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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

5

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

7

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

8

Mathematical simulation and X-ray diffraction investigation of the crystal structure of 1-phenyl-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm for using a priori generation of crystal structures by the discrete modeling method for the interpretation of data obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments is considered. The crystal structure of 1-phenyl-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran is mathematically simulated using the discrete modeling of molecular packings and studied by X-ray diffraction. The simulation is performed for two isomers of the initial chemical compound that are possible from the viewpoint of the mechanism of the chemical reaction used in the synthesis of this compound. Appropriate models that can serve as starting models for solving and refining the crystal structure with the use of X-ray diffraction data are chosen from a complete set of calculated structural models in accordance with specific criteria. The structure is solved using a starting model calculated using the discrete modeling method and refined by the full-matrix least-squares procedure.

Maleev, A. V., E-mail: andr_mal@mail.ru; Zhitkov, I. K.; Potekhin, K. A. [Vladimir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

10

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a plantation about 15-year-old in the Les Cedres area, near Montreal (45820H N, 73854H W). Trees in open

Bandettini, Peter A.

11

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical feedstock for production of a range of important industrial chemicals, primarily acetic acid, formaldehyde, methyl methacrylate and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)....

12

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

Information Center

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S.1766  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

SR/OIAF/2002-06 Release date: March 2002 This report analyzes the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766.

14

Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Tertiary Storage: Current Status and Future Trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report summarizes current state of the art in tertiary storage systems. We begin with a comprehensive discussion of magnetic tape and optical storage technologies. This is followed by a classification of commercial products based on their performance characteristics. Our analysis of product data indicates that in contrast to disk technology, tertiary storage products have significant variablility in terms of data transfer rates as well as other performance figures. We then summarize efforts in the areas of operating systems, databases and advanced applications to integrate tertiary storage. We point out that different assumptions about the underlying technology result in entirely different algorithms and system design. We conclude the report with a speculation of future trends. 1 Introduction With the recent improvements in network and processor speeds, several data intensive applications have become much more feasible than ever before. Examples of such applications include digit...

S. Prabhakar; D. Agrawal; A. El Abbadi; A. Singh; A. El; Abbadi A. Singh

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter SD SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO By D. J. Nichols in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal

17

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

18

Methyl Ester Sulfonates Supplement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl Ester Sulfonates Supplement 18509 September 2006 Supplement September 2006.pdf Chemithon 3179

19

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will controlled by diffusion in the biofilm near the outlet of the reactor. A fundamental parameter and control in bioreactors equipped with some degree of instrumentation, fundamental knowledge for the proper handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, Volume III. Volatile

20

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, weed-eater, shovel, and a rake. A chipper, compost bin, or a large rented trash dumpster may be useful

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Period-Unit: Download Series History ... 51: 64: 59: 70: 70: 62: 2009-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 41: 44: 49: 61: 49: 50: 2004-2013: Other ...

22

U.S. Oxygenate Production - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History; Fuel Ethanol: 855: 877: 891: 868: 849: 852: 1981-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 48: 55: 54: 51 ...

23

Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In response to a Congressional request, EIA examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

Joanne Shore

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Room Temperature Aging Study of Butyl O-rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Tests showed that sealing force values for these suspect o-rings were much lower than expected and their physical properties were very sensitive to further post curing at elevated temperatures. Further testing confirmed that these o-rings were approximately 50% cured versus the typical industry standard of > 90% cured. Despite this condition, all suspect o-rings fully conformed to their QC acceptance requirements, including their individual product drawing requirements.

Mark Wilson

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

25

Atmospheric Methyl Chloride  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

steel flasks and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The...

26

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A Brief Survey Of Tertiary Storage Systems And Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report summarizes current state of the art in tertiary storage systems. We also summarize the current technologies and research efforts to integrate tertiary storage in operating systems, databases and advanced applications. Appeared in ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, ACM SAC, San Jose Feb.-Mar. 1997 1 Introduction With the recent improvements in network and processor speeds, several data intensive applications have become much more feasible than ever before. These applications are characterized by very large computational and storage requirements. In the present commercial setting and most likely in the near future, the only practical solution for storing such enormous amounts of data is Work partially supported by a research grant from NSF/ARPA/NASA IRI9411330, and from NSF CDA9421978 and by a research gift from NEC Japan. tertiary storage. Although tertiary storage, in particular magnetic tapes, has been used solely for archiving or backup purposes, the exploding stora...

S. Prabhakar; D. Agrawal; A. El Abbadi; A. Singh; A. El; Abbadi A. Singh

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

North Burbank Unit Tertiary Recovery Pilot Test. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the last fifteen months of the project, fresh water injection was continued, while efforts were made to raise injection rates. Chemical analyses of fluids showed that production of surfactant components and polyacrylamide declined steadily almost to the vanishing point in all the producers. The oil production rate has declined slowly since reaching its peak level of 286 BPD in April 1978, and appears to be on an exponential decline curve which projects the continuation of tertiary oil production several years into the future. As of August 11, 1979 (expiration date), the total oil production rate was about 195 BPD at a water-oil ratio of about 66. At that time, a total of 153,500 barrels of tertiary oil had been recovered. It is predicted that 283,000 barrels of tertiary oil will be recovered if the pilot is operated to the economic limit of the wells. This will require an additional 9 years at present rates of injection.

Trantham, J.C. (ed.)

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

30

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter SW A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By R.M. Flores of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

31

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

32

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzeneof benzene to phenol (and catechol), and toluene toa multi-component PH, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and the meta-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U interested in fuel comparisons Thousands each year Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) National gasoline survey Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 23 cities throughout the U.S. Summer of 1988

34

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by pure cultures of butane-degrading bacteria. Appl.of K s values for MTBE by butane- degrading bacteria (52).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

The Friction and Wear Behaviors of (quinazolin-4-ones)-3-methyl-butyl Borate as Additive in Liquid Paraffin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been growing concern for the use of mineral oils because of the worldwide interest in environmental issues. This has promoted the use of ash less additives as environmental friendly lubricants. A potential ash less additive containing N, B, ... Keywords: Synthesis, Quinazolin-4-ones, Borate, Additive, Friction and wear behaviors

Ouyang Ping; Zhang Xianming

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Tertiary Containment in a Multi-Room Tritium Facility  

SciTech Connect

An experimental system to provide tertiary containment at Mound has been upgraded to support a new multi-room tritium handling facility. This system is used to remove tritium from room air in the event of primary (process) and secondary (glovebox) containment failure. The upgraded system includes a faster response time, piping and valves that are more leaktight, and a new control panel that better indicates the system status and operating conditions.

Kent, L. R.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Scheduling Tertiary I/O in Database Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of scheduling I/O requests for tertiary storage libraries to improve performance. The focus is on scheduling policies that process all requests on a loaded medium before unloading it. For single drive settings an efficient algorithm that produces optimal schedules is developed. For multiple drives the problem is shown to be NP-Complete. Efficient and effective heuristics are presented for the multiple drives case. The scheduling policies developed achieve significant performance gains over more naive first come first server policies. The study is general enough to be applicable to any storage library handling removable media, such as tapes or optical disks.

Sunil Prabhakar; Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi; Ambuj Singh

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Controlling DNA Methylation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. In the bacteria there are distinct enzymes while one is capable of cleaving DNA, the other protects DNA by modification. The complementary function provided by the set of enzymes offers a defense mechanism against the phage infection and DNA invasion. The incoming DNA is cleaved sequence specifically by the class of enzymes called restriction endonuclease (REase). The host DNA is protected by the sequence specific action of matching set of enzymes called the DNA methyltransferase (MTase). The control of the relative activities of the REase and MTase is critical because a reduced ratio of MTase/REase activity would lead to cell death via autorestriction. However too high a ratio would fail to provide protection against invading viral DNA. In addition a separate group of proteins capable of controlling R-M proteins have been identified in various restriction-modification (R-M) systems which are called C proteins (Roberts et al., 2003).

40

Use of a Balloon and N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Treatment of Arteriovenous Fistula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

Doenmez, Halil, E-mail: hdonmez68@yahoo.com; Mavili, Ertugrul [Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Toker, Birguel; Oztuerk, M. Halil; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki [SB Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

NIGREY,PAUL J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

Information Center

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran. Battelle ...

44

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Contact PNNL About This Technology ...

45

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

Gillham, T.H.

1997-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

46

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

47

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

48

Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

Seaborg, G.T.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

51

Hydrogen Oxidation Catalysis by a Nickel Diphosphine Complex with Pendant tert-Butyl Amines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A bis-diphosphine nickel complex with t-butyl functionalized pendant amines [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2]2+ has been synthesized. It is a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of base. The turn-over rate of 50 s 1 under 1.0 atm H2 at a potential of –0.77 V vs the ferrocene couple is 5 times faster than the rate reported heretofore for any other molecular H2 oxidation catalyst. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. Computational resources were provided by the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Yang, Jenny Y.; Chen, Shentan; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Rakowski DuBois, Mary

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via...

53

Monitoring Electricity Consumption in the Tertiary Sector- A Project within the Intelligent Energy Europe Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electricity consumption in the tertiary sector in the EU is still increasing and a further increase is expected of more than 2 % per year during the next 15 years. This sector includes companies and institutions of public and private services with heterogeneous economic and energy-related characteristics. Building managers and decision-makers are not enough informed about the electricity consumption structure and electricity-saving potentials. Within the EU Intelligent Energy project EL-TERTIARY an overview of existing studies showed that the availability of disaggregated data on electricity consumption and its use by purpose (lighting, office equipment, ventilation, air conditioning, etc.) is poor. The methods of determining the types of end-uses are weak; most studies are based on calculations and estimations, only a few on measurement. In addition, many of the results are not published. EL-TERTIARY developed an internet-based methodology for monitoring electricity consumption. It was applied in more than 120 case studies in 12 EU countries. They cover various types of buildings: offices, schools, universities, kindergartens, hotels, supermarkets, and hospitals evaluating more than 900 technical systems. On the background of ongoing activities on EU level, such as directives, research and implementation projects the paper illustrates the concept of EL-TERTIARY, the newly developed methodology for the documentation of building audits and monitoring as well as selected results.

Plesser, S.; Fisch, M. N.; Gruber, E.; Schlomann, B.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

De Poorter, Gerald L. (Los Alamos, NM); Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Tri-n-Butyl-Phophate Liquid: A Force Field Comparative Study  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to compare the performance of four force fields in predicting thermophysical properties of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in the liquid phase. The intramolecular force parameters used were from the Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER) force field model. The van der Waals parameters were based on either the AMBER or the Optimized Potential for Liquid Simulation (OPLS) force fields. The atomic partial charges were either assigned by performing quantum chemistry calculations or utilized previously published data, and were scaled to approximate the average experimental value of the electric dipole moment. Canonical ensemble computations based on the aforementioned parameters were performed near the atmospheric pressure and temperature to obtain the electric dipole moment, mass density, and self-diffusion coefficient. In addition, the microscopic structure of the liquid was characterized via pair correlation functions between selected atoms. It has been demonstrated that the electric dipole moment can be approximated within 1% of the average experimental value by virtue of scaled atomic partial charges. The liquid mass density can be predicted within 0.5-1% of its experimentally determined value when using the corresponding charge scaling. However, in all cases the predicted self- diffusion coefficient is significantly smaller than a commonly quoted experimental measurement; this result is qualified by the fact that the uncertainty of the experimental value was not available.

Cui, Shengting [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Ye, Xianggui [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

Rudisill, T.S.

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

57

Field pilot tests for tertiary recovery using butane and propane injection  

SciTech Connect

This work describes a pilot project for tertiary recovery of liquid hydrocarbons through LPG injection in water-out sections of the Bolivar reservoir in La Pena Field, Santa Cruz, Boliva. The promising results obtained in the initial field miscibility tests, as well as the results from a mathematical model built to stimulate and evaluate the tertiary recovery project, directed subsequent work into a cyclic scheme for enhanced recovery. This scheme is explained and injection production data is presented. Field facilities built to handle both the injected LPG and the produced oil-LPG mixture are described. The oil/LPG ratio and the LPG recovered/injected fraction are the main factors measured in this to make further considerations for a full scale project.

Pacheco, E.F.; Garcia, A.I.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Tertiary application of a hydrocarbon miscible flood; Rainbow Keg River B Pool  

SciTech Connect

The Rainbow Keg River B pool EOR scheme calls for placement of a 12% (net after recycle)-original-HCPV miscible bank in the crestal region of the pool. This bank will be chased vertically downward with more than 1 PV of dry gas. The injected solvent and chase gas will push the oil/water contact (OWC) downward as the previously injected water is produced. A tertiary oil bank will be formed in the region previously occupied by the water. This paper reports tertiary flood performance, results of the 1987 reservoir simulation study, and the operational strategy and problems encountered in monitoring the flood. The well-completion technique implemented to operate the flood is described, and the scheme economics is reviewed.

Nagel, R.G.; Hunter, B.E.; Peggs, J.K.; Fong, D.K. (Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary (CA)); Mazzocchi, E. (EBCO Auctioneers International Inc. (CA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

PROPERTIES OF THE CLOSE-IN TERTIARY IN THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM V401 CYG  

SciTech Connect

V401 Cyg is a quadruple system in which the spectroscopic signature of a close-in tertiary and a distant visual companion star were reported. Orbital properties of the close-in companion should provide valuable information on the formation of close binaries and stellar dynamical interaction. By analyzing new times of minimum light together with those collected from the literature, we discovered that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of V401 Cyg shows a cyclic change with a short period of 3.5 yr and a semi-amplitude of 0.00436 days while it undergoes an upward parabolic variation. Those photoelectric and CCD data covered more than two cycles and were analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of the tertiary companion. The mass of the third body was determined to be M{sub 3}sin i' = 0.65({+-} 0.08) M{sub Sun }, which is close to the value estimated from the spectroscopic data (M{sub 3} {approx} 0.64 M{sub Sun }). This reveals that the orbital inclination of the tertiary was about i' {approx} 90 Degree-Sign , indicating that the contact components of V401 Cyg have the possibility of being eclipsed by the tertiary at an orbital distance of about 3.0 AU, and it may be a triply eclipsing hierarchical triple system. The upward parabolic change indicates a period increase at a rate of (P-dot{sub 2} = 1.5 x 10{sup -7} revealing a mass transfer from the secondary to the primary (M-dot{sub 2} = 5.9 x 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). This is consistent with the predictions of the theory of thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) suggesting that V401 Cyg is undergoing an expanding-orbit stage in the TRO cycles.

Zhu, L.-Y.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhou, X.; Li, L.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liu, L.; Liu, N.-P., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

OECD THEMATIC REVIEW OF TERTIARY EDUCATION COUNTRY BACKGROUND REPORT FOR SWEDEN Swedish National Agency for Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Government as an input to the OECD Thematic Review of Tertiary Education. The document was prepared in response to guidelines the OECD provided to all participating countries. The guidelines encouraged the author(s) to canvass a breadth of views and priorities on tertiary education issues. The opinions expressed are not necessarily those of the Swedish Government, the OECD or its Member countries. Sweden has granted the

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

The Influence of the Linker Geometry in Bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one) Ligands on Solution-Phase Uranyl Affinity  

SciTech Connect

Seven water-soluble, tetradentate bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one) (bis-Me-3,2-HOPO) ligands were synthesized that vary only in linker geometry and rigidity. Solution phase thermodynamic measurements were conducted between pH 1.6 and pH 9.0 to determine the effects of these variations on proton and uranyl cation affinity. Proton affinity decreases by introduction of the solubilizing triethylene glycol group as compared to un-substituted reference ligands. Uranyl affinity was found to follow no discernable trends with incremental geometric modification. The butyl-linked 4Li-Me-3,2-HOPO ligand exhibited the highest uranyl affinity, consistent with prior in vivo decorporation results. Of the rigidly-linked ligands, the o-phenylene linker imparted the best uranyl affinity to the bis-Me-3,2-HOPO ligand platform.

Szigethy, Geza; Raymond, Kenneth

2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

63

Butyl benzyl phthalate suppresses the ATP-induced cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma HOS cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an endocrine disruptor present in the environment, exerts its genomic effects via intracellular steroid receptors and elicits non-genomic effects by interfering with membrane ion-channel receptors. We previously found that BBP blocks the calcium signaling coupled with P2X receptors in PC12 cells (Liu and Chen, 2006). Osteoblast P2X receptors were recently reported to play a role in cell proliferation and bone remodeling. In this present study, the effects of BBP on ATP-induced responses were investigated in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. These receptors mRNA had been detected, named P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y5, P2Y9, and P2Y11, in human osteosarcoma HOS cells by RT-PCR. The enhancement of cell proliferation and the decrease of cytoviability had both been shown to be coupled to stimulation via different concentrations of ATP. BBP suppressed the ATP-induced calcium influx (mainly coupled with P2X) and cell proliferation but not the ATP-induced intracellular calcium release (mainly coupled with P2Y) and cytotoxicity in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Suramin, a common P2 receptor's antagonist, blocked the ATP-induced calcium signaling, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity. We suggest that P2X is mainly responsible for cell proliferation, and P2Y might be partially responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. BBP suppressed the calcium signaling coupled with P2X, suppressing cell proliferation. Since the importance of P2X receptors during bone metastasis has recently become apparent, the possible toxic risk of environmental BBP during bone remodeling is a public problem of concern.

Liu, P.-S., E-mail: pslediting@mail.scu.edu.t [Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Shihlin, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-Y. [Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Shihlin, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Martian Methyl Chloride. A lesson in uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MSL Lander Curiosity has recently detected methyl halides coming from heated samples of Martian soil. This is reminiscent of similar findings in the Viking Lander spacecraft. In the 1970s a consensus developed quickly explaining the methyl halides as contamination originating from the spacecraft, and ignoring lines of evidence that the two compounds originated from Mars, and that they could not have originated from the proposed spacecraft chemistry. I discuss why this consensus developed from the understanding of biochemistry and geochemistry of 1976, despite its implausibility. Subsequent explanations for the Viking methyl halides are more plausible but still not proven. The Curiosity rover results are also being explained as a result of on-spacecraft chemistry. I urge caution in this interpretation, in light of the historical Viking example: it is better to leave unexplained data unexplained than to lock in an explanation that precludes future developments.

Bains, William

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

66

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

Information Center

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Association Behavior of Poly (methyl methacrylate-b-methacrylic acid-b-methyl methacrylate) in Aqueous Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABA type tri-block amphiphilic polyelectrolyte consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate-block-methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-b-MAA-b-MMA)) was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization technique ...

Yao, Jia

68

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents opposed-flow diffusion flame data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and uses the experiments to validate an improved skeletal mechanism consisting of 648 species and 2998 reactions. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

69

RNA tertiary interactions in the large ribosomal subunit: The A-minor motif  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of the 2.4-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui reveals the existence of an abundant and ubiquitous structural motif that stabilizes RNA tertiary and quaternary structures. This motif is termed the A-minor motif, because it involves the insertion of the smooth, minor groove edges of adenines into the minor groove of neighboring helices, preferentially at C-G base pairs, where they form hydrogen bonds with one or both of the 2' OHs of those pairs. A-minor motifs stabilize contacts between RNA helices, interactions between loops and helices, and the conformations of junctions and tight turns. The interactions between the 3' terminal adenine of tRNAs bound in either the A site or the P site with 23S rRNA are examples of functionally significant A-minor interactions. The A-minor motif is by far the most abundant tertiary structure interaction in the large ribosomal subunit; 186 adenines in 23S and 5S rRNA participate, 68 of which are conserved. It may prove to be the universally most important long-range interaction in large RNA structures.

Nissen, Poul; Ippolito, Joseph A.; Ban, Nenad; Moore, Peter B.; Steitz, Thomas A. (Yale University); (Yale University); (Yale Unversity)

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

70

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Structural Basis for Methyl Transfer by a Radical SAM Enzyme  

SciTech Connect

The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes RlmN and Cfr methylate 23S ribosomal RNA, modifying the C2 or C8 position of adenosine 2503. The methyl groups are installed by a two-step sequence involving initial methylation of a conserved Cys residue (RlmN Cys{sup 355}) by SAM. Methyl transfer to the substrate requires reductive cleavage of a second equivalent of SAM. Crystal structures of RlmN and RlmN with SAM show that a single molecule of SAM coordinates the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Residue Cys{sup 355} is S-methylated and located proximal to the SAM methyl group, suggesting the SAM that is involved in the initial methyl transfer binds at the same site. Thus, RlmN accomplishes its complex reaction with structural economy, harnessing the two most important reactivities of SAM within a single site.

Boal, Amie K.; Grove, Tyler L.; McLaughlin, Monica I.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Booker, Squire J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU); (Penn)

2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

72

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may be used to selectively remove water from a fermentation broth thus concentrating calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Compared to competing technologies that extract undissociated acids from a volatile fatty acid fermentation broth, extracting water with tertiary amines allows for higher pH levels in the broth resulting in greater productivity. Specifically, triethylamine and N,N-diethyl-methylamine in a 1:2 volumetric mixture are superior to any other examined mixture or single amine for extracting water at 40[]C, the proposed fermentation temperature (Lee, 1993; Davison et al., 1966, 1967). Once the acid salts have been concentrated, a variety of techniques are available to convert the concentrated salts into other products such as ketones, alcohols, and acids. At low temperatures, the low-molecular-weight amine mixture has a high affinity for water. By raising the temperature 20 to 25[]C, the water separates from the amine allowing for convenient solvent regeneration of the amine. The distribution coefficients, [] , measure the selectivity of concentrating calcium salts in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients generally vary as follows: [] thus, there is less selectivity as the aliphatic group increases in size. The amine mixture was used to extract water from actual fermentation broth to determine whether possible surfactants in the broth interfere with the extraction. Prior to extraction, the fermentation broth was adjusted to pH 11.5 by adding a small amount of lime. The high pH precipitate protein which can be recycled to the fermentor or collected for animal feed. Through 15 extraction runs, no degradation of the amine was observed.

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

74

Structural Analysis of a Ni-Methyl Species in Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase from Methanothermobacter marburgensis  

SciTech Connect

We present the 1.2 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Ni-methyl species that is a proposed catalytic intermediate in methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the enzyme that catalyzes the biological formation of methane. The methyl group is situated 2.1 {angstrom} proximal of the Ni atom of the MCR coenzyme F{sub 430}. A rearrangement of the substrate channel has been posited to bring together substrate species, but Ni(III)-methyl formation alone does not lead to any observable structural changes in the channel.

Cedervall, Peder E.; Dey, Mishtu; Li, Xianghui; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Hedman, Britt; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (Michigan); (SLAC); (UMM)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Understanding the redox shuttle stability of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene (DBDB) has been synthesized as a new redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. DBDB can easily dissolve in carbonate-based electrolytes, which facilitates its practical use in lithium-ion batteries; however, it has poor electrochemical stability compared to 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The structures of DBDB and DDB were investigated using X-ray crystallography and density functional calculations. The structures differ in the conformations of the alkoxy bonds probably due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in the case of DBDB. We investigated reaction energies for decomposition pathways of neutral DBDB and DDB and their radical cations and found little difference in the reaction energies, although it is clear that kinetically, decomposition of DBDB is more favorable.

Zhang, Z.; Zhang, L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L.; Amine, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A 57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to advance Oxyhydrochlorination technology to an integrated engineering-scale process. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Finding of No Significant Impact Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for

78

Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

North and west central Texas. Mitchell EOR (enhanced oil recovery) projects yield tertiary oil in Wise and Jack counties  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced oil recovery project utilizing a miscible LPG process provides Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. engineers with a springboard for other miscible flood projects while yielding incremental tertiary oil that otherwise would remain in the ground. The LPG flood project is in the Alvord (3,000-ft Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas. The field had been waterflooded for 14 yr, and was producing near its economic limit under waterflood, the alternative to starting a tertiary project would have been to abandon the field. The LPG flood process was chosen because liquefied petroleum gases are miscible with oil at the low pressures that must be maintained in shallow reservoirs such as the Alvord Strawn. Propane was determined to be the suitable LPG for the project because of its availability and ease of handling.

Mickey, V.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Geometry and reservoir heterogeneity of tertiary sandstones: a guide to reservoir continuity and geothermal resource development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

External and internal continuity of Tertiary sandstones are controlled by various factors including structural trends, sand body geometry, and the distribution of mineral framework, matrix, and intersticies within the sand body. Except for the limits imposed by faults, these factors are largely inherited from the depositional environment and modified during sandstone compaction and cementation. Sandstone continuity affects energy exploration and production strategies. The strategies range in scope from regional to site-specific and closely parallel a sandstone hierarchy. The hierarchy includes subdivisions ranking from genetically related aquifer systems down to individual reservoirs within a fault-bounded sandstone. Volumes of individual reservoirs are 50% less to 200% more than estimated from conventional geologic mapping. In general, mapped volumes under-estimate actual volumes where faults are nonsealing and overestimate actual volumes where laterally continuous shale breaks cause reductions in porosity and permeability. Gross variations in these pore properties can be predicted on the basis of internal stratification and sandstone facies. Preliminary analyses indicate that large aquifers are found where barrier and strandplain sandstones parallel regional faults or where fluvial (meandering) channels trend normal to regional faults. Within these sand bodies, porosity and permeability are highest in large-scale crossbedded intervals and lowest in contorted, bioturbated, and small-scale ripple cross-laminated intervals.

Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithium and Dimethyl Carbonate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of chemically synthesized lithium methylcarbonate (CH 3 OCOmolecular structures of lithium methyl carbonate (CH 3 OCO 2FTIR study also suggests that lithium methyl carbonate has

Zhuang, Guorong V.; Yang, Hui; Ross Jr., Philip N.; Xu, Kang; Jow, T. Richard

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

High-throughput sequencing of cytosine methylation in plant DNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to that in flowering plants around repeat regions [15]. The green algae Chlorella sp. NC64A and Volvox carteri show very little methylation in non-CpG contexts in genes, and greatly reduced or absent non-CpG methylation at repetitive regions, with Volvox carteri... showing greatly reduced methylation in all contexts compared to other plant species [15]. Similarly, the distributions of methyla- tion in the green algae Chlamydomonas, while not wholly divergent from those in flowering plants [49], show much lower levels...

Hardcastle, Thomas J

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

84

Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96 % of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65 % across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

Joseph A. Bedell; Muhammad A. Budiman; Andrew Nunberg; Robert W. Citek; Dan Robbins; Joshua Jones; Elizabeth Flick; Theresa Rohlfing; Jason Fries; Kourtney Bradford; Jennifer Mcmenamy; Michael Smith; Heather Holeman; Bruce A. Roe; Graham Wiley; Ian F. Korf; Pablo D. Rabinowicz; Nathan Lakey; W. Richard Mccombie; Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh; Robert A. Martienssen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management  

SciTech Connect

Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

The comparison of sulfide CoMo/?-Al2O3 and NiMo/?-Al2O3 catalysts in methyl palmitate and methyl heptanoate hydrodeoxygenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrodeoxygenation of methyl palmitate and methyl heptanoate as the model compounds of bio-oil in the presence of sulfided CoMo/?-Al2O3 and NiMo/?-Al2O3 catalysts was studied at the temperature ... Keywords: CoMoS/?-Al2O3, NiMoS/?-Al2O3, biofuels, hydrodeoxygenation, methyl heptanoate, methyl palmitate

Irina V. Deliy; Evgenia N. Vlasova; Alexey L. Nuzhdin; Galina A. Bukhtiyarova

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Investigating Sequestration Potential of Carbonate Rocks during Tertiary Recovery from a Billion Barrel Oil Field, Weyburn, Saskatchewan: the Geoscience Framework (IEA Weyburn CO2 Monitoring Project)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration Potential of Carbonate Rocks during Tertiary Sequestration Potential of Carbonate Rocks during Tertiary Recovery from a Billion Barrel Oil Field, Weyburn, Saskatchewan: the Geoscience Framework (IEA Weyburn CO 2 Monitoring and Storage Project) G. Burrowes (Geoffrey_Burrowes@pancanadian.ca; 403-290-2796) PanCanadian Resources 150 - 9 th Avenue S.W., P.O. Box 2850 Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2P 2S5 C. Gilboy (cgilboy@sem.gov.sk.ca; 306-787-2573) Petroleum Geology Branch, Saskatchewan Energy and Mines 201 Dewdney Avenue East Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4N 4G3 Introduction In Western Canada the application of CO 2 injection for enhanced, 'tertiary' oil recovery is a relatively recent addition to the arsenal available to reservoir engineers. The first successful application of CO 2 as a miscible fluid in Western Canada began in 1984 at Joffre Field, a

89

RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS  

SciTech Connect

In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.

Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Alvarez, Walter

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Piceance basin, western Colorado  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas samples were collected for geochemical analyses from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the Piceance basin in western Colorado to: 1) determine the origin of gases (i.e., microbial versus thermogenic), 2) determine the thermogenic source rock(s) for the gas-rich Williams Fork Formation, and 3) assess the nature of gas migration. Mud logging gases were sampled approximately every 60 m between 350 and 2800 m and analyzed for "C compositions and CI/C,-3 ratios. Samples collected from low gas content intervals above 1950 m define two parallel trends of increasing "Cc, content with depth. Data from the first trend are based on eighteen analyses and range from-69.9 to-38.3%o (R 2 = 0.92). These data suggest a microbial and mixed microbial/thermogenic origin for methane. Only one sample from above 1950 m contained sufficient amounts of C2for isotopic analysis (813 CC2 =-27.0%o at 1718 m). Data from the second trend are based on seven analyses and are offset by approximately +20%o compared with the primary trend at comparable depths. These data range from-65.0 to-38.5%0 (R' = 0.84). 813c ci and C,/CI-3data from both trends are similar when viewed on a crossplot, thus suggesting that large-scale, vertical gas migration has occurred. Migration was probably aided by fractures that formed during maximum burial and peak gas generation. Except for one sample collected at 1718 m, "CC2compositions above 1950 m were not determined due to insufficient sample sizes. Below 1950 m, gas contents abruptly increase and approach 10-4' gas units. These gases have "C compositions indicative of thermogenic origin. Gases between 1950 and 2450 m have relatively uniform geochemistries (8"Cc, =-39.9 0?.3%ol 613C C2 =-27.4 I?.i%ol CI/Cl-3 = 0-91 0?.03), and are chemically distinct and therefore Renetically different from gases between 2450 and 2791 M (513C ci =-37.9 +-O.2%og 813C C2 =-26.4 0?.5%09 CI/Cl-3 = 0.88 0?.01). Gases of the latter group were probably derived from coalbeds that comprise the Cameo Group, as abundant coals are found between 2450 and 2630 m. Only three thin coalbeds occur within the Coal Ridge Group between 1950 and 2450 m, so gases from this interval were probably derived from interbedded shales. Core and cuttings samples were also collected and sealed in cans from several intervals for geochemical analyses. Canned methanes at or above 858 m are "C-enriched by 13 to 33%o compared with logging methanes at equivalent intervals. Below 1934 m, however, 813C ci values for core and cuttings are comparable to logging gas values. This observation suggests that 813 Cc, discrepancies above 858 m are related to low gas contents in the core and cutting samples. Therefore, geochemical data from core and cuttings were not used to assess migration or to interpret gas origin.

Katz, David Jonathan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

92

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

93

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

94

Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND R. P. MASON. 2006. Mercury methylation by dissimilatoryPRUCHA, AND G. MIERLE. 1991. Mercury methylation by sulfate-AND J. M. SIEBURTH. 1993. Mercury biogeochemical cycling in

Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

finding alternatives to Outlook Specialty crops and methylNumber 3 Steve Fennimore Outlook Non-fumigant approaches to

Browne, Greg T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

BLAST BIOLOGY--A STUDY OF THE PRIMARY AND TERTIARY EFFECTS OF BLAST IN OPEN UNDERGROUND PROTECTIVE SHELTERS  

SciTech Connect

Dogs, pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice were exposed to nuclear detonatiors in two open underground pantitioned shelters. The shelters were of similar constructions and each was exposed to separate detonations. Each inner chamber filled through its own orifice; thus four separate pressure enviromments were obtained. An aerodynamic mound was placed over the escape hatch of each structure to determine its effect on the pressurecurve shape inside the chamber. In one test a sieve plate bolted across the top of the mound was evaluated. Wind protective baffles of solid plate and of heavy wire screen were installed in the shelters to compare primary and tertiary blast effects on dogs. The shelters also contained static and dynamic pressure gages, radiation detectors, telemetering devices, and, in one test, air-temperature measuring instruments, dustcollecting trays, and eight pigs for the biological assessment of thermal effects. One dog was severely injured from tertiary blast effects associated with a maximal dynamic pressure (Q) of 10.5 psi, and one was undamaged with a maximal Q of 2 psi. Primary blast effects resulting from peak overpressures of 30.3, 25.5, 9.5. and 4.1 psi were minimal. The mortality was 19 per cent of the mice exposed to a peak pressure of 30.3 psi and 5 and 3 per cent of the guinea pigs and mice exposed to a peak pressure of 25.5 psi. Many of the rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice sustained slight lung hemorrhages at maximum pressures of 25.5 and 30.3 psi. Eardrum perforation data for all species, except mice, were recorded. Following shot 2, thermal effects were noted. Animals of the groups saved for observation have died from ionizing-radiation effects. (auth)

Ricmond, D.R.; Taborelli, R.V.; Bowen, I.G.; Chiffelle, T.L.; Hirsch, F.G.; Longwell, B.B.; Riley, J.G.; White, C.S.; Sherping, F.; Goldizen, V.C.; Ward, J.D.; Wetherbe, M.B.; Clare, V.R.; Kuhn, M.L.; Sanchez, R.T.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Network-based classification of recurrent endometrial cancers using high-throughput DNA methylation data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DNA methylation, a well-studied mechanism of epigenetic regulation, plays important roles in cancer. Increased levels of global DNA methylation is observed in primary solid tumors including endometrial carcinomas and is generally associated with silencing ... Keywords: DNA methylation, Steiner tree, cancer recurrence, classification, protein-protein interaction network, random walk

Jianhua Ruan; Md. Jamiul Jahid; Fei Gu; Chengwei Lei; Yi-Wen Huang; Ya-Ting Hsu; David G. Mutch; Chun-Liang Chen; Nameer B. Kirma; Tim H. Huang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

Information Center

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

Information Center

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In AEO2009, E10a gasoline blend containing 10 percent ethanolis assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California RFG, as opposed to the 5.7-percent blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7-percent blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0 percent oxygen content under the CAA provisions in effect at that time

Information Center

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Inputs & Utilization Inputs & Utilization Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline.

102

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

103

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

104

Effect of Gradient Sequencing on Copolymer Order?Disorder Transitions: Phase Behavior of Styrene/n-Butyl Acrylate Block and Gradient Copolymers  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of gradient sequence distribution in copolymers on order-disorder transitions, using rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering to compare the phase behavior of styrene/n-butyl acrylate (S/nBA) block and gradient copolymers. Relative to block sequencing, gradient sequencing increases the molecular weight necessary to induce phase segregation by over 3-fold, directly consistent with previous predictions from theory. Results also suggest the existence of both upper and lower order-disorder transitions in a higher molecular weight S/nBA gradient copolymer, made accessible by the shift in order-disorder temperatures from gradient sequencing. The combination of transitions is speculated to be inaccessible in S/nBA block copolymer systems due to their overlap at even modest molecular weights and also their location on the phase diagram relative to the polystyrene glass transition temperature. Finally, we discuss the potential impacts of polydispersity and chain-to-chain monomer sequence variation on gradient copolymer phase segregation.

Mok, Michelle M.; Ellison, Christopher J.; Torkelson, John M. (NWU); (UMM)

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

105

Solvent extraction of technetium from alkaline waste media using bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6  

SciTech Connect

The crown ether bis-4,4`(5`)[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 can be utilized in a solvent-extraction process for the removal of technetium as pertechnetate ion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from solutions simulating highly radioactive alkaline defense wastes (``tank wastes``) stored at several sites in the United States. The process employs non-halogenated and non-volatile diluents and modifiers and includes an efficient stripping procedure using only water. More than 95% of the pertechnetate present at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M in Melton Valley (Oak Ridge, TN) and Hanford (Washington) tank-waste simulants was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts using 0.02 M bis-4,4`(5`)[(tertbutyl)cyclohexano]- 18-crown-6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar{reg_sign} M diluent at 25 C. Similarly, for both simulants, more than 98% of the pertechnetate contained in the solvent was back-extracted following two cross-current stripping contacts using deionized water.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Liver Hypertrophy After Percutaneous Portal Vein Embolization: Comparison of N-Butyl-2-Cyanocrylate Versus Sodium Acrylate-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Particles in a Swine Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Percutaneous portal vein embolization (PPVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant before hepatic resection. The ideal embolic material has not yet been determined. We compared N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate (NBCA) with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles using a swine model. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs underwent PPVE. Six pigs (group A) were embolized with NBCA, and 6 pigs (group B) were embolized with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles. Computed tomographic volumetry of the embolized lobe (EL) and the nonembolized lobe (NEL), along with liver function tests, was performed before and at 14 and 28 days after embolization. Tissue samples from both lobes were taken 14 and 28 days after PPVE. Results: NEL-volume and NEL-ratio increases were significantly higher in group A at 14 and 28 days after PPVE (78 and 52% and 91 and 66%, respectively) than in group B (32 and 12% and 28 and 10%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Percent change of the EL-volume was significantly higher for group A at 28 days after PPVE. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding hepatocyte proliferation on the NEL and apoptosis on the EL at both time intervals. Conclusion: PPVE using NBCA is more efficient and causes more NEL hypertrophy than microspheres.

Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Theocharis, Stamatis, E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School (Greece); Ptohis, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikptohis@yahoo.gr; Alexopoulou, Efthimia, E-mail: ealex64@hotmail.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Mantziaras, George, E-mail: gmantziaras@yahoo.com [Academy of Athens, Biomedical Research Foundation (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos L., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Brountzos, Elias N., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

"Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). figure 1 Figure 1. Mercury health risks Health advisory from the CALFED Science Program to limit consumption of fish, in order to avoid excessive accumulation of Hg. Methylated Hg is biomagnified up the food chain, attaining high levels in some types of sportfish. http://science.calwater.ca.gov/images/scinews_hg_da_lg.jpg

108

Nonradiometric and radiometric testing of radioiodine sorbents using methyl iodide  

SciTech Connect

A nonradiometric test of adsorbents and adsorbers with normal methyl iodide (CH/sub 3//sup 127/I) is desirable. Use of methyl radioiodide (CH/sub 3//sup 131/I) requires special precautions and facilities and results in bed contamination. However, first it must be established to what extent the removal of CH/sub 3//sup 127/I by adsorbents is indicative of the removal of CH/sub 3//sup 131/I. An experimental apparatus was built and used to simultaneously measure the penetrations of CH/sub 3/I molecules and the radioisotope in CH/sub 3//sup 131/I through charcoal absorbent beds. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used to measure CH/sub 3/I. Radioiodine was measured using charcoal traps within NaI scintillation well crystals. Real time (5-min interval) radioiodine measurement provided immediate penetration results directly comparable to the real time penetrations of methyl iodide. These penetrations were compared for typical charcoal adsorbents with these impregnants: (a) 5% KI/sub 3/, (b) 5% KI/sub 3/ + 2% TEDA, (c) 5% TEDA, and (d) metal salts (Whetlerite). Differences between CH/sub 3/I and CH/sub 3//sup 131/I penetrations observed for the two iodized charcoals were attributed to isotope exchange reactions. Equivalent penetrations were observed for non-iodized adsorbents and for iodized ones at initial time. First order rates were confirmed for reactions with TEDA and for isotope exchange. This was one more confirmation of the lack of a challenge concentration effect on efficiencies at low test bed loadings. In addition to other removal mechanisms, reversible physical adsorption was observed with all charcoals.

Wood, G.O.; Valdez, F.O.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

110

OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Outlook Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives:Research Plant Pathologist, Crops Pathology and GeneticsS Jack Kelly Clark pecialty crop farms and nurseries in

Browne, Greg T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Stratigraphy, petrology, and depositional environments of upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Sabbath Creek section, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 9387-ft (2816-m) section of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary strata is exposed along Sabbath Creek in the northern ANWR of north-eastern Alaska and represents a regressive depositional sequence. The entire section is divided into four lithologic units (A-D), each characterized by distinct depositional assemblages. Unit A, at the base of the section, consists of several coarsening-upward sequences of alternating thick organic-rich siltstones an fine-grained litharenites, representing deposition in subaqueous to lower delta-plain environments. Unit B stratigraphically overlies Unit A and is characterized by multiple, mutually erosive, fining-upward sequences of fine to coarse pebble litharenites typical of point-bar sequences in a meandering stream environment (lower to upper delta plain). Unit C consists of multiple, poorly developed fining-upward sequences of dominantly clast- and matrix-supported pebble conglomerate interpreted as braided stream deposits. At the top of the section, Unit D is characterized by multiple fining- and a few coarsening-upward sequences of organic-rich shale with minor amounts of medium to coarse litharenite and pebble conglomerate representing meandering stream deposition. The Sabbath Creek section is lithologically dissimilar to coeval units to the west. The Sagavanirktok Formation and Colville Group contain pyroclastic material and thick coal beds not seen in the Sabbath Creek section. Instead, this section is lithologically similar to the Moose Channel formation - a regressive, fluvial, deltaic sequence exposed in the MacKenzie delta area of northwestern Canada. Consequently , detailed interpretation of the sabbath Creek section has important implications concerning the petroleum potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and offshore beaufort Sea.

Buckingham, M.L.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

113

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

114

Chemotactic antifouling properties of methyl caproate: its implication for ship hull coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antifouling (AF) activity of methyl caproate was evaluated by using both laboratory assays and field investigations. It showed strong repellent activity against common fouling organisms (marine bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis, Roseobacter gallaeciensis ... Keywords: Ulva pertusa, antifouling, chemotaxis, fouling resistance, hybrid CDP, marine bacteria, methyl caproate, zinc pyrithione

Haridatta Bhatta Rai; Sang Mok Jung; M. Sidharthan; Ji Hyun Lee; Chi Young Lim; Young-Kyu Kang; Chang Yeon; N. S. Park; H. W. Shin

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Is Embolization of the Pancreas Safe? Pancreatic Histological Changes after Selective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in a Swine Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in a swine model in terms of histological changes in the pancreas. Methods: Three groups of two female swine (58-64 kg) per group underwent TAE of the dorsal pancreatic artery, under anesthesia, with 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. Blood parameters were evaluated at days 1, 4, and 10 after TAE, after which the animals were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results: All of the animals were asymptomatic and survived for 10 days. Cone beam computed tomographic angiography revealed occlusion of the dorsal pancreatic artery and no enhancement in the embolized area. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated slightly on day 1 after TAE (mean {+-} SD: 252.7 {+-} 27.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2}/{mu}l and 0.15 {+-} 0.07 mg/l, respectively), but they normalized or remained near the upper normal limit thereafter. The serum amylase and lipase levels also were elevated on day 1 (8831.7 {+-} 2169.2 U/l and 130 {+-} 53.4 U/l, respectively) but normalized thereafter. Histologically, necrosis and fibrosis were noted only in the embolized segment, and necrosis and acute inflammatory reactions were absent in the nonembolized segment. The border between both segments was well defined. Lymphocytic infiltration and foreign body reaction were noted around the embolized vessels. Conclusions: Selective TAE with NBCA in the pancreas caused localized ischemic necrosis without clinically significant pancreatitis; therefore, this procedure is tolerable in swine.

Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takahashi, Takuya [Kobe Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Izaki, Kenta; Uotani, Kensuke; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

US Food and Drug Administration survey of methyl mercury in canned tuna  

SciTech Connect

Methyl mercury was determined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 220 samples of canned tuna collected in 1991. Samples were chosen to represent different styles, colors, and packs as available. Emphasis was placed on water-packed tuna, small can size, and the highest-volume brand names. The average methyl mercury (expressed as Hg) found for the 220 samples was 0.17 ppm; the range was <0.10-0.75 ppm. Statistically, a significantly higher level of methyl mercury was found in solid white and chunk tuna. Methyl mercury level was not related to can size. None of the 220 samples had methyl mercury levels that exceeded the 1 ppm FDA action level. 11 refs., 1 tab.

Yess, J. [Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Choi, G.N. [Bechtel, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Tam, S.S. [Bechtel, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tischer, R.E. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Srivastava, R.D. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Dispersion Morphology of Poly(methyl acrylate)/Silica Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

Nearly monodisperse poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) and spherical SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP, d = 14 {+-} 4 nm) were co-cast from 2-butanone, a mutually good solvent and a displacer of adsorbed PMA from silica. The effects of NP content and post-casting sample history on the dispersion morphology were found by small-angle X-ray scattering supplemented by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the X-ray results show that cast and thermally annealed samples exhibited a nearly random particle dispersion. That the same samples, prior to annealing, were not well-dispersed is indicative of thermodynamic miscibility during thermal annealing over the range of NP loadings studied. A simple mean-field thermodynamic model suggests that miscibility results primarily from favorable polymer segment/NP surface interactions. The model also indicates, and experiments confirm, that subsequent exposure of the composites to the likely displacer ethyl acetate results in entropic destabilization and demixing into NP-rich and NP-lean phases.

D Janes; J Moll; S Harton; C Durning

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

A High-Volume Cryosampler and Sample Purification System for Bromine Isotope Studies of Methyl Bromide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system was developed for collecting from the ambient atmosphere the methyl halides CH3Cl and CH3Br in quantities sufficient for chlorine and bromine isotope analysis. The construction and operation of the novel cryogenic collection system (...

Brett F. Thornton; Axel Horst; Daniel Carrizo; Henry Holmstrand; Per Andersson; Patrick M. Crill; Örjan Gustafsson

123

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

Pangallo, Kristin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Thermomechanical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane- poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA) containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles (d [approx.] 1.5 nm) were subjected to heological, mechanical, and morphological tests to determine the effects that ...

Kopesky, Edward Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Dissolution and swelling of bituminous coal in n-methyl-pyrrolidone.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research detailed herein examined the extraction and swelling of a bituminous coal in the super solvent n-methyl-pyrrolidone. Correlations were developed to describe the extraction and… (more)

Stoffa, Joseph M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methylcytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum ...

Chan, Michelle M.

127

A High-Volume Cryosampler and Sample Purification System for Bromine Isotope Studies of Methyl Bromide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system was developed for collecting from the ambient atmosphere the methyl halides CH3Cl and CH3Br in quantities sufficient for chlorine and bromine isotope analysis. The construction and operation of the novel cryogenic collection system (...

Brett F. Thornton; Axel Horst; Daniel Carrizo; Henry Holmstrand; Per Andersson; Patrick M. Crill; Örjan Gustafsson

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Extinction and Ignition of Methyl Decanoate in Laminar Nonpremixed Flows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl decanoate is a large methyl ester that can be used as a surrogate for biodiesel. In this experimental and computational study, the combustion of methyl decanoate is investigated in nonpremixed, nonuniform flows. Experiments are performed employing the counterflow configuration with a fuel stream made up of vaporized methyl decanoate and nitrogen, and an oxidizer stream of air. The mass fraction of fuel in the fuel stream is measured as a function of the strain rate at extinction, and critical conditions of ignition are measured in terms of the temperature of the oxidizer stream as a function of the strain rate. It is not possible to use a fully detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate to simulate the counterflow flames because the number of species and reactions is too large to employ with current flame codes and computer resources. Therefore a skeletal mechanism was deduced from a detailed mechanism of 8555 elementary reactions and 3036 species using 'directed relation graph' method. This skeletal mechanism has only 713 elementary reactions and 125 species. Critical conditions of ignition were calculated using this skeletal mechanism and are found to agree well with experimental data. The predicted strain rate at extinction is found to be lower than the measurements. In general, the methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Seshadri, K; Lu, T; Herbinet, O; Humer, S; Niemann, U; Pitz, W J; Law, C K

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

129

Effects of in-phase and out-of-phase sediment supply responses to tectonic movement on the sequence development in the late Tertiary Southern Ulleung Basin, East (Japan) Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratigraphic inverse modeling using the SEDPAK stratigraphic simulator established the size of the physical parameters that together controlled the development of the stratal patterns in the late Tertiary Ulleung Basin, East (Japan) Sea. The modeling ... Keywords: Back-arc, Eustatic sea level, Stratigraphic modeling, Tectonic subsidence, Ulleung Basin

Wonsuck Kim; Daekyo Cheong; Christopher G. St. C. Kendall

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Blast biology: a study of the primary and tertiary effects of blast in open underground protective shelters. Project 33. 1 of Operation Plumbbob  

SciTech Connect

Dogs, pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice were exposed to nuclear detonations in two open underground partitioned shelters. The shelters were of similar construction, and each was exposed to separate detonations. Each inner chamber filled through its own orifice; thus four separate pressure environments were obtained. An aerodynamic mound was placed over the escape hatch of each structure to determine its effect on the pressure-curve shape inside the chamber. In one test a sieve plate bolted across the top of the mound was evaluated. Wind protective baffles of solid plate and of heavy wire screen were installed in the shelters to compare primary and tertiary blast effects on dogs. The shelters also contained static and dynamic pressure gages, radiation detectors, telemetering devices, and, in one test, air-temperature measuring instruments, dust-collecting trays, and eight pigs for the biological assessment of thermal effects. One dog was severely injured from tertiary blast effects associated with a maximal dynamic pressure (Q) of 10.5 psi, and one was undamaged with a maximal Q of 2 psi. Primary blast effects resulting from peak overpressures of 30.3, 25.5, 9.5, and 4.1 psi were minimal. The mortality was 19% of the mice exposed to a peak pressure of 30.3 psi and 5 and 3% of the guinea pigs and mice exposed to a peak pressure of 25.5 psi. Many of the rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice sustained slight lung hemorrhages at maximum pressues of 25.5 and 30.3 psi. Eardrum perforation data for all species, except mice, were recorded. Following shot 2, thermal effects were noted. Animals of the groups saved for observation have died from ionizing-radiation effects.

Ricmond, D.R.; Taborelli, R.V.; Bowen, I.G.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300°C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400°C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The results indicate that both temperature and PA/HCHO ratio are important parameters to optimize the economic of the condensation between propionic acid and formaldehyde.

BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

133

Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III) Intermediates of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the terminal step in biological methane synthesis. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to form methane and the heterodisulfide product, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox active nickel tetrapyrrolic cofactor called coenzyme F430 at its active site, which is active in the reduced Ni(I) state (MCRred1). All of the biologically generated methane, amounting to 1 billion tons per annum globally, is formed by MCR. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that anaerobic methane oxidation is also catalyzed by MCR and occurs by a reversal of the methane synthesis reaction. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, trapping 20 times more heat than CO2. In addition, methane is also an important and clean fuel as it produced the least amount of CO2 per unit of heat released. Thus, it is critically important to understand the mechanism of formation of the smallest hydrocarbon in nature.

134

Role of Morphological Growth State and Gene Expression in Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay Mercury Methylation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biogeochemical transformations of mercury are a complex process, with the production of methylmercury, a potent human neurotoxin, repeatedly demonstrated in sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing as well as methanogenic bacteria. However, little is known regarding the morphology, genes or proteins involved in methylmercury generation. Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is a Hg-methylating -proteobacterium with a sequenced genome and has unusual pleomorphic forms. In this study, a relationship between the pleomorphism and Hg methylation was investigated. Proportional increases in the sigmoidal (regular) cell form corresponded with increased net MeHg production, but decreased when the pinched cocci (persister) form became the major morphotype. D. africanus microarrays indicated that the ferrous iron transport genes (feoAB), as well as ribosomal genes and several genes whose products are predicted to have metal binding domains (CxxC), were up-regulated during exposure to Hg in the exponential phase. While no specific methylation pathways were identified, the finding that Hg may interfere with iron transport and the correlation of growth-phase dependent morphology with MeHg production are notable. The identification of these relationships between differential gene expression, morphology, and the growth phase dependence of Hg transformations suggests that actively growing cells are primarily responsible for methylation, and so areas with ample carbon and electron-acceptor concentrations may also generate a higher proportion of methylmercury than more oligotrophic environments. The observation of increased iron transporter expression also suggests that Hg methylation may interfere with iron biogeochemical cycles.

Moberly, James G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

57 57 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER CUM ~~~~~~~~ DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLORINATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Image are produced from the best available original document. &E/,Etq --,/s7 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE PROPOSED METHYL CHLORIDE V

136

Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns Nan Zhao a , Ju Guan a , Farhad Forouhar b , Timothy J. Tschaplinski c , Zong-Ming Cheng a , Liang Tong b , Feng Chen a, * a Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, 252 Ellington Plant Science Bldg., 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA b Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 3 June 2008 Received in revised form 27 October 2008 Available online 10 January 2009 Keywords: Black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Methyl esterase SABP2 Methyl salicylate Salicylic acid Gene family Molecular modeling a b s t r a c t Two genes encoding proteins

137

Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells.

Roy, Kanaklata [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang, Lilin [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Price, Brendan D. [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: brendan_price@dfci.harvard.edu

2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

The methylation of benzoic and n-butyric acids by chloromethane in Phellinus pomaceus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetics of carboxylic acid methylation by chloromethane (CH3Cl) in myceliaaf the fungus Phellinus pomaceus were examined. Substantial incorporation of C2H3- into ester was observed within 5 min of addition of C2H3Cl to washed mycelia in the presence of the non-physiological acceptor butyric acid, rendering it unlikely that CH3Cl was converted to a diffusible intermediate before acting as methyl donor. The rate of methyl butyrate biosynthesis attained a maximum of 0.14 pmol g-l h-l at 1-5 mM-butyric acid, with higher concentrations causing increasing inhibition. Exogenous CH3Cl did not affect methyl butyrate production implying that the rate of CH3Cl biosynthesis did not limit methylation. However, C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into methyl butyrate rose sharply from 20 to 60 % between 1.5 and 4 mM-butyric acid, suggesting inhibition of CH3Cl biosynthesis by the acid, an interpretation supported by the rapid decline in gaseous CH3Cl release by mycelia between 1.5 and 2 mM-butyric acid. With the natural acceptor benzoic acid as substrate a significant increase in the rate of ester biosynthesis was obtained in the presence of exogenous CH3Cl. Ester biosynthesis was maximal (0.18 pmol g-l h-l) at 0.5 mM-benZOiC acid but fell extremely rapidly with increasing concentration. As with butyric acid supraoptimal concentrations halted CH3Cl release and increased C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl. Studies on C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into ester revealed a linear relationship between the logarithm of the percentage C2H3-incorporation and the logarithm of C2H3Cl

Kieran J. Mcnally; David B. Harper. *t

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Experimental study of the oxidation of methyl oleate in a jet-stirred reactor  

SciTech Connect

The experimental study of the oxidation of a blend containing n-decane and a large unsaturated ester, methyl oleate, was performed in a jet-stirred reactor over a wide range of temperature covering both low and high temperature regions (550-1100 K), at a residence time of 1.5 s, at quasi atmospheric pressure with high dilution in helium (n-decane and methyl oleate inlet mole fractions of 1.48 x 10{sup -3} and 5.2 x 10{sup -4}) and under stoichiometric conditions. The formation of numerous reaction products was observed. At low and intermediate temperatures, the oxidation of the blend led to the formation of species containing oxygen atoms like cyclic ethers, aldehydes and ketones deriving from n-decane and methyl oleate. At higher temperature, these species were not formed anymore and the presence of unsaturated species was observed. Because of the presence of the double bond in the middle of the alkyl chain of methyl oleate, the formation of some specific products was observed. These species are dienes and esters with two double bonds produced from the decomposition paths of methyl oleate and some species obtained from the addition of H-atoms, OH and HO{sub 2} radicals to the double bond. Experimental results were compared with former results of the oxidation of a blend of n-decane and methyl palmitate performed under similar conditions. This comparison allowed highlighting the similarities and the differences in the reactivity and in the distribution of the reaction products for the oxidation of large saturated and unsaturated esters. (author)

Bax, Sarah; Hakka, Mohammed Hichem; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, Nancy Universite, CNRS, ENSIC, BP 20451, 1 rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy (France)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lo g 2 (F ol d hy pe rm et hy la tio n) in tu m or -n or m al p ai rs 0 35 -0.25 2.0 -0.25 2.0 0 1.0 LNCaP PrEC CpG density Phast Cons A B Tumor-Normal pairs sorted by extent of hypermethylation Additional #31;le 9. ... mammalian and vertebrate species (indicated by high phastCons scores > 0.8; [27]) compared with what would be expected by ran- dom chance (Figure 5A). Additionally, we found that the methylated and differentially methylated regions had a highly significant...

Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wu, Zhijin; Haffner, Michael C; Esopi, David; Aryee, Martin J; Badrinath, Raghav; He, Tony L; Morgan, James D; Carvalho, Benilton S; Zheng, Qizhi; De Marzo, Angelo M; Irizarry, Rafael A; Nelson, William G

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

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141

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
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161

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

162

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Weekly Supply Estimates Weekly Supply Estimates Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

163

Appendix A - Acronyms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A - ACRONYMS A - ACRONYMS AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials CNG Compressed Natural Gases CVO Commercial Vehicle Operation DOE Department of Energy DOT Department of Transportation E85 85% Ethanol, 15% Gasoline EPA Environmental Protection Agency ExFIRS Excise Files Information Retrieval System ExSTARS Excise Summary Terminal Activity Reporting System FHWA Federal Highway Administration FTA Federation of Tax Administrators GAO General Accounting Office HTF Highway Trust Fund IFTA International Fuel Tax Agreement IM Interstate Maintenance IRS Internal Revenue Service LNG Liquid Natural Gases LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases M85 85% Methanol, 15% Gasoline MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NHS National Highway System ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory STP Surface Transportation Program

164

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

165

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Outlook Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year. Three impending State bans on MTBE blending could significantly affect gasoline

166

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports & Exports Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

167

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

02/22/2006 02/22/2006 Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006 Summary In 2005, a number of petroleum companies announced their intent to remove methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from their gasoline in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline, and perceived potential for increased liability exposure due to the elimination of the oxygen content requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG) included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EIA's informal discussions with a number of suppliers indicate that most of the industry is trying to move away from MTBE before the 2006 summer driving season. Currently, the largest use of MTBE is in RFG consumed on the East Coast outside of

168

MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

173

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

174

Structure-Based Mechanistic Insights into DNMT1-Mediated Maintenance DNA Methylation  

SciTech Connect

DNMT1, the major maintenance DNA methyltransferase in animals, helps to regulate gene expression, genome imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. We report on the crystal structure of a productive covalent mouse DNMT1(731-1602)-DNA complex containing a central hemimethylated CpG site. The methyl group of methylcytosine is positioned within a shallow hydrophobic concave surface, whereas the cytosine on the target strand is looped out and covalently anchored within the catalytic pocket. The DNA is distorted at the hemimethylated CpG step, with side chains from catalytic and recognition loops inserting through both grooves to fill an intercalation-type cavity associated with a dual base flip-out on partner strands. Structural and biochemical data establish how a combination of active and autoinhibitory mechanisms ensures the high fidelity of DNMT1-mediated maintenance DNA methylation.

Song, Jikui; Teplova, Marianna; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC)

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

Filby, Evan E. (Rigby, ID)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

CORRELATION OF DNA METHYLATION WITH MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN MARINE ORGANISMS: A CASE STUDY OF NOAA MUSSEL WATCH TISSUE SAMPLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) obtained from the NOAA Mussel Watch program were screened for DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic response to stressors. Oysters were collected from sites in the Gulf of Mexico having high mercury contamination (measured by NOAA) and from sites with little to no measurable mercury. Assessment of anthropogenic stressors such as mercury in the coastal environment has traditionally relied upon species diversity indices or assays to determine lethal doses. However, these indices fail to examine sub-lethal impacts such as gene expression. A ‘global’ DNA methylation kit, recently introduced by Sigma-Aldrich, was used to spectrophotometrically compare the degree of methylation in DNA extracted from contaminated oysters and non-contaminated oysters. DNA methylation was higher in oysters from pristine sites than in oysters from contaminated sites.

Brinkmeyer, Robin; Taylor, Robert; Germ, Kaylyn E.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

178

Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of methyl chloride using a 3-D global chemical transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) [CH subscript 3 Cl] is a chlorine-containing trace gas in the atmosphere contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion. Large uncertainties in estimates of its source and sink magnitudes ...

Xiao, Xue

179

On the Role of Tertiary ?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

a solution of 45% acetic acid, 45% butylcellosolve and 10% perchloric acid at 263 K and 25 V. Constant load tensile creep tests were conducted in air at 700°C .

180

Methylation status and transcriptional expression of the MHC class I loci in human trophoblast cells from term placenta  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Of the various molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be used by human trophoblast cells to down-regulate expression of HLA class I genes, we chose to investigate the methylation of DNA, generally associated with inhibition of transcription. We analyzed the methylation status of different HLA class I loci in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and in vitro-differentiated syncytiotrophoblast, purified from human term placenta, as well as in the human trophoblast-derived JAR and JEG-3 cell lines. We then compared methylation status and transcriptional activity. An inverse relationship was established between JAR and JEG-3: HLA-A, -B, and -G are methylated and repressed in JAR, whereas in JEG-3, HLA-A is methylated and repressed but HLA-B and -G are partially methylated and transcribed. HLA-E is unmethylated and transcribed in both cell lines. Apart from HLA-E, which is always unmethylated and transcribed, no such relationship exists for the other class I loci in trophoblast cells. Whereas nonclassical HLA-G and classical HLA-A and -B class I genes are undermethylated in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, they are clearly transcribed in the former but minimally transcribed in the latter subpopulation. Thus, the down-regulation of class I gene expression in the in vitro-differentiated synctiotrophoblast is unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation. Furthermore, there is no detectable expression of any class I molecule at the cell surface of either trophoblast cell subpopulation, suggesting a negative control on translation and/or on the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. 50 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Guillaudeux, T.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Girr, M. [University Hospital Center Purpan, Toulouse (France)] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Autoignition measurements and a validated kinetic model for the biodiesel surrogate, methyl butanoate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The autoignition of methyl butanoate has been studied at 1 and 4 atm in a shock tube over the temperature range 1250-1760 K at equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 at fuel concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. These measurements are complemented by autoignition data from a rapid compression machine over the temperature range 640-949 K at compressed gas pressures of 10, 20, and 40 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.33 using fuel concentrations of 1.59 and 3.13%. The autoignition of methyl butanoate is observed to follow Arrhenius-like temperature dependence over all conditions studied. These data, together with speciation data reported in the literature in a flow reactor, a jet-stirred reactor, and an opposed-flow diffusion flame, were used to produce a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio, fuel fraction, and pressure for shock tube ignition delays. The agreement with rapid compression machine ignition delays is less accurate, although the qualitative agreement is reasonable. The model reproduces most speciation data with good accuracy. In addition, the important reaction pathways over each regime have been elucidated by both sensitivity and flux analyses. (author)

Dooley, S.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments and Identification of Potential Mercury Methylators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at five contaminated sites and one control site near Oak Ridge, TN in order to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over three quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16s rRNA pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85 % of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria by the RDP classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated significant positive correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl mercury concentrations in the contaminated sites. On the contrary, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in the sediments of the site, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known metal reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species.

Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer for the in situ measurement of methyl hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for measuring gas-phase methyl hydrogen peroxide [(MHP) CH{sub 3}OOH] utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Tandem mass spectrometry is used to avoid mass interferences that hindered previous attempts to measure atmospheric CH{sub 3}OOH with CF{sub 3}O{sup -} clustering chemistry. CH{sub 3}OOH has been successfully measured in situ using this technique during both airborne and ground-based campaigns. The accuracy and precision for the MHP measurement are a function of water vapor mixing ratio. Typical precision at 500 pptv MHP and 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is {+-}80 pptv (2 sigma) for a 1 s integration period. The accuracy at 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is estimated to be better than {+-}40%. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry shows considerable promise for the determination of in situ atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios where isobaric compounds or mass interferences impede accurate measurements.

St Clair, Jason M.; McCabe, David C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Crounse, John D. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Steiner, Urs [Varian, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95051 (United States); Wennberg, Paul O. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Generation kinetics of color centers in irradiated poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)  

SciTech Connect

The transient absorbance of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) irradiated with gamma rays at elevated temperatures has been investigated. The absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range increases with gamma ray dose. A bathochromic shift in transmission spectra emerges significantly upon irradiation. A first-order generation model is proposed to analyze the kinetics of color centers during annealing. The activation energy of the color center increases with increasing gamma ray dose. The equilibrium behavior of color centers in PMP is similar to that of vacancies in metals, and the formation energy of color centers in PMP decreases with increasing gamma ray dose. However, annealable color centers are not observed in this study.

Peng, J. S.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chou, K. F. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

189

Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film  

SciTech Connect

The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

Xia Minggang [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Center on Experimental Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Structural basis of SETD6-mediated regulation of the NF-kB network via methyl-lysine signaling  

SciTech Connect

SET domain containing 6 (SETD6) monomethylates the RelA subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The ankyrin repeats of G9a-like protein (GLP) recognizes RelA monomethylated at Lys310. Adjacent to Lys310 is Ser311, a known phosphorylation site of RelA. Ser311 phosphorylation inhibits Lys310 methylation by SETD6 as well as binding of Lys310me1 by GLP. The structure of SETD6 in complex with RelA peptide containing the methylation site, in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, reveals a V-like protein structure and suggests a model for NF-{kappa}B binding to SETD6. In addition, structural modeling of the GLP ankyrin repeats bound to Lys310me1 peptide provides insight into the molecular basis for inhibition of Lys310me1 binding by Ser311 phosphorylation. Together, these findings provide a structural explanation for a key cellular signaling pathway centered on RelA Lys310 methylation, which is generated by SETD6 and recognized by GLP, and incorporate a methylation-phosphorylation switch of adjacent lysine and serine residues. Finally, SETD6 is structurally similar to the Rubisco large subunit methyltransferase. Given the restriction of Rubisco to plant species, this particular appearance of the protein lysine methyltransferase has been evolutionarily well conserved.

Chang, Yanqi; Levy, Dan; Horton, John R.; Peng, Junmin; Zhang, Xing; Gozani, Or; Cheng, Xiaodong (Emory-MED); (Stanford)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

191

Methyl quantum tunneling and nitrogen-14 NQR NMR studies using a SQUID magnetic resonance spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques have been very successful in obtaining molecular conformation and dynamics information. Unfortunately, standard NMR and NQR spectrometers are unable to adequately detect resonances below a few megahertz due to the frequency dependent sensitivity of their Faraday coil detectors. For this reason a new spectrometer with a dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) detector, which has no such frequency dependence, has been developed. Previously, this spectrometer was used to observe {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al NQR resonances. The scope of this study was increased to include {sup 23}Na, {sup 51}V, and {sup 55}Mn NQR transitions. Also, a technique was presented to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances through cross relaxation of the nitrogen polarization to adjacent proton spins. When the proton Zeeman splitting matches one nitrogen quadrupoler transition the remaining two {sup 14}N transitions can be detected by sweeping a saturating rf field through resonance. Additionally, simultaneous excitation of two nitrogen resonances provides signal enhancement which helps to connect transitions from the same site. In this way, nitrogen-14 resonances were observed in several amino acids and polypeptides. This spectrometer has also been useful in the direct detection of methyl quantum tunneling splittings at 4.2 K. Tunneling, frequencies of a homologous series of carboxylic acids were measured and for solids with equivalent crystal structures, an exponential correlation between the tunneling frequency and the enthalpy of fusion is observed. This correlation provides information about the contribution of intermolecular interactions to the energy barrier for methyl rotation.

Black, B.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. II. A SHORT-PERIOD COMPANION ORBITING AN F STAR WITH EVIDENCE OF A STELLAR TERTIARY AND SIGNIFICANT MUTUAL INCLINATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the discovery via radial velocity (RV) measurements of a short-period (P = 2.430420 {+-} 0.000006 days) companion to the F-type main-sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the RV data also suggests the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with P > 2000 days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T{sub eff} = 6427 {+-} 33 K, log g = 4.52 {+-} 0.14, and [Fe/H] = -0.04 {+-} 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and a parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun} and R{sub 1} = 1.09{sup +0.15}{sub -0.13} R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of the inner companion is below the hydrogen-burning limit; however, the true mass is likely to be substantially higher. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. Further, the host star spectrum exhibits a clear signature of Ca H and K core emission, indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small vsin I suggest that the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary estimated through an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner companion to within 1.5 {sigma}, suggesting that the primary and inner companion are tidally locked. If the inner companion's orbital angular momentum vector is aligned with the stellar spin axis as expected through tidal evolution, then it has a stellar mass of {approx}0.3-0.4 M{sub Sun }. Direct imaging limits the existence of stellar companions to projected separations <30 AU. No set of spectral lines and no significant flux contribution to the SED from either companion are detected, which places individual upper mass limits of M{sub {l_brace}2,3{r_brace}} {approx}< 1.0 M{sub Sun }, provided they are not stellar remnants. If the tertiary is not a stellar remnant, then it likely has a mass of {approx}0.5-0.6 M{sub Sun }, and its orbit is likely significantly inclined from that of the secondary, suggesting that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism may have driven the dynamical evolution of this system.

Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Jiang Peng; Lee, Brian; Nelson, Ben [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 2611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Shappee, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gary, Bruce; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan, E-mail: scfleming@psu.edu [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia, LIneA, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400 (Brazil); and others

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

194

Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Association Behavior of Poly(methacrylic acid)-block-Poly(methyl methacrylate) in Aqueous Medium: Potentiometric and Laser Light Scattering Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) technique was used to synthesize poly(methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MAA???-b-MMA??)) copolymer in order to study the aggregation behavior in aqueous solution ...

Palaniswamy, R.

198

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application-Ch 6Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent Adduct Chemical Ionization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application-Ch 6 Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent Adduct Chemical Ionization Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Book

199

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 6 Structural Characterization of CLA Methyl Esters with Acetonitrile Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 6 Structural Characterization of CLA Methyl Esters with Acetonitrile Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition

200

Laboratory and tentative interstellar detection of trans-methyl formate using the publicly available Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rotational spectrum of the higher-energy trans conformational isomer of methyl formate has been assigned for the first time using several pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometers in the 6-60 GHz frequency range. This species has also been sought toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. We detect seven absorption features in the survey that coincide with laboratory transitions of trans-methyl formate, from which we derive a column density of 3.1 (+2.6, -1.2) \\times 10^13 cm-2 and a rotational temperature of 7.6 \\pm 1.5 K. This excitation temperature is significantly lower than that of the more stable cis conformer in the same source but is consistent with that of other complex molecular species recently detected in Sgr B2(N). The difference in the rotational temperatures of the two conformers suggests that they have different spatial distributions in this source. As the abundance of trans-methyl formate is far higher ...

Neill, Justin L; Zaleski, Daniel P; Steber, Amanda L; Pate, Brooks H; Lattanzi, Valerio; Spezzano, Silvia; McCarthy, Michael C; Remijan, Anthony J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Modeling the Geometric Electronic and Redox Properties of Iron(lll)-Containing Amphiphiles with Asymmetric [NNO] Headgroups  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two iron(III)-containing amphiphiles 1 and 2 have been synthesized with the [NN'O] ligands HL{sup tBu-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and HL{sup I-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-diiodophenol), respectively. Compound 1 is monometallic, whereas EXAFS data suggest that 2 is a mixture of mono- and bimetallic species. The archetypical [Fe{sup III}(L{sup NN'O}){sub 2}]{sup +} complexes 3-9 have been isolated and characterized in order to understand the geometric, electronic, and redox properties of the amphiphiles. Preference for a monometallic or bimetallic nuclearity is dependent on (i) the nature of the solvent used for synthesis and (ii) the type of the substituent in the phenol moiety. In methanol, the tert-butyl-, methoxy-, and chloro-substituted 3, 4, and 5 are monometallic species, whereas the bromo- and iodo-substituted 6 and 7 form bimetallic complexes taking advantage of stabilizing methoxo bridges generated by solvent deprotonation. In dichloromethane, the bromo- and iodo-substituted 8 and 9 are monometallic species; however, these species favor meridional coordination in opposition to the facial coordination observed for the tert-butyl- and methoxy-substituted compounds. Molecular structures for species 5, 7, 8, and 9 have been solved by X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the electronic spectrum of the amphiphile 1 was expected to be similar to those of facial/cis archetypes with similar substituents, but close resemblance was observed with the profile for those meridional/cis species, suggesting a similar coordination mode. This trend is discussed based on DFT calculations, where preference for the meridional/cis coordination mode appears related to the presence of tertiary amine nitrogen on the ligand, as when a long alkyl chain is attached to the [NN'O] headgroup.

R Shakya; M Allard; M Johann; M Heeg; E Rentschler; J Shearer; B McGarvey; C Verani

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Very Low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS II: A Short-period Companion Orbiting an F Star with Evidence of a Stellar Tertiary And Significant Mutual Inclination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the discovery via radial velocity of a short-period (P = 2.430420 \\pm 0.000006 days) companion to the F-type main sequence star TYC 2930-00872-1. A long-term trend in the radial velocities indicates the presence of a tertiary stellar companion with $P > 2000$ days. High-resolution spectroscopy of the host star yields T_eff = 6427 +/- 33 K, log(g) = 4.52 +/- 0.14, and [Fe/H]=-0.04 +/- 0.05. These parameters, combined with the broad-band spectral energy distribution and parallax, allow us to infer a mass and radius of the host star of M_1=1.21 +/- 0.08 M_\\odot and R_1=1.09_{-0.13}^{+0.15} R_\\odot. We are able to exclude transits of the inner companion with high confidence. The host star's spectrum exhibits clear Ca H and K core emission indicating stellar activity, but a lack of photometric variability and small v*sin(I) suggest the primary's spin axis is oriented in a pole-on configuration. The rotational period of the primary from an activity-rotation relation matches the orbital period of the inner...

Fleming, Scott W; Barnes, Rory; Beatty, Thomas G; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Ferreira, Leticia; Gary, Bruce; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernández, Jonay I González; Hebb, Leslie; Jiang, Peng; Lee, Brian; Nelson, Ben; de Mello, Gustavo F Porto; Shappee, Benjamin J; Stassun, Keivan; Thompson, Todd A; Tofflemire, Benjamin M; Wisniewski, John P; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Agol, Eric; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Cargile, Phillip A; Coban, Louis; Costello, Korena S; da Costa, Luis N; Good, Melanie L; Hua, Nelson; Kane, Stephen R; Lander, Gary R; Liu, Jian; Ma, Bo; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Oravetz, Daniel; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Rebolo, Rafael; Roebuck, Eric J; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; Vincent, Chelsea L M; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A; Weaver, Gwendolyn M; Zhao, Bo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Photochemistry of Methyl Bromide on the ?-Cr2O3(0001) Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photochemical properties of the Cr-terminated ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface were explored using methyl bromide (CH3Br) as a probe molecule. CH3Br adsorbed and desorbed molecularly from the Cr-terminated ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface without detectable thermal decomposition. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) revealed a CH3Br desorption state at 240 K for coverages up to 0.5 ML, followed by more weakly bound molecules desorbing at 175 K for coverages up to 1 ML. Multilayer exposures led to desorption at ~130 K. The CH3Br sticking coefficient was unity at 105 K for coverages up to monolayer saturation, but decreased as the multilayer formed. In contrast, pre-oxidation of the surface (using an oxygen plasma source) led to capping of surface Cr3+ sites and near complete removal of CH3Br TPD states above 150 K. The photochemistry of chemisorbed CH3Br was explored on the Cr-terminated surface using post-irradiation TPD and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). Irradiation of adsorbed CH3Br with broad band light from a Hg arc lamp resulted in both photodesorption and photodecomposition of the parent molecule at a combined cross section of ~10-22 cm2. Parent PSD was indicative of molecular photodesorption, but CH3 was also detected in PSD and Br atoms were left on the surface, both reflective of photo-induced CH3-Br bond dissociation. Use of a 385 nm cut-off filter effectively shut down the photodissociation pathway but not the parent molecule photodesorption process. From these observations it is inferred that d-to-d transitions in ?-Cr2O3, occurring at photon energies <3 eV, are not responsible for photodecomposition of 2 adsorbed CH3Br. It is unclear to what extent band-to-band versus direct CH3Br photolysis play in CH3-Br bond dissociation initiated by more energetic photons.

Henderson, Michael A.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

Microhydration Effects on the Intermediates of the SN2 Reacation of Iodide Anion with Methyl Iodine  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of halide anions with methyl halides (X- + CH3Y ? XCH3 + Y-) are bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions that have been well investigated in the last few decades.[1] Figure 1 shows typical potential energy surfaces (PESs) proposed for symmetric (X- + CH3X ? XCH3 + X-) SN2 reactions along the reaction coordinate. In the gas phase, the PES has two minima corresponding to the stable X-(CH3X) complexes.[2] The PES is substantially distorted by the solvation. Since the negative charge is delocalized over the [X•••CH3•••X]- moiety at the transition state the stabilization energy gained by the solvation is smaller for the transition state than that for the (X- + CH3X) reactants or the X- (CH3X) complexes. In solution, a large potential barrier exists between the reactants and products. The rate constants of these reactions in protic solvents were reported to be a few orders of magnitude smaller than those in aprotic solvents; this trend was explained by the formation of solvation shells of protic molecules around the halide anions.[1,3] Morokuma has previously reported a theoretical study on the PES of the (Cl- + CH3Cl ? ClCH3 + Cl-) SN2 reaction with a few H2O molecules. The attachment of H2O molecules to the Cl-(CH3Cl) reactive system produces metastable isomers, which affect the reaction mechanism.[4] Johnson and coworkers extensively investigated the structure and reactions of halide anion complexes in the gas phase using photodissociation spectroscopy.

Doi, Keisuke; Togano, Eijiro; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki; Inokuchi, Yoshiya

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Photodissociation of methyl iodide adsorbed on low-temperature amorphous ice surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Photodissociation dynamics of methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) adsorbed on both amorphous solid water (ASW) and porous amorphous solid water (PASW) has been investigated. The ejected ground-state I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and excited-state I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) photofragments produced by 260- and 290-nm photons were detected using laser resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. In contrast to gas-phase photodissociation, (i) the I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) photofragment is favored compared to I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) at both wavelengths, (ii) I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) have velocity distributions that depend upon ice morphology, and (iii) I{sub 2} is produced on ASW. The total iodine [I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2})+I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})+I{sub 2}] yield varies with substrate morphology, with greater yield from ASW than PASW using both 260- and 290-nm photons. Temperature-programmed desorption studies demonstrate that ice porosity enhances the trapping of adsorbed CH{sub 3}I, while pore-free ice likely allows monomer adsorption and the formation of two-dimensional CH{sub 3}I clusters. Reactions or collisions involving these clusters, I atomic fragments, or I-containing molecular fragments at the vacuum-surface interface can result in I{sub 2} formation.

DeSimone, Alice J.; Olanrewaju, Babajide O.; Grieves, Gregory A. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); Orlando, Thomas M. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States)

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

206

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

2009-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

207

Radiation Chemistry of MTBE in Aqueous Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Aqueous Solution Stephen P. Mezyk, Jace Jones, William J. Cooper, Thomas Tobien, Michael G. Nickelsen, J. Wesley Adams, Kevin E. O'Shea, David M....

208

Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs  

SciTech Connect

Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Weak maser emission of methyl formate toward Sagittarius B2(N) in the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A non-LTE radiative transfer treatment of cis-methyl formate (HCOOCH3) rotational lines is presented for the first time using a set of theoretical collisional rate coefficients. These coefficients have been computed in the temperature range 5-30 K by combining coupled-channel scattering calculations with a high accuracy potential energy surface for HCOOCH3-He. The results are compared to observations toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. A total of 49 low-lying transitions of methyl formate, with upper levels below 25 K, are identified. These lines are found to probe a presumably cold (~30 K), moderately dense (~1e4 cm-3) and extended region surrounding Sgr B2(N). The derived column density of ~4e14 cm-2 is only a factor of ~10 larger than the column density of the trans conformer in the same source. Provided that the two conformers have the same spatial distribution, this result suggests that strongly non-equilibrium processes m...

Faure, Alexandre; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Wiesenfeld, Laurent

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine whether a “size effect” phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm to 2 ?m. This was done by using a non-contact, non-invasive, in-situ Transient Thermo-Reflectance (TTR) laser based technique. The results demonstrated that the intrinsic thermal conductivity of a 40 nm PMMA film deposited on native oxide of silicon increases by a factor of three over bulk PMMA values, and a distinct increase in the thermal conductivity of PMMA film was observed in ultra-thin (sub 100 nm) films. This confirmed the importance of film thickness for the through-plane thermal conductivity value of PMMA film on native oxide of silicon.

Kim, Ick Chan

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Copper(II) bis [2-((E)-2-(pyrid-2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenolate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new complex CuL{sub 2} [HL = 2-((E)-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenol] was synthesized, and its structure (C{sub 28}H{sub 22}Br{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}CuN{sub 4}O{sub 2}, Mr = 740.76) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal belongs to the triclinic system, space group P1{sup -}, with a = 5.157(6), b = 12.090(1), c =12.310(1) A, {alpha} = 113.962(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 96.7910(10) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 90.0300(10) Degree-Sign , V = 695.4(8) A{sup 3}, Z = 1, R = 0.0481. The complex molecules are linked via the weak C-H...N hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of one dimension (1D) chains along the a axis.

Zhang, X. L., E-mail: zhangxinli6008@163.com [Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

(E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol: X-ray and DFT-calculated structures  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol is determined by using X-ray diffraction and then the molecular structure is investigated with density functional theory (DFT). X-Ray study shows that the title compound has a strong intramolecular O-H-N hydrogen bond and three dimensional crystal structure is primarily determined by C-H-{pi} and weak van der Waals interactions. The strong O-H-N bond is an evidence of the preference for the phenol-imine tautomeric form in the solid state. Optimized molecular geometry is calculated with DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The IR spectra of compound were recorded experimentally and calculated to compare with each other. The results from both experiment and theoretical calculations are compared in this study.

Kosar, B., E-mail: bkosar@omu.edu.tr; Albayrak, C. [Sinop University, Faculty of Education (Turkey); Odabasoglu, M. [Pamukkale University, Chemistry Program (Turkey); Bueyuekguengoer, O. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

In situ synthesis of poly (methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites via "Grafting Onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 (PMMA/SiO2) hybrid composites were prepared via "grafting onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution. Two steps were used to graft polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ...

Hong Zhang; Chao Li; Jinshan Guo; Limin Zang; Jiahe Luo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa-body decomposition of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene J. Chem. Phys. 136, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlara) Department of Chemistry

Truhlar, Donald G

216

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

218

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

219

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Legislation & Regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

leg_reg.gif (4810 bytes) Climate Change Action Plan Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act Tier 2 Vehicle Emissions and Gasoline Sulfur Standards California Ban of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Low-Emission Vehicle Program Introduction Because analyses by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) are required to be policy-neutral, the projections in this Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 1999. The potential impacts of pending or proposed legislation, regulations, and standards and sections of existing legislation for which funds have not been appropriated are not reflected in the projections. Federal legislation incorporated in the projections includes the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which adds 4.3 cents per gallon to the Federal tax on highway fuels [1]; the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987; the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90); the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT); the Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act of 1995; the Tax Payer Relief Act of 1997; and the Federal Highway Bill of 1998, which includes an extension of the ethanol tax credit. AEO2000 assumes the continuation of the ethanol tax credit through 2020.

220

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - International  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: world oil market submodule—calculates the average annual world oil price (imported refiner acquisition cost) that is consistent with worldwide petroleum demand and supply availability crude oil supply submodule—provides im- ported crude oil supply curves for five crude oil quality classes petroleum products supply submodule—pro- vides imported refined product supply curves for eleven types of refined products oxygenates supply submodule—provides imported oxygenates supply curves for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and methanol. Figure 4. International Energy Module Structure The world oil price that is generated by the world oil market submodule is used by all the modules of NEMS as well as the other submodules of IEM. The import supply curves for crude oils, refined products, and oxygenates are used by the petroleum market module.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 10.5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Fuel Consumption, 1992-2010 Year Alternative and Replacement Fuels 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Methanol, 85 Percent (M85) 3 Methanol, Neat (M100) 4 Ethanol, 85 Percent (E85) 3,5 Ethanol, 95 Percent (E95) 3 Elec- tricity 6 Hydro- gen Other Fuels 7 Subtotal Oxygenates 2 Bio- diesel 10 Total Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether 8 Ethanol in Gasohol 9 Total Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use 11 (number) 1992 NA 23,191 90 4,850 404 172 38 1,607 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1993 NA 32,714 299 10,263 414 441 27 1,690 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994 NA 41,227 484 15,484 415 605 33 2,224 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1995 172,806 50,218 603 18,319 386 1,527

222

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

223

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst; the kinetics for this catalyst; reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors; and to simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. A hydrogen-lean synthesis gas with a ratio of H{sub 2}/CO of 0.5 to 1.0 is produced from the gasification of coal, lignite, or biomass. Isobutylene is a key reactant in the synthesis of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and of isooctanes. MTBE and isooctanes are high octane fuels used to blend with low octane gasolines to raise the octane number required for modern automobiles. The production of these two key octane boosters is limited by the supply of isobutylene. MTBE, when used as an octane enhancer, also decreases the amount of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of an automobile engine.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

Dombek, B.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

226

Structural and chemical properties of the nitrogen-rich energetic material triaminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate under pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The structural and chemical properties of the bi-molecular, hydrogen-bonded, nitrogen-rich energetic material triaminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate C{sub 3}H{sub 12}N{sub 12}O{sub 2} (TAG-MNT) have been investigated at room pressure and under high pressure isothermal compression using powder x-ray diffraction and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. A stiffening of the equation of state and concomitant structural relaxation between 6 and 14 GPa are found to correlate with Raman mode disappearances, frequency discontinuities, and changes in the pressure dependence of modes. These observations manifest the occurrence of a reversible martensitic structural transformation to a new crystalline phase. The onset and vanishing of Fermi resonance in the nitrimine group correlate with the stiffening of the equation of state and phase transition, suggesting a possible connection between these phenomena. Beyond 15 GPa, pressure induces irreversible chemical reactions, culminating in the formation of a polymeric phase by 60 GPa.

McWilliams, R. Stewart; Kadry, Yasmin; Mahmood, Mohammad F.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Ciezak-Jenkins, Jennifer (Howard); (CIW); (USARL)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

227

Dose-response analysis of infants prenatally exposed to methyl mercury: An application of a single compartment model to single-strand hair analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of estimating fetal exposure is used in a dose-response analysis of data from the 1971 outbreak of methyl mercury poisoning in rural Iraq. An X-ray fluorescence instrument for the measurement of single strands of human hair was employed to obtain longitudinal profiles recapitulating fetal exposure. Logit and hockey-stick models as well as nonparametric smoothing are used to describe data on delayed development and central nervous system abnormality.

Cox, C.; Clarkson, T.W.; Marsh, D.O.; Amin-Zaki, L.; Tikriti, S.; Myers, G.G. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Formation of methyl ester of 2-methylglyceric acid from thymine glycol residues: a convenient new method for determining radiation damage to DNA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thymine glycol residues in DNA or thymidine were converted to methyl 2-methylglycerate by reaction with alkaline borohydride followed by methanolic HCl. The product was labeled either from (/sup 3/H)DNA or from (/sup 3/H)borohydride and was followed by cochromatography with authentic /sup 14/C-labeled material. Following acid hydrolysis, the identity of 2-methylglyceric acid was confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry, NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. Treatment of DNA or thymidine with X-irradiation, with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and Fe/sup 2 +/, with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Cu/sup 2 +/, and ascorbate, and with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and ultraviolet light, permanganate, or sonication all produced methyl 2-methylglycerate in varying amounts after alkaline borohydride and methanolic HCl, whereas untreated DNA did not. The data indicate that certain oxidants including hydroxyl radicals generated by chemical means or from radiolysis of water convert thymine residues to thymine glycols in DNA, which can be determined as methyl 2-methylglycerate.

Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

229

(Butan-2-ol-jO)[2-({(ethylsulfanyl)- [2-(2-oxidobenzylidene-jO)hydrazinylidene-jN 2]methyl}iminomethyl)phenolato-jO]dioxidouranium(VI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disorder in main residue; R factor = 0.038; wR factor = 0.078; data-to-parameter ratio = 17.4. The U atom in the title complex, [U(C17H15N3O2S)O2-(C4H10O)], exists within a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry where the oxide O atoms occupy axial positions [O—U—O = 179.61 (18) ] and the pentagonal plane is defined by the N2O2 atoms of the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and the O atom of the butan-2-ol molecule. In the crystal, centrosymmetric aggregates are formed via pairs of hydroxy–phenoxide O—H O hydrogen bonds. The azomethine C N atoms, the ethylthiolyl group and the butyl group of the butan-2-ol molecule are disordered over two positions in a 0.668 (3):0.332 (3) ratio. Related literature For background to uranyl Schiff base complexes, see: S ¸ ahin et al. (2010); Özdemir et al. (2011). For a related structure, see: Takjoo et al. (2012).

Reza Takjoo; A Atefeh Najafi; A Seik Weng Ng B; Edward R. T. Tiekink B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Acid-base properties, deactivation, and in situ regeneration of condensation catalysts for synthesis of methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect

Condensation reaction of a propionate with formaldehyde is a novel route for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The reaction mechanism involves a proton abstraction from the propionate on the basic sites and activation of the aliphatic aldehyde on the acidic sites of the catalyst. The acid-base properties of ternary V-Si-P oxide catalysts and their relation to the NWA yield in the vapor phase condensation of formaldehyde with propionic anhydride has been studied for the first time. Five different V-Si-P catalysts with different atomic ratios of vanadium, silicon, and phosphorous were synthesized, characterized, and tested in a fixed-bed microreactor system. A V-Si-P 1:10:2.8 catalyst gave the maximum condensation yield of 56% based on HCHO fed at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h. A parameter called the ``q-ratio`` has been defined to correlate the condensation yields to the acid-base properties. The correlation of q-ratio with the condensation yield shows that higher q-ratios are more desirable. The long-term deactivation studies on the V-Si-P 1: 10:2.8 catalyst at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h show that the catalyst activity drops by a factor of nearly 20 over a 180 h period. The activity can be restored to about 78% of the initial activity by a mild oxidative regeneration at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm. The performance of V-Si-P catalyst has been compared to a Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. The Ta- catalyst is more stable and has a higher on-stream catalyst life.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Reseach Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

INSIGHTS INTO SURFACE HYDROGENATION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: OBSERVATIONS OF METHANIMINE AND METHYL AMINE IN Sgr B2(N)  

SciTech Connect

Multiple observations of methanimine (CH{sub 2}NH) and methyl amine (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}) have been performed toward Sgr B2(N) at 1, 2, and 3 mm using the Submillimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory. In the frequency range 68-280 GHz, 23 transitions of CH{sub 2}NH and 170 lines of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} have been observed as individual, distinguishable features, although some are partially blended with other lines. For CH{sub 2}NH, the line profiles indicate V{sub LSR} = 64.2 {+-} 1.4 km s{sup -1} and {Delta}V{sub 1/2} = 13.8 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1}, while V{sub LSR} = 63.7 {+-} 1.6 km s{sup -1} and {Delta}V{sub 1/2} = 15.1 {+-} 3.0 km s{sup -1} for CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, parameters that are very similar to those of other organic species in Sgr B2(N). From these data, rotational diagrams were constructed for both species. In the case of CH{sub 2}NH, a rotational temperature of T{sub rot} = 44 {+-} 13 K and a column density of N{sub tot} = (9.1 {+-} 4.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} were determined from the analysis. For CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, T{sub rot} = 159 {+-} 30 K and N{sub tot} = (5.0 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, indicating that this species is present in much warmer gas than CH{sub 2}NH. The fractional abundances for CH{sub 2}NH and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} were established to be f (H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} and f (H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, respectively. It has been proposed that CH{sub 2}NH is formed on grains via hydrogenation of HCN; further hydrogenation of CH{sub 2}NH on surfaces leads to CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}. However, given the dissimilarity between the rotational temperatures and distributions of CH{sub 2}NH and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} in Sgr B2, it is improbable that these species are closely related synthetically, at least in this source. Both CH{sub 2}NH and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} are more likely created by neutral-neutral processes in the gas phase.

Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ilyushin, V. V., E-mail: halfendt@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: lziurys@as.arizona.edu [Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences Ukraine, Chervonopraporna 4, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

233

Discovery of 5-[[4-[(2,3-Dimethyl-2H-indazol-6-yl)methylamino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-2-methyl-benzenesulfonamide (Pazopanib), a Novel and Potent Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway has emerged as one of the most promising new approaches for cancer therapy. We describe herein the key steps starting from an initial screening hit leading to the discovery of pazopanib, N{sup 4}-(2,3-dimethyl-2H-indazol-6-yl)-N{sup 4}-methyl-N{sup 2}-(4-methyl-3-sulfonamidophenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, a potent pan-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor under clinical development for renal-cell cancer and other solid tumors.

Harris, Philip A.; Boloor, Amogh; Cheung, Mui; Kumar, Rakesh; Crosby, Renae M.; Davis-Ward, Ronda G.; Epperly, Andrea H.; Hinkle, Kevin W.; Hunter, III, Robert N.; Johnson, Jennifer H.; Knick, Victoria B.; Laudeman, Christopher P.; Luttrell, Deirdre K.; Mook, Robert A.; Nolte, Robert T.; Rudolph, Sharon K.; Szewczyk, Jerzy R.; Truesdale, Anne T.; Veal, James M.; Wang, Liping; Stafford, Jeffrey A. (GSKNC)

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

234

Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death  

SciTech Connect

Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC{sub 50} (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC{sub 50} (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 {mu}M and 0.4 {mu}M, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 {mu}M) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

Hemendinger, Richelle A., E-mail: richelle.hemendinger@carolinashealthcare.org; Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Comparative aromatic hydroxylation and N-demethylation of MPTP neurotoxin and its analogs, N-methylated {beta}-carboline and isoquinoline alkaloids, by human cytochrome P450 2D6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin is a chemical inducer of Parkinson's disease (PD) whereas N-methylated {beta}-carbolines and isoquinolines are naturally occurring analogues of MPTP involved in PD. This research has studied the oxidation of MPTP by human CYP2D6 (CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 allelic variants) as well as by a mixture of cytochrome P450s-resembling HLM, and the products generated compared with those afforded by human monoamine oxidase (MAO-B). MPTP was efficiently oxidized by CYP2D6 to two main products: MPTP-OH (p-hydroxylation) and PTP (N-demethylation), with turnover numbers of 10.09 min{sup -1} and K {sub m} of 79.36 {+-} 3 {mu}M (formation of MPTP-OH) and 18.95 min{sup -1} and K {sub m} 69.6 {+-} 2.2 {mu}M (PTP). Small amounts of dehydrogenated toxins MPDP{sup +} and MPP{sup +} were also detected. CYP2D6 competed with MAO-B for the oxidation of MPTP. MPTP oxidation by MAO-B to MPDP{sup +} and MPP{sup +} toxins (bioactivation) was up to 3-fold higher than CYP2D6 detoxification to PTP and MPTP-OH. Several N-methylated {beta}-carbolines and isoquinolines were screened for N-demethylation (detoxification) that was not significantly catalyzed by CYP2D6 or the P450s mixture. In contrast, various {beta}-carbolines were efficiently hydroxylated to hydroxy-{beta}-carbolines by CYP2D6. Thus, N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-{beta}-carboline (a close MPTP analog) was highly hydroxylated to 6-hydroxy-N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-{beta}-carboline and a corresponding 7-hydroxy-derivative. Thus, CYP2D6 could participate in the bioactivation and/or detoxification of these neuroactive compounds by an active hydroxylation pathway. The CYP2D6*1 enzymatic variant exhibited much higher metabolism of both MPTP and N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-{beta}-carboline than the CYP2D6*10 variant, highlighting the importance of CYP2D6 polymorphism in the oxidation of these toxins. Altogether, these results suggest that CYP2D6 can play an important role in the metabolic outcome of both MPTP and {beta}-carbolines.

Herraiz, Tomas [Spanish Council for Scientific Research. CSIC. Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: therraiz@ifi.csic.es; Guillen, Hugo [Spanish Council for Scientific Research. CSIC. Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Aran, Vicente J. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research. CSIC. Instituto de Quimica Medica. Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006. Madrid (Spain); Idle, Jeffrey R. [Institute of Pharmacology, 1st Faculty of Medicine Charles University. Albertov 4, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

An approach to catalytic asymmetric electrocyclization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

petroleum ether 40-60 Ph phenyl ppm parts per million Pr propyl q quartet Rf retention factor rt room temperature s singlet sept septet t triplet t tertiary TBAF tetrabutylammonium fluoride TBS tert... demonstrated by Nelson.73 In this case, we observed the formation of lactone 75 by vinyl nucleophile addition to the corresponding aldehydes 71 and 72. We require a less basic source of vinyl anion, or a bulkier ester such as tert-butyl, to prevent any...

Kothari, Abhishek

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

237

Weekly Petroleum Status Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in

238

Pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the dopamine receptor agonist 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-di-n-propylaminotetralin (DK-118) in the cat  

SciTech Connect

The dopamine receptor agonist 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-di-n-propylaminotetralin (DK-118) lowers blood pressure, heart rat and inhibits tachycardia induced in cats by electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves innervating the heart. DK-118, unlike most of its chemically related dopaminergic analogs, exhibits a slow onset of activity suggesting that one or more metabolites of the drug may be responsible for its pharmacologic effects. The purpose of the work described in this thesis was to gain information regarding the possible bioactivation of DK-118 in cats. In one series of experiments, cats were pretreated with inhibitors of drug metabolism, metyrapone or SKF 525-A, and alterations of the pharmacologic effects of DK-118 determined. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay-using electrochemical detection was developed to quantify urine and plasma concentrations of DK-118 in control, metyrapone pretreated and SKF 525-A pretreated cats. Urinary metabolites of (/sup 14/C)DK-118 were identified employing HPLC, GC/MS and FAB/MS. Pharmacologic activity and receptor binding of selected metabolites were determined. Data presented in this thesis are consistent with the hypothesis that metabolites contribute to some of the pharmacologic effects of DK-118.

Koons, J.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Synthesis and Coordination Properties of Trifluoromethyl Decorated Derivatives of 2,6-Bis[(diphenylphosphinoyl)methyl]pyridine N-Oxide Ligands with Lanthanide Ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phosphinoyl Grignard-based substitutions on 2,6-bis(chloromethyl)pyridine followed by N-oxidation of the intermediate 2,6-bis(phosphinoyl)methyl pyridine compounds with mCPBA give the target trifunctional ligands 2,6-bis[bis-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2a) and 2,6-bis[bis-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2b) in high yields. The ligands have been spectroscopically characterized, the molecular structures confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods and the coordination chemistry surveyed with lanthanide nitrates. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses are described for the coordination complexes Nd(2a)(NO3)3, Nd(2a)(NO3)3 (CH3CN)0.5, Eu(2a)(NO3)3 and Nd(2b)(NO3)3 (H2O)1.25; in each case the ligand binds in a tridentate mode to the Ln(III) cation. These structures are compared with the structures found for lanthanide coordination complexes of the parent NOPOPO ligand, [Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3NO.

Pailloux, Sylvie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Shirima, Cornel Edicome [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Ray, Alicia D. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Duesler, Eileen N. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Paine, Robert T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Klaehn, John D. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); McIlwain, Michael E [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Influence of Linker Geometry on Uranyl Complexation by Rigidly-Linked Bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one) ligands was synthesized, and their respective uranyl complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. These structures were inspected for high-energy conformations and evaluated using a series of metrics to measure co-planarity of chelating moieties with each other and the uranyl coordination plane, as well as to measure coordinative crowding about the uranyl dication. Both very short (ethyl, 3,4-thiophene and o-phenylene) and very long ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}-m-xylene and 1,8-fluorene) linkers provide optimal ligand geometries about the uranyl cation, resulting in planar, unstrained molecular arrangements. The planarity of the rigid linkers also suggests there is a degree of pre-organization for a planar coordination mode that is ideal for uranyl-selective ligand design. Comparison of intramolecular N{sub amide}-O{sub phenolate} distances and {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts of amide protons supports earlier results that short linkers provide the optimal geometry for intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

Szigethy, Geza; Raymond, Kenneth

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. The support for the active metal sulfide is a layered mixed oxide (hydrotalcite) capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. These catalysts have a high surface area, are highly porous, and have basic and acidic functionality. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group 8 metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted Ru catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl-ether. Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

Radke, C.J.

1983-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

244

Efficient I/O Scheduling in Tertiary Libraries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the recent improvements in network and processor speeds, several data intensive applications have become much more feasible than ever before. The only practical solution for storing such enormous amounts of data is tertiarystorage. Automated access ...

Sunil Prabhakar; Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi; Ambuj Singh

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Tertiary oxidation in Westwater Canyon member of Morrison formation  

SciTech Connect

Hematitic oxidation in the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member of the Morrison Formation extends along the outcrop from the Pipeline fault northeast of Gallup, New Mexico, to the San Mateo fault north of Grants, New Mexico. The hematitic sandstone forms a broad lobe in the subsurface to a depth of 2,400 ft (730 m). The downdip edge of this sandstone arcs eastward from northeast Church Rock through Crownpoint, and southeastward to the west edge of the Ambrosia Lake district. The red sandstone is bordered on the downdip side by a band of limonitic oxidation, which interfingers with reduced sandstones basinward. The limonitic oxidation forms a relatively narrow band along the north and west sides of the hematitic lobe but expands progressively in an east and southeast direction. Weak limonitic oxidation, as indicated by the absence of pyrite and by a bleached to faint yellowish-gray color, appears to extend from the San Mateo fault eastward under Mount Taylor to the Rio Puerco of the east. The hematitic oxidation is epigenetic and is believed to be of early Miocene to late Pliocene age. The limonitic oxidation follows the present ground-water flow pattern and probably dates from late Pliocene to the Holocene. The oxidation patterns are important in uranium exploration because the hematitic area is essentially barren, whereas the limonitic areas contain ore deposits that are in the process of being destroyed by oxidation.

Saucier, A.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Evaluation of the North Burbank Unit tertiary recovery pilot test  

SciTech Connect

A review of the performance of the Phillips North Burbank micellar-polymer flood has been completed. The projected ultimate recovery is estimated to be ca 300,000 bbl, which is approximately one-half of the initial prediction made by Phillips. Although oil recovery has been less than expected, sufficient additional oil has been recovered to consider the project technically successful. The lower-than-expected oil recovery is attributed principally to high sulfonate losses. Loss of the sulfonate appears to be the result of significant adsorption to the oil-wet pore surfaces and mixing of micellar fluids with in-place water, which is of high salinity and hardness. Contact of the sulfonate with the high concentration of calcium ions creates calcium sulfonate, which either precipitates as an insoluble phase or partitions into the oil phase. Sulfonate partitioning would have created an upper-phase microemulsion, which cannot be displaced easily by water due to the relatively high interfacial tension. 11 references.

Tracy, G.W.; Dauben, D.L.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Evaluation of the North Burbank unit tertiary recovery pilot test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the performance of the Phillips North Burbank micellar-polymer flood has been completed. The projected ultimate recovery is estimated to be about 300,000 barrels, which is about one half of the initial prediction made by Phillips. Although oil recovery has been less than expected, sufficient additional oil has been recovered to consider the project technically successful. The lower-than-expected oil recovery is attributed principally to high sulfonate losses. Loss of the sulfonate appears to be the result of significant adsorption to the oil-wet pore surfaces and mixing of micellar fluids with in-place water, which is of high salinity and hardness. Contact of the sulfonate with the high concentration of calcium ions creates calcium sulfonate, which either precipitates as an insoluble phase or partitions into the oil phase. Sulfonate partitioning would have created an upper-phase microemulsion, which cannot be easily displaced by water due to the relatively high interfacial tension. The following recommendations are made for improvement of the project: (1) Since preflushes may not always be effective or practical, use a surfactant system which is more tolerant of salinity and hardness. (2) A preflush, if needed, could be improved by designing the volume and salinity of injected fluids to efficiently remove divalent ions from reservoir clays and to displace excess salinity. (3) The surfactant system should be designed with the aid of displacement tests in field cores, conducted over the range of frontal velocities expected in the reservoir. It is particularly important to evaluate displacement at the lower velocity range. (4) Improve operational procedures by conducting workovers prior to pilot initiation and by careful control of injection pressures to insure that fracture extension does not occur.

Tracy, G.W.; Dauben, D.L.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in Proton Bridgedand J.A. Gerlt, “The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in EnzymaticShow That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not Offer a

Khodagholian, Sevana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

The CretaceousTertiary Mass Extinction, Chicxulub Impact,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and Meyerhoff et al. (1994) described Cretaceous assemblages in limestones over- lying breccias in Yucatan Pemex-examined the geophysical logs, sedimentology, and biostratigraphy of seven Pemex wells from northern Yucatan and concluded is often not available for study in PEMEX or UNAM wells. As noted earlier, Cretaceous planktic

Keller, Gerta

250

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

251

Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.

Latshaw, B.E.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

Tyson, K.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The feasibility of ethanol production in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural interests across Texas are looking at the possibility of an ethanol industry in Texas. Continued conflict in the Middle East, the ban of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in California, and low commodity prices have all lead to increased interest in ethanol throughout the state of Texas. There have been several ethanol feasibility studies conducted. Most studies have been focused in other states, and only one incorporated risk on input and output prices. Very little research has been done in Texas. Previous studies are typically for a generic location and only looked at ethanol production from corn. This study looks at four different plant sizes in three different regions using corn and grain sorghum. This study incorporates risk on input prices (corn, grain sorghum, natural gas, and electricity) and the output prices of ethanol and dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). The regions that were analyzed in the study are the Texas Panhandle, the Central Texas region, and the Southeast Texas region. The results indicate that the only plants expected to generate a positive net present value (NPV) were the larger grain sorghum based plants in the Texas Panhandle. The smaller sorghum based plants in the Panhandle did not have a positive NPV. The only other plants that were close to having a positive net present value were the grain sorghum plants in the Central Texas Region. Sorghum in the Southeast Texas Region was not feasible. Using corn as the feedstock was not as feasible in any region. The results of a sensitivity analysis show that a small increase in the net income in the form of increased revenue or reduced costs would make all the plants profitable.

Herbst, Brian Keith

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Development of Supported Polymeric Liquid Membrane Technology for Aqueous MTBE Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) as a gasoline additive has generated a serious, widespread groundwater contamination problem in California. This study evaluated the use of supported polymeric liquid membrane technology in the remediation of MTBE contaminated groundwater.

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

255

List of Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins Acrylonitr ile Aniline Arsenic and its compounds Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Beryllium Boric acid (Boron) Cadmium and its compounds Carbon monoxide Chlordecone (Kepone) Chloroform Chloroprene Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Dioxane Epichlorohydrin Ethylene Dibromide Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Oxide Fluorocarbons Formaldehyde Formamides Lead (Organic) Manganese and its compounds Mercury and its compounds (Inorganic) Methyl n-butyl ketone Methyl chloroform Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone Platinum and its compounds Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) Polychlorinated bipenyls (PCB) Selenium and its compounds Styrene Tellurium and its compounds Tetr achloroethylene

256

Spinning Carbon Fiber Precursors from 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Cellulose Solutions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cellulose is an abundant natural renewable polymer that is used in the production of many materials. However, limited processibility and reduced solubility have restricted its… (more)

Gelderloos-Sammons, Rhea J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Molecular motions in a viscous organic liquid: ferrocene in cold butyl phthalate  

SciTech Connect

The two main purposes of this work were to learn (a) if rotational diffusion can be seen along with translational, and (b) is (x(T)/sup 2/) unusual as the sample is heated from a glass to a liquid. Our observations show that (a) rotational molecular diffusion is not likely ever to be observed by quadrupole relaxation and (b) that there is indeed a fast increase in (x/sup 2/) above T/sub g/. This increase is correlated with a rapid and linear increase of the number of ''soft modes'' for the liquid above the glass transition temperature.

Ruby, S.L.; Zabransky, B.J.; Flinn, P.A.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Title Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Salminen, Justin, Nicolas Papaiconomou, Anand R. Kumar, Jong-Min Lee, John B. Kerr, John S. Newman, and John M. Prausnitz Journal Fluid Phase Equilibria Volume 261 Pagination 421-426 Keywords hydrophobic, ionic liquids, piperidinium, properties, pyrrolidinium, safety, toxicity Abstract Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]+, 1-methyl-1-octyl pyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]+ and 1-methyl-1-octyl piperidinium [MOPip]+ cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

259

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 results: 7 results: BibTex RIS RTF XML Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year (Desc) ] Filters: Author is Elton J. Cairns [Clear All Filters] 2008 Shin, Joon Ho, Pratyay Basak, John B. Kerr, and Elton J. Cairns. "Rechargeable Li/LiFePO4 Cells Using N-Methyl-N-butyl pyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI Electrolyte Incorporating Polymer Additives." Electrochimica Acta 54, no. 2 (2008): 410-414. Shin, Joon Ho, and Elton J. Cairns. "N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI-poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether mixture as a Li/S cell electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 177 (2008): 537-545. 2007 Nakahara, Kentaro, Jiro Iriyama, Shigeyuki Iwasa, Masahiro Suguro, Masaharu Satoh, and Elton J. Cairns. "Al-laminated film packaged organic radical

260

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 results: 3 results: BibTex RIS RTF XML Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year (Desc) ] Filters: Author is Joon Ho Shin [Clear All Filters] 2008 Shin, Joon Ho, Pratyay Basak, John B. Kerr, and Elton J. Cairns. "Rechargeable Li/LiFePO4 Cells Using N-Methyl-N-butyl pyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI Electrolyte Incorporating Polymer Additives." Electrochimica Acta 54, no. 2 (2008): 410-414. Saint, Juliette A., Adam S. Best, Anthony F. Hollenkamp, Joon Ho Shin, and Marca M. Doeff. "Compatibility of Lix TiyMn1-y02 (y=0,0.11) electrode materials with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolyte systems." Journal of The Electrochemical Society 155, no. 2 (2008): A172-A180. Shin, Joon Ho, and Elton J. Cairns. "N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 December 2011 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

262

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 September 2013 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

263

The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured by current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

Fauzia, Vivi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

264

Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

266

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Area of Entry by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Bonded Aircraft Fuel Other Bonded Aircraft Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Bonded, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Other, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 2000 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, 0.31 to 1.00% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Greater than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

267

Available Technologies: Bacterial Overproduction of Methyl Ketones ...  

u.s. department of energy • office of science • university of california. contact webmaster • comments • policy /privacy/security ...

268

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Identifiable mercury methylation genes and enzymes ...  

be limited or unavailable. Patent applications directed towards this invention may not have been filed with any patent ... Disclosure Number 201202869 ...

270

Inter- and intracellular dynamics of DNA methylation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Spadola, E. Yuan, J. Kosek, L. Jiang, E. Hod, K. Li, V.A. Spadola, E. Yuan, J. Kosek, L. Jiang, E. Hod, K. Li, V.

Shoemaker, Robert Field

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

DNA methylation in early mammalian development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All the cells in the body contain the same genome yet showcase drastically different phenotypes. This is the result of different transcriptional programs, which are partly controlled by epigenetic modifications, including ...

Chan, Michelle M. (Michelle Mei Wah)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate  

passing room air through a series of three high-purity hydro-carbon traps (Restek Inc., Bellefonte, PA, USA). ... Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy

273

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-018-1758, Robbins and Myers, Incorporated, Moyno Products Division, Springfield, Ohio. [Vitiligo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to a request from Robbins and Myers, Inc., an investigation was made of a possible health hazard at its Moyno Products Division, Springfield, Ohio. A case of vitiligo, possibly related to working with rubber products in pump manufacture was identified by a dermatologist. Uncured and cured rubber was found to contain 2,4-di-tertiary-butyl-phenol (DTBP) (0.01 to 0.03%) and para-tertiary-butyl-phenol (too low to quantitate). This class of compounds has been associated with vitiligo. Medical survey and examinations revealed four cases of active vitiligo. Its presence was significantly associated with highest exposure to rubber. Rubber department workers had a 22-fold higher risk for the condition compared to other employees. Comparing the four observed cases with an expected 1.1 cases (Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) yielded a standardized morbidity ratio of 3.6. The authors conclude that exposure to DTBP in rubber is the cause of vitiligo in these workers. Recommendations include testing rubber samples for contaminants, modification of work practices, and medical screening of exposed workers.

O'Malley, M.A.; Mathias, C.G.T.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Hydrocarbons in New Guinea, controlled by basement fabric, Mesozoic extension and Tertiary convergent margin tectonics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most models for the tectonic evolution of New Guinea involve Early and Late Miocene arc-continent collisions, creating an orogenic belt. Structural trends and prospectivity are then analyzed in terms of belts across the country; the Fold Belt (with the discovered oil and gas fields), the Mobile Belt and the accreted arcs. This model inhibits realistic assessment of prospectivity. It now appears the Mobile Belt formed by Oligocene compression then by Early Miocene extension, related to slab-rollback, that unroofed metamorphic core complexes adjacent to starved half-grabens. The grabens filled in the Middle Miocene and were largely transported intact during the Pliocene arc-collision. Early Miocene reefs and hypothesized starved basin source rocks create a viable play throughout northern New Guinea as in the Salawati Basin. The Pliocene clastic section is locally prospective due to overthrusting and deep burial. Within the Fold Belt, the site and types of oil and gas fields are largely controlled by the basement architecture. This controlled the transfer zones and depocentres during Mesozoic extension and the location of major basement uplifts during compression. In PNG, the Bosavi lineament separates an oil province from a gas province. In Irian Jaya the transition from a relatively competent sequence to a rifted sequence west of [approx]139[degrees]E may also be a gas-oil province boundary. Understanding, in detail, the compartmentalization of inverted blocks and areas of thin-skinned thrusting, controlled by the basement architecture, will help constrain hydrocarbon prospectivity.

Hill, K.C.; Kendrick, R.D.; Crowhurst, P.V. (VIEPS, Melbourne (Australia) SAEFUDIN Ijep, GRDC (India))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Borehole gravity surveys in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Sagavanirktok Formation, Kuparuk River oil field, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Detailed borehole gravity surveys (sponsored by the US Department of Energy) were made in three wells in the Kuparuk River and westernmost Prudhoe Bay oil fields, Alaska from depths as shallow as 15 m to as great as 1,340 m through permafrost and underlying heavy oil bearing sandstones of the Sagavanirktok Formation. A subbituminous coal-bearing sequence and the stability field for methane hydrate occur partly within and partly below the permafrost zone, whose base, defined by the 0{degree}C isotherm, varies from 464 to 564 m. The surveys provided accurate, large-volume estimates of in-situ bulk density from which equivalent porosity was calculated using independent grain and pore-fluid density information. This density and porosity data helped to define the rock mass properties within the hydrate stability field and the thermal conductivity, seismic character, and compaction history of the permafrost. Bulk density of the unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sections ranges mostly from 1.9 to 2.3 g/cm{sup 3}. The shallow permafrost section appears to be slightly overcompacted in comparison to similar sedimentary sequences in nonpermafrost regions. The cause of this apparent overcompaction is unknown but may be due to freeze-thaw processes that have similarly affected sea floor and surficial deposits elsewhere in the Arctic. Fluctuations of bulk density appear to be controlled principally by (1) textural variations of the sediments, possibly exaggerated locally within the permafrost zone by excess ice, (2) presence or absence of carbonaceous material, and (3) type of pore-fluid (water-ice vs. water vs. hydrocarbons). As hypothetical models predict bulk-density is slightly lower opposite one interval of possible methane hydrate. Porosity may be as high as 40-45% for selected coarser grained units within the permafrost zone, and as high as 30-35% in a series of well sorted, heavy oil-bearing sandstones.

Beyer, L.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Influence of provenance on detrital and diagenetic mineralogy of small tertiary fans in southwestern Montana  

SciTech Connect

In the North Boulder River basin in southwestern Montana, alluvial fans of the Renova (Oligocene-Miocene) and the Sixmile Creek (Miocene) Formations were deposited on the flanks of north-south-trending uplifts that also supplied the detritus. The Elkhorn Mountain volcanics (78 m.y.) overlying the Boulder batholith make up the western highlands, a small patch of Precambrian Belt Group rocks occur in the southwest and Paleozoic siliciclastic and carbonate rocks forming the eastern margin. The fan sediments thus allow adequate control for studying the influence of source rocks on detrital and diagenetic mineralogy. Modal analysis of 6228 grains in 31 thin sections shows a decrease of VRF away from the igneous sources (37% to 1% in a north-south transect; 37% to 7% in a west-east transect) along with an increase in quartz (8% to 24% and 3% to 13%) and plagioclase (2% to 16% and 2% to 10%); orthoclase abundance is low except in the southwest. Volcanic ash and glass shards are found in the younger sediments in the northern part of the basin. Their data show a positive correlation between the abundance of orthoclase and kaolinite (north-south transect); between SRF and carbonate cement (west-east transect) and between glass shards and smectite (both north-south and west-east transects). They infer that the diagenetic mineralogy of these sands was controlled essentially by the detrital particles, which were strongly controlled by source rocks in this area.

Olson, J.; Basu, A.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Exposure to, perceptions and levels of mental skills among tertiary institution field hockey players / Maryke Eloff.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The importance of mental skills training (MST) is emphasized by previous/available research findings which show that by combining MST with physical training it enhances players’… (more)

Eloff, Maryke

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

ThinkFree: using a visual Wiki for IT knowledge management in a tertiary institution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe ThinkFree, an industrial Visual Wiki application which provides a way for end users to better explore knowledge of IT Enterprise Architecture assets that is held within a large enterprise wiki. The application was motivated ... Keywords: knowledge management, visual wiki, visualization

Christian Hirsch; John Hosking; John Grundy; Tim Chaffe

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Secondary porosity in immature Late Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstones, northeast Alaska and northwest Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petrographic and scanning electron microscope analysis of Upper Cretaceous to lower Eocene sandstone from outcrops west of the Mackenzie delta and in the central Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) reveals secondary porosity. Recognizing this secondary porosity is important for oil and gas exploration because early diagenesis has eliminated most primary porosity in these immature litharenites. The litharenites are dominated by grains of quartz, cherty argillite, chert, volcanic rock fragments, variable amounts of feldspar, and minor amounts of metamorphic rock fragments. Because of the abundance of ductile grains all deep burial (probable burial to depths in excess of 3,000 m), these sandstones have suffered the loss of most primary porosity. Additional reduction of primary porosity has occurred due to the formation of minor amount of precompaction rim cement (carbonate, chlorite, and illite/smectite) and syncompaction quartz overgrowths. Dissolution of framework grains and, to a lesser degree, matrix has resulted in secondary porosities of up to 8% in outcrop samples. Framework grains commonly dissolved include volcanic rock fragments, feldspar, chert, cherty argillite, argillite, and quartz. Two processes are responsible for the dissolution. The first process is the direct dissolution of grains. The second process involves two steps in which grains and matrix are initially replaced by carbonate cement followed by dissolution of the cement and creation of secondary porosity. Secondary porosity is reported to exceed 20% in subsurface samples in northwest Canada.

Myers, M.D. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA)); Smith, T.N. (State Div. of Oil and Gas, Anchorage, AK (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

New surfactant classes for enhanced oil recovery and their tertiary oil recovery potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditioned to residual waterflood oil saturation prior to surfactant slug injection. This was followed for more than 35 years, in particular in the USA in depleted oil reservoirs after waterflooding (Garrett., 2000; Jayanti et al., 2001; Berger and Lee, 2002; Endo et al., 2002). During a waterflood (which can

Goddard III, William A.

282

Multiple impacts across the CretaceousTertiary boundary G. Kellera,*, W. Stinnesbeckb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the PEMEX well Soyalo 1. Bochil-2 is about 8 km from the intersection with the main road, whereas Bochil-1

Keller, Gerta

283

Petroleum systems of the Southeast Tertiary basins and Marbella area, Southeast Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This study was done in an area where insufficient organic-rich rocks were available for a reliable oil-source rock correlation. However, oil-rock correlations, molecular characteristics of key horizons, paleofacies maps, maturation and potential migration pathways suggest the Tithonian as a major source rock. Moreover, there is good evidence of high quality source rocks in Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian, Middle-Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene (mainly in the Eocene). Plays were identified in Upper Jurassic oolitic sequences, Early-Middle Cretaceus carbonate platform rocks and breccias, Late Cretaceous basinal fracture carbonates, Paleogene carbonates and breccias, Early-Middle Miocene mounds and submarine fans and isolated carbonate platform sediments and Miocene-Recent turbidites. Seal rocks are shaly carbonates and anhydrites from Tithonian, basinal carbonates and anhydrites from Middle-Upper Cretaceous, basinal carbonates and marls from Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene shales, and bathyal shales from Early Miocene-Recent. The first phase of oil migration from upper Jurassic-Early Cretaceous source rocks occurred in the Early-Middle Cretaceous. In the Upper Cretaceous the Chortis block collided with Chiapas, and as a result mild folding and some hydrocarbons were emplaced to the structural highs. The main phase of structuration and folding of the Sierra de Chiapas started in the Miocene, resulting in well-defined structural traps. Finally, in Plio-Pleistocene the Chortis block was separated, the major compressional period finished and the southern portion of Sierra de Chiapas was raised isostatically. As a result of major subsidence, salt withdrawal and increased burial depth, conditions were created for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons from the Paleogene shales.

Fuentes, F. [Pemex Exploration y Produccion, Mexico City (Mexico)]|[Joint Team, Pemex Exploration y Producion and BP Exploration, Mexico City (Mexico)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Tertiary Motifs Revealed in Analyses of Higher-Order RNA Junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Stahley, A. B. Kosek, J. Wang and S. A. Strobel, Nature, 2004, 430, 45; P. L. Adams, M. R. Stahley, M. L. Gill, A. B. Kosek, J. Wang and S. A. Strobel, RNA, 2004, 10, 1867. 13 F. Guo, A. R. Gooding and T. R

Schlick, Tamar

285

Benign nodular tertiary syphilis: A rare presenting manifestation of HIV infection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hospital, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute,Hospital, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute,

Revathi, TN; Bhat, Shilpa; Asha, GS

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Influence of temperature on the extraction of Pu(IV) by tri-n-butyl phosphate from acidic nitrate solutions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The goal of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is to efficiently separate and recover actinides in attempts to reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel and reduce the… (more)

[No author

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's New What's New November 2013 Updates ECO mammalian SSLs were updated for cadmium, antimony , arsenic, inorganic, barium, Beryllium, chromium VI, cobalt, copper, lead, silver, vanadium, cyanide (total complex), methyl mercury, sulfide, thallium and tin. October 2013 Updates The biota intake rates for the radionuclide PRG and risk tools were updated to correct an improper units conversion. September 2013 Updates IRIS updates for 1,4-Dioxane and Biphenyl were completed. PPRTV values have been updated for Biphenyl, 3,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride, Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (Tetryl), Endosulfan Sulfate, 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane, Nitromethane, Dibenzothiophene, 2-Ethoxyethanol, 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Ethyl Acetate, tert-Amyl Alcohol, 2,2-Difluoropropane,

288

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

289

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

CASTING SLIPS FOR FABRICATION OF REFRACTORY METAL WARE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition is given for slip casting tungsten metal. The composition consists essentially of tungsten metal with an average particle size of 0.9 micron, an organic vehicle such as methyl chloroform, o-xylene, n-butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, and 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachlorethane, and a suspending agent such as ethyl cellulose, with the approximate ratio of said vehicle to the tungsten metal being 12 cc of a solution containing from 5 to about 20 grams of said ethyl cellulose in 400 cc of said organic vehicle per 100 grams of metal. (AEC)

Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Method for measuring surface temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

petroleum petroleum Alcohol: The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2))n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate: The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high-octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation: A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of anacid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to

293

@Title = Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms (Revised January 2010) Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an

294

Annual Energy Outlook 2005-Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AD AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO2004 Annual Energy Outlook 2004 AEO2005 Annual Energy Outlook 2005 Altos Altos Partners AMT Alternative Minimum Tax ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Btu British thermal unit CAFE Corporate average fuel economy CAMR Clean Air Mercury Rule CARB California Air Resources Board CBECS Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (EIA) CBO Congressional Budget Office CCCC Climate Change Credit Corporation CH 4 Methane CHP Combined heat and power CO 2 Carbon dioxide CTL Coal-to-liquids DB Deutsche Bank, A.G. E85 Fuel containing a blend of 70 to 85 percent ethanol and 30 to 15 percent gasoline by volume EEA Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. EIA Energy Information Administration EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EVA Energy Ventures Analysis, Incorporated FERC

295

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical compounds composed of chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alco- hols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by

296

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Homepage Homepage ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO Annual Energy Outlook AGA American Gas Association ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge API American Petroleum Institute BRP Blue Ribbon Panel Btu British thermal unit CAAA90 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CARB California Air Resources Board CCAP Climate Change Action Plan CDM Clean Development Mechanism CECA Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act CIDI Compression ignition direct injection CO Carbon monoxide DBAB Deutsche Banc Alex. Brown DOE U.S. Department of Energy DRI Standard & PoorÂ’s DRI EIA Energy Information Administration EOR Enhanced oil recovery EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether

297

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2)) n -OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydro- gen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar

298

PSADEFS.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usu- ally refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gaso- line. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, buty- lene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the antiknock

299

Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) AD - Associated/dissolved natural gas AEO98 - Annual Energy Outlook 1998 AEO99 - Annual Energy Outlook 1999 AFVs - Alternative-fuel vehicles AGA - American Gas Association API - American Petroleum Institute BTAB - BT Alex Brown CAAA90 - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CCAP - Climate Change Action Plan CDM - Clean Development Mechanism CFCs - Chlorofluorocarbons CNG - Compressed natural gas CO - Carbon monoxide CO2 - Carbon dioxide DOE - U.S. Department of Energy DRI - DRI/McGraw-Hill EIA - Energy Information Administration EOR - Enhanced oil recovery EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT - Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE - Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EU - European Union FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GDP - Gross domestic product

300

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

An empirical study of potentials of adoption of grid computing as a vehicle for tertiary institutions collaboration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grid computing is emerging as the foundation upon which virtual collaborations can be built among large organisations with the aim of integrating and sharing computer resources, and thus offering performance and resource availability, which is unattainable ...

Faith-Michael E. Uzoka; B. A. Akinnuwesi; S. O. Olabiyisi; Alabi Demilade

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio [Gerencia Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for middle Tertiary counterclockwise block rotation in the Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paleomagnetic data from late Oligocene to early Miocene ash-flow tuffs at four localities in the northern Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada, indicate that parts of the crust have rotated counterclockwise by at least 25/sup 0/ and perhaps significantly more in late Cenozoic time. Field relations in White Rock Canyon, Stillwater Range, suggest that rotation (1) was accommodated by right-lateral slip on northwest-trending faults, (2) spanned ash-flow tuff emplacement, and (3) probably ceased before eruption of overlying middle Miocene basalts. Accurate estimates of Cenozoic extension, as well as evaluation of earlier Mesozoic structures, must include the strain partitioned into rotation in the area.

Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

307

Polymer floods: A case study of nonlinear wave analysis and of instability control in tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Polymer flooding in oil reservoir simulation is considered in two space dimensions. The wave structures associated with such a process give rise to interesting phenomena in the nonlinear regime which have direct bearing on the efficiency of oil recovery. These waves influence and can prevent surface instabilities of the fingering mode. In this paper we resolve these waves by a front tracking method. We consider the fingering problem and the issue of oil recovery for the polymer flood. The details of these two phenomena depend on the separation between the waves and upon the viscosity contrast between the oil, water and polymer. We identify a nonlinear transfer of instability between adjacent waves and a nonlinear enhancement of recovery due to successive waves. The conclusions produced by this work are also pertinent to tracer flooding. One interesting conclusion applies to polymer injection followed by pure water injection. In this case the instability is transferred to the polymer-water interface, and the pure water region can break through the polymer to achieve direct contact with the oil. The polymer is left in narrow ribbons parallel to the main flow field and is by-passed by pure water. The effect of narrow regions of by-passed polymer can be simulated by the front tracking method and is not equivalent to numerical or physical diffusion, which would distribute the polymer more uniformly and retard the breakthrough of water through the polymer layer. 45 refs., 15 figs.

Daripa, P.; Glimm, J.; Lindquist, B.; McBryan, O.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Polymer floods: A case study of nonlinear wave analysis and of instability control in tertiary oil recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymer flooding in oil reservoir simulation is considered in two space dimensions. The wave structures associated with such a process give rise to interesting phenomena in the nonlinear regime which have direct bearing on the efficiency of oil recovery. These waves influence and can prevent surface instabilities of the fingering mode. In this paper the authors resolve these waves by a front tracking method. They consider the fingering problem and the issue of oil recovery for the polymer flood. The details of these two phenomena depend on the separation between the waves and upon the viscosity contrast between the oil, water and polymer. They identify a nonlinear transfer of instability between adjacent waves and a nonlinear enhancement of recovery due to successive waves. The conclusions produced by this work are also pertinent to tracer flooding. One interesting conclusion applies to polymer injection followed by pure water injection. In this case the instability is transferred to the polymer-water interface, and the pure water region can break through the polymer to achieve direct contact with the oil. The polymer is left in narrow ribbons parallel to the main flow field and is by-passed by pure water. The effect of narrow regions of by-passed polymer can be simulated by the front tracking method and is not equivalent to numerical or physical diffusion, which would distribute the polymer more uniformly and retard the breakthrough of water through the polymer layer.

Daripa, P.; Glimm, J.; Lindquist, B.; McBryan, O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adipose) tissue from [72]. Data set 61 consists of humanheart tissue from [27]. Data set 62 consists of kidney (tissue from TCGA (KIRC). Data set 63 consists of liver (

Horvath, Steve

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

comprises a very large proportion of the mouse and human genomes. Using bisulphite modification and quantitative real-time PCR, the method can be used to analyse a very large pool...

312

Study of methyl group rotations and primary relaxation in poly ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... experiment, we will start with a fixed window scan (FWS), covering the entire ... 4 K. The measurements performed here will cover a temperature ...

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

313

Small RNAs, DNA methylation and transposable elements in wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reinhardtii by a DEAH-Box RNA helicase. Science 2000, 290:homolog of Werner syndrome helicase and RNaseD. Cell 1999,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

A-61: Poly Methyl Methacrylate-Halloysite Composite Nanofibers ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... as Shielding Materials for Electromagnetic Interference and Radiation Shielding ... for Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators during Cold-Working Process.

315

Ultrastructural changes in rat hepatocytes following acute methyl mercury intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Male rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight for 4 days. The earliest ultrastructural changes consisted of dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, wavy transformation of the mitochondrial membranes and occasional accumulation of liposomes. Focal areas of cytoplasmic degradation were observed 1 day after the initial administration of mercury. An increased number of lysosomes as well as swelling and floccular degeneration of the mitochondria were frequently observed at 2 days. Sequestration of cytoplasmic organelles within the hepatocytes, extrusion of degenerated hepatic organelles and cytoplasmic debris into the sinusoid could be observed 24 hours after the initial mercury administration and became a frequent finding after 4 days of intoxication. (auth)

Desnoyers, P.A.; Chang, L.W.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Engineering of Bacterial Methyl Ketone Synthesis for Biofuels  

Published Ahead of Print 28 October 2011. €€ 10.1128/AEM.06785-11. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.€2012, 78(1):70. DOI: Harry R. Beller Ee-Been Goh, Edward E. K ...

317

RESEARCH Open Access Kinetics of DNA methylation inheritance by the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/G1 phase was superior to that seen in S phase, but not the observation that the number of the Dnmt1/ PPARg dots seen in S phase was superior to that seen in G2/M phase. Without explaining all variations-treated cells was due to an accumulation of p53. Acknowledgements We thank to Philippe Hulin for its technical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

The Esterification of Naphthenic Acids for Methyl Ester Production .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The remediation of tailings water, a by-product of bitumen extraction, is of utmost importance to the Athabasca oil sands industry due to its toxicity to… (more)

Dastjerdi, Zahra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ketone synthesis for biofuels Ee-Been Goh†† 1,3 , Edward E.microbes for use as biofuels, such as fatty acid ethylother fatty acid-derived biofuels, such as fatty acid ethyl

Goh, Ee-Been

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene werepropane, propylene, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, n-octaneas ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene and 30 m

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylation Revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis. In: Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols, M.Segal: Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylationpackage and applications to genomics. Bioinformatics and

Segal, Mark R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

An experimental design algorithm applied to study of methyl ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels proceeds by means of the ... to simulate these experiments, in this case the Jet Surrogate Fuel model. ...

323

Retention indices, relative response factors, and mass spectra of trifluoroethyl and heptafluorobutyl esters of carboxylic acids determined by capillary GC/MS  

SciTech Connect

The GC/MS characteristics of carboxylic acid esters prepared from fluorine-containing alcohols were compared to those of methyl esters. The GC retention of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (TFE) esters was less than, and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butyl (HFB) esters approximately equivalent to that of methyl esters. The peak shape of both TFE and HFB esters was slightly superior to that of methyl esters. Mass spectra of TFE and HFB aliphatic esters show significantly more intense molecular and key fragment ions than those of methyl esters. Also, owing to their significantly higher molecular weights, TFE or HFB ester molecular ions and most fragment ions of interest occur at significantly higher m/z values than most potential interfering ions. The GC retention indices, relative GC/MS total ion current response factors, and 70 eV electron impact mass spectra of about 70 TFE and 70 HFB carboxylic acid esters are reported. Results from analysis of a TFE/HFB esterified petroleum carboxylic acid concentrate are discussed in detail. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Yu, S.K.-T.; Vrana, R.P.; Green, J.B.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Refiners look at H sub 2 SO sub 4 alkylation and catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfuric acid alkylation and catalytic reforming drew many questions at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. At this annual meeting, presubmitted questions are answered by a panel of experts. For more information on the meeting's format, see OGJ, Mar. 16, p. 37. This third and final article in the series of excerpts from the 1991 NPRA Q and A Session examines such pertinent alkylation topics as tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) raffinate processing and unit operation during acid runaway. Also discussed are skewed platinum/rhenium reforming catalyst and how catalyst life affects reformate aromatics levels.

Not Available

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

325

pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymer gels and the production thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides novel gel forming methacrylic blocking copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether polymer. The polymers may be used for drug and gene delivery, protein separation, as structural supplements, and more.

Mallapragada, Surya K. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Brian C. (Lake Bluff, IA)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide-tri-n-butyl phosphate mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The extraction behavior of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxides, O0D(IB)CMPO, in the presence of tributylphosphate, TBP, has been studied using diethylbenzene, decalin, and normal aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. Relative to O0D(IB)CMPO alone, mixtures of TBP and O0D(IB)CMPO show a slight enhancement in the extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid solution above 2 M and a moderate decrease in extraction for lower acid concentrations. The net effect of TBP addition to O0D(IB)CMPO (as well as other selected carbamoylmethylphosphoryl extractants) is a relative insensitivity of the distribution ratio of Am(III) to HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the range of 0.5 M to 6 M and facilitated stripping of Am(III) with dilute acid. Since a continuous variation study of Am(III) extraction using mixtures of O0D(IB)CMPO and TBP at a fixed total concentration revealed no evidence of a mixed complex, the TBP appears to be behaving primarily as a phase modifier. The most significant benefit gained from addition of TBP to O0D(IB)CMPO is the increased metal ion loading capacity and extractant compatibility with alicyclic and aliphatic diluents. The use of TBP to overcome phase compatibility with other bifunctional extractants of the carbamoylmethylphosphoryl type and the use of other phase modifiers with O0D(IB)CMPO have also been investigated. 15 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Fused ring and linking groups effect on overcharge protection for lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The derivatives of 1,3-benzodioxan (DBBD1) and 1,4-benzodioxan (DBBD2) bearing two tert-butyl groups have been synthesized as new redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. Both compounds exhibit a reversible redox wave over 4 V vs Li/Li{sup +} with better solubility in a commercial electrolyte (1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (EC/EMC 3/7) than the di-tert-butyl-substituted 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The electrochemical stability of DBBD1 and DBBD2 was tested under charge/discharge cycles with 100% overcharge at each cycle in MCMB/LiFePO{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. DBBD2 shows significantly better performance than DBBD1 for both cell chemistries. The structural difference and reaction energies for decomposition have been studied by density functional calculations.

Weng, W.; Zhang, Z.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

Jackson, D.

1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

329

Why Sequence Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Ethers such as 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and methyl tert-butyl ether are widespread contaminants of groundwater resources. 1,4-Dioxane is widely used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). 1,4-Dioxane is a carcinogen, and causes acute toxic effects on the nervous system, liver, and kidneys. One promising approach for remediating 1,4-dioxane-impacted water supplies is in-situ bioremediation using aerobic bacteria. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 is a unique bacterial strain that can grow using 1,4-dioxane as a sole source of carbon and energy. It can degrade several other water contaminants and also fix dinitrogen, making it an attractive bioaugmentation culture even for nitrogen-limited

330

Why sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sequence ethene and vinyl sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains? Mycobacteria are known for causing human and animal diseases but they are also important degraders of hard-to-break-down water contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). So far the handful of bacterial species representing the Mycobacterium genus that have been sequenced all break down PAHs. In this project, researchers focus on the genomes of mycobacterial species isolated from soil, freshwater and marine environments that use the alkene compounds ethene and vinyl chloride as carbon sources. Chlorinated ethene compounds are difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater but necessary because of their toxicity. Additionally these compounds reduce the ozone levels in the atmosphere.

331

Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

Black, Micah [University of Southern Mississippi, The; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Rawlins, James [University of Southern Mississippi, The

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

335

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1986-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

336

High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

Zeldin, Arkady (Rego Park, NY); Carciello, Neal (Patchogue, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence (Port Jefferson, NY); Fontana, Jack (Shoreham, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

19 results: 19 results: BibTex RIS RTF XML Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year (Desc) ] Filters: Author is John B. Kerr [Clear All Filters] 2012 Zhu, Xiaobing, John B. Kerr, Qinggang He, Gi Suk Hwang, Zulima Martin, Kyle Clark, Adam Z. Weber, and Nana Zhao. "Bridge to Fuel Cell Molecular Catalysis: 3D Non-Platinum Group Metal Catalyst in MEAs." ECS Transactions 45, no. 2 (2012): 143-152. 2008 Shin, Joon Ho, Pratyay Basak, John B. Kerr, and Elton J. Cairns. "Rechargeable Li/LiFePO4 Cells Using N-Methyl-N-butyl pyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI Electrolyte Incorporating Polymer Additives." Electrochimica Acta 54, no. 2 (2008): 410-414. Hardwick, Laurence J., Marek Marcinek, Leanne Beer, John B. Kerr, and Robert Kostecki. "An Investigation of the effect of graphite degradation on

338

Preliminary geologic characterization of Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary low-permeability (tight) gas bearing rocks in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The geology and stratigraphy of natural gas deposits in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming, was investigated. The study will be utilized to help determine the gas potential of the basin.

Johnson, R.C.; Finn, T.M.; Keefer, W.R.; Flores, R.M.; Keighin, C.W.; Szmajter, R.J.; Nuccio, V.F.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Comparison of maternal and neonatal outcome before and after the availability of a rapid assay for fetal fibronectin at a tertiary level maternity hospital  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

before and after test availability as compared to those whoBenjamin A. (2005). Does availability of fetal fibronectinBefore and After the Availability of a Rapid Assay for Fetal

Poeltler, Debra Ann Milbert

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrates from Western coal. Final fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Fossil resins occurring in the Wasatch Plateau coal field are composed mainly of aliphatic components, partially aromatized multi-cyclic terpenoids and a few oxygen functional groups (such as {minus}OH and {minus}COOH). The solvent extracted resins show the presence of a relatively large number of methyl groups when compared to the methylene groups, and this indicates the presence of extensive tertiary carbon and/or highly branching chains. In contrast coal consists primarily of aromatic ring structures, various oxygen functional groups ({minus}OH, >C=O, {minus}C{minus}O) and few aliphatic chains. The color difference observed among the four resin types is explained by the presence of chromophores (aromatized polyterpenoid) and also by the presence of finely dispersed coal particle inclusions in the resin matrix. The hexane soluble resin fraction has few aromatic compounds when compared to the hexane insoluble but toluene soluble resin fraction.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1994-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, January 1944--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

In work related to the design and construction of the Process Development Unit (PDU) this quarter involved further detail design and a real start to the construction activities. Status updates are given below for each discipline in the Task 2.0 and 3.0 headings. This work is progressing well. with the caveat of several small slips in the scheduling. On the catalyst development front this quarter was extremely productive. Many catalyst screening experiments were completed and they showed that control of the reaction exotherm is going to be quite challenging under PDU conditions. The presence of much more efficient reactor design and the ability to maintain closer to isothermal conditions is expected to give a significant advantage in actual PDU operation. A major concern at the moment is the cost of La in the catalyst being used. An action plan to remedy this is being put together.

NONE

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

glutamate-activated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channels have recently been de-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nA 2 -30 nA E DEPOL PULSE IOlnV I +2.0 nA ' 1 0.5 s Figure 7. Intracellular current injection during

Alford, Simon

344

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/L. For the city's Char- nock well field, an initial review of known and sus- pected petroleum spill sites identified about 10 potential sources that lay within 1 km of the well field, lay above the hydrologic unit (LUFTs) and leaking pipelines, other sources of MTBE in groundwater include tank overfilling and faulty

345

3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioethanol production is an attractive option because of the high productivity and yield during fermentation.

Connor, Michael R.; Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

207_06 Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2006 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

347

A comparative analysis of DNA methylation across human embryonic stem cell lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA (to SEJ and MP), and by the Department of Energy

Chen, Pao-Yang; Feng, Suhua; Joo, Jong; Jacobsen, Steve E; Pellegrini, Matteo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Outbreak of Minamata Disease (methyl mercury poisoning) in cats on northwestern Ontario Reserves  

SciTech Connect

Pathological, histochemical, and analytical studies have confirmed the presence of Minamata Disease in at least one of two cats that lived on or near Indian Reserves in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. These symptoms parallel the Japanese experience in the 1950s and raise ominous health considerations for the Indians who share their diet of fish. After being fed a diet that primarily consisted of fish from the English River, one cat developed such acute neurological symptoms as an ataxic gait, other abnormal movements, uncontrolled howling, and seizures. The total mercury analyses showed high levels in all tissues with 16.4 mg/kg in the brain comparable with symptomatic cats in Japan. A second cat that appeared normal had 6.9 mg/kg in its brain tissues, and pathological studies confirmed the presence of latent Minamata Disease.

Takeuchi, T. (Kumamoto Univ., Japan); D' Itri, F.M.; Fischer, P.V.; Annett, C.S.; Okabe, M.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Outbreak of minamata disease (methyl mercury poisoning) in cats on Northwestern Ontario reserves  

SciTech Connect

Pathological, histochemical, and analytical studies have confirmed the presence of Minamata Disease in at least one of two cats that lived on or near Indian Reserves in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. These symptoms parallel the Japanese experience in the 1950s and raise ominous health considerations for the Indians who share their diet of fish. After being fed a diet that primarily consisted of fish from the English River, one cat developed such acute neurological symptoms as an ataxic gait, other abnormal movements, uncontrolled howling, and seizures. The total mercury analyses showed high levels in all tissues with 16.4 mg/kg in the brain comparable with symptomatic cats in Japan. A second cat that appeared normal had 6.9 mg/kg in its brain tissues, and pathological studies confirmed the presence of latent Minamata Disease.

Takeuchi, T. (Kumamoto Univ., Japan); D' Itri, F.M.; Fischer, P.V.; Annett, C.S.; Okabe, M.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Thermal Decomposition of Methyl Butanoate: Ab Initio Study of a Biodiesel Fuel Surrogate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. (1989a,b) from a molecular dynamics simulation of the measured structure factor results of Susman et al., and BOLLER,A.,1994, Thermochim. Acta, 238, 227. ZHANG,M., and BOOLCHAND,P.,1994, Science, 266, 1355. 1772

Violi, Angel

351

Aging effects on DNA methylation modules in human brain and blood tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes in chromosomes cause aging? Cell 1996, 86:9-12. 2.M: Cross-Talk between Aging and Cancer. Annals of the NewMF, Esteller M: Epigenetics and aging: the targets and the

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Type II restriction-modification system methylation subunit of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius  

SciTech Connect

Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering recombination inside or outside of a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and/or nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

Lee, Brady D; Newby, Deborah T; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Roberto, Francisco F; Reed, David W

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions from combustion of algae based methyl ester biodiesel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The advantages to using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel are also accompanied by disadvantages. Biodiesel is usually made from crops that are also used… (more)

Fisher, Bethany Cheryl

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Forest nurseries face critical choices with the loss of methyl bromide fumigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

seedlings over mature composts in USDA Forest Serviceseedlings planted into compost-amended soil that had eitherbio- solid and bark-based composts had the highest average

Weiland, Jerry E; Littke, Will R; Haase, Diane L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Polyol-mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZnO nanorods (length 30-150 nm) were synthesized in di(ethylene glycol) using Zn(CH3COO)2 as a precursor and para-toluene sulphonic acid, p-TSA, as an end-capping agent. Increasing the concentration of p-TSA above 0.1M causes the ...

Alojz Anžlovar; Zorica Crnjak Orel; Ksenija Kogej; Majda Žigon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Inhibition of IFN-[gamma] promoter function by site-specific methylation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When they become activated, naive helper T cells are able to polarize into either THI cells or TH2 cells. Development of naive CD4+ T cells into TH1 cells is characterized by the expression of IFN-y and the silencing of ...

Jones, Brendan T. (Brendan Taber)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Characterization and research investigation of methanol and methyl fuels. Final progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work on several aspects of using pure methanol as an alternate fuel are reported. A stock (OEM) Pinto engine mounted on a dynamometer was used to compare methanol with Indolene in terms of power, efficiency, and emissions for a variety of speeds and loads. Although the engine was designed for use with gasoline, it was found that methanol was generally superior in power, thermal efficiency and reduced emissions with the exception of aldehydes. Three different fuel metering systems were tested for a variety of speeds and loads using the dynamometer mounted engine. They were all found to provide superior steady state performance on methanol when compared with the OEM carburetor system with enlarged fuel jets for methanol. Mileage and emissions from a Pinto vehicle equipped with the various fuel metering systems were computer predicted for the Federal emissions test procedure using laboratory engine measurements. A computer was used to simulate the test engine's thermokinetic combustion events. The computer model predicts power, fuel economy and emissions with air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, spark advance and speed as parameters. A small (60 hp) gas turbine was converted to run on methanol. The conversion was easily accomplished, but atomization of the fuel was found to be important in obtaining a reduction in CO and NO/sub x/ for methanol in comparison with jet engine fuel. Environmental factors of marine and aquatic methanol spills and photochemical smog are under study. Preliminary experimentation relative to marine spills indicates that methanol is naturally present in that environment. It appears at this early stage of investigation that damage to the ecosystem from a major coastal spill may be localized and of short duration.

Pefley, R.K.; Browning, L.H.; Hornberger, M.L.; Likos, W.E.; McCormack, M.C.; Pullman, B.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in producing biofuels from renewable sources hasafter 60 h. Keywords Biofuels . Metabolic engineering .2008; Stephanopoulos 2007). Biofuels produced from renewable

Connor, Michael R.; Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl-Substituted Phenols: Correlations of Kinetic Parameters with Molecular Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-of-the-art of using alternative, renewable, and/or novel feedstocks (such coal; biomass; oil shale; tar sands reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated compounds into smaller molecules. Oil shale in Colorado has the potential to be a large scale domestic

Simons, Jack

360

ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome  

SciTech Connect

ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang (Harvard-Med); (Ottawa Hosp.); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (CH-Boston); (Tsinghua); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

Evaluation of neural networks-based controllers in batch polymerisation of methyl methacrylate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of batch reactors in today's process industries cannot be overstated. Thus said, it is important to optimise their operation in order to consistently achieve products of high quality while minimising the production of undesirables. In ... Keywords: Batch polymerisation, Batch reactor control, Batch reactor optimisation

E. E. Ekpo; I. M. Mujtaba

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Effect of sorghum bran addition on lipid oxidation and sensory properties of ground beef patties differing in fat levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxidation of lipids influences the color and sensory qualities of meat products. Meat with a high fat content, such as ground meat, is susceptible to lipid oxidation that leads to the development of negative flavor and color changes. Antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) and extracts of rosemary, are used in meat products to control the effects of lipid oxidation. Awika (2000, 2003) found that sorghum bran phytochemicals have high antioxidant properties. Our objective is to evaluate the pH, color, sensory and antioxidant effect of 10, 20 and 30% ground beef patties containing rosemary, BHA/BHT, and three levels of sorghum bran during 5 d of aerobic storage at 4�°C. Beef trimmings containing either 50% or 90% lean were formulated into three meat blocks containing either 10, 20 or 30% lipid. Within a fat content, ground beef was equally divided into one of six treatments: 1) control-no added ingredients; 2) BHA and BHT at .01% of the meat weight; 3) rosemary at 0.2% of the meat weight; 4) high level of sorghum at 1.0% of the meat weight; 5) medium level of sorghum at 0.5% of the meat weight; and, 6) a low level of sorghum at 0.25% of the meat weight. The ground beef was aerobically packaged and stored for 0, 1, 3, or 5 days at 4�°C. pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), sensory color, Minolta color space values and descriptive sensory evaluations were determined. Antioxidant addition reduced TBARS values and increased hardness (P0.05). Moreover, the addition of sorghum bran at low levels can retard oxidative rancidity in ground beef patties without causing detrimental color changes and negatively affecting sensory attributes.

Hemphill, Susan Patricia

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Phase selectively soluble polymer supports to facilitate homogeneous catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soluble polymers that have phase selective solubility are useful in synthesis because they simplify purification and separation. Such selectively soluble polymers simplify catalyst, reagent, and product recovery and enable the use of Green chemistry principles in homogeneous catalysis. However, while homopolymers have been reported that have excellent thermal and phase-dependent solubility, less is known about copolymers. Also, less is known about the phase selective solubility of polar aprotic N,N-dialkyl polyacrylamides. This work describes a library synthesis of dye-labeled poly(N-n-octadecylacrylamide-co-N-n-butylacrylamide) copolymers and study of the effects of polymer composition in phase selective solubility of these copolymers. To study the relative importance of n-octadecyl versus n-butyl groups, copolymers with different ratios of n-octadecylacrylamide and n-butylacrylamide but with similar degrees of polymerization and polydispersity were prepared by a split-pool synthesis using a highly soluble poly(N-acryloxy-2-dodecylsuccinimide) as the precursor. Polymer sequestrants were used to remove excess amines and the byproduct N-hydroxyl-2- dodecylsuccinimide without fractionation of the polyacrylamides. Results demonstrated that poly(N-n-octadecylacrylamide-co-N-n-butylacrylamide) copolymers’ phase selective solubility is equally dependant of the polar n-butyl and nonpolar n-octadecyl groups on the copolymers. Dye-labeled poly(N,N-dialkylacrylamide)s prepared by the polymerization of N,N-dialkylacrylamides monomers with methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl, and dodecyl N-alkyl groups in a variety of thermomorphic or latent biphasic polar/nonpolar solvent mixtures were also prepared. Studies showed that poly(N,N-dialkylacrylamide)s have phase selective solubility that is highly dependent of the size of the N-alkyl group. Soluble polymers are known to be useful supports for catalysts. This thesis also describes approaches to immobilization of a variety of catalysts on polyisobutylene (PIB). The most effective of these catalysts were analogs of pyridyl N-oxides that have been used as organocatalysts for the catalytic allylation of a variety of aromatic aldehydes. PIB-supported N-oxide promoted the allylation of aldehydes in up to 99% isolated yield. The products were isolated in the polar phase of a thermomorphic system and the catalyst was recycled through five cycles.

Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Biomimetic oxidation studies. 11: Alkane functionalization in aqueous solution utilizing in situ formed [Fe{sub 2}O({eta}{sup 1}-H{sub 2}O)({eta}{sup 1}-OAc)(TPA){sub 2}]{sup 3+}, as an MMO model precatalyst, embedded in surface-derivatized silica and contained in micelles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biomimetic, methane monooxygenase enzyme (MMO) precatalyst, [Fe{sub 2}O({eta}{sup 1}-H{sub 2}O)({eta}{sup 1}-OAc)(TPA){sub 2}]{sup 3+} (TPA = tris[(2-pyridyl)methyl]amine), 1, formed in situ at pH 4.2 from [Fe{sub 2}O({mu}-OAc)(TPA){sub 2}]{sup 3+}, 2, was embedded in an amorphous silicate surface modified by a combination of hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide). The resulting catalytic assembly was found to be a biomimetic model for the MMO active site within a hydrophobic macroenvironment, allowing alkane functionalization with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)/O{sub 2} in an aqueous reaction medium (pH 4.2). For example, cyclohexane was oxidized to a mixture of cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, and cyclohexyl-tert-butyl peroxide, in a ratio of {approximately}3:1:2. The balance between poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), tethered on the silica surface, was crucial for maximizing the catalytic activity. The silica-based catalytic assembly showed reactivity somewhat higher in comparison to an aqueous micelle system utilizing the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate at its critical micelle concentration, in which functionalization of cyclohexane with TBHP/O{sub 2} in the presence of 1 was also studied at pH 4.2 and was found to provide similar products: cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexyl-tert-butyl peroxide, in a ratio of {approximately}2:3:1. Moreover, the mechanism for both the silica-based catalytic assembly and the aqueous micelle system was found to occur via the Haber-Weiss process, in which redox chemistry between 1 and TBHP provides both the t-BuO{sup {sm_bullet}} and t-BuOO{sup {sm_bullet}} radicals. The t-BuO{sup {sm_bullet}} radical initiates the C-H functionalization reaction to form the carbon radical, followed by O{sub 2} trapping, to provide cyclohexyl hydroperoxide, which produces the cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone in the presence of 1, whereas the coupling product emanates from t-BuOO{sup {sm_bullet}} and cyclohexyl radicals. A discussion concerning both approaches for alkane functionalization in water will be presented.

Neimann, K.; Neumann, R. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Rabion, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Groupement de Recherche de Lacq, Artix (France); Buchanan, R.M. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fish, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

367

Self-Assembly of Surfactant Vesicles that Transform into Viscoelastic Wormlike Micelles upon Heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

worms such as the above find use in industrial applications such as hydraulic fracturing for tertiary

Raghavan, Srinivasa

368

The Earth System Grid: Turning Climate Datasets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Download Data Search NERSC MSS, HPSS: Tertiary data storage systems First Generation ESG Architecture RLS

369

Preparation and Characterization of Paints and Coatings from Soy and Corn Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was highly successful. A series of new waterborne polyurethane (PU)/acrylic hybrid latexes were successfully synthesized by the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate) in the presence of a soybean oil-based waterborne PU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The waterborne PU dispersion was synthesized by a polyaddition reaction of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and a soybean oil-based polyol (SOL). The resulting hybrid latexes, containing 15-60 wt % SOL as a renewable resource, are very stable and exhibit uniform particle sizes of {approx}125 nm as determined by transmittance electronic microscopy. The structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latex films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, extraction, and mechanical testing. Grafting copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the PU network occurs during the emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latexes. This work provides a new way of utilizing renewable resources to prepare environmentally friendly hybrid latexes with high performance for coating applications. In addition, a novel soybean oil-based vinyl-containing waterborne polyurethane (VPU) dispersion has been successfully synthesized from toluene 2,4-diisocyanate, dimethylol propionic acid and a 90:10 mixture of chlorinated soybean oil-based polyol and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). Then, a series of VPU/acrylic grafted latexes were prepared by emulsion graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers (40 wt% butyl acrylate and 60 wt% methyl methacrylate) in the presence of the VPU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The structure, morphology, and thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting latexes, containing 15-60 wt% soybean oil-based polyols as a renewable resource, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis and mechanical testing. The results indicated that graft copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the VPU network occurs during emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the resulting miscible grafted latexes. This work provides new environmentally-friendly latexes from a renewable resource with high performance for coating applications.

Larock, Richard C.

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

370

Three-year Evaluation of Pre-employment Screening for Tuberculosis (TB) and Post-exposure Compliance with Therapy for Latent TB Infection Among Healthcare Workers Working in A Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Background: Controlling tuberculosis (TB) among occupationally exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) is challenged by limited documentation of pre- employment tuberculin skin test (TST) screening and the… (more)

Kentenyants, Karine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Geochemistry, age and strontium isotope composition of late tertiary and quaternary basalts and andesites in western Nevada and their relation to geothermal potential. Final report, October 1, 1982-December 31, 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research was undertaken to characterize the late Cenozoic volcanic rocks associated with active geothermal systems in west-central Nevada. Petrographic and microprobe, geochemical and isotopic analysis and age dating techniques were used to characterize these young volcanic rocks. These data were combined with the limited data previously reported in the literature on these same volcanic areas to interpret their petrogenesis. The overall characterization resulted from integrating the petrogenesis with a structural-tectonic model of the region. Potassium-argon isotopic ages ranging up to 14 million years were determined for eight localities within the Reno 1 x 2/sup 0/ study region. These ages are consistent with the morphology of the volcanic landforms, the active geothermal systems associated with them, and with other isotopic ages reported in the literature for these and similar rocks within the study region. Petrographic analysis of hand specimens and thin-sections indicated mineralogic assemblages of the respective rock types and specific mineral textures and phenocryst compositions and characteristics. These identifications were further substantiated by microprobe analysis of selected phenocrysts and groundmass phases. Classification of the respective rock types was also based on chemical composition and normative calculations using the program PETCAL. Basaltic andesites are identified and described for Steamboat Hills, Table Mountain, Silver Springs, Churchill Butte, Cleaver Peak, Desert Peak and Carson City sites.

Fultz, L.A.; Bell, E.J.; Trexler, D.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

What's New in the Computational Biology Section  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's New? What's New? Kane, SR, Chakicherla, AY, Chain, PSG, Schmidt, R, Shin, MW, Legler, TC, Scow, KM, Larimer, FW, Lucas, SM, Richardson, PM, and Hristova, KR. (2007). Whole-Genome Analysis of the Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1. J. Bacteriol. 189(5): 1931-1945. PubMed Scott KM, Sievert SM, Abril FN, Ball LA, Barrett CJ, Blake RA, Boller AJ, Chain PS, Clark JA, Davis CR, Detter C, Do KF, Dobrinski KP, Faza BI, Fitzpatrick KA, Freyermuth SK, Harmer TL, Hauser LJ, Hugler M, Kerfeld CA, Klotz MG, Kong WW, Land M, Lapidus A, Larimer FW, Longo DL, Lucas S, Malfatti SA, Massey SE, Martin DD, McCuddin Z, Meyer F, Moore JL, Ocampo LH, Paul JH, Paulsen IT, Reep DK, Ren Q, Ross RL, Sato PY, Thomas P, Tinkham LE, Zeruth GT. (2006). The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2. PLoS Biol. 4(12): e383. PubMed

373

Encapsulation and Characterization of Proton-Bound Amine Homodimers in a Water Soluble, Self-Assembled Supramolecular Host  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cyclic amines can be encapsulated in a water-soluble self-assembled supramolecular host upon protonation. The hydrogen bonding ability of the cyclic amines, as well as the reduced degrees of rotational freedom, allows for the formation of proton-bound homodimers inside of the assembly which are otherwise not observable in aqueous solution. The generality of homodimer formation was explored with small N-alkyl aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines and piperidines. Proton-bound homodimer formation is observed for N-alkylaziridines (R = methyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl), N-alkylazetidines (R = isopropyl, tertbutyl), and N-methylpyrrolidine. At high concentration, formation of a proton-bound homotrimer is observed in the case of N-methylaziridine. The homodimers stay intact inside the assembly over a large concentration range, thereby suggesting cooperative encapsulation. Both G3(MP2)B3 and G3B3 calculations of the proton-bound homodimers were used to investigate the enthalpy of the hydrogen bond in the proton-bound homodimers and suggest that the enthalpic gain upon formation of the proton-bound homodimers may drive guest encapsulation.

Pluth, Michael; Fiedler, Dorothea; Mugridge, Jeffrey; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

375

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

376

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated because the supply of isobutylene had been identified as a limitation on the production of methyl-t-butyl ether, a gasoline additive. Prior research on isobutylene synthesis had been at low conversion (less than 5%) or extremely high pressures (greater than 300 bars). The purpose of this research was to optimize the synthesis of a zirconia based catalyst, determine process conditions for producing isobutylene at pressures less than 100 bars, develop kinetic and reactor models, and simulate the performance of fixed bed, trickle bed and slurry flow reactors. A catalyst, reactor models and optimum operating conditions have been developed for producing isobutylene from coal derived synthesis gas. The operating conditions are much less severe than the reaction conditions developed by the Germans during and prior to WWII. The low conversion, i.e. CO conversion less than 15%, have been perceived to be undesirable for a commercial process. However, the exothermic nature of the reaction and the ability to remove heat from the reactor could limit the extent of conversion for a fixed bed reactor. Long residence times for trickle or slurry (bubble column) reactors could result in high CO conversion at the expense of reduced selectivities to iso C{sub 4} compounds. Economic studies based on a preliminary design, and a specific location will be required to determine the commercial feasibility of the process.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.; Philip, C.V.; Erkey, C.; Feng, Z.; Postula, W.S.; Wang, J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame. Quarterly report, April 1, 1977--June 30, 1977. [One paragraph summaries of various investigations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Investigations in progress include: ionization potentials of H/sub 2/O from molecular orbital and valence bond wavefunctions; early events in pulse-irradiated polar liquids; epithermal trapping of electrons; range of photoionized electrons in high-mobility liquids using field-dependent mobility; scattering of exciton by the impurity; model molecular orbital studies of the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen and oxygen on aluminium surfaces; laser induced fluorescence and the geometry of the excited states of tetra-methyl cyclobutanedione; fluorescence studies of hydrogen adduct and raman studies of radical anion; energy transfer studies between electronically excited atoms and ground state molecules; kinetics and chemically induced electron polarization (CIDP) of transient radicals in solution by modulation ESR spectroscopy, CIDP of t-butyl radicals in solutions; ESR spectra of phosphate, sulfate, and hydroxyl radical adducts to unsaturated carboxylic acids; high-field conduction in thin-film alkali halides; electron reactions in the gas phase; interaction of triplet biradicals with ground state molecular oxygen; reactions of Cl/sub 2//sup -/ radicals with organic compounds; oxidation of Ni(II) macrocyclic complexes by OH radicals; photochemical reactions of Cu(II) complexes with macrocyclic ligands; fast reaction kinetics in fatty acid soap aggregates; the dynamics of probe molecules in a micelle environment; the effect of a micellar phase on the state and dynamics of some excited state charge transfer complexes; and conformation studies of fluorescent copolymers in aqueous solutions. Abstracts of reports published this quarter are provided. (LK)

Not Available

1977-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex  

SciTech Connect

The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ``Aging`` processes.

Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Atmospheric variability of methyl chloride during the last 300 years from an Antarctic ice core and firn air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a low-pass filter, smoothing variations in the atmospheric composition of a gas over decadal time scales core measurements from Siple Dome provide evidence for a cyclic natural variability on the order of 10 increase measured in firn air may largely be a result of natural processes, which may continue to affect

Saltzman, Eric

380

Structure of trans-methyl 2-phenylhexahydro-2H-isoxazolo (2,3-a)-pyridine-3-carboxylate  

SciTech Connect

The title compound, a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition product, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2[sub 1]/c, with a = 8.199(3), b = 16.908(1), c = 10.248(2) [angstrom],[beta] = 93.58(2)[degrees] and Z = 4. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full matrix least squares methods to R = 0.038 for 1687 observed reflections. The stereochemistry of this compound was found to have the [open quotes]ee[close quotes] conformation in the solid state as well as in solution. The piperidine ring in the molecule is in the chair form and the isoxazolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation.

Ul-Haque, M.; Horne, W.; Ali, S.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The role of mismatch repair in mediating cellular sensitivity to cisplatin : the Escherichia coli methyl-directed repair paradigm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The anticancer drug cisplatin is in widespread use but its mechanism of action is only poorly understood. Moreover, human cancers acquire resistance to the drug, which limits its clinical utility. A paradox in the field ...

Robbins, Jennifer L

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Transcriptional response of O?-methylguanine methyltransferase deficient yeast to methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) of transcription factors and subsequently, induction of RNA processing (35% of genes incrementally induced) and kinases involved in protein phosphorylation. In the WT, the response was restricted to a transient ...

Rao, Anoop, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Selective, On-Resin N-Methylation of Cyclic Peptides and Implications for the Discovery of Membrane Permeable Scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

permission from Nat. Chem. Bio. 2011, 7, 810- 817. Copyrightpermission from Nat. Chem. Bio. 2011, 7, 810- 817. Copyright

White, Tina Renea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Diamond and Related Materials 7 (1998) 14911502 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Sorensen, Model DCS bottom of the burner. No thermocouple was placed in 33-33). The substrate and heater-red optical pyrometer (Williamson, Model 8200), water and a microprocessor thermometer (Model HH23 in a flat copper, and water cooled via a 0.25-inch copper tubing soft-soldered to the burner body

Dandy, David

385

Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation at all human imprinted regions reveals preservation of epigenetic stability in adult somatic tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRAS3 (1) 60 80 100 at io n DIRAS3 (2) 60 80 100 at io n Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te Bl 0 20 40 % M et hy la Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te Bl 0 20 40 % M et hy la Tissue Tissue DIRAS3 (3) 100 ZDBF2 80 100 20 40 60 80 % M et hy la tio n 20 40 60 % M et hy... at io n SLC22A1 60 80 100 yl at io n Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te 0 20 40 Ti % M et hy Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te 0 20 40 Ti % M et hy ssue ssue SLC22A3 80 100 MEST (s) 80 100 20 40 60 % M et hy la tio n 20 40 60 % M et hy la tio n Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te 0...

Woodfine, Kathryn; Huddleston, Joanna E; Murrell, Adele

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Complexation of NpO2+ with N-methyl-iminodiacetic Acid: in Comparison with Iminodiacetic and Dipicolinic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

element in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing because it couldthe development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles, there is an

Rao, Linfeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Evaluation of pyrethrin aerosol insecticide as an alternative to methyl bromide for pest control in flour mills.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of direct and indirect exposure scenarios, different degrees of residual flour, open and obstructed positions, and seasonal temperature… (more)

Kharel, Kabita

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The dynamics of conformational isomerization in flexible biomolecules. I. Hole-filling spectroscopy of N-acetyl tryptophan methyl amide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

macrophytes. Assemblages with intermediate sized barbel and nase (100­200 mm TL), the larger size classes Cyprinidae of intermediate size classes (100­200 mm TL) as well as common carp and mosquitofish charac and intermediate sizes ( 200 mm TL) of the two benthic

Zwier, Timothy S.

390

AOCS Official Method Tf 3a-64  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Percent Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Amines in Fatty Amines AOCS Official Method Tf 3a-64 Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION The percentages of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in the test s

391

Stephanie L. Outcalt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The instrument has also been used to measure the solubility of carbon dioxide, propane, propene, butane, and 1-butene in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3 ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

392

Scalable Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Migration in the ...  

27 combined with lard oil, tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate 28 (DBBP). ... giving the computer 11.8 TFlops peak theoretical ...

393

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Eighteenth quarterly progress report, August 12-November 12, 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. A survey was made of elastomers for use as gaskets for the photovoltaic module. Of the wide variety of materials examined EPDM offered the optimum combination of low compression set and low cost. The preference for EPDM is borne out by its long history of use as an automobile gasket. The commercial availability of materials that would be useful for sealants between the edge of the module and the gasket was investigated. Butyl sealants have the best combination of physical properties, low cost and a well-documented history of performance. A preferred composition has not yet been identified. One laminating type pottant ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), and two casting polymers, polybutyl acrylate and polyurethane, have been under investigation this past quarter. An EMA formulation has been developed which is easily extrudable and cures to a high gel content. So far only one commercial US source (Quinn) of aliphatic polyurethane has been located. Work is continuing to improve reaction rate as well as to eliminate source(s) of bubble formation during module fabrication. Considerable effort was spent in developing an improved polybutyl acrylate casting formulation providing high gel. Many viable curing systems are now available: however, the best formulation considering physical properties, freedom from bubbles as well as cure time utilizes Lupersol II (aliphatic peroxide) initiator. This initiator gives the desired gel after 20 minute cure at 45/sup 0/C or 12 minute cure at 55/sup 0/C.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m{sup 3} room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h{sup -1} and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

403

The origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The objective will be met through three steps: (1) qualitative identification of alternative fuel combustion products, (2) quantitative measurement of specific emission levels of these products, and (3) determination of the fate of the combustion products in the atmosphere. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and LP gas. The role of the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) in this project is two-fold. First, fused silica flow reactor instrumentation is being used to obtain both qualitative identification and quantitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. Secondly, a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) apparatus is being used to determine the rates and mechanisms of reaction of selected degradation products under atmospheric conditions. This draft final report contains the results of the second year of the study. The authors initially discuss the results of their flow reactor studies. This is followed by a discussion of the initial results from their LP/LIF studies of the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with methanol and ethanol. In the coming year, they plan to obtain quantitative data on the oxidation of methyl-t-butyl-ether and reformulated gasoline under fuel-lean, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich conditions. They also plan to conduct a mechanistic analysis of the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde and formaldehyde over an extended temperature range.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

Gates, B.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Thermal Hazard Analysis of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide Ron-Hsin Chang, Chi-Min Shu and Po-Yin Yeh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Additional requirements for the Qualified Person are set forth in NFPA 70E Article 110.6 (D)(1). A person can and according to the applicable codes (OSHA, NFPA 70E, etc.). DEFINITIONS A Competent Person is an individual and NFPA, has received safety training on the hazards involved with electricity, and by virtue of training

Chen, Shu-Ching

406

The versatile E. coli adaptive response protein AlkB mitigates toxicity and mutagenicity of etheno-, ethano-, and methyl-modified bases in vivo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Escherichia coli AlkB protein is an exceptionally versatile DNA repair enzyme. Its expression is induced upon exposure to alkylating agents as part of the Ada-mediated adaptive response. This member of the ac-ketoglu ...

Frick, Lauren Elizabeth

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Photoluminescence spectral study of single CdSe/ZnS Colloidal Nanocrystals in Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Quantum Dots molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals . . . . . . . .D. CdSe/ZnS NCs in negative photon resist SU-line shapes of single CdSe VI Optical characterization of

Shen, Yaoming

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

BMC Health Services Research BioMed Central  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research article Patients ' satisfaction and opinions of their experiences during admission in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan – a cross sectional study

Sardar Zakariya Imam; Khezar Shahzada Syed; Syed Ahad Ali; Syed Umer Ali; Kiran Fatima; Marium Gill; Muhammad Ovais Hassan; Saad Hasan Hashmi; Maham T Siddiqi; Hadi Muhammad Khan; Omar Farooq Jameel; Maham T Siddiqi; Hadi Muhammad Khan; Omar Farooq Jameel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Retreat of the state and the market: liberalisation and education expansion in Sudan under the NCP.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is an analysis of two concurrent processes - the liberalisation of the economy and the expansion of the tertiary education system - by… (more)

Mann, Laura Elizabeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the steam field, (2) examining the Tertiary sedimentary basins in Rose Valley and Coso Wash, (3) testing the structural relationship of the Mesozoic Sierran basement to the...

411

Fluorination of Thermodynamically Unstable Nickel Fluorides ...  

... atoms at tertiary carbon sites in highly fluorinated molecules require the more powerful oxidizers, NiF 4 and NiF 3, for their oxidation. ...

412

Structural Analysis of the Desert Peak-Brady Geothermal Fields...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

mapping, delineation of Tertiary strata, analysis of faults and folds, and a new gravity survey have elucidated the structural controls on the Desert Peak and Brady...

413

Geologic And Geophysical Evidence For Intra-Basin And Footwall...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the TertiaryQuaternary basin-fill sediments. Correlation with seismic reflection and gravity surveys shows that some faults recognized by minor displacements at the surface...

414

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Kansas Author: Stan McCool, University of Kansas Center for Research Venue: Tertiary Oil Recovery Projects 18th Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Wichita, KS, April 12,...

415

A Seismic Attribute Study to Assess Well Productivity in the Ninilchik Field, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal bed methane which has formed in the Tertiary Kenai Group strata has been produced from the Ninilchik field of Cook Inlet, Alaska since 2001.… (more)

Sampson, Andrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Igneous intrusions and thermal evolution in the Raton Basin, CO-NM: contact metamorphism and coal-bed methane generation .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Tertiary mafic dikes and sills intrude coal-bearing formations of the Raton Basin. This study investigates the role of intrusions in generating methane from coal. Coal… (more)

Cooper, Jennifer Rebecca

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Mineralogy and organic petrology of oil shales in the Sangkarewang formation, Ombilin Basin, West Sumatra, Indonesia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Ombilin Basin, which lies in Sumatra Island, is one of the Tertiary basins in Indonesia. This basin contains a wide variety of rock units,… (more)

Fatimah, Fatimah

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

u42501.PDF  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Younger sedimentary rocks overlying the Wasatch Formation are the Tertiary sandstone, oil shale, and marlstone beds of the Green River Formation which crop out almost continuously...

419

GJO-99-112-TAR Rev.  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Younger sedimentary rocks overlying the Wasatch Formation are the Tertiary sandstone, oil shale, and marlstone beds of the Green River Formation which crop out almost continuously...

420

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Confinement Ventilation Systems) with the following titles: 1) BC Off-Gas Exhaust Standby Fan Autostart, 2) E-Wing Supply and Exhaust Interlocks, 3) BC Tertiary Exhaust...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Journal of Research Volume 41  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Dipole moments and molecular association of some picrates of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in benzene and dioxane, p. 1 Maryott ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

422

--No Title--  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems) with the following titles: 1) BC Off-Gas Exhaust Standby Fan Autostart, 2) E-Wing Supply and Exhaust Interlocks, 3) BC Tertiary Exhaust Interlocks...

423

The Effects of Macroscopic Heterogeneities of Pore Structure and Wettability on Residual Oil Recovery Using the Gravity-Assisted Inert Gas Injection (GAIGI) Process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To recover oil remaining in petroleum reservoirs after waterflooding, the gravitationally stable mode of gas injection is recognized as a promising tertiary oil recovery process.… (more)

Parsaei, Rafat

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Inversion of field-scale partitioning tracer response for characterizing oil saturation distribution: a streamline approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Identifying distribution of remaining oil in the reservoir is vital for evaluation of existing waterflood, design of tertiary recovery projects, and location of infill drilling… (more)

Iliassov, Pavel Alexandrovich

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Structural, Biochemical, and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest That Indole-3-Acetic Acid Methyltransferase Is an Evolutionarily Ancient Member of the SABATH Family  

SciTech Connect

The plant SABATH protein family encompasses a group of related small-molecule methyltransferases (MTs) that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of natural chemicals encompassing widely divergent structures. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) methyltransferase (IAMT) is a member of the SABATH family that modulates IAA homeostasis in plant tissues through methylation of IAA's free carboxyl group. The crystal structure of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IAMT (AtIAMT1) was determined and refined to 2.75 Angstroms resolution. The overall tertiary and quaternary structures closely resemble the two-domain bilobed monomer and the dimeric arrangement, respectively, previously observed for the related salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri (CbSAMT). To further our understanding of the biological function and evolution of SABATHs, especially of IAMT, we analyzed the SABATH gene family in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Forty-one OsSABATH genes were identified. Expression analysis showed that more than one-half of the OsSABATH genes were transcribed in one or multiple organs. The OsSABATH gene most similar to AtIAMT1 is OsSABATH4. Escherichia coli-expressed OsSABATH4 protein displayed the highest level of catalytic activity toward IAA and was therefore named OsIAMT1. OsIAMT1 exhibited kinetic properties similar to AtIAMT1 and poplar IAMT (PtIAMT1). Structural modeling of OsIAMT1 and PtIAMT1 using the experimentally determined structure of AtIAMT1 reported here as a template revealed conserved structural features of IAMTs within the active-site cavity that are divergent from functionally distinct members of the SABATH family, such as CbSAMT. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IAMTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar (Populus spp.) form a monophyletic group. Thus, structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic evidence supports the hypothesis that IAMT is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family likely to play a critical role in IAA homeostasis across a wide range of plants.

Zhao,N.; Ferrer, J.; Ross, J.; Guan, J.; Yang, Y.; Pichersky, E.; Noel, J.; Chen, F.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tetrazine 2-Methyl-2-Nitro Propane Cyanide)>': (Pryazole) (l~nitro~2-methyl~1~propane, both and the the Diechmannexhaust. l~nitro~2-methyl~2-propane, experiment, they found

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Synthesis of acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees} C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. Eastman and Bechtel have also compared the RTI- Eastman-Bechtel three-step methanol route to five other process routes to MMA. The results show that the product MMA can be produced at 520/lb, for a 250 Mlb/year MMA plant, and this product cost is competitive to all other process routes to MMA, except propyne carbonylation. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P tertiary metal oxide catalysts, Nb/Si0{sub 2}, and Ta/Si0{sub 2} catalysts for condensation of propionic anhydride or propionic acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst performance. Eastman and Bechtel have used the RTI experimental results of a 20 percent Nb/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, in terms of reactant conversions, MAA selectivities, and MAA yield, for their economic analysis. Recent research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, a better understanding of the acid-base property correlation and enhancing the catalyst lifetime.

NONE

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

428

Development of Detailed Kinetic Models for Fischer-Tropsch Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels can be synthesized from a syngas stream generated by the gasification of biomass. As such they have the potential to be a renewable hydrocarbon fuel with many desirable properties. However, both the chemical and physical properties are somewhat different from the petroleum-based hydrocarbons that they might replace, and it is important to account for such differences when considering using them as replacements for conventional fuels in devices such as diesel engines and gas turbines. FT fuels generally contain iso-alkanes with one or two substituted methyl groups to meet the pour-point specifications. Although models have been developed for smaller branched alkanes such as isooctane, additional efforts are required to properly capture the kinetics of the larger branched alkanes. Recently, Westbrook et al. developed a chemical kinetic model that can be used to represent the entire series of n-alkanes from C{sub 1} to C{sub 16} (Figure 1). In the current work, the model is extended to treat 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), a large iso-alkane. The same reaction rate rules used in the iso-octane mechanism were incorporated in the HMN mechanism. Both high and low temperature chemistry was included so that the chemical kinetic model would be applicable to advanced internal combustion engines using low temperature combustion strategies. The chemical kinetic model consists of 1114 species and 4468 reactions. Concurrently with this effort, work is underway to improve the details of specific reaction classes in the mechanism, guided by high-level electronic structure calculations. Attention is focused upon development of accurate rate rules for abstraction of the tertiary hydrogens present in branched alkanes and properly accounting for the pressure dependence of the ?-scission, isomerization, and R + O{sub 2} reactions.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Carstensen, H; Dean, A M

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

429

Electrochemical Windows of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids from Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the cathodic and anodic limits of six room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) formed from a combination of two common cations, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) and N,N-propylmethylpyrrolidinium (P13), and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

430

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

towards shop operations. H-1 Chemic_l Hygiene and Safety ,of this section, any chemic:ads per kflop'am of body welshtUNSUPPORTED CHEMIC. -M. VITON NITrlI.E NATI'R.4I. BUTYL

Ricks Editor, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Effect of ultrasonic irradiation on preparation and properties of ionogels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silica-gel matrices containing ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate viz. ionogels have been synthesized using one-pot nonhydrolytic sol-gel method and taking tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as starting precursor. Effect of ...

Yogendra Lal Verma; Manish Pratap Singh; Rajendra Kumar Singh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Incorporation of silica into baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Core-shell baroplastics are nanophase materials that exhibit pressure-induced flow at low temperatures and high pressures. Core-shell baroplastics used in this work are comprised of a low Tg poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) core ...

Hewlett, Sheldon A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Microstructural Stability and Creep of Ru-Containing Nickel-Base ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

distilled water and 65 ml butyl cellusolve. .... The creep curves of UM-F27 and UM -F30 ..... Larson Miller curves of commercial alloys were plotted with data.

434

Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

435

Silver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 5   Corrosion resistance of silver in organic compounds...2 Benzaldehyde, pure and aqueous Boiling Benzene, pure Boiling <0.05 2 Benzotrifluoride, pure Boiling <0.05 2 Benzyl chloride, pure 180 355 <0.05 2 -bromoisovaleryl bromide, pure 100 212 <0.05 2 -bromoisovaleryl urea, pure Melting point <0.05 2 Butyl acetate, pure Boiling <0.05 2 Butyl alcohol,...

436

Assessing gene effects on the brain and risk for disease using machine learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harrison PJ, Weinberger DR. Catechol-o-methyltransferase,R, Delespaul P, van Os J. The catechol-O-methyl transferasein press), neuregulin, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT),

Kohannim, Omid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PN COAL RESOURCES, POWDER RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2 S, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

438

DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

439

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA By G.D. Stricker Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

440

ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl tertiary butyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter GS FORT UNION COAL IN THE GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, EAST FLANK OF THE ROCK SPRINGS UPLIFT 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

442

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

443

FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PS FORT UNION COAL IN THE POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING AND MONTANA: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

444

COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON By M.S. Ellis,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter HN COAL RESOURCES OF THE HANNA AND CARBON BASINS By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

445

Petroleum Geologic Characteristics of Suprasalt Strata in Block 15/06, Angola  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Block 15/06 is located in the Angola deep sea, which belongs to Lower Congo basin. The primary source rock of the Block is the marine shale of Iabe and Landana formation of Upper Cretaceous & Lower Tertiary. The main reservior of supra-salt strata is ... Keywords: tertiary, suprasalt, source rock, salt dome, fault, accumulation model

Wang Lei, Shi Yanli, Fan Tailiang, Cai Xiyuan, Zhao Yan

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

FERRIS AND HANNA COAL IN THE HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING: A SYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter HS FERRIS AND HANNA COAL IN THE HANNA AND CARBON BASINS, WYOMING: A SYNTHESIS By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

447

COLSTRIP COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PC COLSTRIP COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky

448

COAL RESOURCES, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter GN COAL RESOURCES, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN By M.S. Ellis,1 G.L. Gunther,2 A.M. Ochs,2 J of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal

449

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Final topical report, demonstration of one-step slurry-phase process for the co-production of methanol and isobutanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid phase co-production of methanol and isobutanol (LPIBOH) was de, demonstrated at DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Methanol and isobutanol are key intermediates in a synthesis gas-based route to methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The technology was demonstrated in a new 18 in. slurry bubble-column reactor that was designed to demonstrate higher pressures and temperatures,higher gas superficial velocities, and lower gas hourly space velocities--all of which are conducive to obtaining optimal isobutanol yield. The integration of the new reactor into the AFDU included the addition of a high-pressure synthesis gas compressor, a high-pressure hydrogen feed source, and a closed-loop methanol- solvent absorption system to remove CO{sub 2} from the unconverted synthesis gas. These modifications were completed in January 1994. The LPIBOH run followed after a short turnaround. It employed a cesium- promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories and subsequently scaled up to a production- sized batch. Over a thirteen day campaign on simulated Shell gasifier gas, the catalyst and reactor system were tested at a matrix of pressures (750, 1300, 1735 psig) and space velocities (3000, 5000, 8200 sL/kg-hr), representing numerous first-of-a-kind run conditions for the AFDU. Inlet gas superficial velocities spanned an impressive 0.16 to 1.0 ft/sec. Stable reactor performance for a full twelve-hour data period at 1.0 ft/sec was another significant milestone for the liquid phase technology program. Apart from the catalyst deactivation, the run successfully demonstrated mixed alcohol synthesis in a slurry bubble-column reactor, as well as all of the new equipment installed for the trial. Although the full capabilities of the new oxygenates system will not be tested until future runs, the design objectives for the modifications were met with respect to the LPIBOH run.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones as compounds neuroprotective against oxidative stress in a manner associated with specific transcriptional activation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrophilic compounds protect neurons through the activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and the induction of phase-2 enzymes [T. Satoh, S.A. Lipton, Redox regulation of neuronal survival by electrophilic compounds, Trends Neurosci. 30 (2007) 38-45; T. Satoh, S. Okamoto, J. Cui, Y. Watanabe, K. Furuta, M. Suzuki, K. Tohyama, S.A. Lipton, Activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway for neuroprotection by electrophilic phase II inducers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (2006) 768-773]. Hydroquinone-type electrophilic compounds such as tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and carnosic acid (CA) have attracted special attention, because the oxidative conversion of 'hydroquinone' to 'quinone' is essential for the transcriptional activation of the above-mentioned enzymes [T. Satoh, K. Kosaka, K. Itoh, A. Kobayashi, M. Yamamoto, Y. Shimojo, C. Kitajima, J. Cui, J. Kamins, S. Okamoto, T. Shirasawa, S.A. Lipton, Carnosic acid, a catechol-type electrophilic compound, protect neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of specific cysteine, J. Neurochem. 104 (2008) 1161-1131; A.D. Kraft, D.A. Johnson, J.A. Johnson, Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-dependent antioxidant response element activation by tert-butylhydroquinone and sulforaphane occurring preferentially in astrocytes conditions neurons against oxidative insult, J. Neurosci. 24 (2004) 1101-1112]. In the present study, we examined the relationship between electrophilicity and the protective effects afforded by electrophilic compounds. Electrophilicity was assessed in terms of the ability of a compound to bind to a cysteine on bovine serum albumin, by which we found that neuroprotective hydroquinones [TBHQ (para-) and CA (ortho-)] had distinctive patterns of cysteine binding compared with other electrophilic compounds. Further, we found that isomers of simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones such as 2-methylhydroquinone (para-) and 4-methyl-catechol (ortho-) [not in abstract] had similar properties of cysteine binding as TBHQ and CA, which compounds were associated with the transcriptional activation and an increase in the level of reduced glutathione. These results suggest that para- and ortho-dihydroquinones may be neuroprotective compounds active against oxidative stress.

Satoh, Takumi [Department of Welfare Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)], E-mail: tsatoh@iwate-u.ac.jp; Saitoh, Sachie; Hosaka, Manami [Department of Welfare Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Kosaka, Kunio [Research and Development Center, Nagase Co., Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-2241 (Japan)

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

451

Epigenetic Mechanisms and Gene Networks in the Nervous System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Miltenberger et al., 1997), and extensive variation in phenotype is produced by differential methylation

Champagne, Frances A.

452

Tenth oil recovery conference  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Sleeper, R. (ed.)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453
454

Density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been employed to determine the structures and energies of the isomers of the OH-toluene adduct, the methyl hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical, and their corresponding transitio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Investigation of Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons (DOE Award No. DE-FG02-02ER63098) Prepared by Luisa T. Molina, Renyi Zhang and Mario J. Molina Our work for this DOE funded project includes: (1) measurements of the kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase oxidation reactions of the aromatic hydrocarbons initiated by OH; (2) measurements of aerosol formation from the aromatic hydrocarbons; and (3) theoretical studies to elucidate the OH-toluene reaction mechanism using quantum-chemical and rate theories. (1) Measurements of Gas-Phase Kinetics and Mechanism Work has been accomplished to develop laboratory instrumentation to conduct kinetic and mechanistic measurements of the aromatic hydrocarbon reactions initiated by OH, using

455
456

Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence and Fluorescence Lifetime Spatial Heterogeneity of Poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene) in Presence of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we studied the luminescence property and fluorescence lifetime mapping of MEH-PPV/PCBM system by using electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) and time-correlated single photo counting (TC-SPC) technologies. The ECL results showed that the oxidation peak of MEH-PPV near 0.7 V (vs. SCE) and ECL response of films shifted positively towards 1.2 V when in the presence of PCBM. At the same time, the oxidation peak current density of MEH-PPV increases while the ECL response decreased with the loading of PCBM in the composite films. The fluorescence lifetime images clearly show that the lifetime fluctuation is effected by different substrates and MEH-PPV/PCBM ratios. Meanwhile, the lifetime of MEH-PPV decreases with the increasing of film thickness. The lifetimes of MEH-PPV films on TiO2 substrate are lower than them of films on cover slips.

Geng, Hongwei; Pan, Shanlin; Hu, Dehong

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies  

SciTech Connect

Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials.

Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

459

Modelling and optimisation of batch distillation involving esterification and hydrolysis reaction systems. Modelling and optimisation of conventional and unconventional batch distillation process: Application to esterification of methanol and ethanol using acetic acid and hydrolysis of methyl lactate system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Batch distillation with chemical reaction when takes place in the same unit is referred to as batch reactive distillation process. The combination reduces the capital… (more)

Edreder, Elmahboub A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Annotated bibliography of research carried out from 1993 to 1999 under DoE Award No. DE-IA02-94ER14411: Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers work carried out during a six year period under a DoE interagency grant. Because all results have been published as full papers in appropriate refereed journals that are openly available in most scientific libraries, the report takes the form of an annotated bibliography. In the interests of scientific continuity and bibliographic usefulness, however, work carried out on this same project from 1990-1992 under an earlier DoE award, as well as related work currently (2000-2002) in progress, will also be discussed. It should be stressed, however, that only work directly connected to the grantee is cited explicitly in this final grant report. The many important papers by other workers in the field during the last decade must be obtained from reference citations in the 21 publications mentioned.

Hougen, Jon T.

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

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