National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metric conversion factors

  1. Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrics Metrics Los Alamos expands its innovation network by engaging in sponsored research and licensing across technical disciplines. These agreements are the basis of a working relationship with industry and other research institutions and highlight the diversity of our collaborations. Los Alamos has a remarkable 70-year legacy of creating entirely new technologies that have revolutionized the country's understanding of science and engineering. Collaborations Data from Fiscal Year 2014. FY14

  2. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  3. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. performance metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance metrics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  5. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  6. STAR METRICS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy continues to define Phase II of the STAR METRICS program, a collaborative initiative to track Research and Development expenditures and their outcomes. Visit the STAR METRICS website for...

  7. Ex Parte Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion Factor Rulemaking |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion Factor Rulemaking Ex Parte Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion Factor Rulemaking On December 1, 2015, AHRI staff and water heater manufacturer representatives met with representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) to discuss the enforcement policy statement issued on October 2, 2015, regarding consumer water heaters and certain commercial water heating equipment, (Enforcement Guidance),1 as well as the proposed

  8. Resilience Metrics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Quadrennial Energy Review Technical Workshop on Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure April 28, 2014 Infrastructure Assurance Center ...

  9. Metric Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y 14 14 Value Metrics - Work to date Reliability Outage duration and frequency Momentary outages Power Quality measures Security Ratio of distributed ...

  10. Metric Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y Smart Grid Metrics Monitoring our Progress Smart Grid Implementation Workshop Joe Miller - Modern Grid Team June 19, 2008 1 Conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 2 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y Many are working on the Smart Grid FERC DOE-OE Grid 2030 GridWise Alliance EEI NERC (FM) DOE/NETL Modern Grid

  11. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors

  12. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jae Eun

    2014-10-15

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  13. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  14. ARM - 2008 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Performance Metrics User Meetings Past ARM Science Team ...

  15. ARM - 2006 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Performance Metrics User Meetings Past ARM Science Team ...

  16. ARM - 2007 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Performance Metrics User Meetings Past ARM Science Team ...

  17. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  18. NIF Target Shot Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    target shot metrics NIF Target Shot Metrics Exp Cap - Experimental Capability Natl Sec Appl - National Security Applications DS - Discovery Science ICF - Inertial Confinement Fusion HED - High Energy Density For internal LLNL firewall viewing - if the page is blank, please open www.google.com to flush out BCB

  19. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Macknick, J.; Mann, M.; Pless, J.; Munoz, D.

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  20. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  1. Metric Construction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Metric Construction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Metric Construction Place: Boston, MA Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test...

  2. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  3. Appendix G: Conversion factors

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 Table G1. Heat contents Fuel Units Approximate heat content Coal 1 Production ... million Btu per short ton 20.142 Consumption...

  4. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  5. Impact of switching to the ICRP-74 neutron flux-to-dose equivalent rate conversion factors at the Sandia National Laboratory Building 818 Neutron Source Range.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2009-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) maintains a neutron calibration facility which supports the calibration, maintenance, and repair of Radiation Protection Instruments. The SNL neutron reference fields are calibrated using the following methodology: Fluence rate is initially established by calculation using the NIST traceable source emission rate (decay corrected). Correction factors for the effects of room return or scatter, and source anisotropy are then developed by using a suitable radiation transport code to model the geometry of the facility. The conventionally true neutron dose rates are then determined using the appropriate fluence-todose equivalent conversion coefficients at several reference positions. This report describes the impact on calculated neutron dose rates of switching from NCRP-38 to CRP-74 neutron flux-todose equivalent rate conversion factors. This switch is driven by recent changes to dosimetry requirements addressed in 10 CFR 835 (Occupational Radiation Protection).

  6. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  7. Ames Laboratory Metrics | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrics Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/2016 File (public): PDF icon ameslab_metrics_01-14-16

  8. Factors affecting the behavior of bentonite fluids and their in-situ conversion into cement. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Malekahmadi, F.; Lee, L.J.

    1984-11-01

    To develop a basic understanding of the effects of common salts, hydroxides, and other mud additives on the rheology and other functions of bentonite fluids, bentonite fluids containing these additives were autoclaved at the temperature range 70 to 600/sup 0/F, and under a pressure of 17,000 psi. Subsequently, the high-temperature rheology of the fluids was measured with a FANN 50C viscometer. Other fluid properties such as plastic viscosity, gel strength, yield point, pH, CEC, and fluid losses were also determined before and after autoclaving of the fluids. The high-temperature reactions occurring in these fluids were studied with x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Another costly problem in drilling technology is related to the poor cement bonding of the casing to the formation. As a solution to this troublesome situation, the in-situ conversion of bentonite fluids into cement has been studied. This conversion has been successfully achieved by the addition of lime to bentonite fluids at and above 300/sup 0/F.

  9. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  10. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  11. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  12. List of SEP Reporting Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE State Energy Program List of Reporting Metrics, which was produced by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program for SEP and the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) programs.

  13. Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Common Carbon Metric Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Common Carbon Metric AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment Programme, World...

  14. Performance Metrics Tiers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Metrics Tiers Performance Metrics Tiers The performance metrics defined by the Commercial Buildings Integration Program offer different tiers of information to address the needs of various users. On this page you will find information about the various goals users are trying to achieve by using performance metrics and the tiers of metrics. Goals in Measuring Performance Many individuals and groups are involved with a building over its lifetime, and all have different interests in and

  15. Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin

    2012-05-08

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  16. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics Preprint E. Ibanez and M. Milligan National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at the 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Berlin, Germany November 11-13, 2014 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5D00-62847 September 2014 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a

  17. Thermochemical Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  18. Buildings Performance Metrics Terminology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Metrics Terminology Buildings Performance Metrics Terminology This document provides the terms and definitions used in the Department of Energys Performance Metrics Research Project. metrics_terminology_20090203.pdf (152.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Procuring Architectural and Engineering Services for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Transmittal Letter for the Statewide Benchmarking Process Evaluation Guide for Benchmarking Residential Energy Efficiency Program

  19. EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10-07B/SEP 10-006A Attachment 1: Process Metrics List Metric Area Metric Primary or Optional Metric Item(s) to Report On 1. Building Retrofits 1a. Buildings retrofitted, by sector Number of buildings retrofitted Square footage of buildings retrofitted 1b. Energy management systems installed, by sector Number of energy management systems installed Square footage of buildings under management 1c. Building roofs retrofitted, by sector Number of building roofs retrofitted Square footage of building

  20. Definition of GPRA08 benefits metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Background information for the FY 2007 GPRA methodology review on the definitions of GPRA08 benefits metrics.

  1. Module 6- Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices.

  2. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  3. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-09-01

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  4. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  5. Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing Authors: Backhaus, Scott N. 1 ; Chertkov, Michael 1 ; Bent, Russell Whitford 1 ; Bienstock, Daniel 2...

  6. Module 6 - Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices. In addition, this module will outline forecasting tools such as ...

  7. Western Resource Adequacy: Challenges - Approaches - Metrics...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) (Revised) Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United ...

  8. Microsoft Word - QER Resilience Metrics - Technical Workshp ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure Offices of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) and Energy Policy and Systems ...

  9. Microsoft Word - QER Resilience Metrics - Technical Workshp ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quadrennial Energy Review Technical Workshop on Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure April, 29th, 2014 777 North Capitol St NE Ste 300, ...

  10. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  11. Sheet1 Water Availability Metric (Acre-Feet/Yr) Water Cost Metric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sheet1 Water Availability Metric (Acre-FeetYr) Water Cost Metric (Acre-Foot) Current Water Use (Acre-FeetYr) Projected Use in 2030 (Acre-FeetYr) HUC8 STATE BASIN SUBBASIN ...

  12. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  13. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  14. Description of the Sandia National Laboratories science, technology & engineering metrics process.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Gretchen B.; Watkins, Randall D.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Burns, Alan Richard; Oelschlaeger, Peter

    2010-04-01

    There has been a concerted effort since 2007 to establish a dashboard of metrics for the Science, Technology, and Engineering (ST&E) work at Sandia National Laboratories. These metrics are to provide a self assessment mechanism for the ST&E Strategic Management Unit (SMU) to complement external expert review and advice and various internal self assessment processes. The data and analysis will help ST&E Managers plan, implement, and track strategies and work in order to support the critical success factors of nurturing core science and enabling laboratory missions. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide a guide for those who want to understand the ST&E SMU metrics process. This report provides an overview of why the ST&E SMU wants a dashboard of metrics, some background on metrics for ST&E programs from existing literature and past Sandia metrics efforts, a summary of work completed to date, specifics on the portfolio of metrics that have been chosen and the implementation process that has been followed, and plans for the coming year to improve the ST&E SMU metrics process.

  15. power conversion efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power conversion efficiency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar ...

  16. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest.

  17. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  18. Technical Workshop: Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    List (55.27 KB) Sandia Report: Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (14.49 MB) Sandia ...

  19. Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. Abstract not provided. Authors: Knupp, Patrick Publication ...

  20. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: ...

  1. FY 2014 Q3 Metric Summary | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY 2014 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2015 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and ...

  2. Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric Ton Milestone Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric Ton Milestone June 30, 2016 - ...

  3. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

  4. Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics Quality Program Criteria Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics (128.47 KB) More Documents & Publications EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics CPMS Tables QA Corporate Board Meeting - July 2008

  5. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation proposes a suite of metrics for evaluating the performance of solar power forecasting.

  6. Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Potential Impacts of Uranium Transfers on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries May 1, 2015 ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The Department of Energy ("Department" or "DOE") plans to transfer the equivalent of up to 2,100 metric tons ("MTU") of natural uranium per year (with a higher total for calendar year 2015, mainly because of transfers already executed or under way before today's determination). These transfers would include 1,600

  7. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more » such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  8. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  9. Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Biomass Program Introduction ... has renewed the urgency for developing sustainable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. ...

  10. EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list Reporting Guidance Process Metric List eecbg_10_07b_sep__10_006a_attachment1_process_metric_list.pdf (93.56 KB) More Documents & Publications EECBG 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List EECBG Program Notice 10-07A DOE Recovery Act Reporting Requirements for the State Energy Program

  11. Performance Metrics Research Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    NREL began work for DOE on this project to standardize the measurement and characterization of building energy performance. NREL's primary research objectives were to determine which performance metrics have greatest value for determining energy performance and to develop standard definitions and methods of measuring and reporting that performance.

  12. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  13. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  14. Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Wavelength Conversion Materials HomeEnergy ResearchEFRCsSolid-State Lighting Science ...

  15. Algal Polyculture Conversion & Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... + HTL processing; * Preliminary GIS land and impaired water source screening ... of LCA and refinement of TEA and GIS feasibility. - Algal Polyculture Conversion ...

  16. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different

  17. Widget:CrazyEggMetrics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CrazyEggMetrics Jump to: navigation, search This widget runs javascript code for the Crazy Egg user experience metrics. This should not be on all pages, but on select pages...

  18. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One Million Metric Tons of Carbon Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric Tons of Carbon January 8, 2015 - 11:18am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 ...

  19. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  20. Financial Metrics Data Collection Protocol, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Wang, Na

    2010-04-30

    Brief description of data collection process and plan that will be used to collect financial metrics associated with sustainable design.

  1. Nonmaximality of known extremal metrics on torus and Klein bottle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpukhin, M A

    2013-12-31

    The El Soufi-Ilias theorem establishes a connection between minimal submanifolds of spheres and extremal metrics for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Recently, this connection was used to provide several explicit examples of extremal metrics. We investigate the properties of these metrics and prove that none of them is maximal. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  2. Annex A Metrics for the Smart Grid System Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annex A Metrics for the Smart Grid System Report A.iii Table of Contents Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... A.1 Metric #1: The Fraction of Customers and Total Load Served by Real-Time Pricing, Critical Peak Pricing, and Time-of-Use Pricing ........................................................................................ A.2 Metric #2: Real-Time System Operations Data

  3. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  4. Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Biochemical Conversion This area focuses on the research, development and demonstration of biological processes that convert biomass to biofuels, chemicals, and power. Biochemical processes also complement thermochemical conversion by providing residual materials for further processing. Biochemical conversion will advance in the future by enhancing fuel yields in integrated biorefineries which combine conversion types with heat and power efficiencies to produce fuel and products.

  5. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  6. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  7. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    3 Annual Metrics Report Caley Johnson and Mark Singer National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-62838 October 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

  8. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    4 Annual Metrics Report Caley Johnson and Mark Singer National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-65265 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

  9. Metric redefinitions in Einstein-Aether theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Brendan Z.

    2005-08-15

    'Einstein-Aether' theory, in which gravity couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field, provides a means for studying Lorentz violation in a generally covariant setting. Demonstrated here is the effect of a redefinition of the metric and 'aether' fields in terms of the original fields and two free parameters. The net effect is a change of the coupling constants appearing in the action. Using such a redefinition, one of the coupling constants can be set to zero, simplifying studies of solutions of the theory.

  10. Solid Fuels Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Fuels Conversion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  11. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  12. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Purdue ... on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Conversion Technologies ...

  13. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading PNNL ... Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - ...

  14. Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (June 2008) | Department of Energy Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid (June 2008) Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid (June 2008) Results of the breakout session discussions at the Smart Grid Implementation Workshop, June 19-20, 2008 Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid (308.23 KB) More Documents & Publications 5th Annual CHP Roadmap Workshop Breakout Group Results, September 2004

  15. Measuring energy efficiency: Opportunities from standardization and common metrics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Measuring energy efficiency: Opportunities from standardization and common metrics For 2016 EIA Energy Conference July 11, 2016 | Washington, D.C. By Stacy Angel, Energy Information Portfolio Analyst Carol White, Senior Energy Efficiency Analyst How is the importance of measuring energy efficiency changing? * The number of energy efficiency policies and programs is growing. * Common metrics help measure progress towards multiple objectives. * Clear metrics help consumers make informed energy

  16. Technical Workshop: Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Infrastructure | Department of Energy Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure Technical Workshop: Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure During this workshop, EPSA invited technical experts from industry, national laboratories, academia, and NGOs to discuss the state of play of and need for resilience metrics and how they vary by natural gas, liquid fuels and electric grid infrastructures. Issues important to

  17. Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis Process | Department of Energy the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process August 2009 Presenter: Robert Hinds, Savannah River Remediation, LLC Track 9-12 Topics Covered: Implementing CPMS for QA Corporate QA Performance Metrics Contractor Performance Analysis Contractor Assessment Programs Assessment Program Structure CPMS Integration with P/A Process Validating

  18. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  19. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Caley; Singer, Mark

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  20. Metrics correlation and analysis service (MCAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Hesselroth, Ted; Mhashilkar, Parag; Levshina, Tanya; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of Grid workflow activities and their associated software stacks inevitably involves multiple organizations, ownership, and deployment domains. In this setting, important and common tasks such as the correlation and display of metrics and debugging information (fundamental ingredients of troubleshooting) are challenged by the informational entropy inherent to independently maintained and operated software components. Because such an information 'pond' is disorganized, it a difficult environment for business intelligence analysis i.e. troubleshooting, incident investigation and trend spotting. The mission of the MCAS project is to deliver a software solution to help with adaptation, retrieval, correlation, and display of workflow-driven data and of type-agnostic events, generated by disjoint middleware.

  1. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Forecasting Metrics, the DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Forecasting Metrics, the DOE ... from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable ... to liquids technology, advantages of using natural gas, ...

  2. Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process ... Assessment Program Structure CPMS Integration with PA Process Validating The Process ...

  3. Exploration Cost and Time Metric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Language: English Exploration Cost and Time Metric Screenshot References: Conference Paper1...

  4. Wave Energy Converter System Requirements and Performance Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department and Wave Energy Scotland are holding a joint workshop on wave energy converter (WEC) system requirements and performance metrics on Friday, February 26.

  5. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in ...

  6. Office of HC Strategy Budget and Performance Metrics (HC-50)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Human Capital Strategy, Budget, and Performance Metrics provides strategic direction and advice to its stakeholders through the integration of budget analysis, workforce projections,...

  7. EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    QA Corporate Board Meeting - November 2008 Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics FY 2015 SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE (SES) AND SENIOR PROFESSIONAL (SP) PERFORMANCE ...

  8. Performance Metrics and Budget Division (HC-51) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the Department of Energy's human capital initiatives and functions through the strategic integration of corporate human capital performance metrics and the budget ...

  9. Energy Department Sponsored Project Captures One Millionth Metric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... | Photo courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals Inc. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores more than One Million Metric Tons of CO2 Carbon Pollution Being Captured, ...

  10. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  11. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  12. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  13. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  15. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  16. Metrics for Evaluating Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    With numerous options for the future of natural gas, how do we know we're going down the right path? How do we designate a metric to measure and demonstrate change and progress, and how does that metric incorporate all stakeholders and scenarios?

  17. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  18. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs ({Sigma}VOC{sub i})). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m{sup {minus}3}) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  19. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  20. Self-benchmarking Guide for Cleanrooms: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in laboratory buildings. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing laboratory facilities - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, laboratory planners and designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior research supported by the national Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the Labs21 benchmarking database and technical guides. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including laboratory designers and energy managers.

  1. Self-benchmarking Guide for Laboratory Buildings: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in laboratory buildings. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing laboratory facilities - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, laboratory planners and designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior research supported by the national Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the Labs21 benchmarking database and technical guides. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including laboratory designers and energy managers.

  2. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Ganguly, Srirupa; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in data centers. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing data centers - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, data center designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior data center benchmarking studies supported by the California Energy Commission. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the LBNL data center benchmarking database that was developed from these studies. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including facility designers and energy managers. This guide also builds on recent research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Save Energy Now program.

  3. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc Place: Frederick, Maryland Sector: Biomass Product: Atlantic Biomass Conversions is...

  6. Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop DOE introduction slides to the Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop webinar. ctabwebinardoe.pdf (1.47 ...

  7. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool ...

  8. Microsoft Word - followup to Fin Risk Metrics workshop.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 21, 2008 PurposeSubject: Follow-up to Financial Risk Metrics Workshop Page 1 of 1 Differences in Cash Flow between Net Billing and Direct Pay for Energy Northwest Attached...

  9. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  10. A Graph Analytic Metric for Mitigating Advanced Persistent Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John R.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-06-04

    This paper introduces a novel graph analytic metric that can be used to measure the potential vulnerability of a cyber network to specific types of attacks that use lateral movement and privilege escalation such as the well known Pass The Hash, (PTH). The metric is computed from an oriented subgraph of the underlying cyber network induced by selecting only those edges for which a given property holds between the two vertices of the edge. The metric with respect to a select node on the subgraph is defined as the likelihood that the select node is reachable from another arbitrary node in the graph. This metric can be calculated dynamically from the authorization and auditing layers during the network security authorization phase and will potentially enable predictive deterrence against attacks such as PTH.

  11. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  12. Towards Efficient Supercomputing: Searching for the Right Efficiency Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of supercomputing has traditionally been in the execution time. In early 2000 s, the concept of total cost of ownership was re-introduced, with the introduction of efficiency measure to include aspects such as energy and space. Yet the supercomputing community has never agreed upon a metric that can cover these aspects altogether and also provide a fair basis for comparison. This paper exam- ines the metrics that have been proposed in the past decade, and proposes a vector-valued metric for efficient supercom- puting. Using this metric, the paper presents a study of where the supercomputing industry has been and how it stands today with respect to efficient supercomputing.

  13. ARM - Evaluation Product - Barrow Radiation Data (2009 metric)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsBarrow Radiation Data (2009 metric) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Barrow Radiation Data (2009 metric) Observations from a suite of radiometers including Precision Spectral Pyranometers (PSPs), Precision Infrared Radiometers (PIRs), and a Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) are

  14. New IEC Specifications Help Define Wind Plant Performance Reporting Metrics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy IEC Specifications Help Define Wind Plant Performance Reporting Metrics New IEC Specifications Help Define Wind Plant Performance Reporting Metrics January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program and Sandia National Laboratories have been working with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Committee on wind turbine availability to

  15. Weatherization Assistance Program Goals and Metrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Goals and Metrics Weatherization Assistance Program Goals and Metrics UT - Bettelle - Oak Ridge National Laboratory Logo The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) regularly reviews the work of states and grant recipients for effectiveness and for meeting program goals. DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides technical support to the program and conducts the evaluations. Goals The overall goal of WAP is to reduce the burden of energy prices on the

  16. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) | Department of Energy Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) This report has been written for the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability to support the Office of

  17. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  18. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  19. Enclosure - FY 2015 Q4 Metrics Report 2015-11-02.xlsx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fourth Quarter Overall Root Cause Analysis (RCA)Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Performance Metrics No. ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target Comment No. 2 3 ...

  20. Microsoft Word - 2014-5-27 RCA Qtr 2 Metrics Attachment_R1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Second Quarter Overall Root Cause Analysis (RCA)Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Performance Metrics 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2014 Target FY 2014 Projected ...

  1. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    Here, the catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspondmore » to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies

  2. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); LaPointe, M.A. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ganguly, A. K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  4. Conversion Factsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Factsheet Conversion Factsheet To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. conversion_factsheet.pdf (286.98 KB) More Documents & Publications 2013 Peer Review Presnentations-Plenaries Thermochemical

  5. Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office conducts research on heat-, pressure-, and catalyst-based conversion of various biomass feedstocks to biofuels, chemicals, and power. These ...

  6. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon

    2011-08-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R&D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  7. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  8. PDB to AMPL Conversion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-01

    PDB to AMPL Conversion was written to convert protein data base files to AMPL files. The protein data bases on the internet contain a wealth of information about the structue and makeup of proteins. Each file contains information derived by one or more experiments and contains information on how the experiment waw performed, the amino acid building blocks of each chain, and often the three-dimensional structure of the protein extracted from the experiments. The waymore » a protein folds determines much about its function. Thus, studying the three-dimensional structure of the protein is of great interest. Analysing the contact maps is one way to examine the structure. A contact map is a graph which has a linear back bone of amino acids for nodes (i.e., adjacent amino acids are always connected) and vertices between non-adjacent nodes if they are close enough to be considered in contact. If the graphs are similar then the folds of the protein and their function should also be similar. This software extracts the contact maps from a protein data base file and puts in into AMPL data format. This format is designed for use in AMPL, a programming language for simplifying linear programming formulations.« less

  9. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H. F.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Forecasting solar energy generation is a challenging task due to the variety of solar power systems and weather regimes encountered. Forecast inaccuracies can result in substantial economic losses and power system reliability issues. This paper presents a suite of generally applicable and value-based metrics for solar forecasting for a comprehensive set of scenarios (i.e., different time horizons, geographic locations, applications, etc.). In addition, a comprehensive framework is developed to analyze the sensitivity of the proposed metrics to three types of solar forecasting improvements using a design of experiments methodology, in conjunction with response surface and sensitivity analysis methods. The results show that the developed metrics can efficiently evaluate the quality of solar forecasts, and assess the economic and reliability impact of improved solar forecasting.

  10. Non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-11-04

    In the context of massive gravity, bi-gravity and multi-gravity non-minimal matter couplings via a specific composite effective metric were investigated recently. Even if these couplings generically reintroduce the Boulware-Deser ghost, this composite metric is unique in the sense that the ghost reemerges only beyond the decoupling limit and the matter quantum loop corrections do not detune the potential interactions. We consider non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric to matter fields for a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions. We first explore these couplings in the mini-superspace and investigate in which scenario the ghost remains absent. We further study these non-minimal derivative couplings in the decoupling-limit of the theory and show that the equation of motion for the helicity-0 mode remains second order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications for cosmology.

  11. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  12. ARM - Evaluation Product - AERI Data Quality Metric (AERI-QC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAERI Data Quality Metric (AERI-QC) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : AERI Data Quality Metric (AERI-QC) Ancillary NetCDF file to be used with the regular AERI data files to document times when the data may not be correct. Data Details Contact David Turner National Oceanic and

  13. Calabi-Yau metrics for quotients and complete intersections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Braun, Volker; Brelidze, Tamaz; Douglas, Michael R.; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2008-05-22

    We extend previous computations of Calabi-Yau metrics on projective hypersurfaces to free quotients, complete intersections, and free quotients of complete intersections. In particular, we construct these metrics on generic quintics, four-generation quotients of the quintic, Schoen Calabi-Yau complete intersections and the quotient of a Schoen manifold with Z₃ x Z₃ fundamental group that was previously used to construct a heterotic standard model. Various numerical investigations into the dependence of Donaldson's algorithm on the integration scheme, as well as on the Kähler and complex structure moduli, are also performed.

  14. Culture, and a Metrics Methodology for Biological Countermeasure Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Mary J.

    2007-03-15

    Outcome Metrics Methodology defines a way to evaluate outcome metrics associated with scenario analyses related to biological countermeasures. Previous work developed a schema to allow evaluation of common elements of impacts across a wide range of potential threats and scenarios. Classes of metrics were identified that could be used by decision makers to differentiate the common bases among disparate scenarios. Typical impact metrics used in risk calculations include the anticipated number of deaths, casualties, and the direct economic costs should a given event occur. There are less obvious metrics that are often as important and require more intensive initial work to be incorporated. This study defines a methodology for quantifying, evaluating, and ranking metrics other than direct health and economic impacts. As has been observed with the consequences of Hurricane Katrina, impacts to the culture of specific sectors of society are less obvious on an immediate basis but equally important over the ensuing and long term. Culture is used as the example class of metrics within which • requirements for a methodology are explored • likely methodologies are examined • underlying assumptions for the respective methodologies are discussed • the basis for recommending a specific methodology is demonstrated. Culture, as a class of metrics, is shown to consist of political, sociological, and psychological elements that are highly valued by decision makers. In addition, cultural practices, dimensions, and kinds of knowledge offer complementary sets of information that contribute to the context within which experts can provide input. The quantification and evaluation of sociopolitical, socio-economic, and sociotechnical impacts depend predominantly on subjective, expert judgment. Epidemiological data is limited, resulting in samples with statistical limits. Dose response assessments and curves depend on the quality of data and its relevance to human modes of exposure

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversions Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversion Regulations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations on

  17. Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived

  18. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain; Fisher, Jeremy; Less, Brennan

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  19. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  20. EERE Portfolio. Primary Benefits Metrics for FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This collection of data tables shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for both the entire EERE portfolio of renewable energy technologies as well as the individual technologies. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  1. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  2. EPA Redesigns Conversion Certification Policies

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    EPA Redesigns Conversion Certification Policies At a recent meeting held in Washington, DC, officials from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) opened dialogue about proposed changes to its emission certification policies that affect alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). "We are trying to accommo- date the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) and Executive Order requirements while trying to change enforce- ment policies and guidance with respect to conversions," said Rich Ackerman of EPA's

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle

  4. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  5. Conversation with Paul Brown | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conversation with Paul Brown Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Personal Communication: Conversation with Paul Brown Author Paul Brown Recipient...

  6. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make ...

  7. Role of acid catalysis in dimethyl ether conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Acidity plays an important role in the conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrocarbons and oxygenates. In the conversion to hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst, Broensted acidity is the main contributor to the first hydrocarbon formed. Here, acidity is also an important factor in determining olefin, paraffin, and aromatic content in the final product distribution. Catalyst life has also been found to be related to acidity content in zeolites. DME conversion to oxygenates is especially dependent on high acidity catalysts. Superacids like BF{sub 3}, HF-BF{sub 3}, and CF{sub 3}COOH have been used in the past for conversion of DME in carbonylation reactions to form methyl acetate and acetic acid at high pressures. Recently, heteropoly acids and their corresponding metal substituted salts have been used to convert DME to industrially important petrochemicals resulting in shorter reaction times and without the use of harsh operating conditions.

  8. Frequency up-conversion of 10. 6-micron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, M.; Han, K.

    1990-11-07

    The paper studies the frequency up-conversion process of a 10.6 micron laser in an AgGaS{sub 2} nonlinear crystal, and presents the results of calculating the phase matching angle, the phase matching acceptance angle, and the effective bandwidth of 10.6 micron light. Thus, the frequency conversion of 10.6 micron light to 0.967 micron light is realized. In the nonfocussing mode, the maximum power conversion efficiency is greater than 7%. The eta(theta) and eta(Ip) curves were measured; the optimal phase matching angle is 38 deg 50 min for type II. Multiple factors that affect conversion efficiency are analyzed; the major noise sources of the upconversion system of an infrared detector are also analyzed.

  9. On the existence of certain axisymmetric interior metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angulo Santacruz, C.; Batic, D.; Nowakowski, M.

    2010-08-15

    One of the effects of noncommutative coordinate operators is that the delta function connected to the quantum mechanical amplitude between states sharp to the position operator gets smeared by a Gaussian distribution. Although this is not the full account of the effects of noncommutativity, this effect is, in particular, important as it removes the point singularities of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem solutions. In this context, it seems to be of some importance to probe also into ringlike singularities which appear in the Kerr case. In particular, starting with an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor and a general axisymmetric ansatz of the metric together with an arbitrary mass distribution (e.g., Gaussian), we derive the full set of Einstein equations that the noncommutative geometry inspired Kerr solution should satisfy. Using these equations we prove two theorems regarding the existence of certain Kerr metrics inspired by noncommutative geometry.

  10. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front...

  11. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile ...

  12. Microsoft Word - 2014-1-1 RCA Qtr 1 Metrics Attachment_R1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2014 Target FY 2014 Projected FY 2014 ... ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2014 Target FY 2014 1 th Qtr Actual ...

  13. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

    2012-10-01

    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  14. Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osipenko, K Yu

    2014-10-31

    The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. Anumber of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, afamily of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  15. Microsoft Word - DOE_ANNUAL_METRICS_2009Q3.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14404 Third Quarter 2009 Modeling Program Metric: Coupled model comparison with observations using improved dynamics at coarse resolution Quantifying the impact of a finite volume dynamical core in CCSM3 on simulated precipitation over major catchment areas July 2009 Peter J. Gleckler and Karl E. Taylor Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, CA Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research 
 2
 Disclaimer This

  16. Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits The Guidebook for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits describes the type of information to be collected from each of the Project Teams and how it will be used by the Department of Energy to communicate overall conclusions to the public. Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits (975.03 KB) More

  17. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Biochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biochemical Conversion Platform accomplishments in 2007.

  18. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Thermochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details the accomplishments of the Biomass Program Thermochemical Conversion Platform in 2007.

  19. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  20. Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Conversion Technologies » Biochemical Conversion » Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration One of the essential elements in the economical and efficient production of cellulosic biofuels is the development of biorefineries. Similar in concept to traditional petroleum refineries, biorefineries convert various types of biomass feedstock into marketable chemicals, fuels, and products. By taking advantage of

  1. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Purdue University report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on Carbohydrates Production. ctab_webinar_carbohydrates_production.pdf (519.37 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading

  2. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  3. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  4. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  5. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately

  6. Thermochemical Conversion Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion » Thermochemical Conversion Related Links Thermochemical Conversion Related Links Further reading about current Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D in the Thermochemical Platform can be found in this website's Information Resources section. Some key publications are: Biomass Conversion: From Feedstocks to Final Products (July 2016) Thermochemical Conversion 2009 Peer Review Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and

  7. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  8. Transition Metal Oxide Alloys as Potential Solar Energy Conversion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-02-21

    First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are inexpensive potentia alternative materials for solar energy conversion devices. However, some TMOs, such as manganese(II) oxide, have band gaps that are too large for efficiently absorbing solar energy. Other TMOs, such as iron(II) oxide, have conduction and valence band edges with the same orbital character that may lead to unfavorably high electronhole recombination rates. Another limitation of iron(II) oxide is that the calculated valence band edge is not positioned well for oxidizing water. We predict that key properties, including band gaps, band edge positions, and possibly electronhole recombination rates, may be improved by alloying TMOs that have different band alignments. A new metric, the band gap center offset, is introduced for simple screening of potential parent materials. The concept is illustrated by calculating the electronic structure of binary oxide alloys that contain manganese, nickel, iron, zinc, and/or magnesium, within density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid DFT theories. We conclude that alloys of iron(II) oxide are worth evaluating further as solar energy conversion materials.

  9. Metrics for the National SCADA Test Bed Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Philip A.; Mortensen, J.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2008-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program is providing valuable inputs into the electric industry by performing topical research and development (R&D) to secure next generation and legacy control systems. In addition, the program conducts vulnerability and risk analysis, develops tools, and performs industry liaison, outreach and awareness activities. These activities will enhance the secure and reliable delivery of energy for the United States. This report will describe metrics that could be utilized to provide feedback to help enhance the effectiveness of the NSTB Program.

  10. User's Guide to the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, William

    2012-02-28

    The intent of this user guide is to provide a brief description of the functionality of the Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM) tool, including the expanded building re-tuning functionality developed for Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL). This document describes the tool's general functions and features, and offers detailed instructions for PNNL building re-tuning charts, a feature in ECAM intended to help building owners and operators look at trend data (recommended 15-minute time intervals) in a series of charts (both time series and scatter) to analyze air-handler, zone, and central plant information gathered from a building automation system (BAS).

  11. SU-E-I-71: Quality Assessment of Surrogate Metrics in Multi-Atlas-Based Image Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, T; Ruan, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: With the ever-growing data of heterogeneous quality, relevance assessment of atlases becomes increasingly critical for multi-atlas-based image segmentation. However, there is no universally recognized best relevance metric and even a standard to compare amongst candidates remains elusive. This study, for the first time, designs a quantification to assess relevance metrics’ quality, based on a novel perspective of the metric as surrogate for inferring the inaccessible oracle geometric agreement. Methods: We first develop an inference model to relate surrogate metrics in image space to the underlying oracle relevance metric in segmentation label space, with a monotonically non-decreasing function subject to random perturbations. Subsequently, we investigate model parameters to reveal key contributing factors to surrogates’ ability in prognosticating the oracle relevance value, for the specific task of atlas selection. Finally, we design an effective contract-to-noise ratio (eCNR) to quantify surrogates’ quality based on insights from these analyses and empirical observations. Results: The inference model was specialized to a linear function with normally distributed perturbations, with surrogate metric exemplified by several widely-used image similarity metrics, i.e., MSD/NCC/(N)MI. Surrogates’ behaviors in selecting the most relevant atlases were assessed under varying eCNR, showing that surrogates with high eCNR dominated those with low eCNR in retaining the most relevant atlases. In an end-to-end validation, NCC/(N)MI with eCNR of 0.12 compared to MSD with eCNR of 0.10 resulted in statistically better segmentation with mean DSC of about 0.85 and the first and third quartiles of (0.83, 0.89), compared to MSD with mean DSC of 0.84 and the first and third quartiles of (0.81, 0.89). Conclusion: The designed eCNR is capable of characterizing surrogate metrics’ quality in prognosticating the oracle relevance value. It has been demonstrated to be

  12. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  13. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process.

  14. Processing and Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Processing and Conversion Processing and Conversion The strategic goal of Conversion Research and Development (R&D) is to develop technologies for converting feedstocks into commercially viable liquid transportation fuels, as well as bioproducts and biopower. The diversity of the biomass resource requires the development of multiple conversion technologies that can efficiently deal with the broad range of feedstock materials, as well as their physical and

  15. Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Conversion A key starting point for material management and minimization is reducing the civilian use of and demands for weapon-grade nuclear material. The Office of Conversion works around the world to convert, or verify the shutdown of, civilian research and test reactors that use or produce weapons-usable nuclear material to materials not of proliferation concern. In support of this, the Office of Conversion works to develop and qualify new fuels and technologies to support conversion efforts

  16. Research Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  17. NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and commercialization of biomass gasification is the integration of the gasifier with downstream syngas processing. ... Biomass Characterization Biochemical Conversion Thermochemical ...

  18. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three ... yeast and bacteria) Processing the fermentation product ... Bioprocess Integration Researchers are refining a ...

  19. BETO Conversion Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETO Conversion Program BETO Conversion Program Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing BETO Conversion Program Bryna Berendzen, Technology Manager, Bioenergy Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy berendzen_biomass_2014.pdf (1010.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Bio-oil 2013 Peer Review

  20. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading PNNL report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates upgrading. ctab_webinar_carbohydrates_upgrading.pdf (583.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels

  1. Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

  2. CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf (129.47 KB) More Documents & Publications SEAD-Fact-Sheet.pdf Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

  3. EECBG 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List EECBG 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List eecbg_sep_reporting_guidance_attachment_06242011.pdf (56.65 KB) More Documents & Publications EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list EECBG Program Notice 10-07A DOE Recovery Act Reporting Requirements for the State Energy Program

  4. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Civilian Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civilian Reactors DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civi Washington, DC Secretary Abraham announced that DOE will dispose of 34 metric tons of surplus weapons grade plutonium by turning the material into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for use in nuclear reactors. The decision follows an exhaustive Administration review

  5. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.

  6. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  7. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  8. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  9. Fundamentals of thermochemical biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overend, R.P.; Milne, T.A.; Mudge, L.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Wood and biomass ultrastructure; Cellulose, hemicellulose and extractives; Lignin; Pretreatment of biomass for thermochemical biomass conversion; A kinetic isotope effect in the thermal dehydration of cellobiose; Gasification and liquefaction of forest products in supercritical water; Thermochemical fractionation and liquefaction of wood; The pyrolysis and gasification of wood in molten hydroxide eutectics; Influence of alkali carbonates on biomass volatilization; Flash pyrolysis of biomass with reactive and non-reactive gases; Pyrolytic reactions and biomass; Product formation in the pyrolysis of large wood particles; The pyrolysis under vacuum of aspen poplar; Simulation of kraft lignin pyrolysis; and Kinetics of wood gasification by carbon dioxide and steam.

  10. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  11. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  13. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofer, S.S.; Zaborsky, O.R.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  14. GPRA 2003 quality metrics methodology and results: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-04-19

    This report describes the results, calculations, and assumptions underlying the GPRA 2003 Quality Metrics results for all Planning Units withing the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  15. Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

    2005-09-29

    This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

  16. EVMS Training Snippet: 3.2 Schedule Health Metrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Schedule Health Metrics EVMS Training Snippet: 3.2 Schedule Health Metrics This EVMS Training Snippet sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) focuses on 'what' the metrics are, 'why' they are important, and what they tell us about the schedule health. This Snippet does not focus on the 'how' the metrics are calculated, other than to provide a basic understanding of what is being calculated. Link to Video Presentation (21:52) | Prior Snippet (3.1B) | Next Snippet (3.3) | Return to

  17. FY 2015 Q1 Metrics Supporting Documentation 2015-02-09.xls

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target FY 2015 Pre- & Post- CAP* Forecast Comment 1 Capital Asset Project Success: Complete 90% of capital asset projects at ...

  18. Enclosure - FY 2015 Q3 Metrics Report 2015-08-12.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target FY 2015 Pre- & Post- CAP* Forecast Comment 1 Capital Asset Project Management Success: Complete 90% of capital asset ...

  19. (SSS)GAO Metrics - Project Success 2015-04-29 1100.xls

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target FY 2015 Pre- & Post- CAP* Forecast Comment 1 Capital Asset Project Success: Complete 90% of capital asset projects at ...

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Snippet 3.2 Schedule Health Metrics 20140713...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... available software. These metrics can be quickly reviewed each month to identify any schedule health risks on your project, whether you are the contractor or the customer. ...

  1. New Selection Metric for Design of Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maximum Efficiency (SLME) is a new and calculable selection metric to identify new andor improved photovoltaic (PV) absorber candidate materials for thin- film solar cells. ...

  2. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment ...

  3. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet), NREL (National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant A pilot-scale conversion plant for researchers, industry partners, and stakeholders to test a variety of biochemical conversion processes and ...

  4. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    Here, the catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do

  6. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Hydroprocessing and Product Separation ... 44 3.12 Sustainability Metrics ......The analysis does not take into account any policy ...

  8. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    Commercialization. The activities performed during the feasibility assessment phase include laboratory scale experiments; fuel performance code updates; and analytical assessment of economic, operational, safety, fuel cycle, and environmental impacts of the new concepts. The development and qualification stage will consist of fuel fabrication and large scale irradiation and safety basis testing, leading to qualification and ultimate NRC licensing of the new fuel. The commercialization phase initiates technology transfer to industry for implementation. Attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance include improved reaction kinetics with steam and slower hydrogen generation rate, while maintaining acceptable cladding thermo-mechanical properties; fuel thermo-mechanical properties; fuel-clad interactions; and fission-product behavior. These attributes provide a qualitative guidance for parameters that must be considered in the development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. However, quantitative metrics must be developed for these attributes. To initiate the quantitative metrics development, a Light Water Reactor Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held October 10-11, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the structure and outcome of the two-day workshop. Questions regarding the content can be directed to Lori Braase, 208-526-7763, lori.braase@inl.gov.

  9. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  10. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydra...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates DOE report-out ... More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - ...

  11. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E

    1999-07-26

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on

  12. Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2011-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.

  13. Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon conversion Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Plasma-Hydrocarbon Conversion process enables conversion of heavy hydrocarbons, such as heavy crude oil and hydrocarbon gases like natural gas, into lighter hydrocarbon materials (e.g. synthetic light oil). Description It can convert hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels/chemicals. The dielectric barrier discharge plasma process that adds carbon and hydrogen simultaneously to heavy

  14. Proceedings of the 2009 Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavan, Raj; Messina, Elena

    2009-09-01

    The Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems (PerMIS) workshop is dedicated to defining measures and methodologies of evaluating performance of intelligent systems. As the only workshop of its kind, PerMIS has proved to be an excellent forum for sharing lessons learned and discussions as well as fostering collaborations between researchers and practitioners from industry, academia and government agencies. The main theme of the ninth iteration of the workshop, PerMIS'09, seeks to address the question: 'Does performance measurement accelerate the pace of advancement for intelligent systems?' In addition to the main theme, as in previous years, the workshop will focus on applications of performance measures to practical problems in commercial, industrial, homeland security, and military applications. The PerMIS'09 program consists of six plenary addresses and six general and special sessions. The topics that are to be discussed by the speakers cover a wide array of themes centered on many intricate facets of intelligent system research. The presentations will emphasize and showcase the interdisciplinary nature of intelligent systems research and why it is not straightforward to evaluate such interconnected system of systems. The three days of twelve sessions will span themes from manufacturing, mobile robotics, human-system interaction, theory of mind, testing and evaluation of unmanned systems, to name a few.

  15. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  16. Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W.; Ko, C. M.; Zhang, B. W.

    2007-05-15

    Quark and gluon jets traversing through a quark-gluon plasma not only lose their energies but also can undergo flavor conversions. The conversion rates via the elastic q(q)g{yields}gq(q) and the inelastic qq{r_reversible}gg scatterings are evaluated in the lowest order in QCD. Including both jet energy loss and conversions in the expanding quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, we have found a net of quark jets to gluon jets. This reduces the difference between the nuclear modification factors for quark and gluon jets in central heavy ion collisions and thus enhances the p/{pi}{sup +} and p/{pi}{sup -} ratios at high transverse momentum. However, a much larger net quark-to-gluon jet conversion rate than the one given by the lowest order QCD is needed to account for the observed similar ratios in central Au+Au and p+p collisions at the same energy. Implications of our results are discussed.

  17. Beyond Ketonization: Selective Conversion of Carboxylic Acids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Beyond Ketonization: Selective Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Olefins over Balanced Lewis Acid-base Pairs Dwindling petroleum reserves combined with increased energy ...

  18. New Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Presentation for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    March 24, 2015 Conversion R&D Review Mike Lilga Asanga Padmaperuma, Deanna Auberry PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted ...

  19. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events ...

  20. "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News ...

  1. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is to engineer catalysts with atomic scale precision for two key electrochemical energy conversion reactions for water splitting, namely, water oxidation (oxygen evolution),...

  2. The Southern California Conversion Technology Demonstration Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conversion Technology Demonstration Project Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: - Waste to Energy Phase: Create a Vision Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website...

  3. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  4. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  5. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  6. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... Task 2, organic base-catalyzed arene hydrogenation and hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  7. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... D2. Chemical Conversion: Alternatively, the sugars can be converted to fuels or an entire suite of other useful products using chemical catalysis. E. Product Recovery: Products are ...

  8. Energy Conversion Devices | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL National Center for Photovoltaics Partnership Year 2003 Energy Conversion Devices is a company located in Rochester...

  9. Biochemical Conversion Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion 2009 Peer Review Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model For more publications, see the Bioenergy Publication Library

  10. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James Scott (Englewood, CO); Wanlass, Mark Woodbury (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy Arthur (Conifer, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.