National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metric conversion factors

  1. Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashurst, W. Robert

    Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2·R 10.73 psia·ft3 lbmol·R 62.36 liter·torr mol·K 0.7302 ft3·atm lbmol·R Temperature Conversions: T

  2. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  3. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

    1997-01-01

    -to-dose equivalent conversion factors to Los Alamos National Laboratory extremity dosimeter correction factors is performed....

  5. Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorentini, G; Vysotsky, M I

    2001-01-01

    By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

  6. Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fiorentini; L. Okun; M. Vysotsky

    2001-12-04

    By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

  7. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2457 x 2457 kWh x 0.347 x 0.330 Domestic Coal 3 tonnes x 2523 x 2523 kWh x 0.313 x 0.298 Wood Pellets 4 stations or for industrial purposes have different emission factors. Wood pellets are used in domestic

  8. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  9. Riemannian Geometry Based on the Takagi's Factorization of the Metric Tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Mendez

    2015-07-05

    The Riemannian geometry is one of the main theoretical pieces in Modern Mathematics and Physics. The study of Riemann Geometry in the relevant literature is performed by using a well defined analytical path. Usually it starts from the concept of metric as the primary concept and by using the connections as an intermediate geometric object, it is achieved the curvature and its properties. This paper presents a different analytical path to analyze the Riemannian geometry. It is based on a set of intermediate geometric objects obtained from the Takagi's factorization of the metric tensor. These intermediate objects allow a new viewpoint for the analysis of the geometry, provide conditions for the curved vs. flat manifolds, and also provide a new decomposition of the curvature tensor in canonical parts, which can be useful for Theoretical Physics.

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.

  11. Determination of photon conversion factors relating exposure and dose for several extremity phantom designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, P.L.; Eichner, F.N.; Reece, W.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Dosimetric measurements were performed to determine the exposure-to-dose conversion factors (Cx) for simple extremity phantoms suitable for extremity dosimeter performance testing. The phantoms studied represented the forearm or lower leg and the finger. Measurements were performed for solid plastic phantoms and for phantoms containing simulated bone material to determine the effect of backscattered radiations from the simulated bone to the phantom surface. Photon beam energies used for the measurements ranged from 16 keV to 1.25 MeV (average). The Cx factors for the finger phantoms did not vary significantly with phantom composition. The Cx factors in the arm/leg phantoms with the bone simulant material differed significantly from those for the solid plastic phantom over the energy range of 40-100 keV. This effect was attributed to the preferential absorption of the lower energy backscattered photons by the higher atomic number material that was contained in the bone-simulant insert. The position of the bone-simulating material below the surface of the phantom was more important than its size or level of bone equivalency. For calibrations and dosimeter testing, Al was found adequate as a bone-simulating material.

  12. Does the CO-to-H2 conversion factor depend on the star formation rate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    We present a series of numerical simulations that explore how the `X-factor', $X_{CO}$ -- the conversion factor between the observed integrated CO emission and the column density of molecular hydrogen -- varies with the environmental conditions in which a molecular cloud is placed. Our investigation is centred around two environmental conditions in particular: the cosmic ray ionisation rate (CRIR) and the strength of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Since both these properties of the interstellar medium have their origins in massive stars, we make the assumption in this paper that both the strength of the ISRF and the CRIR scale linearly with the local star formation rate (SFR). The cloud modelling in this study first involves running numerical simulations that capture the cloud dynamics, as well as the time-dependent chemistry, and ISM heating and cooling. These simulations are then post-processed with a line radiative transfer code to create synthetic 12CO (1-0) emission maps from which $X_{CO}$ can...

  13. Metric Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success Story Some Metrics That Supported It 8 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y An example - Nuclear Power Industry Objective...

  14. Integration of Sustainability Metrics into Design Cases and State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Stage Life Cycle Inventory * Fossil GHGs * Fossil Energy Use * Fuel Yield * Carbon-to-Fuel Efficiency * Water Consumption * Wastewater Generation Sustainability Metrics...

  15. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  16. Dust temperature and CO-to-H2 conversion factor variations in the SFR-M* plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnelli, B; Lutz, D; Tacconi, L J; Berta, S; Bournaud, F; Charmandaris, V; Dannerbauer, H; Elbaz, D; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Graciá-Carpio, J; Ivison, R; Maiolino, R; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Rodighiero, G; Santini, P; Wuyts, S

    2012-01-01

    Deep Herschel imaging and 12CO(2-1) line luminosities from the IRAM PdBI are combined for a sample of 17 galaxies at z>1 from the GOODS-N field. The sample includes galaxies both on and above the main sequence (MS) traced by star-forming galaxies in the SFR-M* plane. The far-infrared data are used to derive dust masses, Mdust. Combined with an empirical prescription for the dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on metallicity (GDR), the CO luminosities and Mdust values are used to derive for each galaxy the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, alpha_co. Like in the local Universe, the value of alpha_co is a factor of ~5 smaller in starbursts compared to normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs). We also uncover a relation between alpha_co and dust temperature (Tdust; alpha_co decreasing with increasing Tdust) as obtained from modified blackbody fits to the far-infrared data. While the absolute normalization of the alpha_co(Tdust) relation is uncertain, the global trend is robust against possible systematic biases in the deter...

  17. Comment on `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A letter to the editor of the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity on the article: E. Gasser, A. Nachab, A. Nourreddine, Ch. Roy, and A. Sellam, `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil', J. Environ. Radioactiv. 138, 68-71 (2014), DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.08.002.

  18. Appendix G: Conversion factors

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved Reserves (BillionTechnical Information >,901,760Thousand CubicDryDry4,6456384D-24

  19. Metrics for enterprise transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

  20. Buildings Performance Metrics Terminology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides the terms and definitions used in the Department of Energys Performance Metrics Research Project.

  1. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Macknick, J.; Mann, M.; Pless, J.; Munoz, D.

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  2. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  3. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  4. Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strohmaier, Erich

    2009-01-01

    2007:1–12 Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers 12.ISSUE PAPER Generalized utility metrics for supercomputersproblem of ranking the utility of supercom- puter systems

  5. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  6. Quantum conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Mazilu

    2015-08-06

    The electromagnetic momentum transferred transfered to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ($\\hbar k$) does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the transformation, including units, of the classical fields to wave-function equivalent fields.

  7. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  8. Generalized Fubini-Study Metric and Fisher Information Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasis Mondal

    2015-03-13

    We provide an experimentally measurable local gauge $U(1)$ invariant Fubini-Study (FS) metric for mixed states. Like the FS metric for pure states, it also captures only the quantum part of the uncertainty in the evolution Hamiltonian. We show that this satisfies the quantum Cramer-Rao bound and thus arrive at a more general and measurable bound. Upon imposing the monotonicity condition, it reduces to the square-root derivative quantum Fisher Information. We show that on the Fisher information metric space dynamical phase is zero. A relation between square root derivative and logarithmic derivative is formulated such that both give the same Fisher information. We generalize the Fubini-Study metric for mixed states further and arrive at a set of Fubini-Study metric---called $\\alpha$ metric. This newly defined $\\alpha$ metric also satisfies the Cramer-Rao bound. Again by imposing the monotonicity condition on this metric, we derive the monotone $\\alpha$ metric. It reduces to the Fisher information metric for $\\alpha=1$.

  9. Quotients of Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Robert A.

    1968-01-01

    . PRELIMINARIES 1 CHAPTER II . SFACBS IN WHICH SEQUENCES SUFFICE 6 CHAPTER III . QUOTIENTS OF SEPARABLE METRIC SPACES Ik CHAPTER IV. GENERAL QUOTIENT SPACES 25 CHAPTER V. CLOSED QUOTIENT MAPS 35 CHAPTER VI. OPEN QUOTIENT MAPS 50 CHAPTER VII. OPEN AND CLOSED... QUOTIENT MAPS 55 CHAPTER VIII. ANOTHER RESULT 6l BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 CHAPTER I. PRELIMINARIES We begin by stating some basic definitions and theorems. Definition 1 . 1 ; Let f be a function from a topological space X onto a set Y. Then the quotient...

  10. ARM - 2009 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 NewsUsers' Executive09 I N9 Performance Metrics

  11. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  12. The Space of Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    *D. J. Kelleher

    2013-11-16

    The Space of Metric Spaces. *D. J. Kelleher1. 1Department of Mathematics. University of Connecticut. UConn— SIGMA Seminar — Fall 2013. D. J. Kelleher.

  13. Schwarzschild-like metric and a quantum vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2013-02-01

    A quantum vacuum, represented by a viscous fluid, is added to the Einstein vacuum, surrounding a spherical distribution of mass. This gives as a solution, in spherical coordinates, a Schwarzschild-like metric. The plot of g00 and g11 components of the metric, as a function of the radial coordinate, display the same qualitative behavior as that of the Schwarzschild metric. However, the temperature of the event horizon is equal to the Hawking temperature multiplied by a factor of two, while the entropy is equal to half of the Bekenstein one.

  14. August 2003 IT SECURITY METRICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    August 2003 IT SECURITY METRICS Elizabeth B. Lennon, Editor Information Technology Laboratory approach to measuring information security. Evaluating security at the sys tem level, IT security metrics and techniques contained in NIST SP 800-26, Security Self-Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems

  15. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  16. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  17. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  18. Conformal Transformations in Metric-Affine Gravity and Ghosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canan N. Karahan; Oktay Dogangun; Durmus A. Demir

    2012-05-20

    Conformal transformations play a widespread role in gravity theories in regard to their cosmological and other implications. In the pure metric theory of gravity, conformal transformations change the frame to a new one wherein one obtains a conformal-invariant scalar-tensor theory such that the scalar field, deriving from the conformal factor, is a ghost. In this work, conformal transformations and ghosts will be analyzed in the framework of the metric-affine theory of gravity. Within this framework, metric and connection are independent variables, and hence, transform independently under conformal transformations. It will be shown that, if affine connection is invariant under conformal transformations then the scalar field under concern is a non-ghost, non-dynamical field. It is an auxiliary field at the classical level, and might develop a kinetic term at the quantum level. Alternatively, if connection transforms additively with a structure similar to yet more general than that of the Levi-Civita connection, the resulting action describes the gravitational dynamics correctly, and more importantly, the scalar field becomes a dynamical non-ghost field. The equations of motion, for generic geometrical and matter-sector variables, do not reduce connection to the Levi-Civita connection, and hence, independence of connection from metric is maintained. Therefore, metric-affine gravity provides an arena in which ghosts arising from conformal factor are avoided thanks to the independence of connection from the metric.

  19. 2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % conventional petrol and diesel (i.e. refined from crude oil). iii. The lifecycle emissions factors Scope 1 or Scope 3 as defined by the GHG Protocol (e.g. depends on ownership of vehicle stock

  20. Module 6 - Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the metrics and performance measurement tools used in Earned Value. This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices....

  1. Microsoft Word - QER Resilience Metrics - Technical Workshp ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    resiliency metrics for the energy sector and use cases o The framing of a resilience roadmap, and the implication and consequences of introducing new energy resilience metrics...

  2. Segmental alternations and metrical theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaysman, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on phonological alternations that are influenced or constrained by word-internal prosody, i.e. prominence and foot structure, and what these alternations can tell us about metrical theory. Detailed ...

  3. Normalization of Process Safety Metrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mengtian

    2012-10-19

    and organizational risks, there is an emerging need to evaluate the process safety implementation across an organization through measurements. Thus, the process safety metric is applied as a powerful tool that measures safety activities, status, and performance...

  4. Phantom Metrics With Killing Spinors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabra, W A

    2015-01-01

    We study metric solutions of Einstein-anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1)-dimensional space-time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  5. Horizon thermodynamics and composite metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzo Sindoni

    2012-11-12

    We examine the conditions under which the thermodynamic behaviour of gravity can be explained within an emergent gravity scenario, where the metric is defined as a composite operator. We show that due to the availability of a boundary of a boundary principle for the quantum effective action, Clausius-like relations can always be constructed. Hence, any true explanation of the thermodynamic nature of the metric tensor has to be referred to an equilibration process, associated to the presence of an H-theorem, possibly driven by decoherence induced by the pregeometric degrees of freedom, and their entanglement with the geometric ones.

  6. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    solar energy conversion .This new paradigm of solar energy conversion, based on theon this field, solar energy conversion aimed at photovoltaic

  7. Sandia Energy - Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wavelength Conversion Materials Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Overview Wavelength Conversion Materials Wavelength Conversion MaterialsAlyssa...

  8. Conformal Transformations in Metric-Affine Gravity and Ghosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Canan N; Demir, Durmus A

    2012-01-01

    Conformal transformations play a widespread role in gravity theories in regard to their cosmological and other implications. In the pure metric theory of gravity, conformal transformations change the frame to a new one wherein one obtains a conformal-invariant scalar-tensor theory such that the scalar field, deriving from the conformal factor, is a ghost. In this work, conformal transformations and ghosts will be analyzed in the framework of the metric-affine theory of gravity. Within this framework, metric and connection are independent variables, and hence, transform independently under conformal transformations. It will be shown that, if affine connection is invariant under conformal transformations then the scalar field under concern is a non-ghost, non-dynamical field. It is an auxiliary field at the classical level, and might develop a kinetic term at the quantum level. Alternatively, if connection transforms additively with a structure similar to yet more general than that of the Levi-Civita connection...

  9. An Automated Evaluation Metric for Chinese Text Entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Mike Tian-Jian; Lin, Jaimie; Lin, Jerry; Hsu, Wen-Lien

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated evaluation metric for text entry. We also consider possible improvements to existing text entry evaluation metrics, such as the minimum string distance error rate, keystrokes per character, cost per correction, and a unified approach proposed by MacKenzie, so they can accommodate the special characteristics of Chinese text. Current methods lack an integrated concern about both typing speed and accuracy for Chinese text entry evaluation. Our goal is to remove the bias that arises due to human factors. First, we propose a new metric, called the correction penalty (P), based on Fitts' law and Hick's law. Next, we transform it into the approximate amortized cost (AAC) of information theory. An analysis of the AAC of Chinese text input methods with different context lengths is also presented.

  10. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  11. Agility metric sensitivity using linear error theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David Matthew

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft agility metrics have been proposed for use to measure the performance and capability of aircraft onboard while in-flight. The sensitivity of these metrics to various types of errors and uncertainties is not ...

  12. Definition of GPRA08 benefits metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Background information for the FY 2007 GPRA methodology review on the definitions of GPRA08 benefits metrics.

  13. Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Koivisto, Tomi S; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the phenomenology of f(R) gravity has been scrutinized motivated by the possibility to account for the self-accelerated cosmic expansion without invoking dark energy sources. Besides, this kind of modified gravity is capable of addressing the dynamics of several self-gravitating systems alternatively to the presence of dark matter. It has been established that both metric and Palatini versions of these theories have interesting features but also manifest severe and different downsides. A hybrid combination of theories, containing elements from both these two formalisms, turns out to be also very successful accounting for the observed phenomenology and is able to avoid some drawbacks of the original approaches. This article reviews the formulation of this hybrid metric-Palatini approach and its main achievements in passing the local tests and in applications to astrophysical and cosmological scenarios, where it provides a unified approach to the problems of dark energy and dark matter.

  14. The high conversion LC-Fining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDriesen, R.P.; Strangio, V.A.; Rhoe, A.; Kolstad, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Residual oil hydrocracking has been practiced at moderate conversions for many years on a wide range of feedstocks. Processes utilizing expanded bed reactors have been proven to be effective in the hydrocracking of these heavy residual feedstocks. Conversions up to 60% vacuum bottoms to distillates were routinely obtained in several commercial units. More recently Amoco has been operating an LC-Fining unit in their Texas City refinery at conversions as high as 80%. Normal conversion in this plant however is 60-65%. LC-Fining is an expanded bed resid hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization process developed by Cities Service and Lummus Crest. There are a number of factors which may limit the conversion in any given plant site. These include compatibility problems with the liquid product, settling out of heavy hydrocarbons in downstream equipment or fouling of the catalyst in the reactor which in the extreme results in coking of the catalyst bed. The operator of a residual hydrocracker maintains conversion at a sufficiently low level to avoid these problems. Recent advances in the LC-Fining technology have led to the development of the High Conversion LC-Fining Process which is capable of operation at conversions of 95% and higher without any of these problems.

  15. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-09-01

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  16. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  17. Metric Signature Transitions in Optical Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2010-07-07

    We demonstrate that the extraordinary waves in indefinite metamaterials experience (- - + +) effective metric signature. During a metric signature change transition in such a metamaterial, a Minkowski space-time is "created" together with large number of particles populating this space-time. Such metamaterial models provide a table top realization of metric signature change events suggested to occur in Bose-Einstein condensates and quantum gravity theories.

  18. Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9, CCTP; Dodson, Rustin

    1998-01-01

    UNIT 9: SPATIAL DATA CONVERSION Written by Rustin Dodson,Programs Page 1 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion freezingPrograms Page 2 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion Export USGS

  19. Performance Metrics Tiers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tiers The performance metrics defined by the Commercial Buildings Integration Program offer different tiers of information to address the needs of various users. On this page you...

  20. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    1991. The Potential for Electricity Efficiency Improvementswww.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/eia860.html>. FigureA STANDARD METRIC FOR ELECTRICITY SAVINGS Jonathan Koomey*,

  1. DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISØ and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISØ) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

  2. Three-dimensional metrics as deformations of a constant curvature metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Coll; J. Llosa; D. Soler

    2001-04-23

    Any three-dimensional Riemannian metric can be locally obtained by deforming a constant curvature metric along one direction. The general interest of this result, both in geometry and physics, and related open problems are stressed.

  3. Conical Kähler–Einstein Metrics Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-08-08

    From now on in this paper, we assume X is a smooth Fano manifold, and D is a ... not unique, we can still identify the correct limit Kähler–Einstein metric in the moduli space. ... implies that there is no Kähler–Einstein metric on P2 which bends.

  4. Gathering Text Entry Metrics on Android Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, Scott

    Gathering Text Entry Metrics on Android Devices Abstract We developed an application to gather text entry speed and accuracy metrics on Android devices. This paper details the features of the application, Android OS ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI): User

  5. A Physics of Bounded Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Peretto

    1997-06-25

    We consider the possibility of obtaining emergent properties of physical spaces endowed with structures analogous to that of collective models put forward by classical statistical physics. We show that, assuming that a so-called "metric scale" does exist, one can indeed recover a number of properties of physical spaces such as the Minkowski metric, the relativistic quantum dynamics and the electroweak theory.

  6. Quality Metrics for Business Process Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    1 Quality Metrics for Business Process Models Irene Vanderfeesten1 , Jorge Cardoso2 , Jan Mendling3-Koivisto, 2001). This chapter elaborates on the importance of quality metrics for business process modeling to this composi- tional structure, a business process model consists of activities, each of which con- tains

  7. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  8. Bi-metric pseudo-Finslerian spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skakala, Jozef

    2010-01-01

    Finsler spacetimes have become increasingly popular within the theoretical physics community over the last two decades. Because physicists need to use pseudo-Finsler structures to describe propagation}of signals, there will be nonzero null vectors in both the tangent and cotangent spaces --- this causes significant problems in that many of the mathematical results normally obtained for "usual" (Euclidean signature) Finsler structures either do not apply, or require significant modifications to their formulation and/or proof. We shall first provide a few basic definitions, explicitly demonstrating the interpretation of bi-metric theories in terms of pseudo-Finsler norms. We shall then discuss the tricky issues that arise when trying to construct an appropriate pseudo-Finsler metric appropriate to bi-metric spacetimes. Whereas in Euclidian signature the construction of the Finsler metric typically fails at the zero vector, in Lorentzian signature the Finsler metric is typically ill-defined on the entire null co...

  9. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  10. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  11. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  12. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  13. Ricci Flow of Biaxial Bianchi IX Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Holzegel; T. Schmelzer; C. Warnick

    2007-06-12

    We use the Ricci flow with surgery to study four-dimensional SU(2) x U(1)-symmetric metrics on a manifold with fixed boundary given by a squashed 3-sphere. Depending on the initial metric we show that the flow converges to either the Taub-Bolt or the Taub-NUT metric, the latter case potentially requiring surgery at some point in the evolution. The Ricci flow allows us to explore the Euclidean action landscape within this symmetry class. This work extends the recent work of Headrick and Wiseman to more interesting topologies.

  14. Quantum chaos and operator fidelity metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Giorda; Paolo Zanardi

    2009-03-06

    We show that the recently introduced operator fidelity metric provides a natural tool to investigate the cross-over to quantum chaotic behaviour. This metric is an information-theoretic measure of the global stability of a unitary evolution against perturbations. We use random matrix theory arguments to conjecture that the operator fidelity metric can be used as an "order parameter" to discriminates phases with regular behaviour from quantum chaotic ones. A numerical study of the onset of chaotic in the Dicke model is given in order to support the conjecture

  15. Energy-Momentum Distribution in Weyl Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; Tasnim Fatima

    2005-07-16

    In this paper, we evaluate energy and momentum density distributions for the Weyl metric by using the well-known prescriptions of Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Papaterou and M$\\ddot{o}$ller. The metric under consideration is the static axisymmetric vacuum solution to the Einstein field equations and one of the field equations represents the Laplace equation. Curzon metric is the special case of this spacetime. We find that the energy density is different for each prescription. However, momentum turns out to be constant in each case.

  16. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy Levels Counter Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy

  17. ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    , 5th Edition Michael J. Moran and Howard N. Shapiro, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, NY, 2004, John Willey 2010. 3) Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, by B.K. Hodge, John Willey 2010. 41 ENSC 461 ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Majid Bahrami 4372 Email

  18. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

  19. Geodesic completeness of diagonal $G_2$ metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Fernández-Jambrina

    2009-04-10

    In this talk a sufficient condition for a diagonal orthogonally transitive cylindrical $G_2$ metric to be geodesically complete is given. The condition is weak enough to comprise all known diagonal perfect fluid cosmological models that are non-singular.

  20. Thermodynamic motivations of spherically symmetric static metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Moradpour; S. Nasirimoghadam

    2015-06-14

    Bearing the thermodynamic arguments together with the two definitions of mass in mind, we try to find metrics with spherical symmetry. We consider the adiabatic condition along with the Gong-Wang mass, and evaluate the $g_{rr}$ element which points to a null hypersurface. In addition, we generalize the thermodynamics laws to this hypersurface to find its temperature and thus the corresponding surface gravity which enables us to get a relation for the $g_{tt}$ element. Finally, we investigate the mathematical and physical properties of the discovered metric in the Einstein relativity framework which shows that the primary mentioned null hypersurface is an event horizon. We also show that if one considers the Misner-Sharp mass in the calculations, the Schwarzschild metric will be got. The relationship between the two mass definitions in each metric is studied. The results of considering the geometrical surface gravity are also addressed.

  1. Thermodynamic motivations of spherically symmetric static metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moradpour, H

    2015-01-01

    Bearing the thermodynamic arguments together with the two definitions of mass in mind, we try to find metrics with spherical symmetry. We consider the adiabatic condition along with the Gong-Wang mass, and evaluate the $g_{rr}$ element which points to a null hypersurface. In addition, we generalize the thermodynamics laws to this hypersurface to find its temperature and thus the corresponding surface gravity which enables us to get a relation for the $g_{tt}$ element. Finally, we investigate the mathematical and physical properties of the discovered metric in the Einstein relativity framework which shows that the primary mentioned null hypersurface is an event horizon. We also show that if one considers the Misner-Sharp mass in the calculations, the Schwarzschild metric will be got. The relationship between the two mass definitions in each metric is studied. The results of considering the geometrical surface gravity are also addressed.

  2. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  3. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

  4. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy Biological Conversion of Sugars...

  5. Inference and Labeling of Metric-Induced Network Topologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byers, John W.

    PERISCOPE, a Linux embodiment of MINT constructions. We instantiate MINT and PERISCOPE for a specific metric

  6. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation proposes a suite of metrics for evaluating the performance of solar power forecasting.

  7. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.

  8. METRICS FOR WAYFINDING 1 Three Levels of Metric for Evaluating Wayfinding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddle, Roy

    Lessels School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. email: royr@comp.leeds.ac.uk Tel a detailed review of research into VE wayfinding. A case study from research into the fidelity into two major sections. The first reviews metrics in #12;METRICS FOR WAYFINDING 4 each of the three levels

  9. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  11. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  12. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  13. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more »such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  14. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henneken, Edwin A; Kurtz, Michael J; Grant, Carolyn S; Thompson, Donna; Luker, Jay; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Murray, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. More papers than ever are being written on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service which provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this presentation we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  15. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    webinarcarbohydratesproduction.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

  16. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels...

  17. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lawrence Berkeley...

  18. Holographic principle and the dominant energy condition for Kasner type metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Cataldo; Norman Cruz; Sergio del Campo; Samuel Lepe

    2001-04-12

    In this letter we study adiabatic anisotropic matter filled Bianchi type I models of the Kasner form together with the cosmological holographic bound. We find that the dominant energy condition and the holographic bound give precisely the same constraint on the scale factor parameters that appear in the metric.

  19. Algal Biomass Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach (Management) * Critical Success Factors o Extraction lipid yield o Extraction CAPEX o Hydrotreating CAPEX o Solids content in slurry o Pretreatment glucose yields * Top...

  20. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  1. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  2. Fourier Transform, Riemann Surfaces and Indefinite Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Fourier Transform, Riemann Surfaces and Indefinite Metric P. G. Grinevich, S.P.Novikov Zakharov Park, College Park, USA #12;What is Fourier Transform in Riemann Surfaces? Which Problems need it? Discrete Analog of The Fourier/Laurent bases in Riemann Sur- faces was constructed by Krichever-Novikov (KN

  3. Towards a Multidimensional Geometric Metric for Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Towards a Multidimensional Geometric Metric for Sustainability Noah Granieri1, Gaurav Ameta2 1's REU program under grant number 0754370 Results Geometric results from Sustainability Data ·All aspect sustainability aspect values change depending on fuel sources for energy production. Designers may choose what

  4. RAY PRESERVING METRICS AND APPLICATIONS JAIGYOUNG CHOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choe, Jaigyoung

    of the two-dimensional hyper- bolic plane H2 (-2 ) with Gauss curvature -2 RAY PRESERVING METRICS AND APPLICATIONS JAIGYOUNG CHOE 1. INTRODUCTION Let be an m-dimensional as the union of the line segments from p to q, over all q . And for a k-dimensional submanifold N Rn

  5. New Metrics for Blog Mining Brian Ulicnya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baclawski, Kenneth B.

    New Metrics for Blog Mining Brian Ulicnya , Ken Baclawskia , Amy Magnusb a VIStology, Inc., 5, Suite 325 , Arlington, VA 22203 ABSTRACT Blogs represent an important new arena for knowledge discovery-human) information sources monitoring important local and global events, and other blogs, for items of interest upon

  6. An Attack Surface Metric Pratyusa K. Manadhata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Manadhata This research was sponsored in part by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency by the National Science Foundation under grants no. CCR-0121547 and CNS-0433540, SAP Labs, LLC under award no metrics has recently become more pressing. In this thesis, we introduce the measure of a software system

  7. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  8. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  9. On the Jacobi-Metric Stability Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Gonzalez Leon; J. L. Hernandez Pastora

    2007-05-30

    We investigate the exact relation existing between the stability equation for the solutions of a mechanical system and the geodesic deviation equation of the associated geodesic problem in the Jacobi metric constructed via the Maupertuis-Jacobi Principle. We conclude that the dynamical and geometrical approaches to the stability/instability problem are not equivalent.

  10. Performance Metrics Research Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    NREL began work for DOE on this project to standardize the measurement and characterization of building energy performance. NREL's primary research objectives were to determine which performance metrics have greatest value for determining energy performance and to develop standard definitions and methods of measuring and reporting that performance.

  11. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); LaPointe, M.A. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ganguly, A. K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  13. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _LBL-11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

  14. Evaluation Criteria for Human-Automation Performance Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pina, Patricia Elena

    Previous research has identified broad metric classes for human-automation performance to facilitate metric selection, as well as understanding and comparison of research results. However, there is still lack of an objective ...

  15. The Jacobi-metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Gibbons

    2015-09-09

    It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes are given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.

  16. The Jacobi-metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbons, G W

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes are given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.

  17. HELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    with the term "solar flare" dominate our thinking about energy conversion from magnetic storage to other formsHELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES edited by CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER Lockheed Martin of a solar flare 11 2.3.1 Flare luminosity and mechanical energy 11 2.3.2 The impulsive phase (hard X

  18. Development of a multiple metric index for macroinvertebrates collected from lower Missouri River floodplain wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koontz, Jason Alexander

    2010-07-26

    of a priori Stressor Groups ................................................................................. 27 2.8 Metric Response ................................................................................................................... 28... 2.8 Metric Redundancy............................................................................................................... 28 2.9 Scoring Individual Metrics and Final Index...

  19. Metrics Are Fitness Functions Too Mark Harman John Clark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Jeremy

    that there is an alternative, complementary, view of a metric: as a fitness function, used to guide a search for optimal' (MAFF) approach offers a number of additional benefits to metrics research and practice because systems. It describes the properties of a metric which make it a good fitness function and explains

  20. Gauge - invariant fluctuations of the metric in stochastic inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2000-01-07

    I derive the stochastic equation for the perturbations of the metric for a gauge - invariant energy - momemtum - tensor (EMT) in stochastic inflation. A quantization for the field that describes the gauge - invariant perturbations for the metric is developed. In a power - law expansion for the universe the amplitude for these perturbations on a background metric could be very important in the infrared sector.

  1. High conversion hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, L.O.; Reno, M.E.; Munro, W.H.; Hamper, S.J.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking a heavy hydrocarbon feed stream having a 10 percent boiling point above about 316{degrees} C. It comprises: passing the feedstream into a catalytic hydrocracking reaction zone in contact with hydrocracking catalyst comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of chromium, nickel, cobalt, platinum, palladium, tungsten and molybdenum, at a temperature above about 316{degrees} C. and a total pressure above 1480 kPa, the catalytic hydrocracking reaction zone operating at a feed stream conversion rate above 70 wt. percent with a hydrogen circulation rate in excess at 1777 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}, to produce a reaction zone effluent stream, subjecting the reaction zone effluent stream to cooling and a vapor-liquid separation to yield a recycle hydrogen stream and a liquid phase stream, heating the liquid phase stream recovered from the vapor-liquid separation to vaporize at least 90 volume percent of the liquid phase stream, passing the heated and at least partially vaporized liquid phase stream to a fractionation zone wherein the stream is separated into at least a net bottoms stream, a heavy distillate stream, and at least one light distillate stream which is removed as the distillate product stream, removing all of the net bottoms stream from the process, and recycling substantially all of the heavy distillate stream to the catalytic hydrocracking zone.

  2. Complex geometry and pre-metric electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. H. Delphenich

    2004-12-10

    The intimate link between complex geometry and the problem of the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism is explored. In particular, the relationship between 3+1 decompositions of R4 and the decompositions of the vector space of bivectors over R4 into real and imaginary subspaces relative to a choice of complex structure is emphasized. The role of the various scalar products on the space of bivectors that are defined in terms of a volume element on R4 and a complex structure on the space of bivectors that makes it C-linear isomorphic to C3 is discussed in the context of formulation of a theory of electromagnetism in which the Lorentzian metric on spacetime follows as a consequence of the existence of electromagnetic waves, not a prior assumption.

  3. Network Community Detection on Metric Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Community detection in a complex network is an important problem of much interest in recent years. In general, a community detection algorithm chooses an objective function and captures the communities of the network by optimizing the objective function, and then, one uses various heuristics to solve the optimization problem to extract the interesting communities for the user. In this article, we demonstrate the procedure to transform a graph into points of a metric space and develop the methods of community detection with the help of a metric defined for a pair of points. We have also studied and analyzed the community structure of the network therein. The results obtained with our approach are very competitive with most of the well-known algorithms in the literature, and this is justified over the large collection of datasets. On the other hand, it can be observed that time taken by our algorithm is quite less compared to other methods and justifies the theoretical findings.

  4. Quantum metric fluctuations and Hawking radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Parentani

    2000-09-05

    In this Letter we study the gravitational interactions between outgoing configurations giving rise to Hawking radiation and in-falling configurations. When the latter are in their ground state, the near horizon interactions lead to collective effects which express themselves as metric fluctuations and which induce dissipation, as in Brownian motion. This dissipation prevents the appearance of trans-Planckian frequencies and leads to a description of Hawking radiation which is very similar to that obtained from sound propagation in condensed matter models.

  5. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  6. Role of acid catalysis in dimethyl ether conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Acidity plays an important role in the conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrocarbons and oxygenates. In the conversion to hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst, Broensted acidity is the main contributor to the first hydrocarbon formed. Here, acidity is also an important factor in determining olefin, paraffin, and aromatic content in the final product distribution. Catalyst life has also been found to be related to acidity content in zeolites. DME conversion to oxygenates is especially dependent on high acidity catalysts. Superacids like BF{sub 3}, HF-BF{sub 3}, and CF{sub 3}COOH have been used in the past for conversion of DME in carbonylation reactions to form methyl acetate and acetic acid at high pressures. Recently, heteropoly acids and their corresponding metal substituted salts have been used to convert DME to industrially important petrochemicals resulting in shorter reaction times and without the use of harsh operating conditions.

  7. Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide Email conversations that include multiple replies and sent messages can be viewed simultaneously using Conversation View. In Exchange 2010 Outlook Web App

  8. Tidal Conversion by Supercritical Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balmforth, Neil J.

    Calculations are presented of the rate of energy conversion of the barotropic tide into internal gravity waves above topography on the ocean floor. The ocean is treated as infinitely deep, and the topography consists of ...

  9. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, BasicS. Pillai and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and SolarPlasmonic conversion of solar energy César Clavero Plasma

  10. Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion March 23, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Jim Collett and Mark Butcher PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

  11. Unit Conversions and Formulas to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rroames

    2007-12-06

    Math 139. Unit Conversions and Formulas to Memorize. Fall 2007. Unit Conversions to know: 1 foot = 12 inches. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters. 1 yard = 3 feet.

  12. Linearization of Moffat's Symmetric Complex Metric Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Munkhammar

    2009-09-19

    In this paper we investigate a complex symmetric generalization of general relativity and in particular we investigate its linearized field equations. We begin by reviewing some basic definitions and structures in Moffat's symmetric complex metric field theory of gravity. We then move on to derive the linearized retarded complex field equations. In addition to this we also derive a linearization of Moffat's field equations based on the more rigorous Fermi coordinate approach. In conclusion it is shown that the linearized symmetric complex field equations leads to a complex form of gravitomagnetism. We also briefly review the gravitational wave equation from the source less linearized symmetric complex field equations and discuss some open problems.

  13. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  14. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  15. FY 2013 Metric Summary | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report to Congress MoreHyd rog en Tan41FY 2013 Q1 Metric

  16. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis3 Annual Metrics Report

  17. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis3 Annual Metrics4

  18. Superradiance on the Reissner-Nordstrom metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Di Menza; Jean-Philippe Nicolas

    2015-06-22

    In this article, we study the superradiance of charged scalar fields on the sub-extremal Reissner-Nordstrom metric, a mechanism by which such fields can extract energy from a static spherically symmetric charged black hole. A geometrical way of measuring the amount of energy extracted is proposed. Then we investigate the question numerically. The toy-model and the numerical methods used in our simulations are presented and the problem of long time measurement of the outgoing energy flux is discussed. We provide a numerical example of a field exhibiting a behaviour analogous to the Penrose process: an incoming wave packet which splits, as it approaches the black hole, into an incoming part with negative energy and an outgoing part with more energy than the initial incoming one. We also show another type of superradiant solution for which the energy extraction is more important. Hyperradiant behaviour is not observed, which is an indication that the Reissner-Nordstrom metric is linearly stable in the sub-extremal case.

  19. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based on the two case studies and evaluation of the seven assessments, the security ideals demonstrated their value in guiding security thinking. Further, the final set of core technical metrics has been demonstrated to be both usable in the control system environment and provide significant coverage of standard security issues.

  20. On the Hamilton approach to the metric GR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frolov, Alexei M

    2015-01-01

    Basic principles of the Hamilton approach developed for the metric General Relativity (Einstein`s GR) are discussed. In particular, we derive the Hamiltonian of the metric GR in the explicit form. This Hamiltonian is a quadratic function of the momenta $\\pi^{mn}$ conjugate to the spatial components $g_{mn}$ of the metric tensor $g_{\\alpha\\beta}$. The Hamilton approach is used to analyze some problems of metric GR, including the internal structure of propagating gravitational waves and quantization of the metric GR. We also derive the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the free Gravitational field and show that actual gravitational field cannot propagate as pure harmonic oscillations, or harmonic gravitational waves. A number of inequalities useful in the metric GR are derived.

  1. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Thermochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details the accomplishments of the Biomass Program Thermochemical Conversion Platform in 2007.

  2. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Biochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biochemical Conversion Platform accomplishments in 2007.

  3. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  4. Warm inflation and scalar perturbations of the metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2001-01-16

    A second-order expansion for the quantum fluctuations of the matter field was considered in the framework of the warm inflation scenario. The friction and Hubble parameters were expended by means of a semiclassical approach. The fluctuations of the Hubble parameter generates fluctuations of the metric. These metric fluctuations produce an effective term of curvature. The power spectrum for the metric fluctuations can be calculated on the infrared sector.

  5. On isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution of Einstein equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Mei

    2006-10-24

    The known static isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution of Einstein equation cannot cover with the range of r<2MG, a new isotropic metric of Schwarzschild solution is obtained. The new isotropic metric has the characters: (1) It is dynamic and periodic. (2) It has infinite singularities of the spacetime. (3) It cannot cover with the range of 0metric.

  6. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2014) Conceptual Framework for Developing...

  7. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  8. Stable determination of generic simple metrics from the hyperbolic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem of recovering such metrics from the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map associated ..... Using a partition of unity, one can extend ' in a small neighborhood of @?.

  9. Non-perturbative scalar gauge-invariant metric fluctuations from the Ponce de Leon metric in the STM theory of gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariano Anabitarte; Mauricio Bellini

    2008-02-20

    We study our non-perturbative formalism to describe scalar gauge-invariant metric fluctuations by extending the Ponce de Leon metric.

  10. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Kaufman, A. N. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tracy, E. R. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  11. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  12. Bi-metric Gravity and "Dark Matter"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. T. Drummond

    2000-08-18

    We present a bi-metric theory of gravity containing a length scale of galactic size. For distances less than this scale the theory satisfies the standard tests of General Relativity. For distances greater than this scale the theory yields an effective gravitational constant much larger than the locally observed value of Newton's constant. The transition from one regime to the other through the galactic scale can explain the observed rotation curves of galaxies and hence the effects normally attributed to the presence of dark matter. Phenomena on an extragalactic scale such as galactic clusters and the expansion of the universe are controlled by the enhanced gravitational coupling. This provides an explanation of the missing matter normally invoked to account for the observed value of Hubble's constant in relation to observed matter.

  13. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  14. MUTUAL CONVERSION SOLAR AND SIDEREAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roegel, Denis

    TABLES FOR THE MUTUAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TIME BY EDWARD SANG, F.R.S.E. EDINBURGH in the third example. Sang converts 3.27 seconds of solar time into 3.26 seconds of sidereal time. But sidereal time elapses faster than solar time, and the correct value is 3.28 sec- onds. In the fourth example

  15. Rationality and Conversation: A Thesis on Grice’s Theory of Conversation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoolfield, Matthew D

    2007-11-27

    H. P. Grice first presented his theory of conversational implicature in “Logic and Conversation.” This theory is comprised of conversational maxims that are based on the Cooperative Principle. Since then, it has become ...

  16. A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution Ryan S. Peterson Cornell University@cs.cornell.edu ABSTRACT Efficient content distribution in large networks comprising data- centers, end hosts, and distributed in-network caches is a diffi- cult problem. Existing systems rely on mechanisms and metrics

  17. Metrics for Evaluating Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    With numerous options for the future of natural gas, how do we know we're going down the right path? How do we designate a metric to measure and demonstrate change and progress, and how does that metric incorporate all stakeholders and scenarios?

  18. Primordial fluctuations of the metric in the warm inflation scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2000-05-16

    I consider a semiclassical expansion of the scalar field in the warm inflation scenario. I study the evolution for the fluctuations of the metric around the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker one. The formalism predicts that, in the power-law expansion universe, the fluctuations of the metric decreases with time.

  19. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3393E Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions Paul Mathew (CEC), and by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. #12;Data Center ........................................................................................................3 3. Overall Data Center Performance Metrics

  20. A Primer on Hardware Security: Models, Methods, and Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVITED P A P E R A Primer on Hardware Security: Models, Methods, and Metrics The paper is a primer on hardware security threat models, metrics, and remedies. By Masoud Rostami, Farinaz Koushanfar, and Ramesh) production supply chain has intro- duced hardware-based vulnerabilities. Existing literature in hardware

  1. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    -012-1336-1 #12;affected by warm water temperatures. Long-term stream temperature monitoring is useful biological surveys; thus, using temperature is appealing as a first-cut metric for monitoring fishPRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus

  2. Scalars, Vectors and Tensors from Metric-Affine Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Canan N; Demir, Durmus A

    2011-01-01

    The metric-affine gravity provides a useful framework for analyzing gravitational dynamics since it treats metric tensor and affine connection as fundamentally independent variables. In this work, we show that, a metric-affine gravity theory composed of the invariants formed from non-metricity, torsion and curvature tensors decomposes exhaustively into a theory of scalar, vector and tensor fields. These fields are natural candidates for the ones needed by various cosmological phenomena. Indeed, we show that the model accommodates TeVeS gravity (relativistic modified gravity theory), vector inflation, and aether-like models. Detailed analyses of these and other phenomena can lead to a standard metric-affine gravity model encoding scalars, vectors and tensors necessitated by cosmology.

  3. Scalars, Vectors and Tensors from Metric-Affine Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canan N. Karahan; Asli Altas; Durmus A. Demir

    2013-02-02

    The metric-affine gravity provides a useful framework for analyzing gravitational dynamics since it treats metric tensor and affine connection as fundamentally independent variables. In this work, we show that, a metric-affine gravity theory composed of the invariants formed from non-metricity, torsion and curvature tensors can be decomposed into a theory of scalar, vector and tensor fields. These fields are natural candidates for the ones needed by various cosmological and other phenomena. Indeed, we show that the model accommodates TeVeS gravity (relativistic modified gravity theory), vector inflation, and aether-like models. Detailed analyses of these and other phenomena can lead to a standard metric-affine gravity model encoding scalars, vectors and tensors.

  4. A new metric of the low-mode asymmetry for ignition target designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Jianfa, E-mail: gu-jianfa@iapcm.ac.cn; Dai, Zhensheng; Fan, Zhengfeng; Zou, Shiyang, E-mail: zou-shiyang@iapcm.ac.cn; Ye, Wenhua; Pei, Wenbing; Zhu, Shaoping [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-01-15

    In the deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility, the measured neutron yield and hot spot pressure are significantly lower than simulations. Understanding the underlying physics of the deficit is essential to achieving ignition. This paper investigates the low-mode areal density asymmetry in the main fuel of ignition capsule. It is shown that the areal density asymmetry breaks up the compressed shell and significantly reduces the conversion of implosion kinetic energy to hot spot internal energy, leading to the calculated hot spot pressure and neutron yield quite close to the experimental data. This indicates that the low-mode shell areal density asymmetry can explain part of the large discrepancy between simulations and experiments. Since only using the hot spot shape term could not adequately characterize the effects of the shell areal density asymmetry on implosion performance, a new metric of the low-mode asymmetry is developed to accurately measure the probability of ignition.

  5. Can Fault Prediction Models and Metrics be Used for Vulnerability Prediction? Yonghee Shin and Laurie Williams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, R. Michael

    are built with traditional metrics of complexity, code churn, and fault history. We have performed to the code [17]. Hence, complexity metrics and code churn metrics have been used for fault prediction [5, 17 fault prediction metrics ­ complexity, code churn, and fault history metrics for vulnerability

  6. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24 practical diagnostics range from a few hundred dollars to many thousands of dollars. The higher costs are associated with infrared thermography and state-of-the-art automated diagnostic systems. Most tests can be performed in one hour or less, using equipment priced toward the lower end of the cost spectrum.

  7. Weather Ready Nation: A Vital Conversation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weather Ready Nation: A Vital Conversation on Tornadoes and Severe Weather A Community Report March;WeatherReady Nation: A Vital Conversation on Tornadoes and Severe Weather Report from the December 2011

  8. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order $\\chi^{(2)}$ susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency $\\omega_1$ can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated,when phase matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of 'scattering' in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility $\\chi^{(2)}$ along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodiza...

  9. Generalized Transformation Design: metrics, speeds, and diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinsler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a unified and maximally generalized approach to spatial transformation design is possible, one that encompasses all second order waves, rays, or diffusion processes in anisotropic media. At the design step it is \\emph{not} necessary to specify the physical process for which a specific device will be -- or is intended to be -- built. The primary approximation required is that the effect of wave impedance is neglected, an attribute that plays no role in ray propagation, and therefore is not relevant for pure ray devices; another constraint is that spatial variation in material parameters may need to be sufficiently small. Device construction relies on how we can re-imagine the abstract mathematical notion of a metric on a manifold as a speed-squared matrix (or a diffusion matrix), a step which also specifies the means by which transformation devices will actually be built. Notably, we can conclude that a generalised ray theory that allows for anisotropic indexes (speeds) generates the same predicti...

  10. Optomechanical conversion by mechanical turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kneževi?, Miloš; Warner, Mark

    2014-10-30

    has mov- ing parts gives it a disadvantage over conventional photo- voltaics, though rubber is highly durable and tough — for instance car tyres survive long use in harsh, abra- sive conditions. Another difficulty, that could perhaps be solved... ’effect du frottement dans l’equilibre,” Mem. Acad. Sci. , pp. 265 (1762). 7[14] L. R. G. Treloar, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity (Ox- ford University Press, Oxford, 2005). [15] M. Knez?evic´ and M. Warner, “Photoferroelectric solar to electrical conversion...

  11. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process.

  12. Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartmentof EnergyTheConversion

  13. Research Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  14. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01

    M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

  15. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)field of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

  17. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  18. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessol, Daniel E. (Bozeman, MT); Wheeler, Floyd J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cook, Jeremy L. (Greeley, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

  19. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  20. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Gromov-Hausdorff Distance for Quantum Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc A. Rieffel

    2003-02-20

    By a quantum metric space we mean a C^*-algebra (or more generally an order-unit space) equipped with a generalization of the Lipschitz seminorm on functions which is defined by an ordinary metric. We develop for compact quantum metric spaces a version of Gromov-Hausdorff distance. We show that the basic theorems of the classical theory have natural quantum analogues. Our main example involves the quantum tori, $A_{\\th}$. We show, for consistently defined ``metrics'', that if a sequence $\\{\\th_n\\}$ of parameters converges to a parameter $\\th$, then the sequence $\\{A_{\\th_n}\\}$ of quantum tori converges in quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance to $A_{\\th}$.

  2. Guidelines and Metrics for Configurable and Sustainable Architectural Knowledge Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brezany, Peter

    Guidelines and Metrics for Configurable and Sustainable Architectural Knowledge Modelling ABSTRACT erosion, architecture knowledge, technical sustainability, technical debt. 1. INTRODUCTION Architectural to achieve architecture sustainability. Our main contributions of this paper is a configurable meta

  3. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul

    2010-01-01

    good practice” for data center infrastructure efficiency metric. Data Center Benchmarking Guidegood practice benchmark and 0.6 kW/ton as a better practice benchmark. Data Center Benchmarking Guide

  4. A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics Samuel Kaski and Janne grid to the input spa- ce. The mapping preserves the topography but measures local distances in terms

  5. Square Root of Metric: The Geometry Background of Unified Theory?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De-Sheng Li

    2015-09-29

    We use the square root of inverse metric described by $l=u^{\\dagger} \\gamma^{a} u \\theta_{a}$ construct an $U(4)$ gauge invariant, locally Lorentz invariant and generally covariant Lagrangian $\\mathcal{L}=\

  6. PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH Abstract. We use a wave packet the Simons Foundation (# 266371 to Hart Smith). 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH H¨ormander's theorem [9] on propagation

  7. A Graph Analytic Metric for Mitigating Advanced Persistent Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John R.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-06-04

    This paper introduces a novel graph analytic metric that can be used to measure the potential vulnerability of a cyber network to specific types of attacks that use lateral movement and privilege escalation such as the well known Pass The Hash, (PTH). The metric is computed from an oriented subgraph of the underlying cyber network induced by selecting only those edges for which a given property holds between the two vertices of the edge. The metric with respect to a select node on the subgraph is defined as the likelihood that the select node is reachable from another arbitrary node in the graph. This metric can be calculated dynamically from the authorization and auditing layers during the network security authorization phase and will potentially enable predictive deterrence against attacks such as PTH.

  8. Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

    2012-08-01

    The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

  9. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  10. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  11. Sandia Energy - Energy Conversion Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen GenerationTechnologiesEnergy Conversion Efficiency Home

  12. Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies forBig SavingsConversion

  13. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  14. Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffin, Andrew Mark

    2010-01-01

    Energy Conversion and Storage Systems By Andrew Mark DuffinEnergy Conversion and Storage Systems by Andrew Mark Duffin

  15. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion "This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an...

  16. Two-Stage Power Conversion Architecture for an LED Driver Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Two-Stage Power Conversion Architecture for an LED Driver Circuit Seungbum Lim, John Ranson, David with 0.93 power factor at 8.4 W average power. I. INTRODUCTION LED lighting promises unprecedented efficiency, and high-power-factor LED drivers [1]. A survey of commercial LED drivers illustrates this

  17. On Metric Ramsey-Type Phenomena Yair Bartal Nathan Linial Manor Mendel Assaf Naor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartal, Yair

    On Metric Ramsey-Type Phenomena Yair Bartal Nathan Linial Manor Mendel Assaf Naor Abstract The main space theory or as part of Ramsey Theory in combinatorics. Given a #12;nite metric space on n points, we.2 Generic upper bounds via metric composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Metric Ramsey

  18. Use of metrics in an effective ALARA program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, B.B. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting an processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific {open_quotes}indicators.{close_quotes} To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. Justification is needed to defend the indicators selected and maybe even stronger justification is needed for those indicators that are available, but not chosen as a metric. Historically, the many different sources of information resided in a plethora of locations. Even the same type of metric had data located in different areas and could not be easily totaled for the entire Site. This required the end user to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that a customer can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer`s most frequently asked questions. IL is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally, it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, {open_quotes}user friendly,{close_quotes} software and contains information from RIR`s, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics. These include quarterly performance indicator reports, monthly radiological incident reports, monthly external dose history and goals tracking reports, and the future use of performance indexing.

  19. Natural gas/diesel conversions - the outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, V.B.; Joyce, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    High conversion costs and technical inadequacies of available equipment have limited diesel to compressed natural gas (CNG) conversions, a process which can use either fumigation, pilot oil injection, or spark-ignition for vehicle ignition. An overview of Gas Research Institute conversion research projects includes a summary of major problems associated with performance, cost, and reliability of the systems. A summary table identifies projects by organization and location, then provides project objectives, funding, future plans, and comments where the information is available.

  20. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  1. LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety,...

  2. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to free the sugars for conversion. The program is working to identify the most productive, naturally occurring...

  3. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News &...

  4. "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News...

  5. Limits in high efficiency quantum frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolás Quesada; J. E. Sipe

    2015-08-13

    Frequency conversion is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. In this letter we study fundamental limits to high efficiency frequency conversion imposed by time ordering corrections. Using the Magnus expansion, we argue that these corrections, which are usually considered detrimental, can be used to increase the efficiency of conversion under certain circumstances. The corrections induce a nonlinear behaviour in the probability of upconversion as a function of the pump intensity, significantly modifying the sinusoidal Rabi oscillations that are otherwise expected. Finally, by using a simple scaling argument, we explain why cascaded frequency conversion devices attenuate time ordering corrections, allowing the construction of near ideal quantum pulse gates.

  6. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  7. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  8. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  9. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  12. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...

  13. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  14. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels ? Carbohydrates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for host organism in the presentence of limited six carbon sugars Identify cellular transporters and regulators required for maximum sugar to hydrocarbon conversion ...

  15. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E

    1999-07-26

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on the conversion process, preconceptual plant description, rough capital and operating costs, and preliminary project schedule.

  16. Effective use of metrics in an ALARA program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include; external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific ``indicators``. To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. This required the end users to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that customers can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer`s most frequently asked questions. It is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, ``user friendly``, software and contains information from RIR`s, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics.

  17. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon

    2011-08-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R&D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  18. The Non-Metricity Formulation of General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Mol

    2015-01-13

    After recalling the differential geometry of non-metric connections in the formalism of differential forms, we introduce the idea of a Non-Metricity (NM) connection, whose connection $1$--forms coincides with the non-metricity $1$--forms for a class of cobase fields. Then we formulate a theory of gravitation (equivalent to General Relativity (GR)) which admits a geometrical interpretation in a flat torsionless space where the gravitational field is completely manifest in the non-metricity of a NM connection. We define and then apply the non-metricity gauge to a gravitational Lagrangian density discovered by Wallner and which is equivalent to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian density. The Einstein equations coupled to the matter currents $\\left( \\mathcal{J}_{\\alpha}\\right) $ thus becomes $\\delta dg_{\\alpha}=\\mathcal{T}_{\\alpha}+\\mathcal{J}_{\\alpha}$, where $\\left( \\mathcal{T}_{\\alpha}\\right) $ is identified as the gravitational energy-momentum currents, to which we shall find a relatively simple and physically appealing form. It is also shown that in the gravitational analogue of the Lorenz gauge, our field equations can be written as a system of Proca equations, which may be of interest in the study of propagation of gravitational-electromagnetic waves.

  19. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H. F.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Forecasting solar energy generation is a challenging task due to the variety of solar power systems and weather regimes encountered. Forecast inaccuracies can result in substantial economic losses and power system reliability issues. This paper presents a suite of generally applicable and value-based metrics for solar forecasting for a comprehensive set of scenarios (i.e., different time horizons, geographic locations, applications, etc.). In addition, a comprehensive framework is developed to analyze the sensitivity of the proposed metrics to three types of solar forecasting improvements using a design of experiments methodology, in conjunction with response surface and sensitivity analysis methods. The results show that the developed metrics can efficiently evaluate the quality of solar forecasts, and assess the economic and reliability impact of improved solar forecasting.

  20. Tidal deformation of a slowly rotating material body. External metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Landry; Eric Poisson

    2015-07-31

    We construct the external metric of a slowly rotating, tidally deformed material body in general relativity. The tidal forces acting on the body are assumed to be weak and to vary slowly with time, and the metric is obtained as a perturbation of a background metric that describes the external geometry of an isolated, slowly rotating body. The tidal environment is generic and characterized by two symmetric-tracefree tidal moments E_{ab} and B_{ab}, and the body is characterized by its mass M, its radius R, and a dimensionless angular-momentum vector \\chi^a new quantities, which we designate as rotational-tidal Love numbers. All these Love numbers are gauge invariant in the usual sense of perturbation theory, and all vanish when the body is a black hole.

  1. Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Shaun K.

    Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Karim Said Warby Parker's Facebook page and explore the ways customers formulate questions and conversations,000 Facebook posts, consisting of photos, comments, and "likes". Using statistical analyses and qualitative

  2. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  3. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, A A

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  4. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Castrejon-Pita; G. Huelsz

    2006-10-12

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  5. Data Conversion in Residue Number System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilic, Zeljko

    ;2 Abstract This thesis tackles the problem of data conversion in the Residue Number System (RNS). The RNS has the use of RNS at the applications. In this thesis, we aim at developing efficient schemes for the conversion from the conventional representation to the RNS representation and vice versa. The conventional

  6. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  7. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  8. Calabi-Yau metrics for quotients and complete intersections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Braun, Volker; Brelidze, Tamaz; Douglas, Michael R.; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2008-05-22

    We extend previous computations of Calabi-Yau metrics on projective hypersurfaces to free quotients, complete intersections, and free quotients of complete intersections. In particular, we construct these metrics on generic quintics, four-generation quotients of the quintic, Schoen Calabi-Yau complete intersections and the quotient of a Schoen manifold with Z? x Z? fundamental group that was previously used to construct a heterotic standard model. Various numerical investigations into the dependence of Donaldson's algorithm on the integration scheme, as well as on the Kähler and complex structure moduli, are also performed.

  9. Status of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygmunt, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Peko, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Fissile Materials Disposition

    1998-12-31

    A planned new facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will be used to disassemble the nation`s inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium recovered from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. Sized to handle 35 metric tons of plutonium from pits and other sources over its 10-year operating life, the PDCF will apply the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) technology. ARIES process technology has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an integrated system is being demonstrated LANL. Four sites were considered for locating the PDCF: Pantex Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and Hanford Site. Each site offers a different opportunity for constructing the PDCF, ranging from a new building at Pantex Plant to using an existing building at Hanford Site or INEEL. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) to aid in site selection. This paper describes the initial scoping activities, preconceptual and conceptual design work, and the status of the PDCF.

  10. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James Scott (Englewood, CO); Wanlass, Mark Woodbury (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy Arthur (Conifer, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  11. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, J.S.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.

    1999-04-27

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device. 15 figs.

  12. A Comprehensive and Comparative Metric for Information Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    A Comprehensive and Comparative Metric for Information Security Steffen Weiß1 , Oliver Weissmann2 security GmbH, Germany Abstract Measurement of information security is important for organizations , Falko Dressler1* 1 Dept. of Computer Science 7, University of Erlangen, Germany 2 atsec information

  13. Harmonic maps on domains with piecewise Lipschitz continuous metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changyou

    Harmonic maps on domains with piecewise Lipschitz continuous metrics Haigang Li , Changyou Wang consider harmonic map from (, g) to a compact Rie- mannian manifold (N, h) Rk without boundary. We generalize the notion of stationary harmonic maps and prove their partial regularity. We also discuss

  14. Linear harmonic oscillator in spaces with degenerate metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Gromov

    2006-03-02

    With the help of contraction method we study the harmonic oscillator in spaces with degenerate metrics, namely, on Galilei plane and in the flat 3D Cayley-Klein spaces $R_3(j_2,j_3).$ It is shown that the inner degrees of freedom are appeared which physical dimensions are different from the dimension of the space.

  15. Quantitative Metrics of Social Response for Autism Diagnosis*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scassellati, Brian

    Quantitative Metrics of Social Response for Autism Diagnosis* Brian Scassellati Department and treatment of autism, a pervasive developmental disorder which results in selective impairment of social to address critical problems in diagnosing autism. We provide preliminary data and observations on how

  16. EERE Portfolio: Primary Benefits Metrics for FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    [EERE

    2011-11-17

    This collection of data tables shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for both the entire EERE portfolio of renewable energy technologies as well as the individual technologies. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  17. Structured Testing: A Testing Methodology Using the Cyclomatic Complexity Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    The purpose of this document is to describe the structured testing methodology for software testing, also uses the control flow structure of software to establish path cover- age criteria. The resultant testCabe, object oriented, software development, software diagnostic, software metrics, software testing

  18. Thermodynamics and the naked singularity in the Gamma-metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Lochan; D. Malafarina; T. P. Singh

    2010-09-23

    We investigate a possible way of establishing a parallel between the third law of black hole mechanics, and the strong version of the third law of thermodynamics. We calculate the surface gravity and area for a naked singular null surface in the Gamma-metric and explain in what sense this behaviour violates thermodynamics.

  19. A Case Study in Developing Process Unit Energy Metrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, J. L.; Van Atta, B.

    2006-01-01

    At the 2005 IETC Conference, KBC (Davis and Knight) submitted a paper on Integrating Process Unit Energy Metrics into a Plant Energy Managemenet System. For the 2006 conference, KBC wishes to submit a paper that details an actual case study where...

  20. Metrics-driven development of an autonomous indoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Differential drive Ground-truth camera Sonars and IR Pan-tilt unit IMU Platform: depth-only perception #12 Obstacle avoidance Lag estimator Drive controller Differential drive Horizontal scan Path tracking in large environments #12;Key metric of autonomy: mean time to failure #12;10 Atrium Lounge Hallway

  1. New set of metrics for the computational performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New set of metrics for the computational performance of IS-ENES Earth System Models TR/CMGC/14/73 U performance of Earth System Models is developed and used for an initial performance analysis of the EC models.................................................................................................................................5 2.1 List of Participating Earth System Models

  2. Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics and string theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei

    2009-05-15

    With the advent of supergravity and superstring theory, it is of great importance to study higher-dimensional solutions to the Einstein equations. In this dissertation, we study the higher dimensional Kerr-AdS metrics, and show how they admit...

  3. Dynamic Adaptive Search Based Software Engineering Needs Fast Approximate Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Mark

    1 Dynamic Adaptive Search Based Software Engineering Needs Fast Approximate Metrics Mark Harman. University College Dublin, Ireland. Abstract--Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) uses fitness functions to guide an automated search for solutions to challenging software engineering problems. The fitness

  4. Calculation and Optimization of Thresholds for Sets of Software Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabowski, Jens

    ,grabowski,waack}@cs.uni-goettingen.de Abstract. Many software quality models use software metrics to determine qual- ity attributes of software/IEC, 2005). To up- hold the required standard of quality, the assessment and assurance of software quality characteristics are an import part of the execution of software projects. In many models to assess the quality

  5. Using Software Metrics Tools for Maintenance Decisions: A Classroom Exercise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katchabaw, Michael James

    identify modules with low software quality; renovating those modules would be a step toward improving (Bauer) taught a senior under­ graduate course entitled ``Software Processes, Measure­ ments and Quality''. The course concentrated on the use of software metrics to evaluate software quality. We decided to use

  6. Metrics and Smoothing of TranslationInvariant Radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Michael

    Metrics and Smoothing of Translation­Invariant Radon Transforms Along Curves Michael Greenblatt 1: (617) 253­4358 Running head: Radon Transforms 1 This research was supported in part by NSF grant DMS­invariant Radon transforms along curves for # # # and p

  7. An effective theory of metrics with maximal acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Gallego Torromé

    2015-10-15

    A geometric theory for spacetimes whose world lines associated with physical particles have an upper bound for the proper acceleration is developed. After some fundamental remarks on the requirements that the classical dynamics for point particles should hold, the notion of generalized metric and a theory of maximal proper acceleration are introduced. A perturbative approach to metrics of maximal proper acceleration is discussed and we show how it provides a consistent theory where the associated Lorentzian metric corresponds to the limit when the maximal proper acceleration goes to infinity. Then several of the physical and kinematical properties of the maximal acceleration metric are investigated, including a discussion of the rudiments of the causal theory and the introduction of the notions of radar distance and celerity function. We discuss the corresponding modification of the Einstein mass-energy relation when the associated Lorentzian geometry is flat. In such context it is also proved that the physical dispersion relation is relativistic. Two possible physical scenarios where the modified mass-energy relation could be confronted against experiment are briefly discussed.

  8. Mining Simulation Metrics for Failure Triage in Regression Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veneris, Andreas

    are grouped by applying data-mining clustering algorithms. Fi- nally, the generated failure clustersMining Simulation Metrics for Failure Triage in Regression Testing Zissis Poulos1 , Andreas Veneris of failures can be exposed. These failures need to be properly grouped and distributed among engineers

  9. Methods, Metrics and Motivation for a Green Computer Science Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Way, Thomas

    and, more recently, economically sensible [13]. "Going Green" implies reducing your energy useMethods, Metrics and Motivation for a Green Computer Science Program Mujtaba Talebi and Thomas Way are uniquely positioned to promote greater awareness of Green Computing, using the academic setting

  10. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  11. Metric Attractors for Smooth Unimodal Maps Jacek Graczyk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, Duncan

    Metric Attractors for Smooth Unimodal Maps Jacek Graczyk #3; Dept. of Math. University of Paris XI 91405 Orsay Cedex France Duncan Sands CNRS, Dept. of Math. University of Paris XI 91405 Orsay Cedex attractor for some dynamics if the basin of attraction B(A) := fx : !(x) #26; Ag of A has positive Lebesgue

  12. Urgent need for a common metric to make precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    Letters Urgent need for a common metric to make precipitation manipulation experiments comparable of altered precipitation patterns, by contrast, have received far less atten- tion. The results of precipitation manipulation experiments were only recently synthesized for the first time (Wu et al., 2011

  13. Einstein static Universe in hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian G. Boehmer; Francisco S. N. Lobo; Nicola Tamanini

    2015-02-18

    Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity is a recent and novel approach to modified theories of gravity, which consists of adding to the metric Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian an f(R) term constructed a la Palatini. It was shown that the theory passes local tests even if the scalar field is very light, and thus implies the existence of a long-range scalar field, which is able to modify the dynamics in galactic and cosmological scales, but leaves the Solar System unaffected. In this work, motivated by the possibility that the Universe may have started out in an asymptotically Einstein static state in the inflationary universe context, we analyse the stability of the Einstein static Universe by considering linear homogeneous perturbations in the respective dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor representation of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. Considering linear homogeneous perturbations, the stability regions of the Einstein static universe are parametrized by the first and second derivatives of the scalar potential, and it is explicitly shown that a large class of stable solutions exists in the respective parameter space, in the context of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity.

  14. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, B K; Glenzer, S; Edwards, M J; Brandon, S; Clark, D; Town, R; Cerjan, C; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Springer, P; Moses, E; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S

    2011-12-16

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.

  15. The Multivariate Merit Factor of a Boolean T. Aaron Gulliver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Matthew Geoffrey

    The Multivariate Merit Factor of a Boolean Function T. Aaron Gulliver Dept. of Electrical metric, the multivariate merit factor (MMF) of a Boolean function, is presented, and various infinite recursive quadratic sequence constructions are given for which both uni­ variate and multivariate merit

  16. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  17. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat...

  19. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore »of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  20. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  1. Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Omar Yaghi

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Omar Yaghi

    2013-06-24

    Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, in the first of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 11th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

  2. Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Kathy Yelick

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathy Yelick

    2012-07-23

    Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Kathy Yelick, Associate Berkeley Lab Director, Computing Sciences, in the second of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 18th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

  3. The Conversion of Waste to Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.; Cheek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Almost every industrial operation produces some combustible waste, but conversion of this to useful energy is often more difficult than with other energy recovery projects and requires careful attention to design, operating and maintaining...

  4. ME 533: Energy Conversion Emily M Ryan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aspects of modern energy conversion systems, including traditional systems such as steam power plants, gas turbines and internal combustion engines and refrigeration systems, and renewable systems such as solar

  5. Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Shylesh

    2012-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

  6. Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Kathy Yelick

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Yelick, Kathy

    2013-06-24

    Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Kathy Yelick, Associate Berkeley Lab Director, Computing Sciences, in the second of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 18th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

  7. Radio frequency dc-dc power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivas, Juan, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    THIS THESIS addresses the development of system architectures and circuit topologies for dc-dc power conversion at very high frequencies. The systems architectures that are developed are structured to overcome limitations ...

  8. Collaboration on Topic Change in Conversation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howe, Mary

    1991-01-01

    Conversations are cooperatively achieved speech events. Analysis of topic changes shows that topic endings are negotiated by participants over a series of turns, using the following specific types of indicators: summary assessments, acknowledgment...

  9. Electrical power conversion is essential for improving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Electrical power conversion is essential for improving energy efficiency and harvesting renewable energy. Diploma Master of Science Embedded Systems Credits 120 ECTS, 24 months Starts in September universities of technology in the Netherlands - Delft University of Technology, Eindhoven University

  10. Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater...

  11. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production RTI International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels...

  12. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ebinarbiooilsupgrading.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels...

  13. First-of-its-Kind Carbon Capture and Conversion Demonstration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    First-of-its-Kind Carbon Capture and Conversion Demonstration Technology Opening in Texas First-of-its-Kind Carbon Capture and Conversion Demonstration Technology Opening in Texas...

  14. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    310, the Ocean the Ocean Energy Thermal Energy Conversionfor the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionOpen cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary

  15. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    making direct thermal energy storage methods, e.g. thosethermal shorting, that limits the energy conversion efficiency of direct thermoelectric energy conversion methods.

  16. Project Profile: Brayton Solar Power Conversion System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Power Conversion System Project Profile: Brayton Solar Power Conversion System Brayton Energy logo Brayton Energy, under the CSP R&D FOA, is looking to demonstrate the...

  17. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Thermochemical Conversion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Thermochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at...

  18. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the...

  19. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next-Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion...

  20. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the...

  1. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion You are accessing a document from...

  2. Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion Coal is the workhorse of our power industry, responsible for...

  3. Composites for Multi-energy conversion & waste heat recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Composites for Multi-energy conversion & waste heat recovery Composites for Multi-energy conversion & waste heat recovery Discusses development of a composite that transfers energy...

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons:...

  5. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol...

  6. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  7. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

  8. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent...

  9. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on...

  10. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  11. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

  12. Choosing good distance metrics and local planners for probabilistic roadmap motion planning methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayazit, Osman Burchan

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative evaluation of different distance metrics and local planners within the context of probabilistic roadmap methods for motion planning. Both C-space and Workspace distance metrics and local planners are considered...

  13. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front...

  14. Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelby, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    to (1) situate sustainability and its performance metrics inconcept of sustainability and their performance metrics. Thefor sustainability and the social performance metrics for

  15. Characterization of symmetric monotone metrics on the state space of quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Hansen

    2006-03-29

    The quantum Fisher information is a Riemannian metric, defined on the state space of a quantum system, which is symmetric and decreasing under stochastic mappings. Contrary to the classical case such a metric is not unique. We complete the characterization, initiated by Morozova, Chentsov and Petz, of these metrics by providing a closed and tractable formula for the set of Morozova-Chentsov functions. In addition, we provide a continuously increasing bridge between the smallest and largest symmetric monotone metrics.

  16. QUATERNIONIC KAHLER AND SPIN(7) METRICS ARISING FROM QUATERNIONIC CONTACT EINSTEIN STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassilev, Dimiter N.

    QUATERNIONIC K¨AHLER AND SPIN(7) METRICS ARISING FROM QUATERNIONIC CONTACT EINSTEIN STRUCTURES L construct left invariant quaternionic contact (qc) structures on Lie groups with zero and non-zero torsion, equipped with a certain qc structure, has a quaternionic K¨ahler metric as well as a metric with holonomy

  17. On Some Low Distortion Metric Ramsey Problems Yair Bartal # Nathan Linial + Manor Mendel # Assaf Naor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartal, Yair

    On Some Low Distortion Metric Ramsey Problems Yair Bartal # Nathan Linial + Manor Mendel # Assaf Naor December 17, 2002 Abstract In this note, we consider the metric Ramsey problem for the normed metric spaces, no four points of which embed isometrically in # p . 1 Introduction A Ramsey­type theorem

  18. Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics K. Matsumoto,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drange, Helge

    Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics K. Matsumoto,1 J. L. Sarmiento,2 R), Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07303, doi:10 of quantitative, data-based metrics of model skill. Further complications arise because models have different

  19. On the use of software quality metrics to im-prove physical properties of embedded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Flávio Rech

    On the use of software quality metrics to im- prove physical properties of embedded systems Ricardo Abstract: As software production achieves a growing importance in the embed- ded systems world, quality of the correlation between software quality metrics and physical metrics for embedded software. By means

  20. JBOOMT: Jade Bird Object-Oriented Metrics Tool* Tao XIE, Wanghong YUAN, Hong MEI, Fuqing YANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    on software productivity and software quality control has spurred the research on software metrics technology-oriented program and thus evaluate the quality of the software according to the specified hierarchical metrics quality, there exist needs for better technique of software development and software metrics during

  1. Rank and Relevance in Novelty and Diversity Metrics for Recommender Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castells Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Escuela Politécnica Superior, Departamento de Ingeniería for the definition of novelty and diversity metrics that unifies and generalizes several state of the art metrics. We a for- mal metric framework that unifies and generalizes several state of the art measures, and en

  2. WESTERN U.S. STREAM FLOW METRIC DATASET Providing scientific knowledge and technology to sustain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These are based on daily simulations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model, hydrologic modeling, variable infiltration capacity (VIC), flow metrics, aquatic communities Flow metrics metric da- taset makes it possible to study the effects of droughts, changes in snow- pack, water

  3. Advanced Space Propulsion Based on Vacuum (Spacetime Metric) Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harold E. Puthoff

    2012-02-03

    A theme that has come to the fore in advanced planning for long-range space exploration is the concept that empty space itself (the quantum vacuum, or spacetime metric) might be engineered so as to provide energy/thrust for future space vehicles. Although far-reaching, such a proposal is solidly grounded in modern physical theory, and therefore the possibility that matter/vacuum interactions might be engineered for space-flight applications is not a priori ruled out. As examples, the current development of theoretical physics addresses such topics as warp drives, traversable wormholes and time machines that provide for such vacuum engineering possibilities. We provide here from a broad perspective the physics and correlates/consequences of the engineering of the spacetime metric.

  4. On the existence of certain axisymmetric interior metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angulo Santacruz, C.; Batic, D.; Nowakowski, M.

    2010-08-15

    One of the effects of noncommutative coordinate operators is that the delta function connected to the quantum mechanical amplitude between states sharp to the position operator gets smeared by a Gaussian distribution. Although this is not the full account of the effects of noncommutativity, this effect is, in particular, important as it removes the point singularities of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem solutions. In this context, it seems to be of some importance to probe also into ringlike singularities which appear in the Kerr case. In particular, starting with an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor and a general axisymmetric ansatz of the metric together with an arbitrary mass distribution (e.g., Gaussian), we derive the full set of Einstein equations that the noncommutative geometry inspired Kerr solution should satisfy. Using these equations we prove two theorems regarding the existence of certain Kerr metrics inspired by noncommutative geometry.

  5. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

    2012-10-01

    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  6. UNIFIED APPROACH TO CONFORMALLY INVARIANT METRICS ON RIEMANN SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugawa, Toshiyuki

    -metrics aeR defined for all Riemann surfaces R i* *s said to be holomorphically contractive if f*aeR0 aeRR aeR kR for all Riemann surfaces R, where cR and kR den* *ote the Carath-metri* *cs aeR is said to be monotone if aeR0 aeR holds for each Riemann surface R and for each

  7. Cosmology via Metric-Independent Volume-Form Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The method of non-Riemannian volume-forms (metric-independent covariant integration measure densities on the spacetime manifold) is applied to construct a unified model of dynamical dark energy plus dark matter as a dust fluid resulting from a hidden Noether symmetry of the pertinent scalar field Lagrangian. Canonical Hamiltonian treatment and Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of the latter model are briefly discussed.

  8. Colliding Wave Solutions in a Symmetric Non-metric Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozay Gurtug; Mustafa Halilsoy

    2008-09-22

    A method is given to generate the non-linear interaction (collision) of linearly polarized gravity coupled torsion waves in a non-metric theory. Explicit examples are given in which strong mutual focussing of gravitational waves containing impulsive and shock components coupled with torsion waves does not result in a curvature singularity. However, the collision of purely torsion waves displays a curvature singularity in the region of interaction.

  9. The d-bar-Neumann operator and the Kobayashi metric 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Mijoung

    2004-09-30

    compactness of the partialdiff-Neumann operator and the property K in any convex domain. We also find a local property of the Kobayashi metric [Theorem IV.1], in which the domain is not necessary pseudoconvex. We find a more general condition than finite type... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. L2 Existence Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Globally Regular Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. Compactness in the partialdiff-Neumann Problem . . . . . . . 11 III INHERITANCE OF NONCOMPACTNESS OF THE partialdiff...

  10. Conversion of Units of Measurement Gordon S. Novak Jr. \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novak Jr., Gordon S.

    Conversion of Units of Measurement Gordon S. Novak Jr. \\Lambda Department of Computer Sciences conversion and unit checking in a programming language is described. Index Terms -- unit conversion, unit if the type system does not include units of measurement. Conversion of units must be done explicitly

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported Pt and Rh Catalysts William Propane conversion over alumina supported Pt and Rh (1 wt% metals loading) was examined under fuel rich conversion and almost complete propane conversion) so long as the metal particle size was sufficiently low

  12. On the electromagnetic constitutive laws that are equivalent to spacetime metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. H. Delphenich

    2014-09-17

    The raising of both indices in the components of the Minkowski electromagnetic field strength 2-form to give the components of the electromagnetic excitation bivector field can be regarded as being equivalent to an electromagnetic constitutive law, as well as being defined by the components of the spacetime metric. This notion is clarified, and the nature of the equivalent dielectric tensors and magnetic permeability tensors that are defined by some common spacetime metrics is discussed. The relationship of the basic construction to effective metrics is discussed, and, in particular, the fact that this effective metric is more general than the Gordon metric.

  13. Strong converse theorems using Rényi entropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Leditzky; Nilanjana Datta

    2015-06-08

    We use a R\\'enyi entropy approach to prove strong converse theorems for certain information-theoretic tasks which involve local operations and quantum (or classical) communication between two parties. These include state redistribution, coherent state merging, quantum state splitting, randomness extraction against quantum side information, and data compression with quantum side information. The method we employ in proving these results extends ideas developed by Sharma [arXiv:1404.5940] to prove the strong converse theorem for state merging. For state redistribution, we prove the strong converse property for the boundary of the entire achievable rate region in the $(e,q)$-plane, where $e$ and $q$ denote the entanglement cost and quantum communication cost, respectively. This extends a recent strong converse theorem for the quantum communication cost of state redistribution, proved by Berta et al. [arXiv:1409.4338]. For the other tasks as well, we provide new proofs for strong converse theorems which were previously established using smooth entropies.

  14. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  15. A Personalized System for Conversational Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goker, M H; Thompson, C A; 10.1613/jair.1318

    2011-01-01

    Searching for and making decisions about information is becoming increasingly difficult as the amount of information and number of choices increases. Recommendation systems help users find items of interest of a particular type, such as movies or restaurants, but are still somewhat awkward to use. Our solution is to take advantage of the complementary strengths of personalized recommendation systems and dialogue systems, creating personalized aides. We present a system -- the Adaptive Place Advisor -- that treats item selection as an interactive, conversational process, with the program inquiring about item attributes and the user responding. Individual, long-term user preferences are unobtrusively obtained in the course of normal recommendation dialogues and used to direct future conversations with the same user. We present a novel user model that influences both item search and the questions asked during a conversation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system in significantly reducing the time and nu...

  16. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  17. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels ? Bio-Oil Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stability and quality metrics for bio-oil Identify and minimize bio-oil impurities (ash elements, chlorides, water) that reduce the performance of downstream upgrading...

  18. Characterization of all possible orbits in the Schwarzschild metric revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. T. Hioe; David Kuebel

    2012-07-30

    All possible orbital trajectories and their analytical expressions in the Schwarzschild metric are presented in a single complete map characterized by two dimensionless parameters. While three possible pairs of parameters with different advantages are described, the parameter space that gives the most convenient reduction to the Newtonian case is singled out and used which leads to a new insight on Newtonian limits among other results. Numerous analytic relations are presented. A comparison is made with the widely used formulation and presentation given by S. Chandrasekhar.

  19. Polarizable vacuum analysis of the gravitational metric tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing-Hao Ye

    2009-03-21

    The gravitational metric tensor implies a variable dielectric tensor of vacuum around gravitational matter. The curved spacetime in general relativity is then associated with a polarizable vacuum. It is found that the number density of the virtual dipoles in vacuum decreases with the distance from the gravitational centre. This result offers a polarizable vacuum interpretation of the gravitational force. Also, the anisotropy of vacuum polarization is briefly discussed, which appeals for observational proof of anisotropic light propagation in a vacuum altered by gravitational or electromagnetic field.

  20. Metrics for the National SCADA Test Bed Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Philip A.; Mortensen, J.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2008-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program is providing valuable inputs into the electric industry by performing topical research and development (R&D) to secure next generation and legacy control systems. In addition, the program conducts vulnerability and risk analysis, develops tools, and performs industry liaison, outreach and awareness activities. These activities will enhance the secure and reliable delivery of energy for the United States. This report will describe metrics that could be utilized to provide feedback to help enhance the effectiveness of the NSTB Program.

  1. On the metric structure of space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochen Rau

    2010-09-28

    I present an analysis of the physical assumptions needed to obtain the metric structure of space-time. For this purpose I combine the axiomatic approach pioneered by Robb with ideas drawn from works on Weyl's "Raumproblem". The concept of a Lorentzian manifold is replaced by the weaker concept of an "event manifold", defined in terms of volume element, causal structure and affine connection(s). Exploiting properties of its structure group, I show that distinguishing Lorentzian manifolds from other classes of event manifolds requires the key idea of general relativity: namely that the manifold's physical structure, rather than being fixed, is itself a variable.

  2. User's Guide to the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, William

    2012-02-28

    The intent of this user guide is to provide a brief description of the functionality of the Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM) tool, including the expanded building re-tuning functionality developed for Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL). This document describes the tool's general functions and features, and offers detailed instructions for PNNL building re-tuning charts, a feature in ECAM intended to help building owners and operators look at trend data (recommended 15-minute time intervals) in a series of charts (both time series and scatter) to analyze air-handler, zone, and central plant information gathered from a building automation system (BAS).

  3. Widget:CrazyEggMetrics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThinWarsaw,What Is a SmallAnchorText JumpsourceCrazyEggMetrics Jump

  4. Property:ExplorationCostPerMetric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation,Property Edit with form HistoryExplorationCostPerMetric Jump to:

  5. Property:ExplorationTimePerMetric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation,Property Edit withExplorationTimePerMetric Jump to: navigation,

  6. The Food Crises: A quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagi, Marco; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely impacting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the US, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, while an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities and bonds to take ad...

  7. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  8. Polarization conversion loss in birefringent crystalline resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polarization conversion loss in birefringent crystalline resonators Ivan S. Grudinin,* Guoping Lin gallery modes in birefringent crystalline resonators are investigated. We experimentally investigate://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.002410 Crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are known for compact size

  9. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  10. Power Conversion APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Efficiency for different steam cycles. 17.2 Close cycle gas turbine: The closed cycle gas turbine has. POWER CONVERSION 17.1 Steam Cycle Different steam cycles have been well developed. A study by EPRI summarized the various advanced steam cycles which maybe available for an advanced coal power plant

  11. ENERGY SERIES "Emerging High Power Conversion Technologies"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    SEMINAR: ENERGY SERIES "Emerging High Power Conversion Technologies" Dujic Drazen Professor, Power of embedded renewable energy sources. Whatever the renewable source of the prime energy is (wind, solar, hydro, storage or use. This is where power electronics come into a play, as key enabling technology for flexible

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    demand due to emerging economies like China, India, and Brazil. Coal and natural gas resources 7296 OOcean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean the OTEC plant. The difference between gross power and in-plant power consumption needed to run all sweater

  13. Conversational Programming in Action Alexander Repenning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repenning, Alexander

    Conversational Programming in Action Alexander Repenning AgentSheets Inc. Boulder 80301, Colorado.0 culture, end-user programming, which is programming by end users with limited, if any, formal programming programming languages such as Logo have made programming substantially more accessible to end users. More

  14. Making Programming more Conversational Alexander Repenning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repenning, Alexander

    Making Programming more Conversational Alexander Repenning AgentSheets Inc. Boulder 80301, Colorado.0 culture, end-user programming--programming by end users with limited or even no formal programming programming languages such as Logo have made programming substantially more accessible to end-users. More

  15. 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1/124 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium (Introduction to Thermodynamics) Ron and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland 2/124 3.1: Energy Åbo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/124 What is energy? /1 "Energy is any quantity that changes

  16. Resonant conversion of massless neutrinos in supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunokawa, H; Rossi, A; Valle, José W F

    1996-01-01

    It has been noted for a long time that, in some circumstances, {\\sl massless} neutrinos may be {\\sl mixed} in the leptonic charged current. Conventional neutrino oscillation searches in vacuum are insensitive to this mixing. We discuss the effects of resonant massless-neutrino conversions in the dense medium of a supernova. In particular, we show how the detected \\bar\

  17. Solid-state power conversion handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarter, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    This new handbook is the first to be devoted to the field of solid-state power conversion. The material in this book is to be used in engineering practice and is oriented toward application rather than theory. The purpose of the book is to assemble in a single volume all the pertinent and comprehensive information necessary to meet the growing demands placed upon solid-state power conversion equipment. These demands include increased efficiency, improved reliability, higher packaging density, improved performance, and meeting safety and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements. The material presented includes a thorough analysis of fundamental electrical and magnetic aspects of power conversion plus thermal, protection, and reliability considerations. Attention is focused on semi-conductor and magnetic components and on analysis of various topologies. The handbook is organized into four sections. (1) Chapters 1-3 present the relations of various waveforms, transient components with emphasis on power semiconductors and magnetic components. (2) Chapters 4-12 deal with single-level conversion of rectifier circuits, filters, inverters and converters, feedback and stability analysis, and modulators and pulse-forming networks. (3) Chapters 13-16 discuss ancillary topics related to safety, EMC, thermal management, and reliability. (4) Chapters 17-19 cover design and operation of power supplies and systems from a detailed building block standpoint.

  18. Soft materials for linear electromechanical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antal Jakli; Nandor Eber

    2014-07-29

    We briefly review the literature of linear electromechanical effects of soft materials, especially in synthetic and biological polymers and liquid crystals (LCs). First we describe results on direct and converse piezoelectricity, and then we discuss a linear coupling between bending and electric polarization, which maybe called bending piezoelectricity, or flexoelectricity.

  19. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  1. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  2. A wavy way leading to the Kerr metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurtug, O

    2015-01-01

    From inherent non-linearity two gravitational waves, unless they are unidirectional, fail to satisfy a superposition law. They collide to develop a new spacetime carrying the imprints of the incoming waves. Same behaviour is valid also for any massless lightlike field. As a result of the violent collision process either a naked singularity or a Cauchy horizon (CH) develops. It was shown by Chandrasekhar and Xanthopoulos (CX) that a particular class of colliding gravitational waves (CGW) spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr metric for rotating black holes. This relation came to be known as the CX duality. Such a duality can be exploited as an alternative derivation for the Kerr metric as we do herein. We claim at the same time that the duality points to the deeper rooted wave - particle correlation in a futuristic quantum gravity. In such a scenario black hole acts as the representative of a particle while CGW spacetime stands for its wavelike complementary partner. Not each case gives rise to a CH but t...

  3. Optical Anisotropy of Schwarzschild Metric within Equivalent Medium Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Khorasani; Bizhan Rashidian

    2009-12-16

    It is has been long known that the curved space in the presence of gravitation can be described as a non-homogeneous anisotropic medium in flat geometry with different constitutive equations. In this article, we show that the eigenpolarizations of such medium can be exactly solved, leading to a pseudo-isotropic description of curved vacuum with two refractive index eigenvalues having opposite signs, which correspond to forward and backward travel in time. We conclude that for a rotating universe, time-reversal symmetry is broken. We also demonstrate the applicability of this method to Schwarzschild metric and derive exact forms of refractive index. We derive the subtle optical anisotropy of space around a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and uncharged blackhole in the form of an elegant closed form expression, and show that the refractive index in such a pseudo-isotropic system would be a function of coordinates as well as the direction of propagation. Corrections arising from such anisotropy in the bending of light are shown and a simplified system of equations for ray-tracing in the equivalent medium of Schwarzschild metric is found.

  4. Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

  5. Laser Ranging Delay in the Bi-Metric Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei M. Kopeikin; Wei-Tou Ni

    2006-03-02

    We introduce a linearized bi-metric theory of gravity with two metrics. The metric g_{ab} describes null hypersurfaces of the gravitational field while light moves on null hypersurfaces of the optical metric \\bar{g}_{ab}. Bi-metrism naturally arises in vector-tensor theories with matter being non-minimally coupled to gravity via long-range vector field. We derive explicit Lorentz-invariant solution for a light ray propagating in space-time of the bi-metric theory and disentangle relativistic effects associated with the two metrics. This anlysis can be valuable for future spaceborne laser missions ASTROD and LATOR dedicated to map various relativistic gravity parameters in the solar system to unparalleled degree of accuracy.

  6. Perturbations of the metric induced by back - reaction in the warm inflation scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    1999-12-20

    A second-order expansion for the quantum fluctuations of the matter field was considered in the framemork of the warm inflation scenario. The friction and Hubble parameters were expanded by means of a semiclassical approach. The fluctuations of the Hubble parameter generates fluctuations of the metric. These metric fluctuations produce an effective term of curvature. The power spectrum for the metric fluctuations can be calculated on the infrared sector.

  7. Cover art: issues in the metric-guided and metric-less placement of random and stochastic template banks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Mario Manca; Michele Vallisneri

    2010-01-14

    The efficient placement of signal templates in source-parameter space is a crucial requisite for exhaustive matched-filtering searches of modeled gravitational-wave sources. Unfortunately, the current placement algorithms based on regular parameter-space meshes are difficult to generalize beyond simple signal models with few parameters. Various authors have suggested that a general, flexible, yet efficient alternative can be found in randomized placement strategies such as random placement and stochastic placement, which enhances random placement by selectively rejecting templates that are too close to others. In this article we explore several theoretical and practical issues in randomized placement: the size and performance of the resulting template banks; the effects of parameter-space boundaries; the use of quasi-random (self avoiding) number sequences; most important, the implementation of these algorithms in curved signal manifolds with and without the use of a Riemannian signal metric, which may be difficult to obtain. Specifically, we show how the metric can be replaced with a discrete triangulation-based representation of local geometry. We argue that the broad class of randomized placement algorithms offers a promising answer to many search problems, but that the specific choice of a scheme and its implementation details will still need to be fine-tuned separately for each problem.

  8. Mitigating the Risks of Thresholdless Metrics in Machine Learning Kendrick Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page Jr., C. David

    Mitigating the Risks of Thresholdless Metrics in Machine Learning Evaluation by Kendrick Boyd on Empirical Evaluation 24 3.1 Introduction 24 3.2

  9. Energy-Momentum Distribution of the Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou and the Levi-Civita Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif

    2007-11-17

    This paper is devoted to compute the energy-momentum densities for two exact solutions of the Einstein field equations by using the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Papapetrou and M\\"{o}ller. The spacetimes under consideration are the Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou and the Levi-Civita metrics. The Weyl metric becomes the special case of the Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou solution. The Levi-Civita metric provides constant momentum in each prescription with different energy density. The Weyl-Lewis-Papapetrou metric yields all the quantities different in each prescription. These differences support the well-defined proposal developed by Cooperstock and from the energy-momentum tensor itself.

  10. Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

    2005-09-29

    This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

  11. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civilian Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People...

  12. Computational study of power conversion and luminous efficiency performance for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Computational study of power conversion and luminous efficiency performance for semiconductor, Singapore 639798, Singapore *volkan@stanfordalumni.org Abstract: We present power conversion efficiency (PCE) and luminous efficiency (LE) performance levels of high photometric quality white LEDs integrated with quantum

  13. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large will unavoidably affect pelagic fish... ­ Noise and water pollution ­ FAD effects ­ Entrainment and Impingement

  14. Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

    2011-01-01

    High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

  15. Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel UGA, ORNL research team engineers microbes for the direct conversion of biomass to fuel July 11, 2014 New research from the University of...

  16. World crude capacity, conversion capability inch upward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-12-19

    Reported world crude capacity increased almost 1 million b/d, while conversion processes--fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydrocracking, coking--increased more than 1.7 million b/d or 8.3%, according to the Journal's most recent survey of world refining capacity. As a measure of capacity growth in the past year, changes in distillation capacities (atmospheric plus vacuum) were calculated for three major refining regions. The year-to-year comparison indicates: for the US, an increase of 293,000 b/d, or 1.3%; for the European Economic Community (E.E.C.), an increase of 431,000 b/d, or 2.6%; and for Asia/Pacific, excluding China, an increase of 122,000 b/d, or 1.1%. In addition to the compiled data the paper describes the survey layout, regional changes, conversion units, hydroprocessing, company size, oxygenates, and construction.

  17. Authoritarianism in the Conversation of Gestures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herb, Terry R.; Elliott Jr., Robert E.

    1971-10-01

    AUTHORITARIANISM IN THE CONVERSATION OF GESTURES* Terry R. Herb and Robert F. Elliott, Jr. University of Alabama in Huntsville Current studies of attitudes have relied upon written responses and the most obvious form of communication, the verbal... appropriate to intensify nonverbal communication. As Goffman (1961: 106-110) has observed, the individual may perform the activities proscribed by the role but disidentify himself from it. The~ctof separating oneself from a role is termed role distance...

  18. Moderate pressure hydrocracking: A profitable conversion alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, M.G. (M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Pappal, D.A. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)); Pesek, C.L. (Akzo Chemicals, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking (MPHC) is a once-through hydrocracking process for the conversion of heavy gas oils to low-sulfur distillates and unconverted oil which is highly upgraded relative to the raw feed. Operating at lower pressure significantly reduces capital investment and results in substantially less hydrogen consumption. Furthermore, the process requirements for MPHC are within the range of many existing vacuum gas oil desulfurization units. Mobil Research and Development Corporation and Akzo Chemicals have been actively engaged in Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking research for more than ten years. Mobil's first commercial MPHC installation was successfully started up in 1983. Mobil operates five hydrocrackers, two of which are partial conversion MPHC designs that process heavy vacuum gas oils into middle distillate products. This research and operating experience has led to an advanced capability to apply hydrocracking conversion technology to heavy feedstocks under moderate pressure conditions. Akzo has commercialized a family of hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts which are combined to achieve the optimal balance between activity and selectivity for each specific refining application. The M.W. Kellogg Co. is a leading technology based international Engineering Construction company and has experience in the design, engineering and construction of 22 hydrocrackers. Mobil, Akzo and Kellogg have formed a partnership to offer MAK-MPHC and other full conversion hydrocracking technologies for license to the refining industry. This paper will present pilot plant and commercial results for Akzo catalysts in Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking applications. Specific process design features, typical refinery applications and the economic incentives for selecting MAK-MPHC will also be discussed.

  19. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  20. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01

    Repowering Project, Clean Coal Topical Report Number 20,P. and Nel, H. G. 2004, Clean coal conversion options using

  1. Solar-Driven Microbial Photoelectrochemical System for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hanyu

    2015-01-01

    Microbial Bioelectrocatalysis. Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5,Oxide Heteronanostructures. Energy Environ. Sci. 2011, 4,H. , Bioelectrochemical Energy Conversion. Appl. Microbiol.

  2. Integrating and Piloting Lignocellulose Biomass Conversion Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D. J.

    2009-06-15

    Presentation on NREL's integrated biomass conversion capabilities. Presented at the 2009 Advanced Biofuels Workshop in Denver, CO, Cellulosic Ethanol session.

  3. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  4. Apparatus for feeding an MTG conversion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, C.H.; Schreiner, M. Jr.

    1989-05-02

    A continuous system is described comprising: first distillation means; second distillation means; pressurized chemical reactor means containing dehydration catalyst; methanol-to-gasoline conversion reactor means containing conversion catalyst; means for passing a crude methanol feed containing a minor amount of water to an upper stage of the first distillation means; means for maintaining the first distillation means at a pressure at least equal to the pressure of the pressurized chemical reactor means; means for withdrawing dehydration product from pressurized chemical reactor means; means for adding dehydration product to an intermediate stage of the first distillation means; means for withdrawing from first distillation means a first overhead stream comprising essentially water-free dimethylether; means for withdrawing from first distillation means a first bottoms stream containing aqueous methanol; means for passing the dimethylether-containing first overhead stream from the first distillation means to methanol-to-gasoline conversion reactor means; means for passing the first bottoms stream containing aqueous methanol from the first distillation means to the second distillation means; means for withdrawing from second distillation means a second overhead stream comprising methanol; means for withdrawing from second distillation means a second bottoms stream comprising water; means for passing the second overhead methanol stream to pressurized chemical reactor means; and means for recycling the dehydration product to an intermediate stage of the first distillation means.

  5. Challenges Ahead Head movements and other social acts in conversations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    Challenges Ahead Head movements and other social acts in conversations Dirk Heylen University of face-to-face interactions. The fact that conversations are a type of joint activity involving social in functions that are served by the multitude of movements that people display during conversations. 1

  6. Central Eurasian Studies (CEUS) Uzbek Coffee & Conversation Hour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robeson, Scott M.

    (314 E. Kirkwood Avenue) Finnish Coffee & Conversation Hour WEDNESDAYS, 5:30-6:30 pm, IMU Starbucks, IMU Starbucks Tibetan Tea & Conversation Hour THURSDAYS, 6:00-7:00 pm, Anyetsang's Little Tibet Restaurant (415 E. 4th Street) Turkish Coffee & Conversation Hour FRIDAYS, 1:00-2:00 pm, IMU Starbucks Uyghur

  7. Stress and Cognitive Load in Multimodal Conversational Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    Stress and Cognitive Load in Multimodal Conversational Interactions Andreea Niculescu, Yujia Cao conversational interactions is determined by many influence parameters. Stress and cognitive load are two of them. In order to assess the impact of stress and cognitive load on the perceived conversational quality

  8. E2I EPRI Assessment Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E2I EPRI Assessment Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Report: E2I EPRI WP ­ 004 ­ US ­ Rev 1 #12;E2I EPRI Assessment - Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Table of Contents Introduction Assessment - Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Introduction E2I EPRI is leading a U.S. nationwide

  9. What's inside the cone? Numerically reconstructing the metric from observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bester, H.L.; Larena, J.; Van der Walt, P.J.; Bishop, N.T., E-mail: g07b1135@campus.ru.ac.za, E-mail: j.larena@ru.ac.za, E-mail: p.vanderwalt@ru.ac.za, E-mail: n.bishop@ru.ac.za [Department of Mathematics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa (South Africa)

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the possibility of using Gaussian process regression to smooth data on the current past null-cone for use as the input to a relativistic integration scheme. The algorithm we present is designed to reconstruct the metric of spacetime within the class of spherically symmetric dust universes, with or without a cosmological constant. Assuming that gravity is well described by General Relativity, we demonstrate how the algorithm can be employed to test the Copernican principle based on currently available observations. It is shown that currently available data is not sufficient for a conclusive result. The intrinsic noise present in realistic data presents a challenge for our smoothing algorithm and we discuss some of its limitations as well as possible extensions to it. We conclude by demonstrating how a direct determination of the cosmological constant is possible using redshift drift data.

  10. On the metric operator for quantum cylindrical waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan Varadarajan

    1999-10-12

    Every (1 polarization) cylindrical wave solution of vacuum general relativity is completely determined by a corresponding axisymmetric solution to the free scalar wave equation on an auxilliary 2+1 dimensional flat spacetime. The physical metric at radius R is determined by the energy, $\\gamma (R)$, of the scalar field in a box (in the flat spacetime) of radius R. In a recent work, among other important results, Ashtekar and Pierri have introduced a strategy to study the quantum geometry in this system, through a regularized quantum counterpart of $\\gamma (R)$. We show that this regularized object is a densely defined symmetric operator, thereby correcting an error in their proof of this result. We argue that it admits a self adjoint extension and show that the operator, unlike its classical counterpart, is not positive.

  11. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Li; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samara; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Grauzinyte, Migle; Wolverton, Christopher; Goedecker, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and allow to define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method is an useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms and high-throughput screenings.

  12. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.

  13. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  14. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    storage and direct solar energy conversion to work. FocusManagement and Solar Energy Conversion Applications By DusanThermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

  15. InGaAsP/InP intrastep quantum wells for enhanced solar energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Winnie Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Wells for Enhanced Solar Energy Conversion by Winnie ChenWells for Enhanced Solar Energy Conversion A dissertationan improvement in solar energy conversion efficiency due to

  16. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Azad

    2013-01-01

    Power Optimization and Control in Wind Energy Conversion Systemspower point tracking in wind energy conversion systems,”power point tracking of wind energy conversion systems based

  17. Experimental demonstration of bandwidth enhancement based on two-pump wavelength conversion in a silicon waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Shiming; Tien, En-Kuang; Huang, Yuewang; He, Sailing

    2010-01-01

    27887 Fig. 3. Measured unit conversion efficiencies and theFor comparison, unit conversion efficiency is introduced byc) the corresponding unit conversion efficiency for the two-

  18. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Azad

    2013-01-01

    77 5.2 Wind Energy Conversion System . . . . .Optimization and Control in Wind Energy Conversion SystemsAC matrix con- verter for wind energy conversion system,” in

  19. Gauge theory of gravity: Electrically charged solutions within the metric--affine framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedrich W. Hehl; José Socorro

    1998-03-10

    We find a class of electrically charged exact solutions for a toy model of metric-affine gravity. Their metric is of the Pleba\\'nski-Demia\\'nski type and their nonmetricity and torsion are represented by a triplet of covectors with dilation, shear, and spin charges.

  20. How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center.E., Program manager Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Introduction Data centers are among the most

  1. Measurement and Characterization of Link Quality Metrics in Energy Constrained Wireless Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    able to isolate key questions in energy-efficient protocol design. The scope of this paper is limited sensor networks, a good cost metric en- capsulating wireless link quality is essential to an energy-efficient metric may be and how it can be measured in an energy-efficient way. We present an experimental study

  2. How Dynamic is the Grid? Towards a Quality Metric for Grid Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakellariou, Rizos

    How Dynamic is the Grid? Towards a Quality Metric for Grid Information Systems Laurence Field CERN rizos@cs.man.ac.uk Abstract--Grid information systems play a core role in today's production Grid. Quality metrics for Grid information systems are required in order to compare different implementations

  3. Choosing Good Distance Metrics and Local Planners for Probabilistic Roadmap Methods \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, Lucia K.

    Choosing Good Distance Metrics and Local Planners for Probabilistic Roadmap Methods \\Lambda Nancy M evaluation of different distance metrics and local planners within the con­ text of probabilistic roadmap planners for use in motion planning methods, particularly probabilistic roadmap methods. Our study

  4. Deriving Coupling Metrics from Call Graphs Simon Allier, Stephane Vaucher, Bruno Dufour, and Houari Sahraoui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufour, Bruno

    widespread dynamic features: polymorphism and dynamic class loading. This paper therefore makes the following software engineering research as well as in industrial measurement programs. The existing coupling metrics loading that are difficult to capture by static analysis. Consequently, the derived metric values might

  5. Extension of the EGS theorem to metric and Palatini f(R) gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerio Faraoni

    2008-11-12

    By using the equivalence between metric and Palatini f(R) (or "modified") gravities with omega=0, -3/2 Brans-Dicke theories, it is shown that the Ehlers-Geren-Sachs theorem of general relativity is extended to modified gravity. In the case of metric f(R) gravity previously studied, this agrees with previous literature.

  6. EFW: A Cross-Layer Metric for Reliable Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Selfish Participants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nita-Rotaru, Cristina

    metrics have been designed assuming that each wireless mesh router participates honestly in the forwardingEFW: A Cross-Layer Metric for Reliable Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Selfish Participants.martignon@unibg.it Abstract--Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged as a flexible and low-cost network infrastructure

  7. Relaxational Metric Adaptation and Its Application to Semi-Supervised Clustering and Content-Based Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Dit-Yan

    Relaxational Metric Adaptation and Its Application to Semi-Supervised Clustering and Content of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong William K. Cheung Department of Computer it to improve the performance of content-based image retrieval systems through metric adaptation. Experimental

  8. Sharing and integration of cognitive neuroscience data: Metric and pattern matching across heterogeneous ERP datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Dejing

    heterogeneous ERP datasets Haishan Liu a,n , Gwen Frishkoff b , Robert Frank c , Dejing Dou a a Department in the sharing and integration of data from electrophysiological (ERP) studies of human brain function. The first challenge, ERP metric matching, is to identify correspondences among distinct summary features (``metrics

  9. Time-dependent kinetic energy metrics for Lagrangians of electromagnetic type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Sarlet; G. Prince; T. Mestdag; O. Krupkova

    2011-12-01

    We extend the results obtained in a previous paper about a class of Lagrangian systems which admit alternative kinetic energy metrics to second-order mechanical systems with explicit time-dependence. The main results are that a time-dependent alternative metric will have constant eigenvalues, and will give rise to a time-dependent coordinate transformation which partially decouples the system.

  10. Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier Neophytos Neophytou}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Large efforts in improving thermoelectric energy conversion are devoted to energy filtering design, ~40% improvement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved if the following conditions

  11. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.

    2011-06-03

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO?, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C??{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO?, allene, C?–C? olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water), decarbonylation (e.g., furan forms CO and allene), oligomerization (allene forms olefins and aromatics plus hydrogen), and alkylation (e.g., furan plus olefins). The product distribution was far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  12. Dirac Cone Metric and the Origin of the Spin Connections in Monolayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Yang

    2015-06-11

    We show that the modulation of the hopping amplitudes in the honeycomb lattice of the monolayer graphene uniquely defines a metric which corresponds to the shape of the Dirac cone. The spin connection of this effective metric field can be obtained from the microscopic tight-binding Hamiltonian exactly, completing the analogy between the sublattice pseudospin travelling in the monolayer graphene with ripples and strain fields, and the real spin $1/2$ fermion travelling in a curved space. The effective metric as seen by the sublattice pseudospin is different from the real space metric as defined by the two-dimensional manifold of the graphene monolayer. All relevant terms of the effective gauge field from the microscopic model is calculated exactly for a unimodular effective metric.

  13. Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2011-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.

  14. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  15. Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a next-generation thermionic solar energy conversion project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Stanford University, seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of photon-enhanced, microfabricated thermionic energy converters as a high-efficiency topping cycle for CSP electricity generation. With the potential to double the electricity output efficiency of solar-thermal power stations, this topping cycle application can significantly reduce the cost of solar-thermal electricity below that of the lowest-cost, fossil-fuel generated electricity.

  16. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  17. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1997-02-11

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

  18. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News Releases |NRELBiochemical Conversion

  19. Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmallHydrocarbon conversion Idaho

  20. Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A SOpenAshley, Ohio:Atchison-HoltAtlantaBiomass Conversions Inc

  1. Biochemical Conversion Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies forBig SavingsConversion »

  2. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), in collaboration with the nuclear industry, has been conducting research and development (R&D) activities on advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels for the last few years. The emphasis for these activities was on improving the fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization and increased power density for power upgrades, as well as collaborating with industry on fuel reliability. After the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, Conference Report 112-75, the U.S. Congress directed DOE-NE to: • Give “priority to developing enhanced fuels and cladding for light water reactors to improve safety in the event of accidents in the reactor or spent fuel pools.” • Give “special technical emphasis and funding priority…to activities aimed at the development and near-term qualification of meltdown-resistant, accident-tolerant nuclear fuels that would enhance the safety of present and future generations of light water reactors.” • Report “to the Committee, within 90 days of enactment of this act, on its plan for development of meltdown-resistant fuels leading to reactor testing and utilization by 2020.” Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-zirconium alloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, and operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The overall draft strategy for development and demonstration is comprised of three phases: Feasibility Assessment and Down-selection; Development and Qualification; and Commercialization. The activities performed during the feasibility assessment phase include laboratory scale experiments; fuel performance code updates; and analytical assessment of economic, operational, safety, fuel cycle, and environmental impacts of the new concepts. The development and qualification stage will consist of fuel fabrication and large scale irradiation and safety basis testing, leading to qualification and ultimate NRC licensing of the new fuel. The commercialization phase initiates technology transfer to industry for implementation. Attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance include improved reaction kinetics with steam and slower hydrogen generation rate, while maintaining acceptable cladding thermo-mechanical properties; fuel thermo-mechanical properties; fuel-clad interactions; and fission-product behavior. These attributes provide a qualitative guidance for parameters that must be considered in the development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. However, quantitative metrics must be developed for these attributes. To initiate the quantitative metrics development, a Light Water Reactor Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held October 10-11, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the structure and outcome of the two-day workshop. Questions regarding the content can be directed to Lori Braase, 208-526-7763, lori.braase@inl.gov.

  3. Fabrication and testing of an infrared spectral control component for thermophotovoltaic power conversion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis M. (Francis Martin), 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion is the direct conversion of thermal radiation to electricity. Conceptually, TPV power conversion is a very elegant means of energy conversion. A thermal source emits a radiative ...

  4. Investigation of proton focusing and conversion efficiency for proton fast ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartal, Teresa Jean

    2012-01-01

    2.2 Proton Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .plasma (LSP) simulations . . Proton Focusing and ConversionProton Focusing and Conversion Efficiency with Hemispherical

  5. Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    would cause. The analysis evaluates six factors for each industry: changes to prices; changes in production levels at existing facilities; changes to employment in the...

  6. Address conversion unit for multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fava, T.F.; Lary, R.F.; Blackledge, R.

    1987-03-03

    An address conversion unit is described for use in one processor in a multi-processor data processing system including a common memory, the processors and common memory being interconnected by a common bus including means for transferring address signals defining a common address space. The processor includes private bus means including means for transferring signals including address signals defining a private address space. A processor unit means is connected to the private bus means and includes means for transmitting and receiving signals including address signals over the private bus means for engaging in data transfers thereover. The address conversion unit is connected to the private bus means and common bus means for receiving address signals over the private bus means from the processor unit means in the private address space. The unit comprises: A. pointer storage means for storing a pointer identifying a portion of the common bus memory space; B. pointer generation means connected to receive a common bus address and for generating a pointer in response thereto for storage in the pointer storage means; and C. common bus address generation means connected to the private bus and the pointer storage means for receiving an address from the processor unit means and for generating a common bus address in response thereto. The common bus address is used to initiate transfers between the processor unit means and the common memory over the common bus.

  7. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  8. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. Free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for the space application are being conducted. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear powered. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Also, an overview is presented of proposed conceptual designs for the Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) using a free-piston Stirling engine and a liquid metal heat pipe receiver. Power extraction includes both a linear alternator and hydraulic output capable of delivering approximately 25 kW of electrical power to the electric utility grid. Target cost of the engine/alternator is 300 dollars per kilowatt at a manufacturing rate of 10,000 units per year. The design life of the ASCS is 60,000 h (30 y) with an engine overhaul at 40,000 h (20 y). Also discussed are the key features and characteristics of the ASCS conceptual designs.

  9. Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2008-08-28

    Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

  10. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  11. On the Computation of an Upper Bound on the Gap Metric for a Class of Nonlinear Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    1 On the Computation of an Upper Bound on the Gap Metric for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Vahid method and a previous method that is based on the direct computation. Index Terms-- Nonlinear systems in the gap metric. The computation of the gap metric for LTI system was developed by T. T. Georgiou [4

  12. A Metric Taxonomy for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Vehicles M.L. Cummings, Patricia Pina, Jacob W. Crandall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    1 A Metric Taxonomy for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Vehicles M.L. Cummings, Patricia Pina-system performance as well. To this end, this paper will describe a supervisory control metric taxonomy this taxonomy can be used to identify a robust set of metrics. I. Introduction The DoD's strategic roadmap

  13. The use of process metrics to evaluate product development projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kellam, Benjamin A. (Benjamin Alexander), 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Product development success is an important strategic factor in today's business environment. The ability to accurately predict the outcome of product development projects would be a useful strategic tool. This research ...

  14. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

  15. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a site specific update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-09-01

    As a followup to an FY-1984 cost/benefit study, a program was conducted in FY-1985 to transfer to the relevant DOE sites the information and technology for the direct conversion of transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW) by decontamination. As part of this work, the economic evaluation of the various TRUW volume reduction and conversion options was updated and expanded to include site-specific factors. The results show, for the assumptions used, that size reduction, size reduction followed by decontamination, or in situ decontamination are cost effective compared with the no-processing option. The technology transfer activities included site presentations and discussions with operations and waste management personnel to identify application opportunities and site-specific considerations and constraints that could affect the implementation of TRU waste conversion principles. These discussions disclosed definite potential for the beneficial application of these principles at most of the sites, but also confirmed the existence of site-specific factors ranging from space limitations to LLW disposal restrictions that could preclude particular applications or diminish expected benefits. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. On spherically symmetric metric satisfying the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Mei

    2008-02-28

    Generally speaking, there is a negative kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity; On the other hand, the negative kinetic energy term can be vanished by designating a special coordinate system. For general spherically symmetric metric, the question that seeking special coordinate system that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition is referred to solving a linear first-order partial differential equation. And then, we present a metric corresponding to the Reissner-Nordstrom solution that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition. Finally, we discuss simply the case of the Tolman metric.

  17. The behaviour of rods and clocks in general relativity, and the meaning of the metric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey R Brown

    2009-11-23

    The notion that the metric field in general relativity can be understood as a property of space-time rests on a feature of the theory sometimes called universal coupling -- the claim that rods and clocks "measure" the metric in a way that is independent of their constitution. It is pointed out that this feature is not strictly a consequence of the central dynamical tenets of the theory, and argued that the metric field would better be regarded as a (possibly emergent) field in space-time, rather than as the very fabric of space-time itself.

  18. Harmonicity of unit vector fields with respect to a class of Riemannian metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Baghban; E. Abedi

    2014-12-07

    The isotropic almost complex structures induce a Riemannian metric $g_{\\delta,\\sigma}$ on TM, which are the generalized type of Sasakian metric. In this paper, the Levi-Civita connection of $g_{\\delta,\\sigma}$ is calculated and the harmonicity of unit vector fields from $(M, g)$ to $(S(M), i*g_{\\delta,0})$ is investigated, where $i*g_{\\delta,0}$ is a particular type of induced metric $i*g_{\\delta,\\sigma}$. Finally, an important example is presented which satisfies in main theorem of the paper.

  19. A space-time characterization of the Kerr-Newman metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willie Wai-Yeung Wong

    2009-01-30

    In the present paper, the characterization of the Kerr metric found by Marc Mars is extended to the Kerr-Newman family. A simultaneous alignment of the Maxwell field, the Ernst two-form of the pseudo-stationary Killing vector field, and the Weyl curvature of the metric is shown to imply that the space-time is locally isometric to domains in the Kerr-Newman metric. The paper also presents an extension of Ionescu and Klainerman's null tetrad formalism to explicitly include Ricci curvature terms.

  20. Renormalization group flow and parallel transport with non-metric compatible connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian P. Dolan; Alex Lewis

    1999-04-16

    A family of connections on the space of couplings for a renormalizable field theory is defined. The connections are obtained from a Levi-Civita connection, for a metric which is a generalisation of the Zamolodchikov metric in two dimensions, by adding a family of tensors which are solutions of the renormalization group equation for the operator product expansion co-efficients. The connections are torsion free, but not metric compatible in general. The renormalization group flows of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions and the O(N)-model in three dimensions, in the large $N$ limit, are analysed in terms of parallel transport under these connections.

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  2. Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Albany, OR (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

  3. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of...

  4. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasgupta, Neil

    2014-01-01

    low-cost, high efficiency solar energy conversion devices.Awards under the SunShot Solar Energy Technologies Program.Photoelectrochemistry, Solar Energy Abstract Semiconductor

  5. Solar-Driven Microbial Photoelectrochemical System for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hanyu

    2015-01-01

    photo-anode based solar microbial energy conversion system,C. J. N. , Solar Energy Powered Microbial Fuel Cell with aLight Energy to Bioelectricity: Photosynthetic Microbial

  6. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydra...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Carbohydrates Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates DOE report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates. ctabwebinarcarbohydrates...

  7. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Symposium on...

  8. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Tutorials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition | Prof. Stacey Bent - Jun 3, 2013 Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  9. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Partners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    them for specific reductive or energy-generating processes. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  10. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Outside...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contact Elizabeth Mattson at emattson(at)stanford.edu. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  11. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical University of Denmark on computational modeling. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  12. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Team...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Staff Team & Research Slideshow Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of...

  13. EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the Paducah site; transportation of...

  14. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site;...

  15. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Science Subject Feed Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 > Continuously variable transmissions: theory and...

  16. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and Economics for Biochemical...

  17. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical feedstocks could reduce society's dependence on...

  18. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Bio-Oil Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading Challenge 2 Logistics and Compatibility with Existing Infrastructure Throughout Supply Chain...

  19. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  20. Suite of Cellulase Enzyme Technologies for Biomass Conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Suite of Cellulase Enzyme Technologies for Biomass Conversion National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  1. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    unit in an over-the-road truck system. schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  2. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in an Over the Road Diesel Powered Engine System by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste...

  3. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using thermoelectrics on a OTR truck schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  4. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and Peer Evaluation ace049schock2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  5. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and...

  6. The effect of selective solvent absorption on coal conversion. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    Using a pair of different recycle oils from Wilsonville and {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation (GPC) chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and elemental analysis, no significant differences were observed between the composition of the recycle oil and that portion of the oil not absorbed by the coal. For these complex mixtures, coals are not selective absorbants. Since most of the heteroatoms responsible for most of the specific interactions have been removed by hydrogenolyses, this is perhaps not surprising. To address the issue of the role of hydrogen bond donors in the reused as hydrogen donor coal, tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin were used as hydrogen donor solvents. This work is reported in detail in Section 2. The basic idea is that the presence of the t-butyl group on the aromatic ring will hinder or block diffusion of the hydrogen donor into the coal resulting in lower conversions and less hydrogen transferred with 2-t-butyltetralin than with tetralin. Observed was identical amounts of hydrogen transfer and nearly identical conversions to pyridine solubles for both hydrogen donors. Diffusion of hydrogen donors into the coal does not seem to play a significant role in coal conversion. Finally, in Section 3 is discussed the unfavorable impact on conversion of the structural rearrangements which occur when Illinois No. 6 coal is swollen with a solvent. We believe this rearrangement results in a more strongly associated solid leading to the diminution of coal reactions. Hydrogen donor diffusion does not seem to be a major factor in coal conversion while the structural rearrangement does. Both areas warrant further exploration.

  7. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N. R.; Brown, N. R.; Baek, J. S; Hanson, A. L.; Cuadra, A.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D. J.

    2014-04-30

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.

  8. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  9. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); DePoy, David Moore (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul Francis (Clifton Park, NY)

    2007-01-23

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  10. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); DePoy, David M. (Clifton Park, NY)

    2010-09-07

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  11. SECURITY METRICS: MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SECURITY TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SECURITY METRICS: MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SECURITY TECHNOLOGY Shirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division Information Technology Laboratory National and to protect their systems and information from security threats and risks. There have been many past efforts

  12. Greenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David; Horne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    CarbonPlanet, 2007, Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Country,In this discussion of greenhouse gas emissions and energyGreenhouse Gas Return on Investment: A New Metric for Energy

  13. Metrics for Evaluating Survivability in Dynamic Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    Survivability engineering is critical for minimizing the impact of disturbances to the operation of space systems. To improve the evaluation of survivability during conceptual design, metrics are proposed for the assessment ...

  14. Effective Levi-Civita Dilaton theory from Metric Affine Dilaton Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Scipioni

    1999-05-25

    We show how a Metric Affine theory of Dilaton gravity can be reduced to an effective Riemannian Dilaton gravity model. A simple generalization of the Obukhov-Tucker-Wang theorem to Dilaton gravity is then presented.

  15. Self-dual metrics on toric 4-manifolds: extending the Joyce construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Hugh Norman

    2009-01-01

    Toric geometry studies manifolds M2n acted on effectively by a torus of half their dimension, Tn. Joyce shows that for such a 4-manifold sufficient conditions for a conformal class of metrics on the free part of the ...

  16. Evaluation of transient agility metrics through unmanned simulation of the X-31 post-stall aircraft 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Shiloh Douglas

    1996-01-01

    for each axis of agility tests, and the performance improvements due to thrust vectoring are highlighted. The power loss rate and onset rate axial agility metrics are acceptable descriptors of an aircraft's ability to rapidly transition between energy...

  17. Optimization of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveform metrics to support vegetation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefsky, Michael

    Optimization of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveform metrics to support vegetation GLAS Optimization Remote sensing Vegetation structure The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) has optimized a noise coefficient which could be constant or vary according to observation period or noise

  18. SPECIFICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IFC BASED PERFORMANCE METRICS TO SUPPORT BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilising the sets ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEMS Elmer Morrissey1 & 2 , James O'Donnell1 & 2 , Marcus Keane1 and Vladimir

  19. Automated perfusion-weighted MRI metrics via localized arterial input functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Cory, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes and validates a new method for calculating perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) metrics, a non-invasive technique for calculating cerebral blood flow by tracking a bolus of contrast agent. Past methods to do ...

  20. Risk Measures Constituting Risk Metrics for Decision Making in the Chemical Process Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prem, Katherine

    2012-02-14

    monetization. Predicting incidents as leading metrics is pivotal to improving plant processes and, for individual and societal safety in the vicinity of the plant (portfolio). From this study it can be concluded that the comprehensive judgments of all the risks...

  1. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP; Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.;...

  2. FY 2014 Q3 RCA CAP Performance Metrics Report 2014-09-05.xlsx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    no later than CD-3. ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY12-FY14: 52 completions through 3rd Qtr. CD-4: Critical Decision-4, Approve Start of OperationsProject...

  3. Gravitational Analog of Faraday's Law via Torsion and a Metric with an Antisymmetric Part

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip D. Mannheim; J. J. Poveromo

    2014-08-25

    In this paper we show that in the presence of torsion and a metric with an antisymmetric part one can construct a gravitational analog of Faraday's law of electromagnetism.

  4. Sing a new song: English and Scottish metrical psalmody from 1549?1640 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duguid, Timothy Charles

    2011-11-23

    The Book of Psalms has occupied a privileged place in Christianity from its earliest years, but it was not until the sixteenth century that metrical versifications of the Psalms became popular. Because of the notable ...

  5. Asymptotic behavior of complete Ricci-flat metrics on open manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santoro, Bianca

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe the asymptotic behavior of complete Ricci-flat Kihler metrics on open manifolds that can be compactified by adding a smooth, ample divisor. This result provides an answer to a question addressed ...

  6. Parameter-space metric for all-sky semicoherent searches for gravitational-wave pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wette, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of all-sky searches for gravitational-wave pulsars is primarily limited by the finite availability of computing resources. Semicoherent searches are a widely-used method of maximizing sensitivity to gravitational-wave pulsars at fixed computing cost: the data from a gravitational-wave detector are partitioned into a number of segments, each segment is coherently analyzed, and the analysis results from each segment are summed together. The generation of template banks for the coherent analysis of each segment, and for the summation, requires knowledge of the metrics associated with the coherent and semicoherent parameter spaces respectively. We present a useful approximation to the semicoherent parameter-space metric, analogous to that presented in Wette and Prix [Phys. Rev. D 88, 123005 (2013)] for the coherent metric. The new semicoherent metric is compared to previous work in Pletsch [Phys. Rev. D 82, 042002 (2010)], and Brady and Creighton [Phys. Rev. D 61, 082001 (2000)]. We find that semi...

  7. Metrics For Evaluation of Behavior-Based Robotic Systems Amol Dattatraya Mali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mali, Amol D.

    Metrics For Evaluation of Behavior-Based Robotic Systems Amol Dattatraya Mali Dept. of computer science and engg. Arizona state university, Tempe, AZ 85287-5406, USA amol.mali@asu.edu Amitabha Mukerjee

  8. Analyzing an Adaptive Reputation Metric for Anonymity University of Illinois at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caesar, Matthew

    at Urbana-Champaign Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering nikita@illinois.edu Matthew Caesar a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller-based reputation metric that ensures mali- cious relays

  9. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Administration (NNSA) will remove up to 200 metric tons (MT) of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), in the coming decades, from further use as fissile material in U.S. nuclear...

  10. New AC-DC Power Factor Correction Architecture Suitable for High Frequency Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Seungbum

    This paper presents a novel ac-dc power factor correction (PFC) power conversion architecture for single-phase grid interface. The proposed architecture has significant advantages for achieving high efficiency, good power ...

  11. Constructing metric gravity's N-body non-linear Lagrangian from iterative, linear algebraic scaling equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordtvedt, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A method for constructing metric gravity's N-body Lagrangian is developed which uses iterative, liner algebraic euqations which enforce invariance properties of gravity --- exterior effacement, interior effacement, and the time dilation and Lorentz contraction of matter under boosts. The method is demonstrated by obtaining the full 1/c^4 order Lagrangian, and a combination of exterior and interior effacement enforcement permits construction of the full Schwarzschild temporal and spatial metric potentials.

  12. EDDY CURRENT INVERSION AND ESTIMATION METRICS FOR EVALUATING THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H. [Victor Technologies LLC, Bloomington, IN 47401 (United States); Knopp, Jeremy S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Aldrin, John C. [Computational Tools, Gurnee, IL 60031 (United States); Nyenhuis, John [Dept. of Electric Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2010-02-22

    In this paper, sophisticated eddy-current techniques incorporating model-based inverse methods were successfully demonstrated to measure the thickness and remaining-life of high-temperature coatings. To further assure the performance of these inverse methods, several estimation metrics including Fisher Information, Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), covariance, and singular value decomposition (SVD) are introduced. The connections and utility of these metrics are illustrated in the design of eddy current methods for estimating layer thickness, conductivity and probe liftoff.

  13. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.

  14. Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1 O. D. Knipe2 1 Presented located at the Station's Research Work Unit at Tempe, in cooperation with Arizona State Univer- sity quarter century has shown that conversion of Arizona chaparral to grass significantly increases water

  15. Converse Piezoelectric Effect Induced Transverse Deflection of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Converse Piezoelectric Effect Induced Transverse Deflection of a Free-Standing ZnO Microbelt Youfan transverse deflection of a single-crystal, free-standing ZnO microbelt as a result of converse piezoelectric applications as transverse actuators/sensors/switches and electric field induced mechanical deflectors

  16. Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ARTICLE Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar derived pseudo-lignin on cellulose conversion at the moderate to low enzyme loadings necessary for favorable economics, dilute acid pretreatment of Avicel cellulose alone and mixed with beechwood xylan

  17. Commercial considerations in conversion and UF{sub 6} transactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-02-01

    This article addresses various commercial considerations that result from the conversion of U3O8 into UF6 and the associated physical characteristics of natural UF6. Handling, transport, conversion, and enrichment of UF6 are discussed. Avenues of acquisition, including nation of origin, are also noted.

  18. High Efficiency Single Photon Detection via Frequency Up-Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwiat, Paul

    High Efficiency Single Photon Detection via Frequency Up-Conversion Aaron P. VanDevender and Paul G the much higher efficiency of silicon APDs at these wavelengths. We have used a Periodically Poled Lithium. We observed conversion efficiencies as high as 80%, and demonstrated scaling down to the single

  19. Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ko, Che Ming; Zhang, B. W.

    2007-01-01

    Quark and gluon jets traversing through a quark-gluon plasma not only lose their energies but also can undergo flavor conversions. The conversion rates via the elastic q((q) over bar )g -> gq((q) over bar )and the inelastic q (q) over bar gg...

  20. A converse Lyapunov theorem for asymptotic stability in probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hespanha, João Pedro

    1 A converse Lyapunov theorem for asymptotic stability in probability A.R. Teel, J.P. Hespanha, A. Subbaraman Abstract A converse Lyapunov theorem is established for discrete-time stochastic systems with non implies the existence of a continuous Lyapunov function, smooth outside of the attractor, that decreases

  1. Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong Ho Rong Yan Rajat Raina Eric P 15213 Facebook, 10 Hacker Way, Menlo Park CA 94025 Abstract In this paper, we explore salient questions

  2. Laboratory Scale Dip-Coating and Vacuum Conversion of Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory Scale Dip-Coating and Vacuum Conversion of Solution Deposited YBCO SANDIA NATIONAL) and $100K (ORNL) #12;FY 2003 Plans · Develop rapid solvent pyrolysis for the TFA-YBCO dip-coating process · Demonstrate continuous dip coating and solvent pyrolysis for meter length tapes · Investigate the conversion

  3. Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup

    Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

  4. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels February 7, 2013 Fuels synthesis insight forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. The team led by Los Alamos published the research. Trash to Treasure "Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical

  5. REPORT OF THE MIT CLIMATE CHANGE CONVERSATION COMMITTEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Professor in Building Technology Department of Architecture Elly Rostoum Communications Associate ClimateREPORT OF THE MIT CLIMATE CHANGE CONVERSATION COMMITTEE MIT AND THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE JUNE 2015 #12 the formation of the MIT Climate Change Conversation Committee, which was tasked to launch an open, campuswide

  6. Assured Fuel Supply: Potential Conversion and Fabrication Bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assured Fuel Supply: Potential Conversion and Fabrication Bottlenecks PNNL-16951 DRAFT Authors bottlenecks that may arise in the conversion and fuel fabrication steps when used in conjunction with the U.S.-sponsored Reliable Fuel Supply (RFS) reserve. Paper is also intended to identify pathways for assessing the magnitude

  7. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  8. Photonic Crystals for Enhancing Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIN, SHAWN-YU; FLEMING, JAMES G.; MORENO, JOSEPH A.

    2003-03-01

    Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) converts the radiant energy of a thermal source into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells. TPV has a number of attractive features, including: fuel versatility (nuclear, fossil, solar, etc.), quiet operation, low maintenance, low emissions, light weight, high power density, modularity, and possibility for cogeneration of heat and electricity. Some of these features are highly attractive for military applications (Navy and Army). TPV could also be used for distributed power and automotive applications wherever fuel cells, microturbines, or cogeneration are presently being considered if the efficiencies could be raised to around 30%. This proposal primarily examine approaches to improving the radiative efficiency. The ideal irradiance for the PV cell is monochromatic illumination at the bandgap. The photonic crystal approach allows for the tailoring of thermal emission spectral bandwidth at specific wavelengths of interest. The experimental realization of metallic photonic crystal structures, the optical transmission, reflection and absorption characterization of it have all been carried out in detail and will be presented next. Additionally, comprehensive models of TPV conversion has been developed and applied to the metallic photonic crystal system.

  9. Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-04-01

    In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

  10. Kaehler Algebra: Idempotents for Solutions with Symmetry in Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose G. Vargas

    2014-12-10

    With his Clifford algebra of differential forms, Kaehler's algebra addresses the overlooked manifestation of symmetry in the solutions of exterior systems. In this algebra, solutions with a given symmetry are members of left ideals generated by corresponding idempotents. These combine with phase factors to take care of all the dependence of the solution on $x^{i}$ and $% dx^{i}$ for each $\\partial /\\partial x^{i}=0$ symmetry. The maximum number of idempotents (each for a one-parameter group) that can, therefore, go into a solution is the dimensionality $n$ of the space. This number is further limited by non-commutativity of idempotents. We consider the tensor product of Kaehler algebra with tangent Clifford algebra, i.e. of valuedness. It has a commutative subalgebra of "mirror elements", i.e. where the valuedness is dual to the differential form (like in $dx\\mathbf{i}$, but not in $dx\\mathbf{j}$). It removes the aforementioned limitation in the number of idempotent factors that can simultaneously go into a solution. In the Kaehler calculus, which is based on the Kaehler algebra, total angular momentum is linear in its components, even it is not valued in tangent algebra. In particular, it is not a vector operator. We carry Kaehler's treatment over to the aforementioned commutative algebra. Non-commutativity thus ceases to be a limiting factor in the formation of products of idempotents representing each a one-parameter symmetry. The interplay of factors that emerges in the expanded set of such products is inimical to operator theory. For practical reasons, we stop at products involving three one-parameter idempotents ---henceforth call ternary--- even though the dimensionality of the all important spacetime manifold allows for four of them.

  11. Biostirling({trademark}): A small biomass power conversion system using an advanced stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.; Ziph, B.; McKeough, W.; Houtman, W.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past decade the need for small power conversion systems to serve rural and/or remote needs has increased dramatically. The requirements for systems <100 kW are very similar, whether the need is defined as {open_quotes}rural electrification{close_quotes} in developed countries, or as {open_quotes}village power{close_quotes} in developing countries. The availability of biomass fuel resources to serve such systems is not in doubt, be they agricultural, forestry, animal or urban wastes. The main inhibiting factor has been the absence of a biomass power conversion system characterized by: reliability, cost effectiveness, low pollution, and ease of maintenance. Stirling Thermal Motors of Ann Arbor, Michigan, is recognized as the leader worldwide in the development and application of Stirling engine technology. It is currently demonstrating a {open_quotes}BioStirling({trademark}){close_quotes} Power Conversion System which combines its unique STM4-120 engine rated at 25 kW with a proven commercial gasifier. The BioStirling({trademark}) proof-of-concept demonstration is funded by DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory and is to be completed in late 1996, with field demonstrations in 1997 and commercial availability 1998.

  12. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  13. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  14. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  15. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of gas hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburg, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburg, PA); Bockrath, Bradley C. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for converting methane hydrates to methanol, as well as hydrogen, through exposure to light. The process includes conversion of methane hydrates by light where a radical initiator has been added, and may be modified to include the conversion of methane hydrates with light where a photocatalyst doped by a suitable metal and an electron transfer agent to produce methanol and hydrogen. The present invention operates at temperatures below 0.degree. C., and allows for the direct conversion of methane contained within the hydrate in situ.

  16. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  17. Prediction and Realisation of Conversational Characteristics by Utilising Spontaneous Speech for Unit Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    lacks all the attitude, intention and spontaneity associated with everyday conversations. Unit selection sound more conversational without degrading naturalness. Index Terms: speech synthesis, unit selection, conversation, spontaneous speech, lexical fillers, filled pauses 1. Introduction Unit selection speech

  18. Development of Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversion at Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, Shaheen A; Lee, Denise L; Croft, Stephen; McElroy, Robert Dennis; Hertel, Nolan; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Cleveland, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on some source term modeling of uranyl nitrate (UN) as part of a comprehensive validation effort employing gamma-ray detector instrumentation for the detection of diversion from declared conversion activities. Conversion, the process by which natural uranium ore (yellowcake) is purified and converted through a series of chemical processes into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), has historically been excluded from the nuclear safeguards requirements of the 235U-based nuclear fuel cycle. The undeclared diversion of this product material could potentially provide feedstock for a clandestine weapons program for state or non-state entities. Given the changing global political environment and the increased availability of dual-use nuclear technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency has evolved its policies to emphasize safeguarding this potential feedstock material in response to dynamic and evolving potential diversion pathways. To meet the demand for instrumentation testing at conversion facilities, ORNL developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant. This work investigates gamma-ray signatures of UN circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluates detector instrumentation sensitivity to UN for safeguards applications. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the UN gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10-90g U/L of naturally enriched UN will be presented. A range of gamma-ray lines was examined and self-attenuation factors were calculated, in addition to attenuation for transmission measurement of density, concentration and enrichment. A detailed uncertainty analysis will be presented providing insights into instrumentation limitations to spoofing.

  19. Discussion topic and observed behavior in couples' problem-solving conversations: Do problem severity and topic choice matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Hannah C; Hanna, Mariam A; Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2013-01-01

    Behavior in Couples' Problem-Solving Conversations: DoBehavior in Couples' Problem-Solving Conversations: DoSanford, K. (2003). Problem-solving conversations in

  20. Ex Parte Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion Factor Rulemaking |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSof 2005 atHouse Environmental1-01inOctober 11, 2012