in the cylinder yards, as well as the final disposition of the depleted UF{sub 6} tails inventory in the future. The following conclusions are made from the literature review: (1) The general external corrosion rate of the cylinders is about 1 to 2 mils per year (1 mil = 0.001{double_prime}). The highest general external corrosion rate was over 5 mpy on the 48G type cylinders. (2) General internal corrosion from the depleted UF{sub 6} is negligible under normal storage conditions. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/saddle interface from the retention of water in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/skirt interface on the older skirted cylinders due to the lack of water drainage in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur on cylinders that have been in ground contact. Crevice corrosion and galvanic corrosion can occur where the stainless steel I.D. nameplates are attached to the cylinder. The packing nuts on the bronze one-inch valves used in the cylinders are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Mechanical damage from routine handling can lead to a breach in a cylinder with subsequent accelerated corrosion of the mild steel due to attack from HF and other UF{sub 6} hydrolysis by-products.

Lykins, M.L.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Alaska has 4. 0 trillion tons of low-sulfur coal: Is there a future for this resource  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand for and use of low-sulfur coal may increase because of concern with acid rain. Alaska's low-sulfur coal resources can only be described as enormous: 4.0 trillion tons of hypothetical onshore coal. Mean total sulfur content is 0.34% (range 0.06-6.6%, n = 262) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. There are 50 coal fields in Alaska; the bulk of the resources are in six major fields or regions: Nenana, Cook Inlet, Matanuska, Chignik-Herendeen Bay, North Slope, and Bering River. For comparison, Carboniferous coals in the Appalachian region and Interior Province have a mean total sulfur content of 2.3% (range 0.1-19.0%, n = 5,497) with a mean apparent rank of high-volatile A bituminous coal, and Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains Cretaceous and Tertiary coals have a mean total sulfur content of 0.86% (range 0.02-19.0%, n = 2,754) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. Alaskan coal has two-fifths the total sulfur of western US coals and one-sixth that of Carboniferous US coals. Even though Alaska has large resources of low-sulfur coal, these resources have not been developed because of (1) remote locations and little infrastructure, (2) inhospitable climate, and (3) long distances to potential markets. These resources will not be used in the near future unless there are some major, and probably violent, changes in the world energy picture.

Stricker, G.D. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

XAX: a multi-ton, multi-target detection system for dark matter, double beta decay and pp solar neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A multi-target detection system XAX, comprising concentric 10 ton targets of 136Xe and 129/131Xe, together with a geometrically similar or larger target of liquid Ar, is described. Each is configured as a two-phase scintillation/ionization TPC detector, enhanced by a full 4pi array of ultra-low radioactivity Quartz Photon Intensifying Detectors (QUPIDs) replacing the conventional photomultipliers for detection of scintillation light. It is shown that background levels in XAX can be reduced to the level required for dark matter particle (WIMP) mass measurement at a 10^-10 pb WIMP-nucleon cross section, with single-event sensitivity below 10^-11 pb. The use of multiple target elements allows for confirmation of the A^2 dependence of a coherent cross section, and the different Xe isotopes provide information on the spin-dependence of the dark matter interaction. The event rates observed by Xe and Ar would modulate annually with opposite phases from each other for WIMP mass >~100 GeV/c^2. The large target mass of 136Xe and high degree of background reduction allow neutrinoless double beta decay to be observed with lifetimes of 10^27-10^28 years, corresponding to the Majorana neutrino mass range 0.01-0.1 eV, the most likely range from observed neutrino mass differences. The use of a 136Xe-depleted 129/131Xe target will also allow measurement of the pp solar neutrino spectrum to a precision of 1-2%.

K. Arisaka; H. Wang; P. F. Smith; D. Cline; A. Teymourian; E. Brown; W. Ooi; D. Aharoni; C. W. Lam; K. Lung; S. Davies; M. Price

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

455

Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that they play in human health, biogeochemical cycles and the Earth's climate. ...

Kroll, Jesse

456

Demonstration and evaluation of the 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system, Eldorado Resources, Ltd. , Port Hope, Ontario, September 3-4, 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On September 3 and 4, 1986, the prototype 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system (LCBWS) developed by the US Enrichment Safeguards Program (ESP) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., was field tested at the Eldorado Resources, Ltd., (ERL) facility in Port Hope, Ontario. The 20-ton-capacity LCBWS has been designed and fabricated for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verifying the masses of large-capacity UF/sub 6/ cylinders during IAEA safeguards inspections at UF/sub 6/ handling facilities. The purpose of the Canadian field test was to demonstrate and to evaluate with IAEA inspectorates and with UF/sub 6/ bulk handling facility operators at Eldorado the principles, procedures, and hardware associated with using the 20-ton-capacity LCBWS as a portable means for verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF/sub 6/ cylinders. Session participants included representatives from the IAEA, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Eldorado Resources, Ltd., the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Appendix A presents the list of participants and their organization affiliation. The two-day field test involved a formal briefing by ESP staff, two cylinder weighing sessions, IAEA critiques of the LCBWS hardware and software, and concluding discussions on the field performance of the system. Appendix B cites the meeting agenda. Summarized in this report are (1) the technical information presented by the system developers, (2) results from the weighing sessions, and (3) observations, suggestions, and concluding statements from meeting participants.

Cooley, J.N.; Huxford, T.J.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild metric and reparametrization transformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild metric generated by loop diagrams have been considered by Bjerrum-Bohr, Donoghue, and Holstein (BHD) [Phys. Rev. D68, 084005 (2003)], and Khriplovich and Kirilin (KK) [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 98, 1063 (2004)]. Though the same field variables in a covariant gauge are used, the results obtained differ from one another. The reason is that the different sets of diagrams have been used. Here we will argue that the quantum corrections to metric must be independent of the choice of field variables, i.e., must be reparametrization invariant. Using simple reparametrization transformation, we will show that the contribution considered by BDH, is not invariant under it. Meanwhile the contribution of the complete set of the diagrams, considered by KK, satisfies the requirement of the invariance.

G. G. Kirilin

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

458

Advanced Space Propulsion Based on Vacuum (Spacetime Metric) Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theme that has come to the fore in advanced planning for long-range space exploration is the concept that empty space itself (the quantum vacuum, or spacetime metric) might be engineered so as to provide energy/thrust for future space vehicles. Although far-reaching, such a proposal is solidly grounded in modern physical theory, and therefore the possibility that matter/vacuum interactions might be engineered for space-flight applications is not a priori ruled out. As examples, the current development of theoretical physics addresses such topics as warp drives, traversable wormholes and time machines that provide for such vacuum engineering possibilities. We provide here from a broad perspective the physics and correlates/consequences of the engineering of the spacetime metric.

Puthoff, Harold E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

AFFILIATIONS: MILLER--Brookhaven National Laboratory, Up-ton, New York; SLINGO--Environmental Systems Science Centre,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

con- tinuously for periods of 6­12 months and includes a core suite of active remote sensors of radiation, latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon dioxide at the surface. The centerpieces of the AMF are a collection of active and passive remote sensors (Table 1) including a vertically pointing 95-GHz Doppler

460

HyperKhaler Metrics Building and Integrable Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods developed for the analysis of integrable systems are used to study the problem of hyperK\\"ahler metrics building as formulated in D=2 N=4 supersymmetric harmonic superspace. We show, in particular, that the constraint equation $\\beta\\partial^{++2}\\omega -\\xi^{++2}\\exp 2\\beta\\omega =0$ and its Toda like generalizations are integrable. Explicit solutions together with the conserved currents generating the symmetry responsible of the integrability of these equations are given. Other features are also discussed

E. H. Saidi; M. B. Sedra

2005-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metric tons carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The d-bar-Neumann operator and the Kobayashi metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between compactness of the partialdiff-Neumann operator and the property K in any convex domain. We also find a local property of the Kobayashi metric [Theorem IV.1], in which the domain is not necessary pseudoconvex. We find a more general condition than... through his deep insight, inexhaustible patience, and constant encouragement has been an inspiration to me during these years as his student. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II...

Kim, Mijoung

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

462

Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE): Evaluation of a new method to look at high resolution spatial/temporal distributions of carbon over key sub km sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently a new laser based approach for measuring area with potential for producing 2D estimates of the concentration spatial distribution has been developed through a cooperative agreement with the National Energy and Technology Laboratory of the Department of Energy, Exelis Inc. and AER Inc. The new approach is based on a pair of continuous wave intensity modulated laser absorption spectrometer transceivers, combined with a series of retro reflectors located around the perimeter of the area being monitored. The main goal of this cooperative agreement is monitoring, reporting and verification for ground carbon capture and storage projects. The system was recently tested at the Zero Emission Research and Technology site in Bozeman, MT, with underground leak rates ranging from 0.1 Ė 0.3 metric ton per day (T/d), as well as a 0.8 T/d surface release. Over 200 hours of data were collected over a rectangular grid 180m x 200m between August 18th and September 9th. In addition, multiple days of in situ data were acquired for the same site, using a Licor gas analyzer systems. Initial comparisons between the laser-based system and the in situ agree very well. The system is designed to operate remotely and transmit the data via a 3G/4G connection along with weather data for the site. An all web-based system ingests the data, populates a database, performs the inversion to ppm CO2 using the Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), and displays plots and statistics for the retrieved data. We will present an overview of the GreenLITE measurement system, outline the retrieval and reconstruction approach, and discuss results from extensive field testing.

Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Perninit, Timothy; McGregor, Doug; Botos, Chris; Dobeck, Laura

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-≠?year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-≠?three statesóthe Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiativeóhave cap-≠?and-≠?trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

On the electromagnetic constitutive laws that are equivalent to spacetime metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The raising of both indices in the components of the Minkowski electromagnetic field strength 2-form to give the components of the electromagnetic excitation bivector field can be regarded as being equivalent to an electromagnetic constitutive law, as well as being defined by the components of the spacetime metric. This notion is clarified, and the nature of the equivalent dielectric tensors and magnetic permeability tensors that are defined by some common spacetime metrics is discussed. The relationship of the basic construction to effective metrics is discussed, and, in particular, the fact that this effective metric is more general than the Gordon metric.

D. H. Delphenich

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

465

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Carbon supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

Delnick, F.M.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Carbon microtubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

468

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

Perlack, R.D.

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Carbon Storage Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

470

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon

471

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

Towards Performance Measurement And Metrics Based Analysis of PLA Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article is about a measurement analysis based approach to help software practitioners in managing the additional level complexities and variabilities in software product line applications. The architecture of the proposed approach i.e. ZAC is designed and implemented to perform preprocessesed source code analysis, calculate traditional and product line metrics and visualize results in two and three dimensional diagrams. Experiments using real time data sets are performed which concluded with the results that the ZAC can be very helpful for the software practitioners in understanding the overall structure and complexity of product line applications. Moreover the obtained results prove strong positive correlation between calculated traditional and product line measures.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

Newvahner, R.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

Weiblen, George D

475

Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, ďRadiation Protection of the Public and the EnvironmentĒ). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTecís Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, ďPublic Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,Ē concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the ďlikelyĒ dose scenarios met the ďfew millirem in a yearĒ criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

476

Laser Ranging Delay in the Bi-Metric Theory of Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a linearized bi-metric theory of gravity with two metrics. The metric g_{ab} describes null hypersurfaces of the gravitational field while light moves on null hypersurfaces of the optical metric \\bar{g}_{ab}. Bi-metrism naturally arises in vector-tensor theories with matter being non-minimally coupled to gravity via long-range vector field. We derive explicit Lorentz-invariant solution for a light ray propagating in space-time of the bi-metric theory and disentangle relativistic effects associated with the two metrics. This anlysis can be valuable for future spaceborne laser missions ASTROD and LATOR dedicated to map various relativistic gravity parameters in the solar system to unparalleled degree of accuracy.

Sergei M. Kopeikin; Wei-Tou Ni

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

477

Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Geometry of matrix product states: Metric, parallel transport, and curvature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the geometric properties of the manifold of states described as (uniform) matrix product states. Due to the parameter redundancy in the matrix product state representation, matrix product states have the mathematical structure of a (principal) fiber bundle. The total space or bundle space corresponds to the parameter space, i.e., the space of tensors associated to every physical site. The base manifold is embedded in Hilbert space and can be given the structure of a Kšhler manifold by inducing the Hilbert space metric. Our main interest is in the states living in the tangent space to the base manifold, which have recently been shown to be interesting in relation to time dependence and elementary excitations. By lifting these tangent vectors to the (tangent space) of the bundle space using a well-chosen prescription (a principal bundle connection), we can define and efficiently compute an inverse metric, and introduce differential geometric concepts such as parallel transport (related to the Levi-Civita connection) and the Riemann curvature tensor.

Haegeman, Jutho, E-mail: jutho.haegeman@gmail.com; Verstraete, Frank [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (Austria) [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (Austria); Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); MariŽn, MichaŽl [Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium)] [Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Osborne, Tobias J. [Leibniz Universitšt Hannover, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany) [Leibniz Universitšt Hannover, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Leibniz Universitšt Hannover, Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Optical Anisotropy of Schwarzschild Metric within Equivalent Medium Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is has been long known that the curved space in the presence of gravitation can be described as a non-homogeneous anisotropic medium in flat geometry with different constitutive equations. In this article, we show that the eigenpolarizations of such medium can be exactly solved, leading to a pseudo-isotropic description of curved vacuum with two refractive index eigenvalues having opposite signs, which correspond to forward and backward travel in time. We conclude that for a rotating universe, time-reversal symmetry is broken. We also demonstrate the applicability of this method to Schwarzschild metric and derive exact forms of refractive index. We derive the subtle optical anisotropy of space around a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and uncharged blackhole in the form of an elegant closed form expression, and show that the refractive index in such a pseudo-isotropic system would be a function of coordinates as well as the direction of propagation. Corrections arising from such anisotropy in the bending of light are shown and a simplified system of equations for ray-tracing in the equivalent medium of Schwarzschild metric is found.

Sina Khorasani; Bizhan Rashidian

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

480

OneBusAway: Results from Providing Real-Time Arrival Information for Public Transit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. Use of public transportation reduced U.S. CO2 emissions by 6.9 million metric tons in 2005 [18]. While hybrid and electric vehi- cle technologies can reduce the carbon-footprint of single- occupancy vehicles@cs.washington.edu ABSTRACT Public transit systems play an important role in combating traffic congestion, reducing carbon

Anderson, Richard

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481

Energy and Momentum in Spacetime Homogeneous G$\\ddot{o}$del-type Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Einstein and Papapetrou energy-momentum complexes, we explicitly calculate the energy and momentum distribution associated with spacetime homogeneous G$\\ddot{o}$del-type metrics. We obtain that the two definitions of energy-momentum complexes do not provide the same result for these type of metrics. However, it is shown that the results obtained are reduced to the energy-momentum densities of G$\\ddot{o}$del metric already available in the literature

M. Sharif

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

482

Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

483

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

485

APPLICATION OF MICROECONOMIC METRICS IN COMPETITIVE ELECTRICITY Pedro Correia and George Gross  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATION OF MICROECONOMIC METRICS IN COMPETITIVE ELECTRICITY MARKETS Pedro Correia and George Gross Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana

Gross, George

486

THE ALGEBRA OF THE PARALLEL ENDOMORPHISMS OF A PSEUDO-RIEMANNIAN METRIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

e is non trivial. Keywords: Pseudo-Riemannian, K√?hler, hyperk√?hler, parak√?hler metrics, holon- omy

487

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced web metrics Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: advanced web metrics Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Web Services Communities: From Intra-Community...

488

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessments quality metrics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Perceptual Quality Metric for Watermarking Applications Maurizio Carosi, Vinod... Abstract This work is motivated by the limitations of statistical quality met- rics to...

489

Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to decision making beyond energy technology. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSA New Metric for Energy Technology Corinne Reich-Weiser ,INTRODUCTION Alternative energy technologies such as solar,

Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents system and economic analysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO{sub 2} capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. For comparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO2 as compared to $60.25/ton of CO{sub 2} when MEA is used. The aminosilicone-based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higher thermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lower vapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lower heat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages over conventional systems using MEA.

Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hance, Dan; Chen, Wei; Kehmna, Mark; McDuffie, Dwayne

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

491

Exact moduli space metrics for hyperbolic vortex polygons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exact metrics on some totally geodesic submanifolds of the moduli space of static hyperbolic N-vortices are derived. These submanifolds, denoted as {sigma}{sub n,m}, are spaces of C{sub n}-invariant vortex configurations with n single vortices at the vertices of a regular polygon and m=N-n coincident vortices at the polygon's center. The geometric properties of {sigma}{sub n,m} are investigated, and it is found that {sigma}{sub n,n-1} is isometric to the hyperbolic plane of curvature -(3{pi}n){sup -1}. The geodesic flow on {sigma}{sub n,m} and a geometrically natural variant of geodesic flow recently proposed by Collie and Tong ['The dynamics of Chern-Simons vortices', Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 78, 065013 (2008);e-print arXiv:hep-th/0805.0602] are analyzed in detail.

Krusch, S. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Speight, J. M. [Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

492

The left invariant metric in the general linear group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Left invariant metrics induced by the p-norms of the trace in the matrix algebra are studied on the general lineal group. By means of the Euler-Lagrange equations, existence and uniqueness of extremal paths for the length functional are established, and regularity properties of these extremal paths are obtained. Minimizing paths in the group are shown to have a velocity with constant singular values and multiplicity. In several special cases, these geodesic paths are computed explicitly. In particular the Riemannian geodesics, corresponding to the case p=2, are characterized as the product of two one-parameter groups. It is also shown that geodesics are one-parameter groups if and only if the initial velocity is a normal matrix. These results are further extended to the context of compact operators with p-summable spectrum, where a differential equation for the spectral projections of the velocity vector of an extremal path is obtained.

Andruchow, Esteban; Recht, Lazaro; Varela, Alejandro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Embeddings for Schwarzschild metric: classification and new results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We suggest a method to search the embeddings of Riemannian spaces with a high enough symmetry in a flat ambient space. It is based on a procedure of construction surfaces with a given symmetry. The method is used to classify the embeddings of the Schwarzschild metric which have the symmetry of this solution, and all such embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space (i.e. a space with a minimal possible dimension) are constructed. Four of the six possible embeddings are already known, while the two others are new. One of the new embeddings is asymptotically flat, while the other embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space do not have this property. The asymptotically flat embedding can be of use in the analysis of the many-body problem, as well as for the development of gravity description as a theory of a surface in a flat ambient space.

S. A. Paston; A. A. Sheykin

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

494

Non-relativistic metrics from back-reacting fermions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has recently been pointed out that under certain circumstances the back-reaction of charged, massive Dirac fermions causes important modifications to AdS_2 spacetimes arising as the near horizon geometry of extremal black holes. In a WKB approximation, the modified geometry becomes a non-relativistic Lifshitz spacetime. In three dimensions, it is known that integrating out charged, massive fermions gives rise to gravitational and Maxwell Chern-Simons terms. We show that Schrodinger (warped AdS_3) spacetimes exist as solutions to a gravitational and Maxwell Chern-Simons theory with a cosmological constant. Motivated by this, we look for warped AdS_3 or Schrodinger metrics as exact solutions to a fully back-reacted theory containing Dirac fermions in three and four dimensions. We work out the dynamical exponent in terms of the fermion mass and generalize this result to arbitrary dimensions.

Ling-Yan Hung; Dileep P. Jatkar; Aninda Sinha

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

495

Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-sequestered CO2 with H2S impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state that affect mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. We have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-COMP (Water, Multiple Components, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. We use this simulator to model the co-injection of CO2 and H2S into brecciated basalt flow top. A 1000 metric ton injection of these supercritical fluids, with 99% CO2 and 1% H2S, is sequestered rapidly by solubility and mineral trapping. CO2 is trapped mainly as calcite within a few decades and H2S is trapped as pyrite within several years.

Bacon, Diana H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is an emerging consensus that the nationís electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Photophysics of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

Samsonidze, Georgii G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

499

Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Ad Hoc Networking Critical Features and Performance Metrics Madhavi W. Subbarao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ad Hoc Networking Critical Features and Performance Metrics Madhavi W. Subbarao Wireless Communications Technology Group, NIST October 7, 1999 A mobile ad hoc network MANET is an autonomous collection networking features and performance metrics for assessing the behav- ior of an ad-hoc network are identi ed