National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metric tons carbon

  1. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civilian Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People...

  2. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Administration (NNSA) will remove up to 200 metric tons (MT) of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), in the coming decades, from further use as fissile material in U.S. nuclear...

  3. Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the atmosphere. o Accounts for 20% of methane emissions from human sources. Globally cattle produce about 80 million metric tons of methane annually. o Accounts for 28% of global methane emissions

  4. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- 20 Rare-earth metals, alloy 880 867 784 679 210 Cerium compounds 2,170 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,190 Mixed (monazite or various thorium materials) -- -- 1 61 23 Rare-earth metals, alloys 636 733 1,470 1,390 6128 RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

  5. (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2007. Indium-containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells require approximately 50 metric tons of indium to produce 1 gigawatt of solar power. Research was underway to develop a low-cost manufacturing process for flexible CIGS solar cells that would yield high productio

  6. 10,422,136 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of August 21, 2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed below. Regional Carbon...

  7. 10,248,196 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of June 19, 2015 |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed...

  8. 10,180,047 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of May 28, 2015 | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed...

  9. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric Tons of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesy ofDepartment ofDepartmentTechnologiesEffortsCarbon

  10. (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine in the United States was a brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --United States: 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 e Production W W W W W Imports for consumption 3,160 1,890 1,960 2,850 2 production capacity. Industry analysts and the major lithium producers expected worldwide consumption94 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production

  11. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 113 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  12. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  13. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  14. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  15. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  16. Table 8. Carbon intensity of the economy by State (2000-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the economy by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons energy-related carbon dioxide per million dollars of GDP" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  17. DOE Partner Begins Injecting 50,000 Tons of CO2 in Michigan Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building on an initial injection project of 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide into a Michigan geologic formation, a U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 50,000 additional tons into the formation, which is believed capable of storing hundreds of years worth of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

  18. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 17 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  19. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Computer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  20. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Plastics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  1. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Textiles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  2. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Foundries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  3. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Fabricated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 1 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  4. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Machinery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  5. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Chemicals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 49 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  6. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 1 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  7. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Cement (NAICS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  8. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Forest Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 31 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  9. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Glass (NAICS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  10. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 1 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  11. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Alumina and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 10 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  12. Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics K. Matsumoto,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drange, Helge

    Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics K. Matsumoto,1 J. L. Sarmiento,2 R), Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07303, doi:10 of quantitative, data-based metrics of model skill. Further complications arise because models have different

  13. (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .9% and consumption was projected to remain essentially unchanged. U.S. mine production increased by about 4% in 2013 Production and Use: U.S. mine production of copper in 2013 increased by 4% to about 1.22 million tons of production--accounted for more than 99% of domestic mine production; copper also was recovered in Idaho

  14. Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of total U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 5,405 million metric tons from energy consumption, according to data from DOE's Energy Information Administration. In a major...

  15. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by at least 3 billion metric tons in total by 2030, equal to more than a year's carbon pollution from the entire U.S. electricity system. Furnace fans are used to circulate air...

  16. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifer, Peter; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Lee, Mark W.; Jalistegi, Satish S.

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have demonstrated the predicted increase in binding energy experimentally, currently at ~10 kJ/mol. The synthetic route for incorporation of boron at the outset is to create appropriately designed copoly- mers, with a boron-free and a boron-carrying monomer, followed by pyrolysis of the polymer, yielding a bo- ron-substituted carbon scaffold in which boron atoms are bonded to carbon atoms by synthesis. This is in contrast to a second route (funded by DE-FG36-08GO18142) in which first high-surface area carbon is cre- ated and doped by surface vapor deposition of boron, with incorporation of the boron into the lattice the final step of the fabrication. The challenge in the first route is to create high surface areas without compromising sp2 boron-carbon bonds. The challenge in the second route is to create sp2 boron-carbon bonds without com- promising high surface areas.

  17. (Data in metric tons of strontium content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 2011 2012 2013 e Production -- -- -- -- -- Imports for consumption: Strontium minerals 6,420 2 the potential for celestite consumption in drilling fluids. In descending order of production, China, Spain Production and Use: Although deposits of strontium minerals occur widely throughout the United States

  18. (Data in metric tons of silver content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in casino chips, freeway toll transponders, gasoline speed purchase devices, passports, and on packages,680 6,600 Exports 2 797 685 478 796 1,000 Consumption, apparent 5,250 6,300 4,600 7,220 7,850 Price September 2011, silver prices averaged $36.39 per troy ounce. The overall rise in silver prices corresponded

  19. (Data in metric tons of gold content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , expansion projects, and development projects were placed on hold because of the drop in the price of gold,140 8,140 Price, dollars per troy ounce 4 975 1,228 1,572 1,673 1,400 Employment, mine and mill, number, and Issues: The estimated gold price in 2013 was 16% lower than the price in 2012. This was the first time

  20. Energy Department Sponsored Project Captures One Millionth Metric Ton of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesy ofDepartmentPortland PublicCyclingCO2 | Department

  1. Transport mode and network architecture : carbon footprint as a new decision metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrieu, Nelly

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the tradeoffs between carbon footprint, cost, time and risk across three case studies of United States' perishable or consumer packaged goods firms and their transportation partners. Building upon ...

  2. Billion Ton Study—A Historical Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1A: Biomass Feedstocks for the Bioeconomy Billion Ton Study—A Historical Perspective Bryce Stokes, Senior Advisor, CNJV

  3. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul

    2010-01-01

    good practice” for data center infrastructure efficiency metric. Data Center Benchmarking Guidegood practice benchmark and 0.6 kW/ton as a better practice benchmark. Data Center Benchmarking Guide

  4. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)", "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",3978753 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",2411564 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",2172355 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2 "Nitrogen oxide...

  5. Metric Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success Story Some Metrics That Supported It 8 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y An example - Nuclear Power Industry Objective...

  6. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-01-01

    per kWh) i f a $10 per metric ton carbon allowance priceper kWh) i f a $100 per metric ton carbon allowance price

  7. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    25-51. Tables Cost of Carbon Dioxide (per ton) Three YearsPollutants Table 1: Cost of Carbon Dioxide Estimates VintageImplied Price for Carbon Dioxide ($/tons)! Years Clunkers

  8. Integration of Sustainability Metrics into Design Cases and State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Stage Life Cycle Inventory * Fossil GHGs * Fossil Energy Use * Fuel Yield * Carbon-to-Fuel Efficiency * Water Consumption * Wastewater Generation Sustainability Metrics...

  9. What is the Potential for Carbon Sequestration by the Terrestrial Biosphere?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlman, R. C.; Jacobs, Gary K.; Breshears, David; Metting, F. Blaine

    2002-12-31

    This paper is a summary discussion of technical information about carbon sequestration (CS) in terrestrial ecosystems that was presented in various Sessions of the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C., May 14-17, 2001. The Earth's mantle of vegetation naturally removes CO2 from the atmosphere, and some of this carbon then becomes sequestered in biomass products and soil. As discussed at this National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, mechanisms of terrestrial biosphere carbon sequestration (TBCS) represent important options for sequestration of excess CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels. A number of studies suggest that the potential quantity of TBCS may be significant, and that economic aspects appear attractive; therefore we conclude the following points: ? Quantity of annual carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can be measured at a reasonable accuracy; ? Median measure of current NEP or sequestration by forested ecosystems is 3 metric tons per hectare per year; ? Current calculated global TBCS for forests is ~3Gt C per yr; ? Estimated future TBCS capacity is 200-250 Gt C using available knowledge and current technology and management practice at nominal estimated cost of $10-20 per metric ton of C; ? It seems reasonable to assume that advanced science, technology, and management can double the capacity at low additional costs. ? TBCS option offers potential for sequestering more than 50 percent of projected excess CO2 that will have to be managed over the next century.

  10. (Data in million metric tons of usable ore unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than that in 2012 owing to reduced consumption for steel production. Two production lines were idled Production and Use: In 2013, mines in Michigan and Minnesota shipped 99% of the usable ore produced for the majority of production. The United States was estimated to have produced and consumed 2% of the world

  11. 6.347 metric tons of netting and rope worth $ 10 million .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and is feasible using equipment commonly found in most Chesapeake Bay shucking houses . INTRODUCTION " Red liquor to the following spring (Lear. 195 8). T hus. "red" oys- ters can be a problem to shucking houses for the ent ire Marine Resources Center. appear to follow an extended warm fa ll (Nelson. 1948). A method of eliminating

  12. haden in the South Atlantic summer fishery alone was 34,435 metric tons.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . CHEEK National Marine Fisheries Service Atlantic Estuolrine Fisheries Center Beaufort, NC 28516 four were available. Specimens ranged from 12 to 580 mm standard length (SL). Specimens smaller than about 60 mm SL were x-rayed with a soft-ray machine and larger specimens with a hard-ray machine. Counts

  13. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imports:3 Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- -- 22 Rare-earth metals, alloys 271 352 235 284 406 Cerium Exports:3 Thorium ore, monazite -- -- 3 27 -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 71 44 194 329 456 Cerium compounds. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. 31.3% ad val

  14. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National/%2A en Office ofAmendment 000002Turns

  15. 10,651,176 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of September 16, 2015 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers at

  16. U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof Energy Fish and WildlifeofDepartment of

  17. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar: Demonstration ofDepartment ofof Energy withof

  18. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratory | DepartmentDOE ZeroofBatteriesHybridNational

  19. Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today released a report - 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry - detailing U.S. biomass feedstock...

  20. Metrics for enterprise transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

  1. Buildings Performance Metrics Terminology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides the terms and definitions used in the Department of Energys Performance Metrics Research Project.

  2. Reading the Tea Leaves: How Utilities in the West Are Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in their Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2008-01-01

    2 Carbon Emission Price Projections in Utilitycarbon emission price projection (approximately $24/ton,carbon emission price projections to their base-case.

  3. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  4. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  5. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",4202,43 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",18043,37 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",3768,44 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.3,29 "Nitrogen...

  6. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",6565,42 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",7627,46 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",1942,49 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.9,37 "Nitrogen...

  7. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",2241,47 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",2585,48 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",4722,43 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.6,40 "Nitrogen...

  8. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",2109,48 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",96842,5 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",57323,13 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0,49 "Nitrogen...

  9. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",71,50 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",792,50 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",15,51 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0,50 "Nitrogen oxide...

  10. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",7436,41 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",16438,39 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",15690,37 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.4,43 "Nitrogen...

  11. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",3196,46 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",15299,40 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",15789,36 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.1,48 "Nitrogen...

  12. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",3512,45 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",9372,45 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",8726,41 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.2,47 "Nitrogen...

  13. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",1271,49 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",1161,49 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",2838,48 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.4,44 "Nitrogen...

  14. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",3733,44 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",5057,47 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",3447,46 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.4,45 "Nitrogen...

  15. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",13365,38 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",9607,44 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",3675,45 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.9,23 "Nitrogen...

  16. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",237091,5 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",86058,8 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",67193,10 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",4.5,3 "Nitrogen...

  17. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",190782,7 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",87201,7 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",85304,7 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",4.3,4 "Nitrogen...

  18. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tons)",, "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",0,51 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",148,51 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",49,50 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0,51 "Nitrogen oxide...

  19. Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strohmaier, Erich

    2009-01-01

    2007:1–12 Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers 12.ISSUE PAPER Generalized utility metrics for supercomputersproblem of ranking the utility of supercom- puter systems

  20. 1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area - Vault held waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area - Vault held waste tanks with contamination from Hanford's former laboratory facilities 1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area -...

  1. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency...

  2. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy...

  3. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  4. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  5. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,380 840 1,350 1,400 Rare-earth metals, alloys 1,470 1,390 4,920 1,380 3,400 Other rare-earth compounds 1,750 5,480 2,300 Rare-earth oxides, compounds 9,900 8,820 5,130 3,980 3,700 Rare-earth metals, alloy 784 scrap. Import Sources (2007­10): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 79%; France, 6%; Estonia, 4

  6. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentratese 10,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Imports:2 Thorium ore (monazite) 11 -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals,720 7,760 11,200 9,070 Ferrocerium, alloys 121 117 120 118 138 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys 991-2000): Monazite: Australia, 67%; and France, 33%. Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 74%; France, 21

  7. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentratese 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Imports:2 Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals,720 7,760 11,200 9,150 6,930 Ferrocerium, alloys 117 120 118 118 100 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys-2001): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 66%; France, 27%; Japan, 3%; Estonia, 2%; and other, 2

  8. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 56 11 -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 429 529 953 1,780 2,370 Cerium compounds 3,180 1,810 4,940 3 metals, alloys 250 991 724 1,600 1,830 Cerium compounds 6,100 5,890 4,640 3,960 3,870 Other rare-earth-99): Monazite: Australia, 67%; France, 33%; Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 71%; France, 23%; Japan

  9. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,260 10,900 11,400 8,550 10,600 Ferrocerium, alloys 89 111 105 130 140 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys-05): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 76%; France, 9%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 3%; and other, 8.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. Cerium

  10. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Mountain Pass were further processed into rare-earth compounds and metal products. The United States,980 3,770 2,840 5,800 Rare-earth metals, alloy 226 525 468 240 390 Exports: 2 Cerium compounds 840 1,350 1,640 992 730 Rare-earth metals, alloys 4,930 1,380 3,030 2,080 1,000 Other rare-earth compounds 455

  11. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- 22 -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 352 235 284 905 442 Cerium compounds 806 1:3 Thorium ore, monazite -- 3 27 -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 44 194 329 444 272 Cerium compounds.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. 31

  12. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- -- -- -- Imports: Thorium ore (monazite) -- 22 56 11 --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 284 905 429 529 760 Cerium 121 123 Exports: Thorium ore, monazite 27 -- -- -- --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 329 444 250 991 856 (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805

  13. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 867 784 564 188 250 Cerium compounds 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,500 1,400 Mixed REOs (monazite or various thorium materials) -- 1 61 18 1 Rare-earth metals, alloys 733 1,470 1,390 4,920 640 categories increased when compared with those of 2009--the categories "Rare-earth metals, alloy" and "Rare-earth

  14. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 1,420 1,450 1,130 804 945 Cerium compounds 3,850 2,540 2,630 1,880 2,210 Mixed, compounds 9,150 7,260 10,900 11,400 9,800 Ferrocerium, alloys 118 89 111 105 142 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals-04): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 76%; France, 14%; Japan, 6%; Austria, 2%; and other, 2

  15. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Mountain Pass, CA, were further processed into rare-earth compounds and metal products. The United States -- -- -- -- 7,000 Exports: 2 Cerium compounds 1,380 840 1,350 1,640 1,100 Rare-earth metals, alloys 1,390 4,980 3,770 2,700 Rare-earth metals, alloy 679 226 525 468 280 Thorium ore (monazite or various thorium

  16. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , compounds 7,760 11,200 9,150 7,260 10,900 Ferrocerium, alloys 120 118 118 89 111 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals Sources (1999-2002): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 66%; France, 25%; Japan, 4%; Estonia, 3) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad

  17. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 1,130 804 880 867 831 Cerium compounds 2,630 1,880 2,170 2,590 3,090 Mixed metals, alloys 1,190 1,010 636 733 1,470 Cerium compounds 1,940 2,280 2,210 2,010 1,690 Other rare-earth-06): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 84%; France, 6%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 2%; and other, 4

  18. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or various thorium materials) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 804 880 867 784 807 Cerium compounds 1 metals, alloys 1,010 636 733 1,470 1,580 Cerium compounds 2,280 2,210 2,010 1,470 1,620 Other rare-earth (2004-07): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 87%; France, 5%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 2%; and other

  19. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 2,470 1,420 1,450 1,130 790 Cerium compounds 4,310 3,850 2,540 2,630 1 metals, alloys 1,650 884 1,300 1,190 1,240 Cerium compounds 4,050 4,110 2,740 1,940 2,000 Other rare-earth-03): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 67%; France, 17%; Japan, 4%; Estonia, 4%; and other, 8

  20. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10,000 e 5,000 5,000 Imports:3 Thorium ore (monazite) 22 56 11 -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 905,720 5,600 Ferrocerium, alloys 78 107 121 117 122 Exports:3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 444 250 991 724 1%; Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 75%; France, 19%; Japan, 3%; United Kingdom, 1%; and other

  1. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- 22 56 --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 235 284 905 429 507 Cerium compounds 1 Exports: Thorium ore, monazite 3 27 -- -- --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 194 329 444 250 879 Cerium for individual rare-earth metals and compounds, with most import categories slightly behind 1996's record high

  2. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant. [1500 and 210 metric tons heavy metal per year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Barnes, J.W.; Scheinman, L.

    1980-04-01

    The second volume describes the requirements and functions of materials measurement and accounting systems (MMAS) and conceptual designs for an MMAS incorporating both conventional and near-real-time (dynamic) measurement and accounting techniques. Effectiveness evaluations, based on recently developed modeling, simulation, and analysis procedures, show that conventional accountability can meet IAEA goal quantities and detection times in these reference facilities only for low-enriched uranium. Dynamic materials accounting may meet IAEA goals for detecting the abrupt (1-3 weeks) diversion of 8 kg of plutonium. Current materials accounting techniques probably cannot meet the 1-y protracted-diversion goal of 8 kg for plutonium.

  3. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M., E-mail: laura.baudis@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: alexkish@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: marrodan@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch [Physik Institut, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zürich, CH-8057 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ? 2 × 10{sup ?48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV?c{sup ?2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ? 6 GeV?c{sup ?2} to cross sections above ? 4 × 10{sup ?45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  4. Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,Coal TechnologiesClio PowerElec Cooperative,OpenEICommittee

  5. Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David A.

    2008-01-01

    S. , 2008. “Carbon emissions and ces(tm) in manufacturing”.CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 57, pp. 17–20.ventional tool and die manufacturing”. Journal of Cleaner

  6. Removal of 1,082-Ton Reactor Among Richland Operations Office...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from groundwater across the site ahead of schedule and pumped a record volume of water through treatment facilities to remove contamination, with more than 130 tons of...

  7. U.S. Billion-Ton Update. Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-08-01

    This report is an update to the 2005 Billion-Ton Study that addresses shotcomings and questions that arose from the original report..

  8. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproduct...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2005 report, "Biomass as a Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply" billiontonupdate.pdf More Documents &...

  9. Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulden, ML; Munger, JW; Song-Miao, F; Daube, BC; Wofsy, SC

    1996-01-01

    182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddyerror. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 ton the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of -0.3 to +0.8 t

  10. Generalized Fubini-Study Metric and Fisher Information Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasis Mondal

    2015-03-13

    We provide an experimentally measurable local gauge $U(1)$ invariant Fubini-Study (FS) metric for mixed states. Like the FS metric for pure states, it also captures only the quantum part of the uncertainty in the evolution Hamiltonian. We show that this satisfies the quantum Cramer-Rao bound and thus arrive at a more general and measurable bound. Upon imposing the monotonicity condition, it reduces to the square-root derivative quantum Fisher Information. We show that on the Fisher information metric space dynamical phase is zero. A relation between square root derivative and logarithmic derivative is formulated such that both give the same Fisher information. We generalize the Fubini-Study metric for mixed states further and arrive at a set of Fubini-Study metric---called $\\alpha$ metric. This newly defined $\\alpha$ metric also satisfies the Cramer-Rao bound. Again by imposing the monotonicity condition on this metric, we derive the monotone $\\alpha$ metric. It reduces to the Fisher information metric for $\\alpha=1$.

  11. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  12. Quotients of Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Robert A.

    1968-01-01

    . PRELIMINARIES 1 CHAPTER II . SFACBS IN WHICH SEQUENCES SUFFICE 6 CHAPTER III . QUOTIENTS OF SEPARABLE METRIC SPACES Ik CHAPTER IV. GENERAL QUOTIENT SPACES 25 CHAPTER V. CLOSED QUOTIENT MAPS 35 CHAPTER VI. OPEN QUOTIENT MAPS 50 CHAPTER VII. OPEN AND CLOSED... QUOTIENT MAPS 55 CHAPTER VIII. ANOTHER RESULT 6l BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 CHAPTER I. PRELIMINARIES We begin by stating some basic definitions and theorems. Definition 1 . 1 ; Let f be a function from a topological space X onto a set Y. Then the quotient...

  13. ARM - 2009 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 NewsUsers' Executive09 I N9 Performance Metrics

  14. The Composition Of A Disrupted Extrasolar Planetesimal At SDSS J0845+2257 (Ton 345)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, David J; Koester, Detlev; Toloza, Odette; Pala, Anna F; Breedt, Elmé; Parsons, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the metal-polluted DB white dwarf SDSS J0845+2257 (Ton 345). Using high-resolution HST/COS and VLT spectroscopy, we have detected hydrogen and eleven metals in the atmosphere of the white dwarf. The origin of these metals is almost certainly the circumstellar disc of dusty and gaseous debris from a tidally-disrupted planetesimal, accreting at a rate of 1.6E10 gs^-1. Studying the chemical abundances of the accreted material demonstrates that the planetesimal had a composition similar to the Earth, dominated by rocky silicates and metallic iron, with a low water content. The mass of metals within the convection zone of the white dwarf corresponds to an asteroid of at least ~130-170 km in diameter, although the presence of ongoing accretion from the debris disc implies that the planetesimal was probably larger than this. While a previous abundance study of the accreted material has shown an anomalously high mass fraction of carbon (15 percent) compared to the bulk Earth, our indepe...

  15. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",87718,17 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",24490,32 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",22633,33 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",3.3,9 "Nitrogen...

  16. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",47671,25 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",19035,36 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",28809,30 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1,35 "Nitrogen...

  17. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",13259,39 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",17975,38 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",12543,39 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.2,46 "Nitrogen...

  18. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",123735,10 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",55462,20 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",56812,15 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2,20 "Nitrogen...

  19. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",203951,6 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",63358,11 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",97812,6 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2,21 "Nitrogen...

  20. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",30027,30 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",30860,30 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",33125,27 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.2,30 "Nitrogen...

  1. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",86204,18 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",23189,33 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",38118,22 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2.2,19 "Nitrogen...

  2. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",12339,40 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",15150,41 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",14735,38 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.8,38 "Nitrogen...

  3. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",68077,21 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",39706,27 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",34686,25 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.8,26 "Nitrogen...

  4. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",17511,35 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",13803,42 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",9500,40 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.6,39 "Nitrogen...

  5. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",41539,26 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",21995,34 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",18950,34 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2.3,17 "Nitrogen...

  6. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",17735,34 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",59055,16 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",28535,31 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1,36 "Nitrogen...

  7. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",346873,2 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",102526,4 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",102466,4 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",5.1,1 "Nitrogen...

  8. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",157488,8 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",78033,10 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",78344,8 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",3.4,8 "Nitrogen...

  9. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",106879,14 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",44657,25 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",39175,21 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",3.8,6 "Nitrogen...

  10. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",80418,19 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",57024,17 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",46268,19 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2.2,18 "Nitrogen...

  11. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",30947,29 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",44824,24 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",33456,26 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.5,41 "Nitrogen...

  12. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",122578,11 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",82286,9 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",58274,12 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2.4,16 "Nitrogen...

  13. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",40012,27 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",49623,21 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",39387,20 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.5,27 "Nitrogen...

  14. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",66884,22 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",31505,29 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",28043,32 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",3.6,7 "Nitrogen...

  15. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",93888,15 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",60229,14 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",68862,9 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2.5,14 "Nitrogen...

  16. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",49587,24 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",55615,19 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",50687,17 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.9,24 "Nitrogen...

  17. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",23716,31 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",59416,15 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",55342,16 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",0.4,42 "Nitrogen...

  18. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",273718,4 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",121681,3 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",98895,5 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",5,2 "Nitrogen oxide...

  19. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",20710,33 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",25416,31 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",7428,42 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",4,5 "Nitrogen oxide...

  20. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",16865,36 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",21789,35 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",16951,35 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.2,31 "Nitrogen...

  1. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",383728,1 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",228695,1 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",257465,1 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.8,25 "Nitrogen...

  2. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",23670,32 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",62296,13 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",35699,24 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.1,33 "Nitrogen...

  3. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",71293,20 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",62397,12 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",56940,14 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.1,32 "Nitrogen...

  4. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",56854,23 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",48454,22 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",30274,28 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",3.2,11 "Nitrogen...

  5. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",117797,12 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",88345,6 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",108431,3 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.1,34 "Nitrogen...

  6. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",15347,37 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",11430,43 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",3228,47 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",3,12 "Nitrogen...

  7. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",108306,13 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",44114,26 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",47686,18 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",3.3,10 "Nitrogen...

  8. Table 1. 2013 Summary Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",276851,3 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",151148,2 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",108729,2 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",2.4,15 "Nitrogen...

  9. Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)",35625,28 "Nitrogen oxide (short tons)",36972,28 "Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons)",29255,29 "Sulfur dioxide (lbsMWh)",1.4,28 "Nitrogen...

  10. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    14 April 2001 A tmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is increas- ing at approximately 1. Annual anthropogenic carbon emissions in the United States total ap- proximately 1.7 billion tons emissions in the United States and around the world. One potential mechanism for re- ducing net carbon

  11. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shows the volume taken up by one metric ton of carbon dioxide. In 2013, the United States emitted the equivalent of 6.7 billion metric tons. By tracking how much greenhouse...

  12. Tax CarbonEnhancing environmental quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsson, Johan

    . Jorgenson has also studied economic growth, energy utilization, and envi- ronmental quality in China of 36 billion metric tons. As the no doubt fraught scientific and political discussion in the French economic growth, the relationship between energy and the environment, and the effects of tax policy on both

  13. The Space of Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    *D. J. Kelleher

    2013-11-16

    The Space of Metric Spaces. *D. J. Kelleher1. 1Department of Mathematics. University of Connecticut. UConn— SIGMA Seminar — Fall 2013. D. J. Kelleher.

  14. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    CarbonPlanet, 2007, Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Country,In this discussion of greenhouse gas emissions and energyGreenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy

  16. August 2003 IT SECURITY METRICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    August 2003 IT SECURITY METRICS Elizabeth B. Lennon, Editor Information Technology Laboratory approach to measuring information security. Evaluating security at the sys tem level, IT security metrics and techniques contained in NIST SP 800-26, Security Self-Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems

  17. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  18. Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery Act Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project reached its primary American Recovery and Reinvestment Act milestone ahead of schedule on Wednesday with the disposal of 2 million tons of...

  19. Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Iain Walker, Lawrence Berkeley National and air conditioner performance. These parameters included placing the entire air conditioning system

  20. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  1. Module 6 - Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the metrics and performance measurement tools used in Earned Value. This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices....

  2. Microsoft Word - QER Resilience Metrics - Technical Workshp ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    resiliency metrics for the energy sector and use cases o The framing of a resilience roadmap, and the implication and consequences of introducing new energy resilience metrics...

  3. Segmental alternations and metrical theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaysman, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

  4. Normalization of Process Safety Metrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mengtian

    2012-10-19

    and organizational risks, there is an emerging need to evaluate the process safety implementation across an organization through measurements. Thus, the process safety metric is applied as a powerful tool that measures safety activities, status, and performance...

  5. Phantom Metrics With Killing Spinors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabra, W A

    2015-01-01

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  6. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs deep beneath geological structures, and 30,000 to 35,000 million tonnes (33,069 to 38,580 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs on a regional dip >1,219 m (4,000 ft) deep. The major part of this effort assessed each of the three geological sinks: coals, oil reservoirs, and saline reservoirs. We linked and integrated options for capture, transportation, and geological storage with the environmental and regulatory framework to define sequestration scenarios and potential outcomes for the region. Extensive use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and visualization technology was made to convey results to project sponsors, other researchers, the business community, and the general public. An action plan for possible technology validation field tests involving CO{sub 2} injection was included in a Phase II proposal (successfully funded) to the U.S. Department of Energy with cost sharing from Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  7. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchini, Jean-francois; Khaing, Hnin; Reed, Donald T

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  8. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

    2012-10-01

    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  9. Horizon thermodynamics and composite metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzo Sindoni

    2012-11-12

    We examine the conditions under which the thermodynamic behaviour of gravity can be explained within an emergent gravity scenario, where the metric is defined as a composite operator. We show that due to the availability of a boundary of a boundary principle for the quantum effective action, Clausius-like relations can always be constructed. Hence, any true explanation of the thermodynamic nature of the metric tensor has to be referred to an equilibration process, associated to the presence of an H-theorem, possibly driven by decoherence induced by the pregeometric degrees of freedom, and their entanglement with the geometric ones.

  10. Planning for the 400,000 tons/year AISI ironmaking demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. (LTV Steel Corp., Cleveland, OH (United States). AISI Direct Steelmaking Program)

    1993-01-01

    The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has formulated a four-year program to design, construct, and operate a 400,000 net ton per year ironmaking demonstration plant. The plant will employ the coal-based ironmaking process developed under a 1989 cooperative agreement with DOE. AISI will manage the design and construction to be completed in the first two years and operate the plant for the second two years with a variety or ores, coals, and fluxes. Campaigns of increasing length are planned to optimize operations. After successful operation, the plant will be taken over by the host company. Results of studies to date indicate that, on a commercial scale, the AISI process will use 27% less energy and have variable operating costs $10 per ton lower and capital costs of $160 per annual ton, compared to the $250 per annual ton rebuild cost for the coke oven-blast furnace process it will replace. The process will enable the domestic steel industry to become more competitive by reducing its capital and operating cost. Furthermore, by eliminating the pollution problems associated with coke production and by completely enclosing the smelting reactions, this process represents a major step towards an environmentally friendly steel industry.

  11. 2 million tons per year: A performing biofuels supply chain for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2 million tons per year: A performing biofuels supply chain for EU aviation NOTE It is understood that in the context of this text the term "biofuel(s) use in aviation" categorically implies "sustainably produced biofuel(s)" according to the EU legislation. June 2011 #12;2 This technical paper was drafted

  12. A Concept for a Scalable 2 kTon Liquid Argon TPC Detector for Astroparticle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Cline; F. Sergiampietri

    2005-09-14

    This paper describes the results of a study on the general lines, main construction criteria, crucial points, parameters and required preliminary R&D activities for the construction of a LAr (liquid argon) imaging detector with active mass in the 10-100 kTon range. Such detectors are crucial for supernova detection, proton decay, LBL neutrino physics and other astroparticle physics applications.

  13. A Concept for a Scalable 2 kTon Liquid Argon TPC Detector for Astroparticle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    astroparticle physics applications. 1 Introduction The on-surface test of the 300-ton ICARUS module made the detection technique, that even with some possible improvements or changes is the well-established ICARUS one is optimized. A cylindrical vessel with the height equal to the diameter has the same S/V ratio than

  14. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  15. Agility metric sensitivity using linear error theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David Matthew

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft agility metrics have been proposed for use to measure the performance and capability of aircraft onboard while in-flight. The sensitivity of these metrics to various types of errors and uncertainties is not ...

  16. Definition of GPRA08 benefits metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Background information for the FY 2007 GPRA methodology review on the definitions of GPRA08 benefits metrics.

  17. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

  18. Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Koivisto, Tomi S; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the phenomenology of f(R) gravity has been scrutinized motivated by the possibility to account for the self-accelerated cosmic expansion without invoking dark energy sources. Besides, this kind of modified gravity is capable of addressing the dynamics of several self-gravitating systems alternatively to the presence of dark matter. It has been established that both metric and Palatini versions of these theories have interesting features but also manifest severe and different downsides. A hybrid combination of theories, containing elements from both these two formalisms, turns out to be also very successful accounting for the observed phenomenology and is able to avoid some drawbacks of the original approaches. This article reviews the formulation of this hybrid metric-Palatini approach and its main achievements in passing the local tests and in applications to astrophysical and cosmological scenarios, where it provides a unified approach to the problems of dark energy and dark matter.

  19. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Macknick, J.; Mann, M.; Pless, J.; Munoz, D.

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  20. DOE-Sponsored Mississippi Project Hits 1-Million-Ton Milestone...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at the Cranfield site in Southwestern Mississippi. It is led by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), one of seven members of the Regional Carbon...

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  2. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKibbin, Warwick; Morris, Adele; Wilcoxen, Peter; Cai, Yiyong

    2012-07-24

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that uses a carbon tax to reduce capital taxes would achieve two goals: reducing CO2 emissions significantly and expanding short-run employment and the economy. We examine three ways to reduce the deficit by an equal amount. We find that raising marginal tax rates on labor income has advantages over raising tax rates on capital income or establishing a carbon tax. A labor tax increase leaves GDP close to its baseline, reduces consumption very slightly and expands net exports slightly. Investment remains essentially unchanged. In contrast, a capital tax increase causes a significant and persistent drop in investment and much larger reductions in GDP. A carbon tax falls between the two: it lowers GDP more than a labor tax increase because it reduces investment. However, its effects on investment and GDP are more moderate than the capital tax increase, and it also significantly reduces CO2 emissions. A carbon tax thus offers a way to help reduce the deficit and improve the environment, and do so with minimal disturbance to overall economic activity.

  3. How well will ton-scale dark matter direct detection experiments constrain minimal supersymmetry?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akrami, Yashar; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Conrad, Jan; Edsjö, Joakim E-mail: savage@fysik.su.se E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2011-04-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are amongst the most interesting dark matter (DM) candidates. Many DM candidates naturally arise in theories beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics, like weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Experiments aim to detect WIMPs by scattering, annihilation or direct production, and thereby determine the underlying theory to which they belong, along with its parameters. Here we examine the prospects for further constraining the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with future ton-scale direct detection experiments. We consider ton-scale extrapolations of three current experiments: CDMS, XENON and COUPP, with 1000 kg-years of raw exposure each. We assume energy resolutions, energy ranges and efficiencies similar to the current versions of the experiments, and include backgrounds at target levels. Our analysis is based on full likelihood constructions for the experiments. We also take into account present uncertainties on hadronic matrix elements for neutralino-quark couplings, and on halo model parameters. We generate synthetic data based on four benchmark points and scan over the CMSSM parameter space using nested sampling. We construct both Bayesian posterior PDFs and frequentist profile likelihoods for the model parameters, as well as the mass and various cross-sections of the lightest neutralino. Future ton-scale experiments will help substantially in constraining supersymmetry, especially when results of experiments primarily targeting spin-dependent nuclear scattering are combined with those directed more toward spin-independent interactions.

  4. How well will ton-scale dark matter direct detection experiments constrain minimal supersymmetry?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yashar Akrami; Christopher Savage; Pat Scott; Jan Conrad; Joakim Edsjö

    2011-04-18

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are amongst the most interesting dark matter (DM) candidates. Many DM candidates naturally arise in theories beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics, like weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Experiments aim to detect WIMPs by scattering, annihilation or direct production, and thereby determine the underlying theory to which they belong, along with its parameters. Here we examine the prospects for further constraining the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with future ton-scale direct detection experiments. We consider ton-scale extrapolations of three current experiments: CDMS, XENON and COUPP, with 1000 kg-years of raw exposure each. We assume energy resolutions, energy ranges and efficiencies similar to the current versions of the experiments, and include backgrounds at target levels. Our analysis is based on full likelihood constructions for the experiments. We also take into account present uncertainties on hadronic matrix elements for neutralino-quark couplings, and on halo model parameters. We generate synthetic data based on four benchmark points and scan over the CMSSM parameter space using nested sampling. We construct both Bayesian posterior PDFs and frequentist profile likelihoods for the model parameters, as well as the mass and various cross-sections of the lightest neutralino. Future ton-scale experiments will help substantially in constraining supersymmetry, especially when results of experiments primarily targeting spin-dependent nuclear scattering are combined with those directed more toward spin-independent interactions.

  5. Nonlinearity of Carbon Cycle Feedbacks KIRSTEN ZICKFELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittner, Andreas

    properties and anthropogenic CO2. These findings suggest that metrics of carbon cycle feedback that pos, human activities have emitted large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere (490 PgC fromNonlinearity of Carbon Cycle Feedbacks KIRSTEN ZICKFELD Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling

  6. Energy Department Announces Next Phase of L Prize® Competition...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    11 terawatt-hours of electricity per year - approximately equivalent to the annual electricity consumption of Washington, D.C. - and avoid 7 million metric tons of carbon...

  7. Historic Energy Efficiency Rules Would Save Consumers Money and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and federal buildings set in the first and second terms combined will reduce carbon pollution by at least 3 billion metric tons cumulatively by 2030 -- equivalent to nearly...

  8. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores more than One Million...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    successfully capturing more than one million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the hydrogen-production facility in Port Arthur, Texas. Using an innovative technology called...

  9. (Data in metric tons, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1995. Domestic indium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from ores in the United States in 1995. Domestic indium production was derived from the upgrading producers of indium metal and indium products in 1995. Several firms produced high-purity indium shapes detectors, high-speed transistors, and high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Estimated uses in 1995 were

  10. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-09-01

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  11. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2008-05-01

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Sensitivity of injection costs to input petrophysical parameters in numerical geologic carbon sequestration models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, C. L.; Gragg, M. J.; Perfect, E.; White, Mark D.; Lemiszki, P. J.; McKay, L. D.

    2013-08-24

    Numerical simulations are widely used in feasibility studies for geologic carbon sequestration. Accurate estimates of petrophysical parameters are needed as inputs for these simulations. However, relatively few experimental values are available for CO2-brine systems. Hence, a sensitivity analysis was performed using the STOMP numerical code for supercritical CO2 injected into a model confined deep saline aquifer. The intrinsic permeability, porosity, pore compressibility, and capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters (residual liquid saturation, residual gas saturation, and van Genuchten alpha and m values) were varied independently. Their influence on CO2 injection rates and costs were determined and the parameters were ranked based on normalized coefficients of variation. The simulations resulted in differences of up to tens of millions of dollars over the life of the project (i.e., the time taken to inject 10.8 million metric tons of CO2). The two most influential parameters were the intrinsic permeability and the van Genuchten m value. Two other parameters, the residual gas saturation and the residual liquid saturation, ranked above the porosity. These results highlight the need for accurate estimates of capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters for geologic carbon sequestration simulations in addition to measurements of porosity and intrinsic permeability.

  13. Metric Signature Transitions in Optical Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2010-07-07

    We demonstrate that the extraordinary waves in indefinite metamaterials experience (- - + +) effective metric signature. During a metric signature change transition in such a metamaterial, a Minkowski space-time is "created" together with large number of particles populating this space-time. Such metamaterial models provide a table top realization of metric signature change events suggested to occur in Bose-Einstein condensates and quantum gravity theories.

  14. Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized-9) × 10-9 cm2/s. Carbon dioxide, as both a reactant in and a product of large- scale reactions, is the focus of much current research activity. Millions of tons of carbon dioxide are used every year

  15. Performance Metrics Tiers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tiers The performance metrics defined by the Commercial Buildings Integration Program offer different tiers of information to address the needs of various users. On this page you...

  16. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    1991. The Potential for Electricity Efficiency Improvementswww.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/eia860.html>. FigureA STANDARD METRIC FOR ELECTRICITY SAVINGS Jonathan Koomey*,

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Sustainability metrics for eco-technologies assessment, part I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sustainability metrics for eco-technologies assessment, part I: preliminary presents a preliminary screening of eco-technologies for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) produc- tion. Through herein referred to as eco- technologies. Casting of technologies was based on alter- natives available

  18. Three-dimensional metrics as deformations of a constant curvature metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Coll; J. Llosa; D. Soler

    2001-04-23

    Any three-dimensional Riemannian metric can be locally obtained by deforming a constant curvature metric along one direction. The general interest of this result, both in geometry and physics, and related open problems are stressed.

  19. Conical Kähler–Einstein Metrics Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-08-08

    From now on in this paper, we assume X is a smooth Fano manifold, and D is a ... not unique, we can still identify the correct limit Kähler–Einstein metric in the moduli space. ... implies that there is no Kähler–Einstein metric on P2 which bends.

  20. Gathering Text Entry Metrics on Android Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, Scott

    Gathering Text Entry Metrics on Android Devices Abstract We developed an application to gather text entry speed and accuracy metrics on Android devices. This paper details the features of the application, Android OS ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI): User

  1. A Physics of Bounded Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Peretto

    1997-06-25

    We consider the possibility of obtaining emergent properties of physical spaces endowed with structures analogous to that of collective models put forward by classical statistical physics. We show that, assuming that a so-called "metric scale" does exist, one can indeed recover a number of properties of physical spaces such as the Minkowski metric, the relativistic quantum dynamics and the electroweak theory.

  2. Quality Metrics for Business Process Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    1 Quality Metrics for Business Process Models Irene Vanderfeesten1 , Jorge Cardoso2 , Jan Mendling3-Koivisto, 2001). This chapter elaborates on the importance of quality metrics for business process modeling to this composi- tional structure, a business process model consists of activities, each of which con- tains

  3. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  4. Bi-metric pseudo-Finslerian spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skakala, Jozef

    2010-01-01

    Finsler spacetimes have become increasingly popular within the theoretical physics community over the last two decades. Because physicists need to use pseudo-Finsler structures to describe propagation}of signals, there will be nonzero null vectors in both the tangent and cotangent spaces --- this causes significant problems in that many of the mathematical results normally obtained for "usual" (Euclidean signature) Finsler structures either do not apply, or require significant modifications to their formulation and/or proof. We shall first provide a few basic definitions, explicitly demonstrating the interpretation of bi-metric theories in terms of pseudo-Finsler norms. We shall then discuss the tricky issues that arise when trying to construct an appropriate pseudo-Finsler metric appropriate to bi-metric spacetimes. Whereas in Euclidian signature the construction of the Finsler metric typically fails at the zero vector, in Lorentzian signature the Finsler metric is typically ill-defined on the entire null co...

  5. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  6. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Richard; Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-01-01

    of idle disks molten carbonate fuel cell million metric tonsData Centers Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell/ Chiller Phosphoric1. 1,000-kW molten carbonate fuel cell with a double-effect

  7. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorning, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  8. Ricci Flow of Biaxial Bianchi IX Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Holzegel; T. Schmelzer; C. Warnick

    2007-06-12

    We use the Ricci flow with surgery to study four-dimensional SU(2) x U(1)-symmetric metrics on a manifold with fixed boundary given by a squashed 3-sphere. Depending on the initial metric we show that the flow converges to either the Taub-Bolt or the Taub-NUT metric, the latter case potentially requiring surgery at some point in the evolution. The Ricci flow allows us to explore the Euclidean action landscape within this symmetry class. This work extends the recent work of Headrick and Wiseman to more interesting topologies.

  9. Quantum chaos and operator fidelity metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Giorda; Paolo Zanardi

    2009-03-06

    We show that the recently introduced operator fidelity metric provides a natural tool to investigate the cross-over to quantum chaotic behaviour. This metric is an information-theoretic measure of the global stability of a unitary evolution against perturbations. We use random matrix theory arguments to conjecture that the operator fidelity metric can be used as an "order parameter" to discriminates phases with regular behaviour from quantum chaotic ones. A numerical study of the onset of chaotic in the Dicke model is given in order to support the conjecture

  10. Energy-Momentum Distribution in Weyl Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; Tasnim Fatima

    2005-07-16

    In this paper, we evaluate energy and momentum density distributions for the Weyl metric by using the well-known prescriptions of Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Papaterou and M$\\ddot{o}$ller. The metric under consideration is the static axisymmetric vacuum solution to the Einstein field equations and one of the field equations represents the Laplace equation. Curzon metric is the special case of this spacetime. We find that the energy density is different for each prescription. However, momentum turns out to be constant in each case.

  11. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

  12. Geodesic completeness of diagonal $G_2$ metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Fernández-Jambrina

    2009-04-10

    In this talk a sufficient condition for a diagonal orthogonally transitive cylindrical $G_2$ metric to be geodesically complete is given. The condition is weak enough to comprise all known diagonal perfect fluid cosmological models that are non-singular.

  13. Thermodynamic motivations of spherically symmetric static metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Moradpour; S. Nasirimoghadam

    2015-06-14

    Bearing the thermodynamic arguments together with the two definitions of mass in mind, we try to find metrics with spherical symmetry. We consider the adiabatic condition along with the Gong-Wang mass, and evaluate the $g_{rr}$ element which points to a null hypersurface. In addition, we generalize the thermodynamics laws to this hypersurface to find its temperature and thus the corresponding surface gravity which enables us to get a relation for the $g_{tt}$ element. Finally, we investigate the mathematical and physical properties of the discovered metric in the Einstein relativity framework which shows that the primary mentioned null hypersurface is an event horizon. We also show that if one considers the Misner-Sharp mass in the calculations, the Schwarzschild metric will be got. The relationship between the two mass definitions in each metric is studied. The results of considering the geometrical surface gravity are also addressed.

  14. Thermodynamic motivations of spherically symmetric static metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moradpour, H

    2015-01-01

    Bearing the thermodynamic arguments together with the two definitions of mass in mind, we try to find metrics with spherical symmetry. We consider the adiabatic condition along with the Gong-Wang mass, and evaluate the $g_{rr}$ element which points to a null hypersurface. In addition, we generalize the thermodynamics laws to this hypersurface to find its temperature and thus the corresponding surface gravity which enables us to get a relation for the $g_{tt}$ element. Finally, we investigate the mathematical and physical properties of the discovered metric in the Einstein relativity framework which shows that the primary mentioned null hypersurface is an event horizon. We also show that if one considers the Misner-Sharp mass in the calculations, the Schwarzschild metric will be got. The relationship between the two mass definitions in each metric is studied. The results of considering the geometrical surface gravity are also addressed.

  15. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  16. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

  17. Inference and Labeling of Metric-Induced Network Topologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byers, John W.

    PERISCOPE, a Linux embodiment of MINT constructions. We instantiate MINT and PERISCOPE for a specific metric

  18. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation proposes a suite of metrics for evaluating the performance of solar power forecasting.

  19. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  20. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the puritymore »requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.« less

  1. Global MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market Assessment 2007, Key Note Publications Ltd ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Global MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market analyses the global waste market, with particular reference to municipal solid waste (MSW). Key Note. Industrial waste generally has a greater tonnage than MSW, but its management is the responsibility

  2. Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber Year Unweighte d Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted and Weighted Prices Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted

  3. Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber Year Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted and Weighted Prices Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted

  4. Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber Year Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Simple average of Unweighted and Weighted Prices Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Simple average of Unweighted

  5. Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors Using Carbon Nanotube Electrode Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindall, Joel E.

    The structure and behavior of the electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) are described. The use of activated carbon electrodes is discussed and the limitations on voltage and accessible surface area are presented. Metrics ...

  6. DOE Awards Cooperative Agreement for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has awarded a cooperative agreement to American Electric Power Service Corporation for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project to design, construct, and operate a system that will capture and store approximately 1.5 million tons per year of carbon dioxide.

  7. Carbon-aware Load Balancing for Geo-distributed Cloud Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lui, John C.S.

    .6% of the global carbon emission. As one of the leading cloud service providers, Google emitted 1.68106 tons with their respective fuel mixes, and have different carbon footprints. For another, the The Corresponding Author different locations in north America on Sep 30th 2012. Data is provided by each Regional Transmission

  8. METRICS FOR WAYFINDING 1 Three Levels of Metric for Evaluating Wayfinding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddle, Roy

    Lessels School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. email: royr@comp.leeds.ac.uk Tel a detailed review of research into VE wayfinding. A case study from research into the fidelity into two major sections. The first reviews metrics in #12;METRICS FOR WAYFINDING 4 each of the three levels

  9. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  10. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    . A new, large (1,000-mega- watt-generating) coal-fired power plant produces six million tons of the gas the CO2 output of a stationary coal-burning power plant. It is little wonder, then, that today's capture-and-storage efforts focus on those power plants, the source of one quarter of the world's carbon dioxide emissions

  11. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  12. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more »such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  13. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henneken, Edwin A; Kurtz, Michael J; Grant, Carolyn S; Thompson, Donna; Luker, Jay; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Murray, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. More papers than ever are being written on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service which provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this presentation we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  14. A Proposal for a Ton Scale Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collar, Juan; Dahl, C.Eric; Fustin, Drew; Robinson, Alan; Behnke, Ed; Behnke, Joshua; Breznau, William; Connor, Austin; Kuehnemund, Emily Grace; Levine, Ilan; Moan, Timothy; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-10-07

    The nature of non-baryonic dark matter is one of the most intriguing questions for particle physics at the start of the 21st century. There is ample evidence for its existence, but almost nothing is known of its properties. WIMPs are a very appealing candidate particle and several experimental campaigns are underway around the world to search for these particles via the nuclear recoils that they should induce. The COUPP series of bubble chambers has played a significant role in the WIMP search. Through a sequence of detectors of increasing size, a number of R&D issues have arisen and been solved, and the technology has now been advanced to the point where the construction of large chambers requires a modest research effort, some development, but mostly just engineering. It is within this context that we propose to build the next COUPP detector - COUPP-500, a ton scale device to be built over the next three years at Fermilab and then deployed deep underground at SNOLAB. The primary advantages of the COUPP approach over other technologies are: (1) The ability to reject electron and gamma backgrounds by arranging the chamber thermodynamics such that these particles do not even trigger the detector. (2) The ability to suppress neutron backgrounds by having the radioactively impure detection elements far from the active volume and by using the self-shielding of a large device and the high granularity to identify multiple bubbles. (3) The ability to build large chambers cheaply and with a choice of target fluids. (4) The ability to increase the size of the chambers without changing the size or complexity of the data acquisition. (5) Sensitivity to spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP couplings. These key advantages should enable the goal of one background event in a ton-year of exposure to be achieved. The conceptual design of COUPP-500 is scaled from the preceding devices. In many cases all that is needed is a simple scaling up of components previously used. Calibration and R&D are still needed on some aspects of the system. We know we have the ability to distinguish alpha-induced events from nuclear recoils, but we do not yet know whether the combination of material purity and rejection are good enough to run for a year with no alpha background. We also need to have more detailed measurements of the detector threshold and a better understanding of its high gamma rejection. In addition, there are important checks to make on the longevity of the detector components in the hydraulic fluid and on the chemistry of the active fluid. The 2009 PASAG report explicitly supported the construction of the COUPP-500 device in all funding scenarios. The NSF has shown similar enthusiasm. It awarded one of its DUSEL S4 grants to assist in the engineering needed to build COUPP-500. The currently estimated cost of COUPP-500 is $8M, about half the $15M-$20M price tag expected by the PASAG report for a next generation dark matter search experiment. The COUPP-500 device will have a spin independent WIMP-nucleus cross-section sensitivity of 6 x 10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} after a background-free year of running. This device should then provide the benchmark against which all other WIMP searches are measured.

  15. Fourier Transform, Riemann Surfaces and Indefinite Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Fourier Transform, Riemann Surfaces and Indefinite Metric P. G. Grinevich, S.P.Novikov Zakharov Park, College Park, USA #12;What is Fourier Transform in Riemann Surfaces? Which Problems need it? Discrete Analog of The Fourier/Laurent bases in Riemann Sur- faces was constructed by Krichever-Novikov (KN

  16. Towards a Multidimensional Geometric Metric for Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Towards a Multidimensional Geometric Metric for Sustainability Noah Granieri1, Gaurav Ameta2 1's REU program under grant number 0754370 Results Geometric results from Sustainability Data ·All aspect sustainability aspect values change depending on fuel sources for energy production. Designers may choose what

  17. RAY PRESERVING METRICS AND APPLICATIONS JAIGYOUNG CHOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choe, Jaigyoung

    of the two-dimensional hyper- bolic plane H2 (-2 ) with Gauss curvature -2 RAY PRESERVING METRICS AND APPLICATIONS JAIGYOUNG CHOE 1. INTRODUCTION Let be an m-dimensional as the union of the line segments from p to q, over all q . And for a k-dimensional submanifold N Rn

  18. New Metrics for Blog Mining Brian Ulicnya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baclawski, Kenneth B.

    New Metrics for Blog Mining Brian Ulicnya , Ken Baclawskia , Amy Magnusb a VIStology, Inc., 5, Suite 325 , Arlington, VA 22203 ABSTRACT Blogs represent an important new arena for knowledge discovery-human) information sources monitoring important local and global events, and other blogs, for items of interest upon

  19. An Attack Surface Metric Pratyusa K. Manadhata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Manadhata This research was sponsored in part by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency by the National Science Foundation under grants no. CCR-0121547 and CNS-0433540, SAP Labs, LLC under award no metrics has recently become more pressing. In this thesis, we introduce the measure of a software system

  20. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  1. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  2. On the Jacobi-Metric Stability Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Gonzalez Leon; J. L. Hernandez Pastora

    2007-05-30

    We investigate the exact relation existing between the stability equation for the solutions of a mechanical system and the geodesic deviation equation of the associated geodesic problem in the Jacobi metric constructed via the Maupertuis-Jacobi Principle. We conclude that the dynamical and geometrical approaches to the stability/instability problem are not equivalent.

  3. Performance Metrics Research Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    NREL began work for DOE on this project to standardize the measurement and characterization of building energy performance. NREL's primary research objectives were to determine which performance metrics have greatest value for determining energy performance and to develop standard definitions and methods of measuring and reporting that performance.

  4. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  5. Status of ArDM-1t: First observations from operation with a full ton-scale liquid argon target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ArDM Collaboration; J. Calvo; C. Cantini; M. Daniel; U. Degunda; S. Di Luise; L. Epprecht; A. Gendotti; S. Horikawa; L. Knecht; B. Montes; W. Mu; M. Munoz; S. Murphy; G. Natterer; K. Nguyen; K. Nikolics; L. Periale; C. Regenfus; L. Romero; A. Rubbia; R. Santorelli; F. Sergiampietri; D. Sgalaberna; T. Viant; S. Wu

    2015-05-10

    ArDM-1t is the first operating ton-scale liquid argon detector for direct search of Dark Matter particles. Developed at CERN as Recognized Experiment RE18, the experiment has been approved in 2010 to be installed in the Spanish underground site LSC (Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc). Under the label of LSC EXP-08-2010 the ArDM detector underwent an intensive period of technical completion and safety approval until the recent filling of the target vessel with almost 2 ton of liquid argon. This report describes the experimental achievements during commissioning of ArDM and the transition into a stage of first physics data taking in single phase operational mode. We present preliminary observations from this run. A first indication for the background discrimination power of LAr detectors at the ton-scale is shown. We present an outlook for completing the detector with the electric drift field and upgrade of the scintillation light readout system with novel detector modules based on SiPMs in order to improve the light yield.

  6. Evaluation Criteria for Human-Automation Performance Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pina, Patricia Elena

    Previous research has identified broad metric classes for human-automation performance to facilitate metric selection, as well as understanding and comparison of research results. However, there is still lack of an objective ...

  7. The Jacobi-metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Gibbons

    2015-09-09

    It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes are given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.

  8. The Jacobi-metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbons, G W

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes are given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.

  9. Development of a multiple metric index for macroinvertebrates collected from lower Missouri River floodplain wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koontz, Jason Alexander

    2010-07-26

    of a priori Stressor Groups ................................................................................. 27 2.8 Metric Response ................................................................................................................... 28... 2.8 Metric Redundancy............................................................................................................... 28 2.9 Scoring Individual Metrics and Final Index...

  10. Metrics Are Fitness Functions Too Mark Harman John Clark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Jeremy

    that there is an alternative, complementary, view of a metric: as a fitness function, used to guide a search for optimal' (MAFF) approach offers a number of additional benefits to metrics research and practice because systems. It describes the properties of a metric which make it a good fitness function and explains

  11. Gauge - invariant fluctuations of the metric in stochastic inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2000-01-07

    I derive the stochastic equation for the perturbations of the metric for a gauge - invariant energy - momemtum - tensor (EMT) in stochastic inflation. A quantization for the field that describes the gauge - invariant perturbations for the metric is developed. In a power - law expansion for the universe the amplitude for these perturbations on a background metric could be very important in the infrared sector.

  12. Complex geometry and pre-metric electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. H. Delphenich

    2004-12-10

    The intimate link between complex geometry and the problem of the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism is explored. In particular, the relationship between 3+1 decompositions of R4 and the decompositions of the vector space of bivectors over R4 into real and imaginary subspaces relative to a choice of complex structure is emphasized. The role of the various scalar products on the space of bivectors that are defined in terms of a volume element on R4 and a complex structure on the space of bivectors that makes it C-linear isomorphic to C3 is discussed in the context of formulation of a theory of electromagnetism in which the Lorentzian metric on spacetime follows as a consequence of the existence of electromagnetic waves, not a prior assumption.

  13. Network Community Detection on Metric Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Community detection in a complex network is an important problem of much interest in recent years. In general, a community detection algorithm chooses an objective function and captures the communities of the network by optimizing the objective function, and then, one uses various heuristics to solve the optimization problem to extract the interesting communities for the user. In this article, we demonstrate the procedure to transform a graph into points of a metric space and develop the methods of community detection with the help of a metric defined for a pair of points. We have also studied and analyzed the community structure of the network therein. The results obtained with our approach are very competitive with most of the well-known algorithms in the literature, and this is justified over the large collection of datasets. On the other hand, it can be observed that time taken by our algorithm is quite less compared to other methods and justifies the theoretical findings.

  14. Quantum metric fluctuations and Hawking radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Parentani

    2000-09-05

    In this Letter we study the gravitational interactions between outgoing configurations giving rise to Hawking radiation and in-falling configurations. When the latter are in their ground state, the near horizon interactions lead to collective effects which express themselves as metric fluctuations and which induce dissipation, as in Brownian motion. This dissipation prevents the appearance of trans-Planckian frequencies and leads to a description of Hawking radiation which is very similar to that obtained from sound propagation in condensed matter models.

  15. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  16. Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    feet (~26.2'x26.2'x26.2') 5 CO2 Content by Fuel Type (lbs of CO2 per Million Btu of Fuel) Coal Type (lbs of CO2 per Megawatt-hour of Power) Coal-fired generation Coal-fired generation Existing PNW Sectors, by Fuel Type Annual 2012Annual 2012 Millions of Metric Tons Fuel Type Coal 1,657 Natural Gas 1

  17. X-ray reprocessing in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Ton S180 and Ark 564

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Janiuk; P. T. Zycki; B. Czerny

    2000-05-08

    We present the results of spectral analysis of the ASCA data for the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) Ton S180 and simultaneous ASCA and RXTE data modelling for the NLS1 Ark 564. We model both the primary and reflected continuum as well as the iron K alpha line, the energy of which depends on the ionization state of the reprocessor. We show that the reprocessing matter is mildly ionized, and we find the soft to hard luminosity ratio to be about 2.5. The accretion rate approximately corresponds to the Eddington limit value.

  18. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  19. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  20. Low-Carbon Energy Robert Socolow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commerical Industrial Transportation MillionMetricTonsofCarbonDioxide Through Electricity Natural Gas) Drive 10,000 miles/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d) Lights 300 kWh/month when all coal-power (600 kWh/month, natural-gas

  1. Linearization of Moffat's Symmetric Complex Metric Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Munkhammar

    2009-09-19

    In this paper we investigate a complex symmetric generalization of general relativity and in particular we investigate its linearized field equations. We begin by reviewing some basic definitions and structures in Moffat's symmetric complex metric field theory of gravity. We then move on to derive the linearized retarded complex field equations. In addition to this we also derive a linearization of Moffat's field equations based on the more rigorous Fermi coordinate approach. In conclusion it is shown that the linearized symmetric complex field equations leads to a complex form of gravitomagnetism. We also briefly review the gravitational wave equation from the source less linearized symmetric complex field equations and discuss some open problems.

  2. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  3. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  4. FY 2013 Metric Summary | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report to Congress MoreHyd rog en Tan41FY 2013 Q1 Metric

  5. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis3 Annual Metrics Report

  6. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis3 Annual Metrics4

  7. Superradiance on the Reissner-Nordstrom metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Di Menza; Jean-Philippe Nicolas

    2015-06-22

    In this article, we study the superradiance of charged scalar fields on the sub-extremal Reissner-Nordstrom metric, a mechanism by which such fields can extract energy from a static spherically symmetric charged black hole. A geometrical way of measuring the amount of energy extracted is proposed. Then we investigate the question numerically. The toy-model and the numerical methods used in our simulations are presented and the problem of long time measurement of the outgoing energy flux is discussed. We provide a numerical example of a field exhibiting a behaviour analogous to the Penrose process: an incoming wave packet which splits, as it approaches the black hole, into an incoming part with negative energy and an outgoing part with more energy than the initial incoming one. We also show another type of superradiant solution for which the energy extraction is more important. Hyperradiant behaviour is not observed, which is an indication that the Reissner-Nordstrom metric is linearly stable in the sub-extremal case.

  8. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based on the two case studies and evaluation of the seven assessments, the security ideals demonstrated their value in guiding security thinking. Further, the final set of core technical metrics has been demonstrated to be both usable in the control system environment and provide significant coverage of standard security issues.

  9. On the Hamilton approach to the metric GR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frolov, Alexei M

    2015-01-01

    Basic principles of the Hamilton approach developed for the metric General Relativity (Einstein`s GR) are discussed. In particular, we derive the Hamiltonian of the metric GR in the explicit form. This Hamiltonian is a quadratic function of the momenta $\\pi^{mn}$ conjugate to the spatial components $g_{mn}$ of the metric tensor $g_{\\alpha\\beta}$. The Hamilton approach is used to analyze some problems of metric GR, including the internal structure of propagating gravitational waves and quantization of the metric GR. We also derive the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the free Gravitational field and show that actual gravitational field cannot propagate as pure harmonic oscillations, or harmonic gravitational waves. A number of inequalities useful in the metric GR are derived.

  10. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  11. Warm inflation and scalar perturbations of the metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2001-01-16

    A second-order expansion for the quantum fluctuations of the matter field was considered in the framework of the warm inflation scenario. The friction and Hubble parameters were expended by means of a semiclassical approach. The fluctuations of the Hubble parameter generates fluctuations of the metric. These metric fluctuations produce an effective term of curvature. The power spectrum for the metric fluctuations can be calculated on the infrared sector.

  12. On isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution of Einstein equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Mei

    2006-10-24

    The known static isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution of Einstein equation cannot cover with the range of r<2MG, a new isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution is obtained. The new isotropic metric has the characters: (1) It is dynamic and periodic. (2) It has infinite singularities of the spacetime. (3) It cannot cover with the range of 0metric.

  13. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2014) Conceptual Framework for Developing...

  14. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  15. Stable determination of generic simple metrics from the hyperbolic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem of recovering such metrics from the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map associated ..... Using a partition of unity, one can extend ' in a small neighborhood of @?.

  16. Non-perturbative scalar gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from the Ponce de Leon metric in the STM theory of gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariano Anabitarte; Mauricio Bellini

    2008-02-20

    We study our non-perturbative formalism to describe scalar gauge-invariant metric fluctuations by extending the Ponce de Leon metric.

  17. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitze, Arnold

    2011-04-11

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­?year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-­?burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-­?fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  18. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  19. Bi-metric Gravity and "Dark Matter"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. T. Drummond

    2000-08-18

    We present a bi-metric theory of gravity containing a length scale of galactic size. For distances less than this scale the theory satisfies the standard tests of General Relativity. For distances greater than this scale the theory yields an effective gravitational constant much larger than the locally observed value of Newton's constant. The transition from one regime to the other through the galactic scale can explain the observed rotation curves of galaxies and hence the effects normally attributed to the presence of dark matter. Phenomena on an extragalactic scale such as galactic clusters and the expansion of the universe are controlled by the enhanced gravitational coupling. This provides an explanation of the missing matter normally invoked to account for the observed value of Hubble's constant in relation to observed matter.

  20. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF{sub 6} in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF{sub 6} is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF{sub 6} may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF{sub 6} cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail.

  1. CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES IN HIGH VOLUME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David; Das, Sujit; Jeon, Dr. Saeil

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle lightweighting represents one of several design approaches that automotive and heavy truck manufacturers are currently evaluating to improve fuel economy, lower emissions, and improve freight efficiency (tons-miles per gallon of fuel). With changes in fuel efficiency and environmental regulations in the area of transportation, the next decade will likely see considerable vehicle lightweighting throughout the ground transportation industry. Greater use of carbon fiber composites and light metals is a key component of that strategy. This paper examines the competition between candidate materials for lightweighting of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. A 53-component, 25 % mass reduction, body-in-white cost analysis is presented for each material class, highlighting the potential cost penalty for each kilogram of mass reduction and then comparing the various material options. Lastly, as the cost of carbon fiber is a major component of the elevated cost of carbon fiber composites, a brief look at the factors that influence that cost is presented.

  2. A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution Ryan S. Peterson Cornell University@cs.cornell.edu ABSTRACT Efficient content distribution in large networks comprising data- centers, end hosts, and distributed in-network caches is a diffi- cult problem. Existing systems rely on mechanisms and metrics

  3. Metrics for Evaluating Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    With numerous options for the future of natural gas, how do we know we're going down the right path? How do we designate a metric to measure and demonstrate change and progress, and how does that metric incorporate all stakeholders and scenarios?

  4. Primordial fluctuations of the metric in the warm inflation scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2000-05-16

    I consider a semiclassical expansion of the scalar field in the warm inflation scenario. I study the evolution for the fluctuations of the metric around the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker one. The formalism predicts that, in the power-law expansion universe, the fluctuations of the metric decreases with time.

  5. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3393E Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions Paul Mathew (CEC), and by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. #12;Data Center ........................................................................................................3 3. Overall Data Center Performance Metrics

  6. A Primer on Hardware Security: Models, Methods, and Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVITED P A P E R A Primer on Hardware Security: Models, Methods, and Metrics The paper is a primer on hardware security threat models, metrics, and remedies. By Masoud Rostami, Farinaz Koushanfar, and Ramesh) production supply chain has intro- duced hardware-based vulnerabilities. Existing literature in hardware

  7. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    -012-1336-1 #12;affected by warm water temperatures. Long-term stream temperature monitoring is useful biological surveys; thus, using temperature is appealing as a first-cut metric for monitoring fishPRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus

  8. Scalars, Vectors and Tensors from Metric-Affine Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Canan N; Demir, Durmus A

    2011-01-01

    The metric-affine gravity provides a useful framework for analyzing gravitational dynamics since it treats metric tensor and affine connection as fundamentally independent variables. In this work, we show that, a metric-affine gravity theory composed of the invariants formed from non-metricity, torsion and curvature tensors decomposes exhaustively into a theory of scalar, vector and tensor fields. These fields are natural candidates for the ones needed by various cosmological phenomena. Indeed, we show that the model accommodates TeVeS gravity (relativistic modified gravity theory), vector inflation, and aether-like models. Detailed analyses of these and other phenomena can lead to a standard metric-affine gravity model encoding scalars, vectors and tensors necessitated by cosmology.

  9. Scalars, Vectors and Tensors from Metric-Affine Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canan N. Karahan; Asli Altas; Durmus A. Demir

    2013-02-02

    The metric-affine gravity provides a useful framework for analyzing gravitational dynamics since it treats metric tensor and affine connection as fundamentally independent variables. In this work, we show that, a metric-affine gravity theory composed of the invariants formed from non-metricity, torsion and curvature tensors can be decomposed into a theory of scalar, vector and tensor fields. These fields are natural candidates for the ones needed by various cosmological and other phenomena. Indeed, we show that the model accommodates TeVeS gravity (relativistic modified gravity theory), vector inflation, and aether-like models. Detailed analyses of these and other phenomena can lead to a standard metric-affine gravity model encoding scalars, vectors and tensors.

  10. Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin and Laurie Williams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, R. Michael

    are built with traditional metrics of complexity, code churn, and fault history. We have performed to the code [17]. Hence, complexity metrics and code churn metrics have been used for fault prediction [5, 17 fault prediction metrics ­ complexity, code churn, and fault history metrics for vulnerability

  11. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  12. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  13. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24 practical diagnostics range from a few hundred dollars to many thousands of dollars. The higher costs are associated with infrared thermography and state-of-the-art automated diagnostic systems. Most tests can be performed in one hour or less, using equipment priced toward the lower end of the cost spectrum.

  14. DOE-LPO-MiniReport_CLIMATE-Final

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.7 million metric tons of carbon emissions annually. These 11 early projects helped build a domestic market for utility-scale solar that is supported by commercial financing....

  15. August 2004 79 C O M M U N I C A T I O N S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. During the next two decades, energy consumption. This is largely because such resources are increasingly shared and must thus be accessible by remote users

  16. Secretary Chu Announces More Stringent Appliance Standards for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    save consumers up to 10 billion and prevent up to 164 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions over 30 years. These new standards - for residential water heaters, pool...

  17. Saving Energy and Money with Appliance and Equipment Standards...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 billion metric tons cumulatively by 2030- equivalent to nearly one-half of the carbon pollution from the entire U.S. energy sector for one year-while continuing to cut...

  18. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9,405,143,198,202,396,751,187,213,651,346,395,666,660,259,206,491,304,231,103,234,468 "Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons)" "Natural gas",49,55,54," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","...

  19. Generalized Transformation Design: metrics, speeds, and diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinsler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a unified and maximally generalized approach to spatial transformation design is possible, one that encompasses all second order waves, rays, or diffusion processes in anisotropic media. At the design step it is \\emph{not} necessary to specify the physical process for which a specific device will be -- or is intended to be -- built. The primary approximation required is that the effect of wave impedance is neglected, an attribute that plays no role in ray propagation, and therefore is not relevant for pure ray devices; another constraint is that spatial variation in material parameters may need to be sufficiently small. Device construction relies on how we can re-imagine the abstract mathematical notion of a metric on a manifold as a speed-squared matrix (or a diffusion matrix), a step which also specifies the means by which transformation devices will actually be built. Notably, we can conclude that a generalised ray theory that allows for anisotropic indexes (speeds) generates the same predicti...

  20. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /31/98 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  1. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  2. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2005. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -31-05 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2005. All yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  3. [Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted] Domestic Production and Use: Rare earths were mined by one U.S. company in 2012. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed Production and Use: Rare earths were mined by one U.S. company in 2012. Bastnasite, a rare-earth% Y2O3 2846.90.4000 Free. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium

  4. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /31/96 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  5. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined

  6. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All yttrium. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

  7. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2006. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -31-06 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2006. All yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  8. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2008. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12-31-08 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2008. All yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  9. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  10. [Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted] Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All yttrium. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

  11. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5 Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined

  12. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2004. Yttrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relations 12-31-04 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2004. Yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  13. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2003.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relations 12/31/03 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2003. Yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  14. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal produced in the United States in 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and aluminum alloys and the chemical industry. The semiconductor and solar industries, which manufacture chips%; and other, 5%. Silicon metal: Brazil, 41%; South Africa, 20%; Canada, 12%; Australia, 9%; and other, 18 materials source for aluminum-silicon alloys--was projected to increase by 10% in 2012 compared

  15. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys produced in the United States in 2010 was $770

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    producers of aluminum and aluminum alloys and the chemical industry. The semiconductor and solar industries%; South Africa, 28%; Canada, 17%; Australia, 10%; and other, 1%. Total: China, 26%; Brazil, 21%; Norway apparent consumption by 38%. This was in line with the projected 38% increase in domestic steel production

  16. (Data in thousand metric tons of silicon content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Estimated value of silicon alloys and metal produced in the United States in 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and aluminum alloys and the chemical industry. The semiconductor and solar industries, which manufacture chips%; and other, 4%. Silicon metal: Brazil, 39%; South Africa, 22%; Canada, 13%; Australia, 10%; and other, 16 secondary aluminum production--the primary materials source for aluminum-silicon alloys--was projected

  17. Schwarzschild-like metric and a quantum vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2013-02-01

    A quantum vacuum, represented by a viscous fluid, is added to the Einstein vacuum, surrounding a spherical distribution of mass. This gives as a solution, in spherical coordinates, a Schwarzschild-like metric. The plot of g00 and g11 components of the metric, as a function of the radial coordinate, display the same qualitative behavior as that of the Schwarzschild metric. However, the temperature of the event horizon is equal to the Hawking temperature multiplied by a factor of two, while the entropy is equal to half of the Bekenstein one.

  18. Chemical reactions of UF{sub 6} with water on ingress to damaged model 48X 10 ton cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothman, A.B.

    1996-02-01

    Chemistry studies of the effects of water flooding in Model 48X 10-ton UF{sub 6} storage cylinders, as a result of impact fractures, were conducted to support the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review of the Paducah Tiger Overpack for transportation of those cylinders. The objectives of the study were to determine the maximum amount of water that could be admitted to the interior of such a damaged cylinder, the resulting geometries and chemical compositions from reactions of water with the UF{sub 6} contents of the cylinder, and the end-state water moderated and reflected configurations for input to nuclear criticality safety analyses. The case identified for analysis was the flooding of the inside of a cylinder, submerged horizontally in 3 ft of water. The flooding was driven by an initial pressure drop of 13 psig, through an assumed fracture (1/32 in. wide {times} 1/2 in. deep {times} 18 in. long) in the barrel of the cylinder. During the initial addition of water, transient back pressures occur from the effects of the heats of reaction and solution at the water/UF{sub 6} interface, with some chugging as more water is added to alternately coot the reaction surface and then heat it again as the added water reacts with more UF{sub 6}.

  19. Gromov-Hausdorff Distance for Quantum Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc A. Rieffel

    2003-02-20

    By a quantum metric space we mean a C^*-algebra (or more generally an order-unit space) equipped with a generalization of the Lipschitz seminorm on functions which is defined by an ordinary metric. We develop for compact quantum metric spaces a version of Gromov-Hausdorff distance. We show that the basic theorems of the classical theory have natural quantum analogues. Our main example involves the quantum tori, $A_{\\th}$. We show, for consistently defined ``metrics'', that if a sequence $\\{\\th_n\\}$ of parameters converges to a parameter $\\th$, then the sequence $\\{A_{\\th_n}\\}$ of quantum tori converges in quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance to $A_{\\th}$.

  20. Guidelines and Metrics for Configurable and Sustainable Architectural Knowledge Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brezany, Peter

    Guidelines and Metrics for Configurable and Sustainable Architectural Knowledge Modelling ABSTRACT erosion, architecture knowledge, technical sustainability, technical debt. 1. INTRODUCTION Architectural to achieve architecture sustainability. Our main contributions of this paper is a configurable meta

  1. A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics Samuel Kaski and Janne grid to the input spa- ce. The mapping preserves the topography but measures local distances in terms

  2. Square Root of Metric: The Geometry Background of Unified Theory?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De-Sheng Li

    2015-09-29

    We use the square root of inverse metric described by $l=u^{\\dagger} \\gamma^{a} u \\theta_{a}$ construct an $U(4)$ gauge invariant, locally Lorentz invariant and generally covariant Lagrangian $\\mathcal{L}=\

  3. PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH Abstract. We use a wave packet the Simons Foundation (# 266371 to Hart Smith). 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH H¨ormander's theorem [9] on propagation

  4. A Graph Analytic Metric for Mitigating Advanced Persistent Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John R.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-06-04

    This paper introduces a novel graph analytic metric that can be used to measure the potential vulnerability of a cyber network to specific types of attacks that use lateral movement and privilege escalation such as the well known Pass The Hash, (PTH). The metric is computed from an oriented subgraph of the underlying cyber network induced by selecting only those edges for which a given property holds between the two vertices of the edge. The metric with respect to a select node on the subgraph is defined as the likelihood that the select node is reachable from another arbitrary node in the graph. This metric can be calculated dynamically from the authorization and auditing layers during the network security authorization phase and will potentially enable predictive deterrence against attacks such as PTH.

  5. Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

    2012-08-01

    The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

  6. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  7. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  8. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  9. Conformal Transformations in Metric-Affine Gravity and Ghosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canan N. Karahan; Oktay Dogangun; Durmus A. Demir

    2012-05-20

    Conformal transformations play a widespread role in gravity theories in regard to their cosmological and other implications. In the pure metric theory of gravity, conformal transformations change the frame to a new one wherein one obtains a conformal-invariant scalar-tensor theory such that the scalar field, deriving from the conformal factor, is a ghost. In this work, conformal transformations and ghosts will be analyzed in the framework of the metric-affine theory of gravity. Within this framework, metric and connection are independent variables, and hence, transform independently under conformal transformations. It will be shown that, if affine connection is invariant under conformal transformations then the scalar field under concern is a non-ghost, non-dynamical field. It is an auxiliary field at the classical level, and might develop a kinetic term at the quantum level. Alternatively, if connection transforms additively with a structure similar to yet more general than that of the Levi-Civita connection, the resulting action describes the gravitational dynamics correctly, and more importantly, the scalar field becomes a dynamical non-ghost field. The equations of motion, for generic geometrical and matter-sector variables, do not reduce connection to the Levi-Civita connection, and hence, independence of connection from metric is maintained. Therefore, metric-affine gravity provides an arena in which ghosts arising from conformal factor are avoided thanks to the independence of connection from the metric.

  10. XAX: a multi-ton, multi-target detection system for dark matter, double beta decay and pp solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Arisaka; H. Wang; P. F. Smith; D. Cline; A. Teymourian; E. Brown; W. Ooi; D. Aharoni; C. W. Lam; K. Lung; S. Davies; M. Price

    2009-01-07

    A multi-target detection system XAX, comprising concentric 10 ton targets of 136Xe and 129/131Xe, together with a geometrically similar or larger target of liquid Ar, is described. Each is configured as a two-phase scintillation/ionization TPC detector, enhanced by a full 4pi array of ultra-low radioactivity Quartz Photon Intensifying Detectors (QUPIDs) replacing the conventional photomultipliers for detection of scintillation light. It is shown that background levels in XAX can be reduced to the level required for dark matter particle (WIMP) mass measurement at a 10^-10 pb WIMP-nucleon cross section, with single-event sensitivity below 10^-11 pb. The use of multiple target elements allows for confirmation of the A^2 dependence of a coherent cross section, and the different Xe isotopes provide information on the spin-dependence of the dark matter interaction. The event rates observed by Xe and Ar would modulate annually with opposite phases from each other for WIMP mass >~100 GeV/c^2. The large target mass of 136Xe and high degree of background reduction allow neutrinoless double beta decay to be observed with lifetimes of 10^27-10^28 years, corresponding to the Majorana neutrino mass range 0.01-0.1 eV, the most likely range from observed neutrino mass differences. The use of a 136Xe-depleted 129/131Xe target will also allow measurement of the pp solar neutrino spectrum to a precision of 1-2%.

  11. Review of corrosion in 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lykins, M.L.

    1995-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to determine the type, extent and severity of corrosion found in the 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders. Also discussed in this review is corrosion found in the valves and plugs used in the cylinders. Corrosion of the cylinders is a gradual process which occurs slowly over time. Understanding corrosion of the cylinders is an important concern for long term storage of the UF{sub 6} in the cylinder yards, as well as the final disposition of the depleted UF{sub 6} tails inventory in the future. The following conclusions are made from the literature review: (1) The general external corrosion rate of the cylinders is about 1 to 2 mils per year (1 mil = 0.001{double_prime}). The highest general external corrosion rate was over 5 mpy on the 48G type cylinders. (2) General internal corrosion from the depleted UF{sub 6} is negligible under normal storage conditions. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/saddle interface from the retention of water in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/skirt interface on the older skirted cylinders due to the lack of water drainage in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur on cylinders that have been in ground contact. Crevice corrosion and galvanic corrosion can occur where the stainless steel I.D. nameplates are attached to the cylinder. The packing nuts on the bronze one-inch valves used in the cylinders are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Mechanical damage from routine handling can lead to a breach in a cylinder with subsequent accelerated corrosion of the mild steel due to attack from HF and other UF{sub 6} hydrolysis by-products.

  12. AFFILIATIONS: MILLER--Brookhaven National Laboratory, Up-ton, New York; SLINGO--Environmental Systems Science Centre,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation, latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon dioxide at the surface. The centerpieces of the AMF con- tinuously for periods of 6­12 months and includes a core suite of active remote sensors are a collection of active and passive remote sensors (Table 1) including a vertically pointing 95-GHz Doppler

  13. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  14. Assignment Carbon Footprints Name__Lachniet__ 1) See Figure 1.1a at the back of the assignment (from IPCC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lachniet, Matthew S.

    Assignment Carbon Footprints Name__Lachniet__ 1) See Figure 1.1a at the back capita, relative to other countries. 3) Use the carbon footprint calculator at 1) http utility bill. Use the # of people living in your house. a) What is your carbon footprint, in metric

  15. On Metric Ramsey-Type Phenomena Yair Bartal Nathan Linial Manor Mendel Assaf Naor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartal, Yair

    On Metric Ramsey-Type Phenomena Yair Bartal Nathan Linial Manor Mendel Assaf Naor Abstract The main space theory or as part of Ramsey Theory in combinatorics. Given a #12;nite metric space on n points, we.2 Generic upper bounds via metric composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Metric Ramsey

  16. The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

  17. Use of metrics in an effective ALARA program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, B.B. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting an processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific {open_quotes}indicators.{close_quotes} To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. Justification is needed to defend the indicators selected and maybe even stronger justification is needed for those indicators that are available, but not chosen as a metric. Historically, the many different sources of information resided in a plethora of locations. Even the same type of metric had data located in different areas and could not be easily totaled for the entire Site. This required the end user to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that a customer can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer`s most frequently asked questions. IL is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally, it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, {open_quotes}user friendly,{close_quotes} software and contains information from RIR`s, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics. These include quarterly performance indicator reports, monthly radiological incident reports, monthly external dose history and goals tracking reports, and the future use of performance indexing.

  18. 2011 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. University of Minnesota Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, this material is available in alternative formats u

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    landscapes are great at sequestering carbon from carbon dioxide, a primary greenhouse gas. Consequently prices. In Europe, the June 2008 price of a credit representing one metric ton of carbon dioxide greenhouse gasses through carbon storage land use practices (i.e., notill or strip till farming, grasslands

  19. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  20. Effective use of metrics in an ALARA program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include; external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific ``indicators``. To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. This required the end users to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that customers can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer`s most frequently asked questions. It is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, ``user friendly``, software and contains information from RIR`s, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics.

  1. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon

    2011-08-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R&D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  2. The Non-Metricity Formulation of General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Mol

    2015-01-13

    After recalling the differential geometry of non-metric connections in the formalism of differential forms, we introduce the idea of a Non-Metricity (NM) connection, whose connection $1$--forms coincides with the non-metricity $1$--forms for a class of cobase fields. Then we formulate a theory of gravitation (equivalent to General Relativity (GR)) which admits a geometrical interpretation in a flat torsionless space where the gravitational field is completely manifest in the non-metricity of a NM connection. We define and then apply the non-metricity gauge to a gravitational Lagrangian density discovered by Wallner and which is equivalent to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian density. The Einstein equations coupled to the matter currents $\\left( \\mathcal{J}_{\\alpha}\\right) $ thus becomes $\\delta dg_{\\alpha}=\\mathcal{T}_{\\alpha}+\\mathcal{J}_{\\alpha}$, where $\\left( \\mathcal{T}_{\\alpha}\\right) $ is identified as the gravitational energy-momentum currents, to which we shall find a relatively simple and physically appealing form. It is also shown that in the gravitational analogue of the Lorenz gauge, our field equations can be written as a system of Proca equations, which may be of interest in the study of propagation of gravitational-electromagnetic waves.

  3. Conformal Transformations in Metric-Affine Gravity and Ghosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Canan N; Demir, Durmus A

    2012-01-01

    Conformal transformations play a widespread role in gravity theories in regard to their cosmological and other implications. In the pure metric theory of gravity, conformal transformations change the frame to a new one wherein one obtains a conformal-invariant scalar-tensor theory such that the scalar field, deriving from the conformal factor, is a ghost. In this work, conformal transformations and ghosts will be analyzed in the framework of the metric-affine theory of gravity. Within this framework, metric and connection are independent variables, and hence, transform independently under conformal transformations. It will be shown that, if affine connection is invariant under conformal transformations then the scalar field under concern is a non-ghost, non-dynamical field. It is an auxiliary field at the classical level, and might develop a kinetic term at the quantum level. Alternatively, if connection transforms additively with a structure similar to yet more general than that of the Levi-Civita connection...

  4. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H. F.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Forecasting solar energy generation is a challenging task due to the variety of solar power systems and weather regimes encountered. Forecast inaccuracies can result in substantial economic losses and power system reliability issues. This paper presents a suite of generally applicable and value-based metrics for solar forecasting for a comprehensive set of scenarios (i.e., different time horizons, geographic locations, applications, etc.). In addition, a comprehensive framework is developed to analyze the sensitivity of the proposed metrics to three types of solar forecasting improvements using a design of experiments methodology, in conjunction with response surface and sensitivity analysis methods. The results show that the developed metrics can efficiently evaluate the quality of solar forecasts, and assess the economic and reliability impact of improved solar forecasting.

  5. Tidal deformation of a slowly rotating material body. External metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Landry; Eric Poisson

    2015-07-31

    We construct the external metric of a slowly rotating, tidally deformed material body in general relativity. The tidal forces acting on the body are assumed to be weak and to vary slowly with time, and the metric is obtained as a perturbation of a background metric that describes the external geometry of an isolated, slowly rotating body. The tidal environment is generic and characterized by two symmetric-tracefree tidal moments E_{ab} and B_{ab}, and the body is characterized by its mass M, its radius R, and a dimensionless angular-momentum vector \\chi^a new quantities, which we designate as rotational-tidal Love numbers. All these Love numbers are gauge invariant in the usual sense of perturbation theory, and all vanish when the body is a black hole.

  6. An Automated Evaluation Metric for Chinese Text Entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Mike Tian-Jian; Lin, Jaimie; Lin, Jerry; Hsu, Wen-Lien

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated evaluation metric for text entry. We also consider possible improvements to existing text entry evaluation metrics, such as the minimum string distance error rate, keystrokes per character, cost per correction, and a unified approach proposed by MacKenzie, so they can accommodate the special characteristics of Chinese text. Current methods lack an integrated concern about both typing speed and accuracy for Chinese text entry evaluation. Our goal is to remove the bias that arises due to human factors. First, we propose a new metric, called the correction penalty (P), based on Fitts' law and Hick's law. Next, we transform it into the approximate amortized cost (AAC) of information theory. An analysis of the AAC of Chinese text input methods with different context lengths is also presented.

  7. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  8. Calabi-Yau metrics for quotients and complete intersections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Braun, Volker; Brelidze, Tamaz; Douglas, Michael R.; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2008-05-22

    We extend previous computations of Calabi-Yau metrics on projective hypersurfaces to free quotients, complete intersections, and free quotients of complete intersections. In particular, we construct these metrics on generic quintics, four-generation quotients of the quintic, Schoen Calabi-Yau complete intersections and the quotient of a Schoen manifold with Z? x Z? fundamental group that was previously used to construct a heterotic standard model. Various numerical investigations into the dependence of Donaldson's algorithm on the integration scheme, as well as on the Kähler and complex structure moduli, are also performed.

  9. Effect of CNG start - gasoline run on emissions from a 3/4 ton pick-up truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, K.J.; Smith, L.R.; Dickinson, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start - gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24{degree}C and at -7{degree}C. The results was a reductiopn in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7{degree}C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Carbon Tax and 100% Dividend No Alligator Shoes! The charts for my talk (Climate Threat to the Planet: Implications for Energy Policy) on 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    will raise energy prices, but lower and middle income people, especially, will find ways to reduce carbon to the Planet: Implications for Energy Policy) on 3 June 2008 at the PACON 2008 conference (Energy and Climate 15,000 tons of waffles each year. There will be a growing price incentive for life style changes

  11. Investigation of CO2 plume behavior for a large-scale pilot test of geologic carbon storage in a saline formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injected into a deep saline formation is investigated, focusing on trapping mechanisms that lead to CO{sub 2} plume stabilization. A numerical model of the subsurface at a proposed power plant with CO{sub 2} capture is developed to simulate a planned pilot test, in which 1,000,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} is injected over a four-year period, and the subsequent evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume for hundreds of years. Key measures are plume migration distance and the time evolution of the partitioning of CO{sub 2} between dissolved, immobile free-phase, and mobile free-phase forms. Model results indicate that the injected CO{sub 2} plume is effectively immobilized at 25 years. At that time, 38% of the CO{sub 2} is in dissolved form, 59% is immobile free phase, and 3% is mobile free phase. The plume footprint is roughly elliptical, and extends much farther up-dip of the injection well than down-dip. The pressure increase extends far beyond the plume footprint, but the pressure response decreases rapidly with distance from the injection well, and decays rapidly in time once injection ceases. Sensitivity studies that were carried out to investigate the effect of poorly constrained model parameters permeability, permeability anisotropy, and residual CO{sub 2} saturation indicate that small changes in properties can have a large impact on plume evolution, causing significant trade-offs between different trapping mechanisms.

  12. A Comprehensive and Comparative Metric for Information Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    A Comprehensive and Comparative Metric for Information Security Steffen Weiß1 , Oliver Weissmann2 security GmbH, Germany Abstract Measurement of information security is important for organizations , Falko Dressler1* 1 Dept. of Computer Science 7, University of Erlangen, Germany 2 atsec information

  13. Harmonic maps on domains with piecewise Lipschitz continuous metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changyou

    Harmonic maps on domains with piecewise Lipschitz continuous metrics Haigang Li , Changyou Wang consider harmonic map from (, g) to a compact Rie- mannian manifold (N, h) Rk without boundary. We generalize the notion of stationary harmonic maps and prove their partial regularity. We also discuss

  14. Linear harmonic oscillator in spaces with degenerate metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Gromov

    2006-03-02

    With the help of contraction method we study the harmonic oscillator in spaces with degenerate metrics, namely, on Galilei plane and in the flat 3D Cayley-Klein spaces $R_3(j_2,j_3).$ It is shown that the inner degrees of freedom are appeared which physical dimensions are different from the dimension of the space.

  15. Quantitative Metrics of Social Response for Autism Diagnosis*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scassellati, Brian

    Quantitative Metrics of Social Response for Autism Diagnosis* Brian Scassellati Department and treatment of autism, a pervasive developmental disorder which results in selective impairment of social to address critical problems in diagnosing autism. We provide preliminary data and observations on how

  16. EERE Portfolio: Primary Benefits Metrics for FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    [EERE

    2011-11-17

    This collection of data tables shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for both the entire EERE portfolio of renewable energy technologies as well as the individual technologies. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  17. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  18. Structured Testing: A Testing Methodology Using the Cyclomatic Complexity Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    The purpose of this document is to describe the structured testing methodology for software testing, also uses the control flow structure of software to establish path cover- age criteria. The resultant testCabe, object oriented, software development, software diagnostic, software metrics, software testing

  19. Thermodynamics and the naked singularity in the Gamma-metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Lochan; D. Malafarina; T. P. Singh

    2010-09-23

    We investigate a possible way of establishing a parallel between the third law of black hole mechanics, and the strong version of the third law of thermodynamics. We calculate the surface gravity and area for a naked singular null surface in the Gamma-metric and explain in what sense this behaviour violates thermodynamics.

  20. A Case Study in Developing Process Unit Energy Metrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, J. L.; Van Atta, B.

    2006-01-01

    At the 2005 IETC Conference, KBC (Davis and Knight) submitted a paper on Integrating Process Unit Energy Metrics into a Plant Energy Managemenet System. For the 2006 conference, KBC wishes to submit a paper that details an actual case study where...

  1. Metrics-driven development of an autonomous indoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Differential drive Ground-truth camera Sonars and IR Pan-tilt unit IMU Platform: depth-only perception #12 Obstacle avoidance Lag estimator Drive controller Differential drive Horizontal scan Path tracking in large environments #12;Key metric of autonomy: mean time to failure #12;10 Atrium Lounge Hallway

  2. New set of metrics for the computational performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New set of metrics for the computational performance of IS-ENES Earth System Models TR/CMGC/14/73 U performance of Earth System Models is developed and used for an initial performance analysis of the EC models.................................................................................................................................5 2.1 List of Participating Earth System Models

  3. Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics and string theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei

    2009-05-15

    With the advent of supergravity and superstring theory, it is of great importance to study higher-dimensional solutions to the Einstein equations. In this dissertation, we study the higher dimensional Kerr-AdS metrics, and show how they admit...

  4. Dynamic Adaptive Search Based Software Engineering Needs Fast Approximate Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Mark

    1 Dynamic Adaptive Search Based Software Engineering Needs Fast Approximate Metrics Mark Harman. University College Dublin, Ireland. Abstract--Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) uses fitness functions to guide an automated search for solutions to challenging software engineering problems. The fitness

  5. Calculation and Optimization of Thresholds for Sets of Software Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabowski, Jens

    ,grabowski,waack}@cs.uni-goettingen.de Abstract. Many software quality models use software metrics to determine qual- ity attributes of software/IEC, 2005). To up- hold the required standard of quality, the assessment and assurance of software quality characteristics are an import part of the execution of software projects. In many models to assess the quality

  6. Using Software Metrics Tools for Maintenance Decisions: A Classroom Exercise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katchabaw, Michael James

    identify modules with low software quality; renovating those modules would be a step toward improving (Bauer) taught a senior under­ graduate course entitled ``Software Processes, Measure­ ments and Quality''. The course concentrated on the use of software metrics to evaluate software quality. We decided to use

  7. Metrics and Smoothing of TranslationInvariant Radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Michael

    Metrics and Smoothing of Translation­Invariant Radon Transforms Along Curves Michael Greenblatt 1: (617) 253­4358 Running head: Radon Transforms 1 This research was supported in part by NSF grant DMS­invariant Radon transforms along curves for # # # and p

  8. An effective theory of metrics with maximal acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Gallego Torromé

    2015-10-15

    A geometric theory for spacetimes whose world lines associated with physical particles have an upper bound for the proper acceleration is developed. After some fundamental remarks on the requirements that the classical dynamics for point particles should hold, the notion of generalized metric and a theory of maximal proper acceleration are introduced. A perturbative approach to metrics of maximal proper acceleration is discussed and we show how it provides a consistent theory where the associated Lorentzian metric corresponds to the limit when the maximal proper acceleration goes to infinity. Then several of the physical and kinematical properties of the maximal acceleration metric are investigated, including a discussion of the rudiments of the causal theory and the introduction of the notions of radar distance and celerity function. We discuss the corresponding modification of the Einstein mass-energy relation when the associated Lorentzian geometry is flat. In such context it is also proved that the physical dispersion relation is relativistic. Two possible physical scenarios where the modified mass-energy relation could be confronted against experiment are briefly discussed.

  9. Mining Simulation Metrics for Failure Triage in Regression Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veneris, Andreas

    are grouped by applying data-mining clustering algorithms. Fi- nally, the generated failure clustersMining Simulation Metrics for Failure Triage in Regression Testing Zissis Poulos1 , Andreas Veneris of failures can be exposed. These failures need to be properly grouped and distributed among engineers

  10. Methods, Metrics and Motivation for a Green Computer Science Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Way, Thomas

    and, more recently, economically sensible [13]. "Going Green" implies reducing your energy useMethods, Metrics and Motivation for a Green Computer Science Program Mujtaba Talebi and Thomas Way are uniquely positioned to promote greater awareness of Green Computing, using the academic setting

  11. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  12. Metric Attractors for Smooth Unimodal Maps Jacek Graczyk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, Duncan

    Metric Attractors for Smooth Unimodal Maps Jacek Graczyk #3; Dept. of Math. University of Paris XI 91405 Orsay Cedex France Duncan Sands CNRS, Dept. of Math. University of Paris XI 91405 Orsay Cedex attractor for some dynamics if the basin of attraction B(A) := fx : !(x) #26; Ag of A has positive Lebesgue

  13. Urgent need for a common metric to make precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    Letters Urgent need for a common metric to make precipitation manipulation experiments comparable of altered precipitation patterns, by contrast, have received far less atten- tion. The results of precipitation manipulation experiments were only recently synthesized for the first time (Wu et al., 2011

  14. Einstein static Universe in hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian G. Boehmer; Francisco S. N. Lobo; Nicola Tamanini

    2015-02-18

    Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity is a recent and novel approach to modified theories of gravity, which consists of adding to the metric Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian an f(R) term constructed a la Palatini. It was shown that the theory passes local tests even if the scalar field is very light, and thus implies the existence of a long-range scalar field, which is able to modify the dynamics in galactic and cosmological scales, but leaves the Solar System unaffected. In this work, motivated by the possibility that the Universe may have started out in an asymptotically Einstein static state in the inflationary universe context, we analyse the stability of the Einstein static Universe by considering linear homogeneous perturbations in the respective dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor representation of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. Considering linear homogeneous perturbations, the stability regions of the Einstein static universe are parametrized by the first and second derivatives of the scalar potential, and it is explicitly shown that a large class of stable solutions exists in the respective parameter space, in the context of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity.

  15. Effect of CNG start-gasoline run on emissions from a 3/4 ton pick-up truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, K.J.; Smith, L.R.; Dickinson, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start-gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24{degree}C and at -7{degree}C. The result was a reduction in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7{degree}C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newvahner, R.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

  17. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the contractor. A decision was reached between the NTS regulator and NSTec, opting for alternative authorized limits from DOE Headquarters. In doing so, NSTec personnel performed a dose model using the DOE-approved modeling code RESRAD-BUILD v3.5 to evaluate scenarios. The parameters used in the dose model were conservative. NSTec’s Radiological Engineering Calculation, REC-2010-001, “Public Dose Estimate from the EMAD 25 Ton Locomotive,” concluded that the four scenarios evaluated were below the 25-millirem per year limit, the “likely” dose scenarios met the “few millirem in a year” criteria, and that the EMAD 25-ton locomotive met the radiological requirements to be released with residual radioactivity to the public.

  18. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  19. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  20. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  1. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    MWh electricity, 12% IRR Coal Price, $/metric ton BreakevenCERT-3B 42 $/metric ton coal price Electricity Sale Price,electricity, 42 $/metric ton coal price IRR, percent Figure

  2. Choosing good distance metrics and local planners for probabilistic roadmap motion planning methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayazit, Osman Burchan

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative evaluation of different distance metrics and local planners within the context of probabilistic roadmap methods for motion planning. Both C-space and Workspace distance metrics and local planners are considered...

  3. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front...

  4. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that they play in human health, biogeochemical cycles and the Earth's climate. ...

  5. Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelby, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    to (1) situate sustainability and its performance metrics inconcept of sustainability and their performance metrics. Thefor sustainability and the social performance metrics for

  6. Characterization of symmetric monotone metrics on the state space of quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Hansen

    2006-03-29

    The quantum Fisher information is a Riemannian metric, defined on the state space of a quantum system, which is symmetric and decreasing under stochastic mappings. Contrary to the classical case such a metric is not unique. We complete the characterization, initiated by Morozova, Chentsov and Petz, of these metrics by providing a closed and tractable formula for the set of Morozova-Chentsov functions. In addition, we provide a continuously increasing bridge between the smallest and largest symmetric monotone metrics.

  7. EA-1835: Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) Phase II Michigan Basin Project in Chester Township, Michigan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide approximately $65.5 million in financial assistance in a cost-sharing arrangement with the project proponent, MRCSP. MRCSP's proposed project would use CO2 captured from an existing natural gas processing plant in Chester Township, pipe it approximately 1 mile to an injection well, and inject it into a deep saline aquifer for geologic sequestration. This project would demonstrate the geologic sequestration of 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 over a 4-year period. The project and EA are on hold.

  8. QUATERNIONIC KAHLER AND SPIN(7) METRICS ARISING FROM QUATERNIONIC CONTACT EINSTEIN STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassilev, Dimiter N.

    QUATERNIONIC K¨AHLER AND SPIN(7) METRICS ARISING FROM QUATERNIONIC CONTACT EINSTEIN STRUCTURES L construct left invariant quaternionic contact (qc) structures on Lie groups with zero and non-zero torsion, equipped with a certain qc structure, has a quaternionic K¨ahler metric as well as a metric with holonomy

  9. On Some Low Distortion Metric Ramsey Problems Yair Bartal # Nathan Linial + Manor Mendel # Assaf Naor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartal, Yair

    On Some Low Distortion Metric Ramsey Problems Yair Bartal # Nathan Linial + Manor Mendel # Assaf Naor December 17, 2002 Abstract In this note, we consider the metric Ramsey problem for the normed metric spaces, no four points of which embed isometrically in # p . 1 Introduction A Ramsey­type theorem

  10. On the use of software quality metrics to im-prove physical properties of embedded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Flávio Rech

    On the use of software quality metrics to im- prove physical properties of embedded systems Ricardo Abstract: As software production achieves a growing importance in the embed- ded systems world, quality of the correlation between software quality metrics and physical metrics for embedded software. By means

  11. JBOOMT: Jade Bird Object-Oriented Metrics Tool* Tao XIE, Wanghong YUAN, Hong MEI, Fuqing YANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    on software productivity and software quality control has spurred the research on software metrics technology-oriented program and thus evaluate the quality of the software according to the specified hierarchical metrics quality, there exist needs for better technique of software development and software metrics during

  12. Rank and Relevance in Novelty and Diversity Metrics for Recommender Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castells Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Escuela Politécnica Superior, Departamento de Ingeniería for the definition of novelty and diversity metrics that unifies and generalizes several state of the art metrics. We a for- mal metric framework that unifies and generalizes several state of the art measures, and en

  13. WESTERN U.S. STREAM FLOW METRIC DATASET Providing scientific knowledge and technology to sustain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These are based on daily simulations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model, hydrologic modeling, variable infiltration capacity (VIC), flow metrics, aquatic communities Flow metrics metric da- taset makes it possible to study the effects of droughts, changes in snow- pack, water

  14. 04/14/2011 ATOC -3500 Ryan Sanford Wildfire Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    04/14/2011 ATOC - 3500 Ryan Sanford Wildfire Emissions: 1. Carbon: CO, CO2, black carbon a. Greenhouse gas b. Heating agent c. ~40 million metric tons of carbon emissions from wildfires out of ~6 fires are the only plausible solution to forest fires. Amount released is much less Largest emissions

  15. Title Goes Here In This Position

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    sources into scopes All expressed as metric tons of carbon dioxide This slide courtesy of CA-CP 3 Scope 3 Emissions Scope 2 Emissions Scope 3 Emissions Carbon Emissions by Scope FY2011 FY2012 #12;© Sightlines 2010 Scope 2 Emissions Scope 3 Emissions Carbon Emissions by Scope FY2011 FY2012 Scope 1 (Fossil Fuels) 19

  16. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the widespread deployment of carbon capture technologies in real-world settings," said Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz. "The successful testing of these technologies and the lessons...

  17. Advanced Space Propulsion Based on Vacuum (Spacetime Metric) Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harold E. Puthoff

    2012-02-03

    A theme that has come to the fore in advanced planning for long-range space exploration is the concept that empty space itself (the quantum vacuum, or spacetime metric) might be engineered so as to provide energy/thrust for future space vehicles. Although far-reaching, such a proposal is solidly grounded in modern physical theory, and therefore the possibility that matter/vacuum interactions might be engineered for space-flight applications is not a priori ruled out. As examples, the current development of theoretical physics addresses such topics as warp drives, traversable wormholes and time machines that provide for such vacuum engineering possibilities. We provide here from a broad perspective the physics and correlates/consequences of the engineering of the spacetime metric.

  18. On the existence of certain axisymmetric interior metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angulo Santacruz, C.; Batic, D.; Nowakowski, M.

    2010-08-15

    One of the effects of noncommutative coordinate operators is that the delta function connected to the quantum mechanical amplitude between states sharp to the position operator gets smeared by a Gaussian distribution. Although this is not the full account of the effects of noncommutativity, this effect is, in particular, important as it removes the point singularities of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem solutions. In this context, it seems to be of some importance to probe also into ringlike singularities which appear in the Kerr case. In particular, starting with an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor and a general axisymmetric ansatz of the metric together with an arbitrary mass distribution (e.g., Gaussian), we derive the full set of Einstein equations that the noncommutative geometry inspired Kerr solution should satisfy. Using these equations we prove two theorems regarding the existence of certain Kerr metrics inspired by noncommutative geometry.

  19. UNIFIED APPROACH TO CONFORMALLY INVARIANT METRICS ON RIEMANN SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugawa, Toshiyuki

    -metrics aeR defined for all Riemann surfaces R i* *s said to be holomorphically contractive if f*aeR0 aeRR aeR kR for all Riemann surfaces R, where cR and kR den* *ote the Carath-metri* *cs aeR is said to be monotone if aeR0 aeR holds for each Riemann surface R and for each

  20. Cosmology via Metric-Independent Volume-Form Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The method of non-Riemannian volume-forms (metric-independent covariant integration measure densities on the spacetime manifold) is applied to construct a unified model of dynamical dark energy plus dark matter as a dust fluid resulting from a hidden Noether symmetry of the pertinent scalar field Lagrangian. Canonical Hamiltonian treatment and Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of the latter model are briefly discussed.

  1. Colliding Wave Solutions in a Symmetric Non-metric Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozay Gurtug; Mustafa Halilsoy

    2008-09-22

    A method is given to generate the non-linear interaction (collision) of linearly polarized gravity coupled torsion waves in a non-metric theory. Explicit examples are given in which strong mutual focussing of gravitational waves containing impulsive and shock components coupled with torsion waves does not result in a curvature singularity. However, the collision of purely torsion waves displays a curvature singularity in the region of interaction.

  2. The d-bar-Neumann operator and the Kobayashi metric 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Mijoung

    2004-09-30

    compactness of the partialdiff-Neumann operator and the property K in any convex domain. We also find a local property of the Kobayashi metric [Theorem IV.1], in which the domain is not necessary pseudoconvex. We find a more general condition than finite type... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. L2 Existence Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Globally Regular Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. Compactness in the partialdiff-Neumann Problem . . . . . . . 11 III INHERITANCE OF NONCOMPACTNESS OF THE partialdiff...

  3. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finley

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern Indiana, and an immiscible CO{sub 2} flood pilot was conducted in the Jackson sandstone (Mississippian System Big Clifty Sandstone Member) at the Sugar Creek Field in Hopkins County, western Kentucky. Up to 12% incremental oil recovery was estimated based on these pilots. A CO{sub 2} huff â??nâ?? puff (HNP) pilot project was conducted in the Cypress Sandstone in the Loudon Field. This pilot was designed to measure and record data that could be used to calibrate a reservoir simulation model. A pilot project at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois, tested the potential storage of CO{sub 2} in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} storage and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot results from all four sites showed that CO{sub 2} could be injected into the subsurface without adversely affecting groundwater. Additionally, hydrocarbon production was enhanced, giving further evidence that CO{sub 2} storage in oil reservoirs and coal beds offers an economic advantage. Results from the MVA program at each site indicated that injected CO{sub 2} did not leave the injection zone. Topical reports were completed on the Middle and Late Devonian New Albany Shale and Basin CO{sub 2} emissions. The efficacy of the New Albany Shale as a storage sink could be substantial if low injectivity concerns can be alleviated. CO{sub 2} emissions in the Illinois Basin were projected to be dominated by coal-fired power plants.

  4. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  5. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  6. On the electromagnetic constitutive laws that are equivalent to spacetime metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. H. Delphenich

    2014-09-17

    The raising of both indices in the components of the Minkowski electromagnetic field strength 2-form to give the components of the electromagnetic excitation bivector field can be regarded as being equivalent to an electromagnetic constitutive law, as well as being defined by the components of the spacetime metric. This notion is clarified, and the nature of the equivalent dielectric tensors and magnetic permeability tensors that are defined by some common spacetime metrics is discussed. The relationship of the basic construction to effective metrics is discussed, and, in particular, the fact that this effective metric is more general than the Gordon metric.

  7. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-31

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­?year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-­?three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­?and-­?trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  8. Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Goal is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate their potential application for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Focus is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons adsorbent could be consumed in NGVs by year 2000. If successful, the results could lead to use of Illinois coal in a market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. Activated carbon samples were prepared from IBC-106 coal by controlling both the preoxidation temperature and time, and the devolatilization temperature in order to eliminate coal caking. A 4.6 cc pressurized vessel was constructed to measure the Vm/Vs methane adsorption capacity (volume of stored methane at STP per volume storage container). Several IBC-106 derived activated carbons showed methane adsorption capacities comparable to that of a 1000 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon. Results indicated that surface area and micropore volume of activated carbons are important for natural gas storage. Work is in progress to synthesize samples from IBC-106 coal with optimum pore diameter for methane adsorption.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE): Evaluation of a new method to look at high resolution spatial/temporal distributions of carbon over key sub km sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Perninit, Timothy; McGregor, Doug; Botos, Chris; Dobeck, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Recently a new laser based approach for measuring area with potential for producing 2D estimates of the concentration spatial distribution has been developed through a cooperative agreement with the National Energy and Technology Laboratory of the Department of Energy, Exelis Inc. and AER Inc. The new approach is based on a pair of continuous wave intensity modulated laser absorption spectrometer transceivers, combined with a series of retro reflectors located around the perimeter of the area being monitored. The main goal of this cooperative agreement is monitoring, reporting and verification for ground carbon capture and storage projects. The system was recently tested at the Zero Emission Research and Technology site in Bozeman, MT, with underground leak rates ranging from 0.1 – 0.3 metric ton per day (T/d), as well as a 0.8 T/d surface release. Over 200 hours of data were collected over a rectangular grid 180m x 200m between August 18th and September 9th. In addition, multiple days of in situ data were acquired for the same site, using a Licor gas analyzer systems. Initial comparisons between the laser-based system and the in situ agree very well. The system is designed to operate remotely and transmit the data via a 3G/4G connection along with weather data for the site. An all web-based system ingests the data, populates a database, performs the inversion to ppm CO2 using the Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), and displays plots and statistics for the retrieved data. We will present an overview of the GreenLITE measurement system, outline the retrieval and reconstruction approach, and discuss results from extensive field testing.

  10. Characterization of all possible orbits in the Schwarzschild metric revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. T. Hioe; David Kuebel

    2012-07-30

    All possible orbital trajectories and their analytical expressions in the Schwarzschild metric are presented in a single complete map characterized by two dimensionless parameters. While three possible pairs of parameters with different advantages are described, the parameter space that gives the most convenient reduction to the Newtonian case is singled out and used which leads to a new insight on Newtonian limits among other results. Numerous analytic relations are presented. A comparison is made with the widely used formulation and presentation given by S. Chandrasekhar.

  11. Polarizable vacuum analysis of the gravitational metric tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing-Hao Ye

    2009-03-21

    The gravitational metric tensor implies a variable dielectric tensor of vacuum around gravitational matter. The curved spacetime in general relativity is then associated with a polarizable vacuum. It is found that the number density of the virtual dipoles in vacuum decreases with the distance from the gravitational centre. This result offers a polarizable vacuum interpretation of the gravitational force. Also, the anisotropy of vacuum polarization is briefly discussed, which appeals for observational proof of anisotropic light propagation in a vacuum altered by gravitational or electromagnetic field.

  12. Metrics for the National SCADA Test Bed Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Philip A.; Mortensen, J.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2008-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program is providing valuable inputs into the electric industry by performing topical research and development (R&D) to secure next generation and legacy control systems. In addition, the program conducts vulnerability and risk analysis, develops tools, and performs industry liaison, outreach and awareness activities. These activities will enhance the secure and reliable delivery of energy for the United States. This report will describe metrics that could be utilized to provide feedback to help enhance the effectiveness of the NSTB Program.

  13. On the metric structure of space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochen Rau

    2010-09-28

    I present an analysis of the physical assumptions needed to obtain the metric structure of space-time. For this purpose I combine the axiomatic approach pioneered by Robb with ideas drawn from works on Weyl's "Raumproblem". The concept of a Lorentzian manifold is replaced by the weaker concept of an "event manifold", defined in terms of volume element, causal structure and affine connection(s). Exploiting properties of its structure group, I show that distinguishing Lorentzian manifolds from other classes of event manifolds requires the key idea of general relativity: namely that the manifold's physical structure, rather than being fixed, is itself a variable.

  14. User's Guide to the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, William

    2012-02-28

    The intent of this user guide is to provide a brief description of the functionality of the Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM) tool, including the expanded building re-tuning functionality developed for Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL). This document describes the tool's general functions and features, and offers detailed instructions for PNNL building re-tuning charts, a feature in ECAM intended to help building owners and operators look at trend data (recommended 15-minute time intervals) in a series of charts (both time series and scatter) to analyze air-handler, zone, and central plant information gathered from a building automation system (BAS).

  15. Widget:CrazyEggMetrics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThinWarsaw,What Is a SmallAnchorText JumpsourceCrazyEggMetrics Jump

  16. Property:ExplorationCostPerMetric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation,Property Edit with form HistoryExplorationCostPerMetric Jump to:

  17. Property:ExplorationTimePerMetric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation,Property Edit withExplorationTimePerMetric Jump to: navigation,

  18. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  19. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  20. A wavy way leading to the Kerr metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurtug, O

    2015-01-01

    From inherent non-linearity two gravitational waves, unless they are unidirectional, fail to satisfy a superposition law. They collide to develop a new spacetime carrying the imprints of the incoming waves. Same behaviour is valid also for any massless lightlike field. As a result of the violent collision process either a naked singularity or a Cauchy horizon (CH) develops. It was shown by Chandrasekhar and Xanthopoulos (CX) that a particular class of colliding gravitational waves (CGW) spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr metric for rotating black holes. This relation came to be known as the CX duality. Such a duality can be exploited as an alternative derivation for the Kerr metric as we do herein. We claim at the same time that the duality points to the deeper rooted wave - particle correlation in a futuristic quantum gravity. In such a scenario black hole acts as the representative of a particle while CGW spacetime stands for its wavelike complementary partner. Not each case gives rise to a CH but t...

  1. Optical Anisotropy of Schwarzschild Metric within Equivalent Medium Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Khorasani; Bizhan Rashidian

    2009-12-16

    It is has been long known that the curved space in the presence of gravitation can be described as a non-homogeneous anisotropic medium in flat geometry with different constitutive equations. In this article, we show that the eigenpolarizations of such medium can be exactly solved, leading to a pseudo-isotropic description of curved vacuum with two refractive index eigenvalues having opposite signs, which correspond to forward and backward travel in time. We conclude that for a rotating universe, time-reversal symmetry is broken. We also demonstrate the applicability of this method to Schwarzschild metric and derive exact forms of refractive index. We derive the subtle optical anisotropy of space around a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and uncharged blackhole in the form of an elegant closed form expression, and show that the refractive index in such a pseudo-isotropic system would be a function of coordinates as well as the direction of propagation. Corrections arising from such anisotropy in the bending of light are shown and a simplified system of equations for ray-tracing in the equivalent medium of Schwarzschild metric is found.

  2. Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

  3. Laser Ranging Delay in the Bi-Metric Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei M. Kopeikin; Wei-Tou Ni

    2006-03-02

    We introduce a linearized bi-metric theory of gravity with two metrics. The metric g_{ab} describes null hypersurfaces of the gravitational field while light moves on null hypersurfaces of the optical metric \\bar{g}_{ab}. Bi-metrism naturally arises in vector-tensor theories with matter being non-minimally coupled to gravity via long-range vector field. We derive explicit Lorentz-invariant solution for a light ray propagating in space-time of the bi-metric theory and disentangle relativistic effects associated with the two metrics. This anlysis can be valuable for future spaceborne laser missions ASTROD and LATOR dedicated to map various relativistic gravity parameters in the solar system to unparalleled degree of accuracy.

  4. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  5. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  6. Perturbations of the metric induced by back - reaction in the warm inflation scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    1999-12-20

    A second-order expansion for the quantum fluctuations of the matter field was considered in the framemork of the warm inflation scenario. The friction and Hubble parameters were expanded by means of a semiclassical approach. The fluctuations of the Hubble parameter generates fluctuations of the metric. These metric fluctuations produce an effective term of curvature. The power spectrum for the metric fluctuations can be calculated on the infrared sector.

  7. Cover art: issues in the metric-guided and metric-less placement of random and stochastic template banks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Mario Manca; Michele Vallisneri

    2010-01-14

    The efficient placement of signal templates in source-parameter space is a crucial requisite for exhaustive matched-filtering searches of modeled gravitational-wave sources. Unfortunately, the current placement algorithms based on regular parameter-space meshes are difficult to generalize beyond simple signal models with few parameters. Various authors have suggested that a general, flexible, yet efficient alternative can be found in randomized placement strategies such as random placement and stochastic placement, which enhances random placement by selectively rejecting templates that are too close to others. In this article we explore several theoretical and practical issues in randomized placement: the size and performance of the resulting template banks; the effects of parameter-space boundaries; the use of quasi-random (self avoiding) number sequences; most important, the implementation of these algorithms in curved signal manifolds with and without the use of a Riemannian signal metric, which may be difficult to obtain. Specifically, we show how the metric can be replaced with a discrete triangulation-based representation of local geometry. We argue that the broad class of randomized placement algorithms offers a promising answer to many search problems, but that the specific choice of a scheme and its implementation details will still need to be fine-tuned separately for each problem.

  8. Mitigating the Risks of Thresholdless Metrics in Machine Learning Kendrick Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page Jr., C. David

    Mitigating the Risks of Thresholdless Metrics in Machine Learning Evaluation by Kendrick Boyd on Empirical Evaluation 24 3.1 Introduction 24 3.2

  9. Energy-Momentum Distribution of the Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou and the Levi-Civita Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif

    2007-11-17

    This paper is devoted to compute the energy-momentum densities for two exact solutions of the Einstein field equations by using the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Papapetrou and M\\"{o}ller. The spacetimes under consideration are the Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou and the Levi-Civita metrics. The Weyl metric becomes the special case of the Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou solution. The Levi-Civita metric provides constant momentum in each prescription with different energy density. The Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou metric yields all the quantities different in each prescription. These differences support the well-defined proposal developed by Cooperstock and from the energy-momentum tensor itself.

  10. Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

    2005-09-29

    This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

  11. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

  12. What's inside the cone? Numerically reconstructing the metric from observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bester, H.L.; Larena, J.; Van der Walt, P.J.; Bishop, N.T., E-mail: g07b1135@campus.ru.ac.za, E-mail: j.larena@ru.ac.za, E-mail: p.vanderwalt@ru.ac.za, E-mail: n.bishop@ru.ac.za [Department of Mathematics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa (South Africa)

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the possibility of using Gaussian process regression to smooth data on the current past null-cone for use as the input to a relativistic integration scheme. The algorithm we present is designed to reconstruct the metric of spacetime within the class of spherically symmetric dust universes, with or without a cosmological constant. Assuming that gravity is well described by General Relativity, we demonstrate how the algorithm can be employed to test the Copernican principle based on currently available observations. It is shown that currently available data is not sufficient for a conclusive result. The intrinsic noise present in realistic data presents a challenge for our smoothing algorithm and we discuss some of its limitations as well as possible extensions to it. We conclude by demonstrating how a direct determination of the cosmological constant is possible using redshift drift data.

  13. On the metric operator for quantum cylindrical waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan Varadarajan

    1999-10-12

    Every (1 polarization) cylindrical wave solution of vacuum general relativity is completely determined by a corresponding axisymmetric solution to the free scalar wave equation on an auxilliary 2+1 dimensional flat spacetime. The physical metric at radius R is determined by the energy, $\\gamma (R)$, of the scalar field in a box (in the flat spacetime) of radius R. In a recent work, among other important results, Ashtekar and Pierri have introduced a strategy to study the quantum geometry in this system, through a regularized quantum counterpart of $\\gamma (R)$. We show that this regularized object is a densely defined symmetric operator, thereby correcting an error in their proof of this result. We argue that it admits a self adjoint extension and show that the operator, unlike its classical counterpart, is not positive.

  14. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Li; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samara; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Grauzinyte, Migle; Wolverton, Christopher; Goedecker, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and allow to define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method is an useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms and high-throughput screenings.

  15. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.

  16. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  17. CORROSION OF ALUMINUM CLAD SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN THE 70 TON CASK DURING TRANSFER FROM L AREA TO H-CANYON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33 % was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 260 {degrees}C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 {degrees}C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  18. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  19. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  20. TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    C Carbon TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon Active C Pool Indicated by Light, the relationship between carbon dynamics including total organic carbon (TOC) storage, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass carbon in subsoil 4 years after rehabilitation · Microbial biomass carbon had a positive

  1. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  2. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hance, Dan; Chen, Wei; Kehmna, Mark; McDuffie, Dwayne

    2014-03-31

    This report presents system and economic analysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO{sub 2} capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. For comparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO2 as compared to $60.25/ton of CO{sub 2} when MEA is used. The aminosilicone-based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higher thermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lower vapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lower heat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages over conventional systems using MEA.

  3. Gauge theory of gravity: Electrically charged solutions within the metric--affine framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedrich W. Hehl; José Socorro

    1998-03-10

    We find a class of electrically charged exact solutions for a toy model of metric-affine gravity. Their metric is of the Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski type and their nonmetricity and torsion are represented by a triplet of covectors with dilation, shear, and spin charges.

  4. How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center.E., Program manager Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Introduction Data centers are among the most

  5. Measurement and Characterization of Link Quality Metrics in Energy Constrained Wireless Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    able to isolate key questions in energy-efficient protocol design. The scope of this paper is limited sensor networks, a good cost metric en- capsulating wireless link quality is essential to an energy-efficient metric may be and how it can be measured in an energy-efficient way. We present an experimental study

  6. How Dynamic is the Grid? Towards a Quality Metric for Grid Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakellariou, Rizos

    How Dynamic is the Grid? Towards a Quality Metric for Grid Information Systems Laurence Field CERN rizos@cs.man.ac.uk Abstract--Grid information systems play a core role in today's production Grid. Quality metrics for Grid information systems are required in order to compare different implementations

  7. Choosing Good Distance Metrics and Local Planners for Probabilistic Roadmap Methods \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, Lucia K.

    Choosing Good Distance Metrics and Local Planners for Probabilistic Roadmap Methods \\Lambda Nancy M evaluation of different distance metrics and local planners within the con­ text of probabilistic roadmap planners for use in motion planning methods, particularly probabilistic roadmap methods. Our study

  8. Deriving Coupling Metrics from Call Graphs Simon Allier, Stephane Vaucher, Bruno Dufour, and Houari Sahraoui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufour, Bruno

    widespread dynamic features: polymorphism and dynamic class loading. This paper therefore makes the following software engineering research as well as in industrial measurement programs. The existing coupling metrics loading that are difficult to capture by static analysis. Consequently, the derived metric values might

  9. Extension of the EGS theorem to metric and Palatini f(R) gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerio Faraoni

    2008-11-12

    By using the equivalence between metric and Palatini f(R) (or "modified") gravities with omega=0, -3/2 Brans-Dicke theories, it is shown that the Ehlers-Geren-Sachs theorem of general relativity is extended to modified gravity. In the case of metric f(R) gravity previously studied, this agrees with previous literature.

  10. EFW: A Cross-Layer Metric for Reliable Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Selfish Participants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nita-Rotaru, Cristina

    metrics have been designed assuming that each wireless mesh router participates honestly in the forwardingEFW: A Cross-Layer Metric for Reliable Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Selfish Participants.martignon@unibg.it Abstract--Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged as a flexible and low-cost network infrastructure

  11. Relaxational Metric Adaptation and Its Application to Semi-Supervised Clustering and Content-Based Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Dit-Yan

    Relaxational Metric Adaptation and Its Application to Semi-Supervised Clustering and Content of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong William K. Cheung Department of Computer it to improve the performance of content-based image retrieval systems through metric adaptation. Experimental

  12. Sharing and integration of cognitive neuroscience data: Metric and pattern matching across heterogeneous ERP datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Dejing

    heterogeneous ERP datasets Haishan Liu a,n , Gwen Frishkoff b , Robert Frank c , Dejing Dou a a Department in the sharing and integration of data from electrophysiological (ERP) studies of human brain function. The first challenge, ERP metric matching, is to identify correspondences among distinct summary features (``metrics

  13. Time-dependent kinetic energy metrics for Lagrangians of electromagnetic type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Sarlet; G. Prince; T. Mestdag; O. Krupkova

    2011-12-01

    We extend the results obtained in a previous paper about a class of Lagrangian systems which admit alternative kinetic energy metrics to second-order mechanical systems with explicit time-dependence. The main results are that a time-dependent alternative metric will have constant eigenvalues, and will give rise to a time-dependent coordinate transformation which partially decouples the system.

  14. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. Dirac Cone Metric and the Origin of the Spin Connections in Monolayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Yang

    2015-06-11

    We show that the modulation of the hopping amplitudes in the honeycomb lattice of the monolayer graphene uniquely defines a metric which corresponds to the shape of the Dirac cone. The spin connection of this effective metric field can be obtained from the microscopic tight-binding Hamiltonian exactly, completing the analogy between the sublattice pseudospin travelling in the monolayer graphene with ripples and strain fields, and the real spin $1/2$ fermion travelling in a curved space. The effective metric as seen by the sublattice pseudospin is different from the real space metric as defined by the two-dimensional manifold of the graphene monolayer. All relevant terms of the effective gauge field from the microscopic model is calculated exactly for a unimodular effective metric.

  16. Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2011-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.

  17. Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

    2007-03-01

    The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

  18. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  19. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  20. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), in collaboration with the nuclear industry, has been conducting research and development (R&D) activities on advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels for the last few years. The emphasis for these activities was on improving the fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization and increased power density for power upgrades, as well as collaborating with industry on fuel reliability. After the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, Conference Report 112-75, the U.S. Congress directed DOE-NE to: • Give “priority to developing enhanced fuels and cladding for light water reactors to improve safety in the event of accidents in the reactor or spent fuel pools.” • Give “special technical emphasis and funding priority…to activities aimed at the development and near-term qualification of meltdown-resistant, accident-tolerant nuclear fuels that would enhance the safety of present and future generations of light water reactors.” • Report “to the Committee, within 90 days of enactment of this act, on its plan for development of meltdown-resistant fuels leading to reactor testing and utilization by 2020.” Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-zirconium alloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, and operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The overall draft strategy for development and demonstration is comprised of three phases: Feasibility Assessment and Down-selection; Development and Qualification; and Commercialization. The activities performed during the feasibility assessment phase include laboratory scale experiments; fuel performance code updates; and analytical assessment of economic, operational, safety, fuel cycle, and environmental impacts of the new concepts. The development and qualification stage will consist of fuel fabrication and large scale irradiation and safety basis testing, leading to qualification and ultimate NRC licensing of the new fuel. The commercialization phase initiates technology transfer to industry for implementation. Attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance include improved reaction kinetics with steam and slower hydrogen generation rate, while maintaining acceptable cladding thermo-mechanical properties; fuel thermo-mechanical properties; fuel-clad interactions; and fission-product behavior. These attributes provide a qualitative guidance for parameters that must be considered in the development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. However, quantitative metrics must be developed for these attributes. To initiate the quantitative metrics development, a Light Water Reactor Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held October 10-11, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the structure and outcome of the two-day workshop. Questions regarding the content can be directed to Lori Braase, 208-526-7763, lori.braase@inl.gov.

  1. Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-15

    Co-sequestered CO2 with H2S impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state that affect mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. We have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-COMP (Water, Multiple Components, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. We use this simulator to model the co-injection of CO2 and H2S into brecciated basalt flow top. A 1000 metric ton injection of these supercritical fluids, with 99% CO2 and 1% H2S, is sequestered rapidly by solubility and mineral trapping. CO2 is trapped mainly as calcite within a few decades and H2S is trapped as pyrite within several years.

  2. Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, J.; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a growing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a pyrolysis-gasification reactor system was designed and assembled. Four carbon samples were produced from a {minus}20+100 mesh size fraction of an Illinois Basin Coal (IBC-106) using a three-step process. The three steps were: coal oxidation in air at 250 C, oxicoal (oxidized coal) devolatilization in nitrogen at 425 C and char gasification in 50% steam-50% nitrogen at 860 C. These initial tests were designed to evaluate the effects of pre-oxidation on the surface properties of carbon products, and to determine optimum reaction time and process conditions to produce an activated carbon with high surface area. Nitrogen-BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 700--800 m{sup 2}/g. Work is in progress to further optimize reaction conditions in order to produce carbons with higher surface areas. A few screening tests were made with a pressurized thermogravimetric (PTGA) to evaluate the suitability of this instrument for obtaining methane adsorption isotherms at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from one to 30 atmospheres. The preliminary results indicate that PTGA can be used for both the adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies.

  3. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2009-09-01

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  4. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  5. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  6. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  8. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  10. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  12. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  13. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  16. On the Computation of an Upper Bound on the Gap Metric for a Class of Nonlinear Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    1 On the Computation of an Upper Bound on the Gap Metric for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Vahid method and a previous method that is based on the direct computation. Index Terms-- Nonlinear systems in the gap metric. The computation of the gap metric for LTI system was developed by T. T. Georgiou [4

  17. A Metric Taxonomy for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Vehicles M.L. Cummings, Patricia Pina, Jacob W. Crandall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    1 A Metric Taxonomy for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Vehicles M.L. Cummings, Patricia Pina-system performance as well. To this end, this paper will describe a supervisory control metric taxonomy this taxonomy can be used to identify a robust set of metrics. I. Introduction The DoD's strategic roadmap

  18. On spherically symmetric metric satisfying the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Mei

    2008-02-28

    Generally speaking, there is a negative kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity; On the other hand, the negative kinetic energy term can be vanished by designating a special coordinate system. For general spherically symmetric metric, the question that seeking special coordinate system that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition is referred to solving a linear first-order partial differential equation. And then, we present a metric corresponding to the Reissner-Nordstrom solution that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition. Finally, we discuss simply the case of the Tolman metric.

  19. The behaviour of rods and clocks in general relativity, and the meaning of the metric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey R Brown

    2009-11-23

    The notion that the metric field in general relativity can be understood as a property of space-time rests on a feature of the theory sometimes called universal coupling -- the claim that rods and clocks "measure" the metric in a way that is independent of their constitution. It is pointed out that this feature is not strictly a consequence of the central dynamical tenets of the theory, and argued that the metric field would better be regarded as a (possibly emergent) field in space-time, rather than as the very fabric of space-time itself.

  20. Harmonicity of unit vector fields with respect to a class of Riemannian metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Baghban; E. Abedi

    2014-12-07

    The isotropic almost complex structures induce a Riemannian metric $g_{\\delta,\\sigma}$ on TM, which are the generalized type of Sasakian metric. In this paper, the Levi-Civita connection of $g_{\\delta,\\sigma}$ is calculated and the harmonicity of unit vector fields from $(M, g)$ to $(S(M), i*g_{\\delta,0})$ is investigated, where $i*g_{\\delta,0}$ is a particular type of induced metric $i*g_{\\delta,\\sigma}$. Finally, an important example is presented which satisfies in main theorem of the paper.

  1. A space-time characterization of the Kerr-Newman metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willie Wai-Yeung Wong

    2009-01-30

    In the present paper, the characterization of the Kerr metric found by Marc Mars is extended to the Kerr-Newman family. A simultaneous alignment of the Maxwell field, the Ernst two-form of the pseudo-stationary Killing vector field, and the Weyl curvature of the metric is shown to imply that the space-time is locally isometric to domains in the Kerr-Newman metric. The paper also presents an extension of Ionescu and Klainerman's null tetrad formalism to explicitly include Ricci curvature terms.

  2. Renormalization group flow and parallel transport with non-metric compatible connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian P. Dolan; Alex Lewis

    1999-04-16

    A family of connections on the space of couplings for a renormalizable field theory is defined. The connections are obtained from a Levi-Civita connection, for a metric which is a generalisation of the Zamolodchikov metric in two dimensions, by adding a family of tensors which are solutions of the renormalization group equation for the operator product expansion co-efficients. The connections are torsion free, but not metric compatible in general. The renormalization group flows of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions and the O(N)-model in three dimensions, in the large $N$ limit, are analysed in terms of parallel transport under these connections.

  3. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  4. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  6. SECURITY METRICS: MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SECURITY TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SECURITY METRICS: MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SECURITY TECHNOLOGY Shirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division Information Technology Laboratory National and to protect their systems and information from security threats and risks. There have been many past efforts

  7. Metrics for Evaluating Survivability in Dynamic Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    Survivability engineering is critical for minimizing the impact of disturbances to the operation of space systems. To improve the evaluation of survivability during conceptual design, metrics are proposed for the assessment ...

  8. Effective Levi-Civita Dilaton theory from Metric Affine Dilaton Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Scipioni

    1999-05-25

    We show how a Metric Affine theory of Dilaton gravity can be reduced to an effective Riemannian Dilaton gravity model. A simple generalization of the Obukhov-Tucker-Wang theorem to Dilaton gravity is then presented.

  9. Self-dual metrics on toric 4-manifolds: extending the Joyce construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Hugh Norman

    2009-01-01

    Toric geometry studies manifolds M2n acted on effectively by a torus of half their dimension, Tn. Joyce shows that for such a 4-manifold sufficient conditions for a conformal class of metrics on the free part of the ...

  10. Evaluation of transient agility metrics through unmanned simulation of the X-31 post-stall aircraft 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Shiloh Douglas

    1996-01-01

    for each axis of agility tests, and the performance improvements due to thrust vectoring are highlighted. The power loss rate and onset rate axial agility metrics are acceptable descriptors of an aircraft's ability to rapidly transition between energy...

  11. Optimization of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveform metrics to support vegetation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefsky, Michael

    Optimization of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveform metrics to support vegetation GLAS Optimization Remote sensing Vegetation structure The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) has optimized a noise coefficient which could be constant or vary according to observation period or noise

  12. SPECIFICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IFC BASED PERFORMANCE METRICS TO SUPPORT BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilising the sets ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEMS Elmer Morrissey1 & 2 , James O'Donnell1 & 2 , Marcus Keane1 and Vladimir

  13. Automated perfusion-weighted MRI metrics via localized arterial input functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Cory, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes and validates a new method for calculating perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) metrics, a non-invasive technique for calculating cerebral blood flow by tracking a bolus of contrast agent. Past methods to do ...

  14. Risk Measures Constituting Risk Metrics for Decision Making in the Chemical Process Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prem, Katherine

    2012-02-14

    monetization. Predicting incidents as leading metrics is pivotal to improving plant processes and, for individual and societal safety in the vicinity of the plant (portfolio). From this study it can be concluded that the comprehensive judgments of all the risks...

  15. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP; Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.;...

  16. FY 2014 Q3 RCA CAP Performance Metrics Report 2014-09-05.xlsx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    no later than CD-3. ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY12-FY14: 52 completions through 3rd Qtr. CD-4: Critical Decision-4, Approve Start of OperationsProject...

  17. Gravitational Analog of Faraday's Law via Torsion and a Metric with an Antisymmetric Part

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip D. Mannheim; J. J. Poveromo

    2014-08-25

    In this paper we show that in the presence of torsion and a metric with an antisymmetric part one can construct a gravitational analog of Faraday's law of electromagnetism.

  18. Sing a new song: English and Scottish metrical psalmody from 1549?1640 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duguid, Timothy Charles

    2011-11-23

    The Book of Psalms has occupied a privileged place in Christianity from its earliest years, but it was not until the sixteenth century that metrical versifications of the Psalms became popular. Because of the notable ...

  19. Asymptotic behavior of complete Ricci-flat metrics on open manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santoro, Bianca

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe the asymptotic behavior of complete Ricci-flat Kihler metrics on open manifolds that can be compactified by adding a smooth, ample divisor. This result provides an answer to a question addressed ...

  20. Parameter-space metric for all-sky semicoherent searches for gravitational-wave pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wette, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of all-sky searches for gravitational-wave pulsars is primarily limited by the finite availability of computing resources. Semicoherent searches are a widely-used method of maximizing sensitivity to gravitational-wave pulsars at fixed computing cost: the data from a gravitational-wave detector are partitioned into a number of segments, each segment is coherently analyzed, and the analysis results from each segment are summed together. The generation of template banks for the coherent analysis of each segment, and for the summation, requires knowledge of the metrics associated with the coherent and semicoherent parameter spaces respectively. We present a useful approximation to the semicoherent parameter-space metric, analogous to that presented in Wette and Prix [Phys. Rev. D 88, 123005 (2013)] for the coherent metric. The new semicoherent metric is compared to previous work in Pletsch [Phys. Rev. D 82, 042002 (2010)], and Brady and Creighton [Phys. Rev. D 61, 082001 (2000)]. We find that semi...