Sample records for methyl isobutyl ketone

  1. An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lloyd B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM..., METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by Lloyd B. Andrew III Approved as to style and content by: (Chai iy' of Co ' i tee) (He of Departme t) e4mY ~. (Member) C~& n (Member) December 1982 ABSTRACT An Evaluation of the 3M...

  2. Selective Monoarylation of Acetate Esters and Aryl Methyl Ketones Using Aryl Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biscoe, Mark R.

    Simple, efficient procedures for the monoarylation of acetate esters and aryl methyl ketones using aryl chlorides are presented. Previously, no general method was available to ensure the highly selective monoarylation of ...

  3. Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goh, Ee-Been

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ketone synthesis for biofuels Ee-Been Goh†† 1,3 , Edward E.microbes for use as biofuels, such as fatty acid ethylother fatty acid-derived biofuels, such as fatty acid ethyl

  4. Storage effects on desorption efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and styrene collected on activated charcoal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommer, Richard Alvin

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the worker ' s breathir ng zone cont ir uously during his working day. Solid ad- sorbents are used almost exclusively I' or this type of sampling. Among the marr, adsorbents avail able (s ! i ca gel, activated alumina, Tenax, etc. } acti&!ated charcoa&1 I... efficier&cy nf methyl etiiy', Ketone and styrene monomer adsorbed on activated charcoal samples, and stored under isotherm&al condit'ions, were investigated as a function of storage time. The dependence of the storage time effects on the storage temp...

  5. Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy-and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    and to lead to additional ozone production in regions where isoprene oxidation chemistry is dominant Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide Hong Yuan Hsin and Matthew J. Elrod- and chloroalkylperoxy radicals, derived from the OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone

  6. Thermal Hazard Analysis of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide Ron-Hsin Chang, Chi-Min Shu and Po-Yin Yeh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    accidents was the Yung-Hsin plant explosion occurred in 1996. The initial fire was due to out of control explosion killed 10 and injured 47 people during the fire fighting. In Tokyo, 3,600 kg (8,000 lb) of MEKPO and Taiwan, many thermal explosions have been caused by methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) under

  7. alpha-tosyloxy ketones applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methyl vinyl ketone, ethyl vinyl ketone, phenyl vinyl sulfone, phenyl vinylsulfonate, acrolein and acrylonitrile, under Baylis-Hillman (more) Nocanda, Xolani Wittleton 2001-01-01...

  8. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  9. alkyl aryl ketones: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pd-catalyzed arylation of butenolides with high selectivity ... Hyde, Alan M. 91 Thermal Hazard Analysis of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide Ron-Hsin Chang, Chi-Min Shu and Po-Yin Yeh...

  10. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

  11. akap12 promoter methylation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MEK) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is widely used in industry as a radicalThermal Hazard Analysis of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide Ron-Hsin Chang, Chi-Min Shu and Po-Yin Yeh...

  12. Using solubility and Henry`s law constant data for ketones in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Sheth, S.D.; Han, M. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a chemical spill occurs in water, the extent of chemical contamination is determined by the chemical`s solubility in the water. If contaminated water comes into contact with air, such as in a pond or a storage vessel, the contaminant`s emissions into the air can be determined based upon Henry`s law constant for that particular constituent. A high Henry`s law constant value translates into a greater emissions level. The engineering design and operation of strippers to remove contaminants from water require data for both water solubility and Henry`s law constant. A new correlation developed by researchers at Lamar University provides reliable values down to very, very low concentrations for the solubility of ketones in water. The correlation is based on the boiling point temperature of the ketone and can be used for engineering studies involving health, safety and environmental considerations. Results for water solubility and Henry`s law constant are provided here for a wide variety of ketones. Representative values are about 249,000 parts per million (ppm) per weight (wt) for methyl ethyl ketone (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O) and 360 ppm/wt for 5-nonanone (C{sub 9}H{sub 18}O).

  13. Thermo-mechanical characterization of a monochlorophenyl, hepta isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/polystyrene composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, Ignazio, E-mail: iblanco@dii.unict.it; Bottino, Francesco A., E-mail: iblanco@dii.unict.it; Cicala, Gianluca, E-mail: iblanco@dii.unict.it; Cozzo, Giulia, E-mail: iblanco@dii.unict.it; Latteri, Alberta, E-mail: iblanco@dii.unict.it; Recca, Antonino, E-mail: iblanco@dii.unict.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal and mechanical properties of a monochlorophenyl, hepta isobutyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane/Polystyrene (ph,hib-POSS/PS) composite were studied and compared with those of pristine polymer. ph,hib-POSS/PS system was prepared by solubilization and precipitation of Polystyrene (PS) in the presence of POSS. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed to check the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was carried out to measure viscoelastic properties of solid samples. Degradations were carried out into a thermobalance and the obtained thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves were discussed and interpreted.

  14. Separation of the isotopes of boron by chemical exchange reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, F.P.; Herbst, R.S.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The isotopes of boron, {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B, are separated by means of a gas-liquid chemical exchange reaction involving the isotopic equilibrium between gaseous BF{sub 3} and a liquid BF{sub 3} donor molecular addition complex formed between BF{sub 3} gas and a donor chosen from the group consisting of: nitromethane, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or diisobutyl ketone. 1 Fig.

  15. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Mixtures of calcium carboxylate salts were thermally decomposed at 450 degrees C. Low lime-to-salt ratios (g Ca(OH)2/g salt) of 0.00134 and less had a negligible effect on ketone yield. In contrast, salts with higher lime-to-salt ratios of 0.00461, 0.0190...

  16. Oligomerization and Catalytic Ketonization in the Mixalco™ Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    –3 Depending how many steps are employed, the final product is ketones, alcohols, or hydrocarbons. Potential biomass feedstocks include municipal solid waste, animal manure, and energy crops.4–8 The MixAlco™ process is a version of the carboxylate platform...

  17. Oligomerization and Catalytic Ketonization in the Mixalco™ Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    –3 Depending how many steps are employed, the final product is ketones, alcohols, or hydrocarbons. Potential biomass feedstocks include municipal solid waste, animal manure, and energy crops.4–8 The MixAlco™ process is a version of the carboxylate platform...

  18. Storage effects on desorption efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and styrene collected on activated charcoal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommer, Richard Alvin

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 3 - Gas Chromatography Conditions for Styrene monomer Analysis. RESULTS The results of the desorption effic1ency determinations for MEK and styrene are given 1n Tables 2 and 3 respect1vely. The values re- ported in these tables are averages of...?a-concentration. The differences found with iirre for the styrene, although 'tatisl1cally significant. , are of nc, p!&c! ical ir&portance. It has b &n repo! tod that within a range of 10. 025 desorotir&r: effic'iencies are rot significan&tly Table 2 Desorption Efficiencies...

  19. Studies of Various Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions on Pt Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with various reactants. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,hydrogenation products. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,

  20. Catalytic ionic hydrogenation of ketones using tungsten or molybdenum organometallic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voges, Mark (Leverkusen, DE); Bullock, R. Morris (Wading River, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process for the catalytic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes to alcohols at low temperatures and pressures using organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes. The functional group is selected from groups represented by the formulas R(C.dbd.O)R' and R(C.dbd.O)H, wherein R and R' are selected from hydrogen or any alkyl or aryl group. The active catalyst for the process has the form: [CpM(CO).sub.2 (PR*.sub.3) L].sup.+ A.sup.-, where Cp=.eta..sup.5 -R.sup..tangle-solidup..sub.m C.sub.5 H.sub.5-m and R.sup..tangle-solidup. represents an alkyl group or a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) or R.sup..tangle-solidup. =OR' (where R'=H, an alkyl group or an aryl group) or R.sup..tangle-solidup. =CO.sub.2 R' (where R'=H, an alkyl group or an aryl group) and m=0 to 5; M represents a molybdenum atom or a tungsten atom; R*.sub.3 represents three hydrocarbon groups selected from a cyclohexyl group (C.sub.6 H.sub.11), a methyl group (CH.sub.3), and a phenyl group (C.sub.6 H.sub.5) and all three R* groups can be the same or different or two of the three groups can be the same; L represents a ligand; and A.sup.- represents an anion. In another embodiment, one, two or three of the R* groups can be an OR*.

  1. Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen Abstraction by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, William J.

    Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen carried out of the kinetics of inter- and intramolecular phenolic hydrogen abstraction phenolic hydrogen, which yields the corresponding phenoxyl-hemipinacol biradical. The biradicals have also

  2. Interrupted Energy Transfer: Highly Selective Detection of Cyclic Ketones in the Vapor Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    We detail our efforts toward the selective detection of cyclic ketones, e.g. cyclohexanone, a component of plasticized explosives. Thin films comprised of a conjugated polymer are used to amplify the emission of an emissive ...

  3. Organoselenium Chemistry. Conversion of Ketones to Enones by Selenoxide Syn Elimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Hans J.

    are direct selenenylation of ketone enolates using PhSeBr and the reaction of enol acetates%bdichlorodicyan- oquinone,2c periodic acid,2doxygen in the presence of tran- sition metal catalysts,2eand pyridine N-oxide-acetic eliminations synthetically in the conversion of epoxides to allyl alco- h o l ~ . ~ ~ , ~Several have explored

  4. Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

  5. Lithium Enolates of Simple Ketones: Structure Determination Using the Method of Continuous Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Enolates of Simple Ketones: Structure Determination Using the Method of Continuous of continuous variation in conjunction with 6Li NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize lithium enolates,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine and cubic tetramers in tetrahydrofuran and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. Introduction Lithium enolates are used

  6. . The tin centre is responsible for the activation of the ketone substrate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flanagan, Randy

    procedure3 . The tin centre is responsible for the activation of the ketone substrate and increases catalysts, tin is substituted for some of the silicon or aluminium atoms facing the channel, and so is incorporated into the framework. Tin centres are responsible for the catalytic activity of these materials

  7. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  8. Investigation into the Nazarov Cyclization of Aryl Dienyl Ketones and Synthetic Studies Toward Tetrapetalone A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Andrew Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nones were exposed to 25 mol % AlCl 3 in toluene. ?-Methyl-2.9 was exposed to 10 mol % AlCl 3 in toluene at 80 ºC to

  9. Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures and Relative Reactivities of Mixed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures-1301 ReceiVed April 30, 1997. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 26, 1997 Abstract: Addition of lithiumLi and 13C NMR spectroscopies reveal lithium cyclopropylacetylide in THF to be a dimer

  10. Temperature-Dependent Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Methyl-Benzoate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy of Methyl-Benzoate Anions: Observation of Steric Effect in Ortho-Methyl Temperature-Dependent Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Methyl-Benzoate Anions: Observation of...

  11. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.bacsa@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  12. Vapor phase ketonization of acetic acid on ceria based metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Karim, Ayman M.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activities of CeO2, Mn2O3-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO2 were measured for acetic acid ketonization under reaction conditions relevant to pyrolysis vapor upgrading. We show that the catalyst ranking changed depending on the reaction conditions. Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 oC, while ZrO2 - CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 450 oC. Under high CO2 and steam concentration in the reactants, Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 and 450 °C. The binding energies of steam and CO2 with the active phase were calculated to provide the insight into the tolerance of Mn2O3-CeO2 to steam and CO2.

  13. Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl oleate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate renewable sources, can reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases. An important class of biodiesel fuels

  14. Development of Broad-Spectrum Halomethyl Ketone Inhibitors Against Coronavirus Main Protease 3CL(pro)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacha,U.; Barilla, J.; Gabelli, S.; Kiso, Y.; Amzel, L.; Freire, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coronaviruses comprise a large group of RNA viruses with diverse host specificity. The emergence of highly pathogenic strains like the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the discovery of two new coronaviruses, NL-63 and HKU1, corroborates the high rate of mutation and recombination that have enabled them to cross species barriers and infect novel hosts. For that reason, the development of broad-spectrum antivirals that are effective against several members of this family is highly desirable. This goal can be accomplished by designing inhibitors against a target, such as the main protease 3CLpro (Mpro), which is highly conserved among all coronaviruses. Here 3CLpro derived from the SARS-CoV was used as the primary target to identify a new class of inhibitors containing a halomethyl ketone warhead. The compounds are highly potent against SARS 3CLpro with Ki's as low as 300 nm. The crystal structure of the complex of one of the compounds with 3CLpro indicates that this inhibitor forms a thioether linkage between the halomethyl carbon of the warhead and the catalytic Cys 145. Furthermore, Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds have led to the identification of a pharmacophore that accurately defines the essential molecular features required for the high affinity.

  15. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  16. Catalytic ionic hydrogenation of ketones using tungsten or molybdenum catalysts with increased lifetimes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, R. Morris; Kimmich, Barbara F.; Fagan, Paul J.; Hauptman, Elisabeth

    2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process for the catalytic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes to alcohols at low temperatures and pressures using organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes and the catalyst used in the process. The reactants include a functional group which is selected from groups represented by the formulas R*(C.dbd.O)R' and R*(C.dbd.O)H, wherein R* and R' are selected from hydrogen or any alkyl or aryl group. The process includes reacting the organic compound in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst to form a reaction mixture. The catalyst is prepared by reacting Ph.sub.3 C.sup.+ A.sup.- with a metal hydride. A.sup.- represents an anion and can be BF.sub.4.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.- or Bar'.sub.4.sup.-, wherein Ar'=3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl. The metal hydride is represented by the formula: HM(CO).sub.2 [.eta..sup.5 :.eta..sup.1 --C.sub.5 H.sub.4 (XH.sub.2).sub.n PR.sub.2 ] wherein M represents a molybdenum (Mo) atom or a tungsten (W) atom; X is a carbon atom, a silicon atom or a combination of carbon (C) and silicon (Si) atoms; n is any positive integer; R represents two hydrocarbon groups selected from H, an aryl group and an alkyl group, wherein both R groups can be the same or different. The metal hydride is reacted with Ph.sub.3 C.sup.+ A.sup.- either before reacting with the organic compound or in the reaction mixture.

  17. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol + 1-pentanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aucejo, A.; Burguet, M.C.; Monton, J.B.; Munoz, R.; Sanchotello, M.; Vazquez, M.I. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol + 1-pentanol have been measured at 373.15 K. The binary VLE results have been correlated by different liquid-phase activity coefficient models. The binary interaction parameters obtained from Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models in this and a previously study are used to predict the VLE data for the ternary system. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data are necessary for the design of distillation processes.

  18. Growing season methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at a sub-arctic wetland in Sweden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes were measured at several sites in a sub-arctic wetland near Abisko, Sweden (68°28?N 18°49?E) throughout the 2008 growing season. Averaged over 92 flux measurements the sub-arctic wetland was found to be a...

  19. 3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Michael R.; Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biosynthesis and 3-methyl-1-butanol production. All genesCELL PHYSIOLOGY 3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichiathe production of 3-methyl-1-butanol by leveraging selective

  20. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER

  1. Comparative Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine and in a ProteinHydrophobic Core Probed by Solid-State Deuteron Comparative Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine and...

  2. Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

  3. Vapor-liquid equilibria for systems of 1-butanol with 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 30 and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aucejo, A.; Burguet, M.C.; Monton, J.B.; Munoz, R.; Sanchotello, M.; Vazquez, M.I. (Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data were measured for binary systems of 1-butanol with 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 30 and 100 kPa. The experimental data obtained in this work are thermodynamically consistent according to a point-to-point consistency test, and deviation from ideal behavior is small in all cases. They can be equally well correlated with the Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations.

  4. Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide following Contained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide following Contained Fumigations L A U R E N C E G . M I L L contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole

  5. DNA methylation and the analysis of CpG Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czygrinow, Andrzej

    DNA methylation and the analysis of CpG Islands in genomes M. F. Wojciechowski MAT 351 25 March 2005 #12;#12;Nucleotides #12;Base pairing * * #12;DNA methylation In mammalian genomes, methylation residues represent a target for covalent modification of DNA Cytosine is one of two bases found commonly

  6. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  7. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  8. Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trofimov, V.A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

  9. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  10. aromatic hydrocarbons methyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with electrophiles allows preparation of (more) Savla, Paresh M. 1993-01-01 2 Infrared spectra of methyl-, and nitrogen-modified void coronene; modeling a carrier of...

  11. Methyl viologen radical reactions with several oxidizing agents. [Gamma Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levey, G.; Ebbesen, T.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rates of oxidation of the methyl viologen radical by peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide has been investigated. The methyl viologen free radical was produced by pulse radiolysis. The reaction of the peroxodisulfate radical with the methyl viologen radical was first order in both species, and the reaction rate constant is reported. A el-radiation study revealed a chain decomposition of the peroxodisulfate radical involving the methyl viologen radical when methanol, ethanol, or 2-propanol was present. Loss of the methyl viologen radical was then no longer observed to be a simple first-order reaction. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with the methyl viologen radical was very slow in the presence of 1 M methanol. A much faster reaction in the absence of methanol was interpreted to be a reaction of the methyl viologen radical with the peroxy radicals. Hydrogen peroxide, in contrast to the chain decomposition of peroxodisulfate radicals, does not participate in a chain reaction involving the methyl viologen radical and methanol. Rate constants for the reaction of methyl viologen radical with dichromate radical, iodate radical, and ferricyanide radical are reported.

  12. Genome Sequence of Mercury-Methylating and Pleomorphic Desulfovibrio africanus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genome Sequence of Mercury-Methylating and Pleomorphic Desulfovibrio africanus Contact: Steven D. africanus genome sequence to allow us to gain insights into the physiological states genomics using the sequence information for D. africanus and the previously sequenced mercury methylator D

  13. Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Howard H. (Berkeley, CA); Keasling, Jay D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

  14. anhydride-vinyl methyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  15. DNA methylation dynamics of the human preimplantation embryo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Zachary D.

    In mammals, cytosine methylation is predominantly restricted to CpG dinucleotides and stably distributed across the genome, with local, cell-type-specific regulation directed by DNA binding factors. This comparatively ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Biodegradation of methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrick, Mike

    ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Biodegradation of methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol: evidence material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/ 10

  17. Methyl arsenic adsorption and desorption behavior on iron oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lafferty, Brandon James

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    of the widespread distribution and toxicity of arsenic and methyl-arsenic, their adsorption behavior on soil minerals is of great interest. Although considerable attention has been given to the behavior of inorganic arsenic on mineral surfaces, little research has...

  18. Regulation of yeast development by mRNA methylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwala, Sudeep D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The internal methylation of mRNA post-transcriptionally is an essential component of the mRNA editing machinery in virtually every eukaryotic system. Despite this ubiquity, little is known about the relevance, consequences ...

  19. Methyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere from temperate woodland ecosystems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drewer, Julia; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A; Heal, Mathew R

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental importance of methyl bromide (CH3Br) arises from its contribution to stratospheric ozone loss processes and, as a consequence, its emissions from anthropogenic sources are subject to the Montreal Protocol. A better understanding...

  20. The synthesis of some N-methylated aminoalkylphosphonic acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eikenberry, Jon Nathan

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE SYNTHESIS OF SOME N-METHYLATED AMINOALKYLPHOSFHONIC ACIDS A Thesis By JON NATHAN EIKENBERRY Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1966 Major Subject: Chemistry THE SYNTHESIS OF SOME N-METHYLATED AMINOALKYLPHOSPHONlc ACIDS A Thesis By ION NATHAN EIKENBERRY Approved as to styl and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Hea f Department) (Member) (Member) August 1966...

  1. Properties of some ionic liquids based on1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Yakelis, Neal; Salminen, Justin; Bergman,Robert; Prausnitz, John M.

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Syntheses are reported for ionic liquids containing 1-methyl-3octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations, and trifluoromethansulfonate, dicyanamide, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and nonafluorobutanesulfonate anions. Densities, melting points and glass transition points, solubility in water as well as polarities have been measured. Ionic liquids based on pyridinium cations exhibit higher melting points, lower solubility in water, and higher polarity than those based on imidazolium cations.

  2. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  3. Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

  4. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  5. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  6. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  7. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  8. Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic Core at Cryogenic Temperatures by Deuteron NMR Spectroscopy. Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein...

  9. Environmental and age effects on methylation changes in human brain and blood cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giguzinsky, Orit

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have shown that DNA methylation may 1 e associated with disease, aging, the rate of aging and genetics. In this thesis, age is accurately predicted from DNA methylation in brain and blood tissues using two ...

  10. Photodegradation in a stress and response framework: poly(methyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    (methyl methacrylate); photovoltaics; degradation. Paper 12020SS received Mar. 21, 2012; revised manuscript received of photovoltaics (PV) lifetime and degradation science (L&DS)2­4 as a critical scientific challenge for robust of materials for enhanced photovoltaic (PV) performance, it is critical to have quantitative knowledge of both

  11. The synthesis of some N-methylated aminoalkylphosphonic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eikenberry, Jon Nathan

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Di- methylamino-1-alkenes Diethyl I-Dimethylamino-2-methylpropyl- phosphonate Diethyl 1-Dimethylaminobutylphosphonate . Diethyl 1-Dimethylamino-3-methylbutyl- phosphonate General Procedure for the Preparation of 1-Dimethyl...'-Tetramethyldi- aminomethane 66 Infrared Spectrum of Benzylidene-bis-dimethyl- amine 66 Infrared Spectrum of 1-Dimethylamino-2-methyl- 1-propene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Infrared Spectrum of 1-Dimethylamino-1-butene . . 67 Infrared Spectrum of I...

  12. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that are soluble in NaOH scrubbing solution for iodine analysis. But when NOx and H2O are not present, then the majority of the uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent is in the form of methyl iodide. Methyl iodide adsorption efficiencies have been high enough so that initial DFs exceed 1,000 to 10,000. The methyl iodide mass transfer zone depths are estimated at 4-8 inches, possibly deeper than mass transfer zone depths estimated for I2 adsorption on AgZ. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  13. () Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    acetate () Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether () Ethylene glycol monomethy ether ()- O-dichlorobenzene ( ) Xylenes(o-,m-,p- isomers) () Cresol - 19 - #12;() Chlorobenzene () Amyl acetate () Isoamyl acetate () Isobutyl acetate () Isopropyl acetate () Ethyl acetate () Propyl acetate () Butyl acetate () Methyl acetate

  14. Mercury Methylation in Mine Wastes Collected from Abandoned Mercury Mines in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, John E. (U.S. Geological Survey); Hines, Mark E. (Massachusetts, Univ Of); Biester, Harald (Heidelberg College); Lasorsa, Brenda K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury mines contain highly elevated Hg contents, but more problematic environmentally are elemental Hg and soluble Hg salts produced during ore retorting that remain in wastes at mine sites. Under certain conditions, these inorganic Hg compounds convert to bioavailable, highly toxic organic Hg forms. Speciation and transformation of Hg was studied in wastes collected from abandoned Hg mines at McDermitt, NV, and Terlingua, TX, which are moderate size on an international scale and produced about 10,000 and 5,000 t of elemental Hg, respectively. In waste samples, we measured total Hg and methyl-Hg contents, identified various Hg compounds using Hg-thermo-desorption pyrolysis, and determined rates of Hg methylation and methyl-Hg demethylation using isotopic-tracer methods. Pyrolysis analysis of mine wastes showed variable amounts of cinnabar, metacinnabar, Hg salts, elemental Hg, and elemental Hg sorbed onto particulates such as clay and Fe-oxides. Mine wastes with the highest methyl-Hg contents correspond to those with elemental Hg and particulate-sorbed elemental Hg, and also produced the highest laboratory-estimated potential Hg methylation rates, as much as 4.8%/day. Samples containing dominantly cinnabar showed little or no Hg methylation. Mine wastes with high methyl-Hg contents generally showed low methyl-Hg demethylation, suggesting that Hg methylation was dominant. Both mines are located in semiarid climates, and during this study, streambeds below the mines were dry. Total Hg contents in stream sediment collected below the mines show significant dilution, and methyl-Hg contents were typically below the limit of determination. Methylation of Hg downstream from Hg mines is probably lower in arid climates due to lack of mine-water runoff and lower microbial activity. The correspondence of mine wastes containing elemental Hg and high methyl-Hg contents suggests that Hg0 oxidizes to Hg2+, which is subsequently bioavailable for microbial Hg methylation.

  15. Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

  16. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern MTBE treatment are discussed. Introduction The rapidly rising number of reports of groundwater con- taminated with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has raised concerns about its

  17. Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

  18. Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

  19. Surface pre-coating of talc particles by carboxyl methyl cellulose adsorption : study of adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Surface pre-coating of talc particles by carboxyl methyl cellulose adsorption : study of adsorption and consequences on surface properties and settling rate P. Bacchin1 , J-P. Bonino2 , F. Martin3 This paper investigates the adsorption of different sized carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) onto talc particles

  20. Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in CaseControl Studies in Argentina and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in Case­Control Studies in Argentina and the United's susceptibility to bladder cancer. Methods: Urinary methylation products were measured in subjects from Argentina (114 cases and 114 controls) and the United States (23 cases and 49 controls). Results: In Argentina

  1. Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser of methylamine (CH3NH2 + ), methanol (CH3OH+ ), and methyl fluoride (CH3F+ ) cations by short, intense laser 7 m laser pulses. This work is motivated by recent studies of methanol cations by Yamanouchi and co

  2. A neutron diffraction study of bis(cyclopentadienyl)(methyl)(methylene)tantalum(V) at 15 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takusagawa, Fusao

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (4) A] in the methyl group is slightly longer than that in the methylene group [1-081 (5) A], while therespective H-C-H angles are 107-8(3)° (methyl, mean value) and 112-3(2)° (methylene). The Ta-C methylene distance is 2-039 (1) A, corresponding to a...

  3. Mechanisms Regulating Mercury Bioavailability for Methylating Microorganisms in the Aquatic Environment: A Critical Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in aquatic food webs is the methylation of inorganic forms of the metal, a process that is primarily mediated methylation occurs and the processes that control mercury bioavailability to these organisms. Methylmercury, and natural organic matter. These interactions result in a mixture of dissolved, nanoparticulate, and larger

  4. Regulation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA) Receptors by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 7*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhen

    Regulation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA) Receptors by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 7-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) dysregulation has been strongly associated with the pathophysiology of mental ill eight subtypes (1), are potential novel tar- gets for neuropsychiatric disorders (2­4). Group I mGluR (m

  5. High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) at ambient and cryogenic temperatures, as well as on polyisoprene (PI) and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene

  6. Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric hetero-diels-alder reactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correction Paper No. b927076k Summary: . The classic hetero-Diels Alder reaction of acrolein with methyl vinyl ketone (Scheme 3) was examined in great... is unsymmetrically...

  8. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ECD-1 CRT CNG1 CNG2 Carbonyl Compounds (Air Toxics) Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Acrolein Propionaldehyde Croton Methyl ethyl Ketone (MEK) Methylacrolein Butanal Benzaldehyde...

  9. Novel mixed organoboranes for the reductive alkylation of p-benzoquinone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hincapié, Gloria

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with methyl vinyl ketone or acrolein 20 was found to beWhen this is reacted with acrolein, 15% of the product is 4-

  10. Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi

    1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. During the April-June quarter(04-06/99) the first in-situ formaldehyde generation from DME and condensation with methyl propionate is demonstrated and the results are summarized. The supported niobium catalyst shows better condensation activity, but supported tungsten catalyst has higher formaldehyde selectivity. The project team has also completed a 200-hour long term test of PA-HCHO condensation over 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. Three activity cycles and two regeneration cycles were carried out. 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} showed similar MAA yields as 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. However, the deactivation appears to be slower with 30% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} than 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. An detailed economic analysis of PA-HCHO condensation process for a 250 million lb/yr MMA plant is currently studied by Bechtel. Using the Amoco data-based azeotropic distillation model as the basis, an ASPEN flow sheet model was constructed to simulate the formaldehyde and propionic acid condensation processing section based on RTI's design data. The RTI MAA effluent azeotropic distillation column was found to be much more difficult to converge. The presence of non-condensible gases along with the byproduct DEK (both of which were not presented in Amoco's data) appear to the culprits.

  13. Methyl jasmonate elicits rapid changes in carbon and nitrogen dynamics in tomato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orians, Colin

    Methyl jasmonate elicits rapid changes in carbon and nitrogen dynamics in tomato Sara Go´mez1 of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Author for correspondence: Sara Go´mez Tel

  14. Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pangallo, Kristin C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

  15. Thermomechanical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane- poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopesky, Edward Thomas

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA) containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles (d [approx.] 1.5 nm) were subjected to heological, mechanical, and morphological tests to determine the effects that ...

  16. A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Michelle M.

    DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methylcytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum ...

  17. active methyl tert-butyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  18. Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying of Poly(methyl methacrylate) with Polyisoprene and Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying of Poly(methyl methacrylate) with Polyisoprene and Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene temperatures to incorporate polyisoprene (PI) or its hydrogenated analogue poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - atropine methyl bromide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methyl nitrate, Sigma-Aldrich, 05 mg kg bolus, followed by 025 mg kg h infusion i... -Aldrich), 5 mg kg bolus i.v. followed by 5 mg kg h continuous infusion...

  20. Heavy-atom isotope effects on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl benzoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlier, J.F.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1981-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of the use of a previously reported technique of four-heavy atom isotope effects for study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl benzoate are reported. Ether oxygen and methyl carbon isotope effects on the reaction were measured by the usual natural-abundance isotope-ratio technique. The carbonyl oxygen isotope effect was measured by the pseudo-natural-abundance double-label method as was the carbonyl carbon isotope effect. The results led to the assumption that the hydrolysis of methyl benzoate proceeds by way of a tetrahedral intermediate. The small amount of oxygen exchange with the solvent that accompanies the hydrolysis indicated that it is intermediate formation rather than decomposition that is rate determining. The small magnitude of the observed carbon isotope effect on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl benzoate compared to carbon isotope effects on other reactions of this compound indicate that the transition state is relatively reactant-like. (BLM)

  1. Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wu, Zhijin; Haffner, Michael C; Esopi, David; Aryee, Martin J; Badrinath, Raghav; He, Tony L; Morgan, James D; Carvalho, Benilton S; Zheng, Qizhi; De Marzo, Angelo M; Irizarry, Rafael A; Nelson, William G

    2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    G island [13-15], chromosome-wide [15], or genome-wide [16] til- ing microarrays or to analyze by next generation sequen- cing [17,18]. Here, we describe the use of an MBD-chip approach (Figure 1A) to compare the chromosome-wide DNA methylation patterns... identified as differentially methylated in the LNCaP cells compared to the PrEC cells. We could then compare the distribution of CpG dinucleotide content and number of regions overlapping CpG islands in these simulated data sets with these parameters in our...

  2. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  3. Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

  4. Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

  5. Use of excited-state and ground-state redox properties of polyoxometalates for selective transformation of unactivated carbon-hydrogen centers remote from the functional group in ketones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs-Walker, L.A.; Hill, C.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1992-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Two types of processes are described which involve the selective transformation of unactivated carbon-hydrogen bonds in a ketone, cis-2-decalone, cis-1, which possesses conventionally far more reactive bonds. The first type of process involves irradiation of decatungstate, W{sub 10}O{sub 32}{sup 4{minus}} in the presence of cis-1 producing, trans-2-decalone, trans-1, the product resulting from epimerization of an unactivated tertiary C-H bond remote form the carbonyl group, in high selectivity at high conversion of substrate. The second type of reaction involves irradiation of the heteropolytungstate, {alpha}-P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}{sup 6{minus}} or {alpha}-PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3{minus}}, in the presence of cis-1 producing two monounsaturated ketones (octalones) in high selectivity with the nonthermodynamic isomer, 2, in comparable or greater quantity than the conventional thermodynamic (conjugated) isomer, 3, eq 2. Both types of processes are independent of wavelength over the principal range of absorption of the complexes (:250-380 nm). The primary kinetic isotope of the corresponding decalin hydrocarbons were evaluated. The photochemical reaction of decatungstate with {alpha},{alpha},{alpha}{sup {prime}},{alpha}{sup {prime}}-D{sub 4}-cis-1 leads exclusively, even at moderate conversion of substrate (25%), to {alpha},{alpha},{alpha}{sup {prime}},{alpha}{sup {prime}}-D{sub 4}-trans-1. These data, an isotope crossover experiment in which decatungstate was irradiated in the presence of a 50/50 molar mixture of deuterated and protiated cis-decalin in CD{sub 3}CN are consistent with initial H atom abstraction in all cases. The dramatically different products seen with the different polyoxometalate systems are dictated by the relative rates of epimerization, oxidation, and escape of the cisoid tertiary bridgehead radicals in the initial radical cage and, to a lesser extent, by the rates of conventional radical-radical reactions and other processes.

  6. INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2-containing complex involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V.C.; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Hale, Christopher J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Simon, Stacey A.; Lee, Tzuu-fen; Feng, Suhua; Española, Sophia D.; Meyers, Blake C.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Jacobsen, Steven E. (UCLA); (MSKCC); (Delaware)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    At least three pathways control maintenance of DNA cytosine methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is solely responsible for establishment of this silencing mark. We previously described INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2 (IDN2) as being an RNA-binding RdDM component that is required for DNA methylation establishment. In this study, we describe the discovery of two partially redundant proteins that are paralogous to IDN2 and that form a stable complex with IDN2 in vivo. Null mutations in both genes, termed IDN2-LIKE 1 and IDN2-LIKE 2 (IDNL1 and IDNL2), result in a phenotype that mirrors, but does not further enhance, the idn2 mutant phenotype. Genetic analysis suggests that this complex acts in a step in the downstream portion of the RdDM pathway. We also have performed structural analysis showing that the IDN2 XS domain adopts an RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold. Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation and expression analysis confirms the placement of the IDN proteins in an RdDM pathway that affects DNA methylation and transcriptional control at many sites in the genome. Results from this study identify and describe two unique components of the RdDM machinery, adding to our understanding of DNA methylation control in the Arabidopsis genome.

  7. Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

  8. Hafnium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having been predicted from atomic number sequence, it was the first element to be discovered by X-ray methods in 1923, following spectroscopic examination of zirconium minerals by D. Coster and G. C. de Hevesey. Hafnium derives its name from {open_quotes}Hafnia{close_quotes}, the Latin name for Copenhagen. The crustal abundance of hafnium is estimated at 2.8-4.5 ppm. The element hafnium is commonly found only in solid solution with zirconium in various zirconium ores, and is a by-product of zirconium metal production. The major commercial mineral source of hafnium is zircon; a minor source is baddeleyite. Zircon, typically 67% zirconium plus hafnium oxides, is found in alluvial or beach deposits together with other heavy minerals such as rutile and ilmenite. The ratio of zirconium to hafnium in zircon averages about 50:1. Recovery is accomplished by mining, dredging on scraping, followed by wet concentration by gravity processing and then dry separation, usually by magnetic or electrostatic processes. The zirconium/hafnium concentrate is separated by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl isobutyl ketone, or extractive distillation to produce hafnium oxide. Hafnium sponge is produced by reacting the oxide with chlorine in a fluid bed chlorinator, followed by a {open_quotes}Kroll-type{close_quotes} reaction. Additional refining of the metal is possible by electrofining, electron beam melting, or the iodide process. Refined hafnium metal is regularly referred to as {open_quotes}crystal bar hafnium-iodide metal{close_quotes}, or ductile hafnium.

  9. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  10. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  11. The testing of anti-corrosion tank linings for marine tankers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. [George Mills and Associates International, Inc., Humble, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern anti-corrosion tank coatings are complex polymeric systems which are expected to provide corrosion protection after portage of many types of strong chemical and solvent cargoes. Longevity of the applied coating system is a function of the characteristics and quality of the formulated coating as well as the physical application. A tank coating testing program has been developed to evaluate specific failure modes with troublesome representative solvents frequently traded in large multi-tank marine vessels. Methanol, benzene, acetone, ethylene dichloride, vinyl and ethyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate as well as hot crude tall oil have been used as test cargoes to evaluate candidate tank linings. The evaluation techniques utilize monitoring cargo absorption and desorption rates as a function of coating weight followed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) of the test solutions to identify extracted coating materials released into the solvent cargoes. Solvent retention in the lining is followed by GC/MS of coating chips with known exposure histories. Failure modes are demonstrated and mechanisms are proposed.

  12. Polystyrene/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends in the Presence of Cyclohexane: Selective Solvent Washing or Equilibrium Adsorption?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cyclohexane (PS:CH), poly(methyl methacrylate)-carbon tetrachloride (PMMA:CCl4), and PS:CCl4 adsorbing

  13. Biogeochemistry of arsenic in natural waters: The importance of methylated species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.C.D.; Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water samples from a number of lakes and estuaries, mostly in California, showed measurable concentrations of methylated arsenic (equivalent to 1-59% of total As) with the exception of one highly alkaline lake. Neither depleted phosphate concentrations nor high dissolved salts correlated with the appearance of methylated forms of As. A temporal study of As speciation in Davis Creek Reservoir, a seasonally anoxic lake in northern California, demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid increased sufficiently to become the dominant form of dissolved As within the surface photic zone during late summer and fall. Methylated forms decreased while arsenate increased when the lake over-turned in early December, which suggested a degradation of dimethylarsinic acid to arsenate.

  14. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Silks, III, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  15. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including ?-globin, ?-globin, ?-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including ?-globin, ?-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ? Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ? Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ? Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

  16. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

  17. Kinetics of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen on a colloidal Pt catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, V.E.; Shafirovich, V.Ya.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of H/sub 2/ on a Pt catalyst under the influence of one-electron reductors is part of the photocatalytic process of decomposition of H/sub 2/O into H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. As a model reaction we selected the reduction of methyl viologen. The bonding constant for hydrogen on colloidal Pt, as well as the effective rate constant of the heterolytic splitting of H/sub 2/ on the same Pt catalyst are determined. A mathematical description of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen is suggested.

  18. Salt effect on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methyl acetate + methanol system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iliuta, M.C.; Thyrion, F.C. [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.] [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.; Landauer, O.M. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)] [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of sodium thiocyanate at constant salt mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.05 and at saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of methyl acetate + methanol has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited both salting-in and salting-out effects on the methyl acetate, the azeotrope being eliminated at saturation. The results were correlated using the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. and the electrolytic NRTL model of Mock et al.

  19. Ab initio study of thiol aqueous phase ionization energies. Methyl mercaptan and cysteamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colson, A.O.; Sevilla, M.D. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States))

    1994-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionization energies of two thiol model compounds (methyl mercaptan and cysteamine) are calculated at the ROHF/6-31G* level to aid our understanding of the mechanisms involved in DNA radioprotection. Methyl mercaptan, the thiolate anion, and its trihydrated form are fully geometry optimized. The resulting gas-phase Koopmans ionization energies are 9.68, 1.67, and 3.63 eV, respectively. The ionization energy for the solvated methylthiolate anion, CH[sub 3]S[sup [minus

  20. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline. In 1998, 11.9 billion liters of MTBE were produced in the U.S. MTBE has been detected frequently

  1. Putative Zinc Finger Protein Binding Sites Are Over-Represented in the Boundaries of Methylation-Resistant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putative Zinc Finger Protein Binding Sites Are Over- Represented in the Boundaries of Methylation that there are several over-represented putative Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBSs) in methylation-resistant CpG islands, and a specific group of zinc finger protein binding sites are over-represented in boundary

  2. Histidine methylation of yeast ribosomal protein Rpl3p is1 required for proper 60S subunit assembly2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Steven

    -site. Rpl3p methylation is dependent upon the presence of Hpm1p, a24 candidate seven beta strand methyltransferase. In this study, we elucidated the biological activities of25 Hpm1p in vitro and in vivo. Amino acid analyses reveal that Hpm1p is responsible for all detectable26 protein histidine methylation

  3. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

  4. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  5. Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester: Comparison between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester-Blodgett transfer. The presence in the infrared spectra of several bands due to the methylene wagging and twisting and infrared spectroscopy have been developed to study these films. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly

  6. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

  7. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge

  8. Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

  9. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste, the two laboratory- scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter be sustained for at least 4-6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were

  10. Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    - tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) at Cranberry Lake, New Jersey Laura Torana, *, Charles Lipkaa , Arthur Baehrb; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

  11. On the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons with detailed numerical modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    .53­0.57 mm and the combustion gas is normal atmospheric pressure air. A detailed numerical simulationOn the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons Biodiesel Biofuel Microgravity Numerical Droplet combustion a b s t r a c t This study presents

  12. Neutralization of Methyl Cation via Chemical Reactions in Low-Energy Ion-Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysocki, Vicki H.

    with Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Self-Assembled Monolayer Films A´ rpa´d Somogyi, Darrin L. Smith, and Vicki H-surface collisions of methyl cation at hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self- assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces produce with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon SAMs occurs by concerted chemical reactions, i.e., that neutralization

  13. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  14. Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    , College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received 14, the removal and recycling of the catalytic materials become important. It is expected that using ionic liquids as ATRP media. They performed the copper(I)-mediated ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in 1-butyl-3

  15. Polymer surface and thin film vibrational dynamics of poly,,methyl methacrylate..., polybutadiene,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Polymer surface and thin film vibrational dynamics of poly,,methyl methacrylate..., polybutadiene atom scattering has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics at the polymer vacuum interface polymers. The broad multiphonon feature that arises in the inelastic scattering spectra at surface

  16. Hybrid Energy Cell for Degradation of Methyl Orange by Self-Powered Electrocatalytic Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Hybrid Energy Cell for Degradation of Methyl Orange by Self- Powered Electrocatalytic Oxidation Ya of superoxidative hydroxyl radical on the anode. Here, we report a hybrid energy cell that is used for a self-powered electrocatalytic process for the degradation of MO without using an external power source. The hybrid energy cell

  17. Sequential 2 -O-Methylation of Archaeal Pre-tRNATrp Nucleotides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, E. Stuart

    Sequential 2 -O-Methylation of Archaeal Pre-tRNATrp Nucleotides Is Guided by the Intron -O-methyla- tion of nucleotides C34 and U39 followed by intron exci- sion. Positioning of the box C proteins. With both kinetic studies and single nucleotide substitutions of target and guide nucleotides, we

  18. Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowire photocatalysis: Benzene oxidation and methyl red decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Suoyuan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Tsang, Chi Him A. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wong, Ningbew [Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)] [Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Shuit-Tong [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: H-SiNWs can catalyze hydroxylation of benzene and degradation of methyl red under visible light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were active photocatalyst in the hydroxylation of benzene under light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were also effective in the decomposition of methyl red dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Si/SiO{sub x} core-shell structure is the main reason of the obtained high selectivity during the hydroxylation. -- Abstract: Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the hydroxylation of benzene and for the decomposition of methyl red under visible light irradiation. The above reactions were monitored by GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively, which shows 100% selectivity for the transformation of benzene to phenol. A complete decomposition of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M methyl red solution was achieved within 30 min. The high selectivity for the hydroxylation of benzene and the photodecomposition demonstrate the catalytic activity of ultrafine H-SiNWs during nanocatalysis.

  19. Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters transportation fuel dedicated to the diesel engine, biodiesel, with an emphasis on ethyl esters because of biodiesel and related components, the main gaps in the field are highlighted to facilitate the convergence

  20. Methyl Acetate and its singly deuterated isotopomers in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Ankan; Sahu, Dipen; Gorai, Prasanta; Sivaraman, B; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion though the presence of its deuterated isotopomers is yet to be confirmed. We therefore study the properties of various forms of methyl acetate, namely, CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D. Our simulation reveals that these species could be produced efficiently both in gas as well as in ice phases. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxyacetone), we prepare a gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown r...

  1. Fate of 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime (Temik) in plants and soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppedge, James Roland

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of heterocyclic enols, S Several of these compounds, including Pyrolan, 3-methyl-1- phenylpyrazo 1-5-yl d ime thyl carbamate; Isol an, 1-is op ropy 1-3-me thyl- pyrazo1-5-yl-dimethyl carbamate; and dime ti. lan, 1-dimethylcarbamoyl- 5-methyl-3-pyrazolyl... insecticides are true systemics and data are limited on their metabolism. A recent report on the fate of Zectran, 4 dimethyl amino-3-5-xylyl methyl carbamate, (Williams et al. 1965), which possesses some systemic properties, stated that 4-dimethylamino- 3...

  2. Methyl isocyanate liquid and vapor permeation through selected respirator diaphragms and chemical protective clothing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Moyer, E.S.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initially, a study was undertaken to evaluate selected chemical protective clothing suitable for use by emergency response personnel confronted with methyl isocyanate (MIC). Twenty-two chemical protective clothing materials were tested against liquid methyl isocyanate. Chemical permeation breakthrough times for these clothing materials demonstrate that only one of these garments can be considered as a candidate material against liquid MIC. In a subsequent study, three chemical protective clothing materials were evaluated against approximately 800 ppm MIC vapor. Chemical permeation breakthrough times demonstrate that these materials can be considered candidate materials. A final study tested self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) diaphragms. Four SCBA diaphragms were tested and all experienced rapid breakthrough when exposed to liquid MIC. Next, three SCBA diaphragms were exposed to approximately 800 ppm MIC vapor. The data demonstrate that the SCBA should be worn inside a total encapsulating suit.

  3. ALMA imaging study of methyl formate (HCOOCH$_{3}$) in the torsionally excited states towards Orion KL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakai, Yusuke; Hirota, Tomoya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recently reported the first identification of rotational transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH$_{3}$) in the second torsionally excited state toward Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) observed with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In combination with the identified transitions of methyl formate in the ground state and the first torsional excited state, it was found that there is a difference in rotational temperature and vibrational temperature, where the latter is higher. In this study, high spatial resolution analysis by using Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) science verification data was carried out to verify and understand this difference. Toward the Compact Ridge, two different velocity components at 7.3 and 9.1 km s$^{-1}$ were confirmed, while a single component at 7.3 km s$^{-1}$ was identified towards the Hot Core. The intensity maps in the ground, first, and second torsional excited states have quite similar distributions. Using extensive ALMA data, we determined the rotational and vibration...

  4. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  5. Process for dissolving coke oven deposits comprising atomizing a composition containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone into the gas lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, M.L.; Nicholson, G.M.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for cleaning gas lines in coke oven batteries comprising atomizing a composition into the gas lines of coke oven batteries, where the composition comprises N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

  6. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  7. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

  8. Methylation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) mRNA 5'-cap structures in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, D.C.; Lesnaw, J.A.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monocistronic VSV mRNAs synthesized by subviral particles in vitro display the methylated 5'-cap structure m'G(5')ppp(5')Am. The authors have detected both monomethylated cap structures, m/sup 7/G(5')ppp(5')A and G(5')Am, in reactions containing suboptimal concentrations of AdoMet. To assess the putative precursor roles of these cap structures the authors devised dual label pulse-chase analyses employing S-(CH/sub 3/-/sup 3/H)-AdoMet and (..beta..-/sup 32/P)GTP. The labeled cap structures were analyzed by HPLC. The simultaneous chasing of both radiolabeled substrates allowed 1) the isolation of a specific set of caps labeled as (..beta..-/sup 32/P)-R/sup 7/G(5')ppp(5')AR (R=H or CH/sub 3/) and 2) the determination of the transcriptive fate of each intermediate cap structure within the set. The results demonstrated that both monomethylated cap structures serve as intermediates for the dimethylated cap and that the order of cap methylation is non-compulsory. These data, coupled with previous observations of hypomethylated cap structures in polyadenylated RNAs, have suggested that methylation occurs in a chain length dependent window.

  9. Sulfide controls on mercury speciation and bioavailability to methylating bacteria in sediment pore waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benoit, J.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center] [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center; [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States); Gilmour, C.C.; Heyes, A. [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center] [Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Leonard, MD (United States). Estuarine Research Center; Mason, R.P. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States)

    1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical equilibrium model for Hg complexation in sediments with sulfidic pore waters is presented. The purpose of the model was to explain observed relationships between pore water sulfide, dissolved inorganic Hg (Hg{sub D}), and bulk methylmercury (MeHg) in surficial sediments of two biogeochemically different ecosystems, the Florida Everglades and Patuxent River, MD. The model was constructed to test the hypothesis that the availability of Hg for methylation in sediments is a function of the concentration of neutral dissolved Hg complexes rather than Hg{sup 2+} or total Hg{sub D}. The model included interaction of mercury with solids containing one or two sulfide groups, and it was able to reproduce observed Hg{sub D} and bulk MeHg trends in the two ecosystems. The model is consistent with HgS{sup 0} as the dominant neutral Hg complex and the form of Hg accumulated by methylating bacteria in sulfidic pore waters. The model-estimated decline in HgS{sup 0} with increasing sulfide was consistent with the observed decline in bulk sediments MeHg. Since bacterial Hg uptake rate is one of the factors affecting methylation rate, Hg complexation models such as the one presented are helpful in understanding the factors that control MeHg production and accumulation in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk in subjects living in arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.-K. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C.-H. [National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Development, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Yun-Lin, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.-L. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Yang, M.-H. [Department of Nuclear Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Y.-M. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) from drinking water has been shown to be associated with hypertension in a dose-response pattern. This study further explored the association between arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk among residents of arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in Taiwan considering the effect of CAE and other potential confounders. Method: There were 871 subjects (488 women and 383 men) and among them 372 were diagnosed as having hypertension based on a positive history or measured systolic blood pressure {>=} 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure {>=} 90 mm Hg. Urinary arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Primary arsenic methylation index [PMI, defined as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) divided by (As{sup III} + As{sup V})] and secondary arsenic methylation index (SMI, defined as dimethylarsinic acid divided by MMA{sup V}) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capability. Results: The level of urinary arsenic was still significantly correlated with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) calculated from a questionnaire interview (p = 0.02) even after the residents stopped drinking the artesian well water for 2-3 decades. Hypertensive subjects had higher percentages of MMA{sup V} and lower SMI than subjects without hypertension. However, subjects having CAE > 0 mg/L-year had higher hypertension risk than those who had CAE = 0 mg/L-year disregard a high or low methylation index. Conclusion: Inefficient arsenic methylation ability may be related with hypertension risk.

  11. The interaction of organic adsorbate vibrations with substrate lattice waves in methyl-Si(111)-(1?×?1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Ryan D.; Hund, Zachary M.; Sibener, S. J., E-mail: s-sibener@uchicago.edu [The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); O’Leary, Leslie E.; Lewis, Nathan S. [Beckman Institute and Kavli Nanoscience Institute, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 210 Noyes Laboratory, 127-72, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Benedek, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Universidad del País Vasco (EHU), 20018 Donostia / San Sebastian (Spain)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined helium atom scattering and density functional perturbation theory study has been performed to elucidate the surface phonon dispersion relations for both the CH{sub 3}-Si(111)-(1?×?1) and CD{sub 3}-Si(111)-(1?×?1) surfaces. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods has allowed characterization of the interactions between the low energy vibrations of the adsorbate and the lattice waves of the underlying substrate, as well as characterization of the interactions between neighboring methyl groups, across the entire wavevector resolved vibrational energy spectrum of each system. The Rayleigh wave was found to hybridize with the surface rocking libration near the surface Brillouin zone edge at both the M{sup ¯}-point and K{sup ¯}-point. The calculations indicated that the range of possible energies for the potential barrier to the methyl rotation about the Si-C axis is sufficient to prevent the free rotation of the methyl groups at a room temperature interface. The density functional perturbation theory calculations revealed several other surface phonons that experienced mode-splitting arising from the mutual interaction of adjacent methyl groups. The theory identified a Lucas pair that exists just below the silicon optical bands. For both the CH{sub 3}- and CD{sub 3}-terminated Si(111) surfaces, the deformations of the methyl groups were examined and compared to previous experimental and theoretical work on the nature of the surface vibrations. The calculations indicated a splitting of the asymmetric deformation of the methyl group near the zone edges due to steric interactions of adjacent methyl groups. The observed shifts in vibrational energies of the -CD{sub 3} groups were consistent with the expected effect of isotopic substitution in this system.

  12. A circadian rhythm in the susceptibility of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman to methyl parathion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Charles L

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and for his assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. Apprecia tion is also extended to Dr. J. C. Gaines, Dr. R. L. Hanna, Mr. N. M. Randolph, and Dr. R. D. Staten for their suggestions and criticisms in the preparation of this manuscript. TABLE...:14, decapitated and then held in LL for 10 days. (D) Held in LD 10:14 for 10 days, decapitated and then held for 10 more days in LD 10:14 LD 50 values obtained from topical appli- cations of methyl parathion to boll weevlls at various times of day'. The LD...

  13. Thiophanate-methyl, persistence in soybeans and effects on yield, seed quality, emergence and nodulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Philip Christopher

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    containing natural rhizobia populations. Persistence of the fungitoxic TM product, methyl-2-benzimidazole- carbamate (MBC) in/on soybeans was determined spectrophotometrically after once and twice spraying TM (1. 10 kg/ha a. i. ). In once-sprayed tissues... planting. Efficac of TM as a foliar fun icide. Untreated Bragg and Coker 338 soybeans were planted as above. When pods reached 1-2 cm length (Sept. 21), the soybeans were sprayed with TM (Topsin-M 70 WP) at 1. 10 kg/ha a. i. and again 18 days later...

  14. Measurement of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) in raw drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M L; Koester, C J; Moran, J E

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the pathways for human exposure to methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) and to understand the extent of MTBE contamination in watersheds, a purge and trap gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method to measure part-per-trillion (ppt) concentrations of MTBE in environmental waters was developed. A variety of California's raw drinking waters were analyzed. No detectable MTBE was found in deep groundwater (>1000 feet). However shallow groundwater ({approx}250 feet) contained MTBE concentrations of non-detect to 1300 ppt. MTBE concentrations measured in rivers and lakes ranged from non-detect to 3500 ppt. East (San Francisco) Bay area rain water contained approximately 80 ppt MTBE.

  15. Low-energy vibrational density of states of plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Saviot; E. Duval; J. F. Jal; A. J. Dianoux; V. A. Bershtein; L. David; S. Etienne

    2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The low-energy vibrational density of states (VDOS)of hydrogenated or deuterated poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)plasticized by dibutyl phtalate (DBP) is determined by inelastic neutron scattering.From experiment, it is equal to the sum of the ones of the PMMA and DBP components.However, a partition of the total low-energy VDOS among PMMA and DBP was observed.Contrary to Raman scattering, neutron scattering does not show enhancement of the boson peak due to plasticization.

  16. Disruption of DNA methylation induces genome-specific changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis allotetraploids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Meng

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    methylation occurs in the 5? region of a down-regulated gene At5g25610 in met1 lines???????...??. 22 Figure 2.5 Sequence alignment of centromere satellite repeats originating from A. thaliana and A. arenosa???????????.??........ 23 Figure 2.6...-regulated in allo733, allo738 and met1????????????????? 54 Figure 3.6 RT-PCR and SSCP for At5g25610 which is up-regulated in allo733 and allo738, but down-regulated in met1?? 55 Figure 3.7 RT-PCR and SSCP for the genes that are down...

  17. Electrochemical investigation of the energetics of particulate titanium dioxide photocatalysts. The methyl viologen-acetate system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, M.D.; White, J.R.; Bard, A.J.

    1983-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Addition of methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) enhances the anodic currents observed for TiO/sub 2/ suspensions under illumination by trapping of photogenerated electrons with formation of MV/sup +/. The magnitude of the photocurrent depends upon the relative location of the semiconductor Fermi level and E/sub redox/ of the MV/sup 2 +//MV/sup +/.couple. The location of the Fermi level in the anatase powders was estimated as -0.05 V vs. NHE (pH 0) based on the observed variation of photocurrent with pH. The shift in the quasi-Fermi level with light intensity is also discussed.

  18. Oxidation of methyl-substituted anilines in HSO/sub 3/F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, A.P.; Aver'yanov, S.F.; Zarubin, M.Y.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation reactions of aromatic amines involving electron transfers have been studied in various media. Methyl substituted anilines are oxidized in HSO/sub 3/F in the protonated form, in the aniline cation configuration. Theoretically, their oxidation should lead in the first step to the cation-radical of the aniline cation configuration. The authors study here the electron structure of these particles by the EPR method, their reaction capabilities, and preparative possibilities for utilizing aniline cation oxidation reactions in HSO/sub 3/F. Simultaneously, the structures of cation radicals formed from N-acetyl derivatives of several substituted anilines by the EPR method are studied.

  19. Genome-wide conserved consensus transcription factor binding motifs are hyper-methylated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choy, Mun-Kit; Movassagh, Mehregan; Goh, Hock-Guan; Bennett, Martin; Down, Thomas A; Foo, Roger S-Y

    2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    1, SPZ1, SREBP, SRF, STAT, TAL1-E47, TCF, TGIF, USF, XBP1, YY1, ZIC, ZID - Hypo-methylated CETS1P54, E2F, E4BP4, EGR, ELK1, MAZR, NFY, NRF1, SRY CHX10, FOX, FREAC, LHX3, MEF2, POU, RSRFC4, S8, HFH, SOX, SP1, TATA, TBP Neutral BRN2, CREL, HLF, IRF... Lysis Buffer containing 80 ?g/ml RNaseA, using a hand-held homogenizer (Polytron, Switzerland), and thereafter digested with 1 mg/ml Proteinase K (Roche Diagnostics, Burgess Hill, UK) overnight. Fully digested samples were centrifuged at 5000 ?g for 10...

  20. Disruption of DNA methylation induces genome-specific changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis allotetraploids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Meng

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    methylation occurs in the 5? region of a down-regulated gene At5g25610 in met1 lines???????...??. 22 Figure 2.5 Sequence alignment of centromere satellite repeats originating from A. thaliana and A. arenosa???????????.??........ 23 Figure 2.6...-regulated in allo733, allo738 and met1????????????????? 54 Figure 3.6 RT-PCR and SSCP for At5g25610 which is up-regulated in allo733 and allo738, but down-regulated in met1?? 55 Figure 3.7 RT-PCR and SSCP for the genes that are down...

  1. Review of the environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squillace, P.J.; Zogorski, J.S. [Geological Survey, Rapid City, SD (United States); Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Korte, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of pertinent equations and current research indicates that when gasoline oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes into contact with water, large amounts of MTBe can dissolve. At 25 C, the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight, whereas for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L. Methyl tert-butyl ether sorbs only weakly to subsurface solids; therefore, sorption does not substantially retard the transport of MTBE by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists biodegradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 d in a regional airshed. In the air, MTBE tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, the washing out of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation will not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation can nevertheless result in concentrations as high as 3 {micro}g/L or more in urban precipitation and can contribute to the presence of MTBE in surface and ground water.

  2. Reduction and Methyl Transfer Kinetics of the Alpha Subunit from Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiangshi Tan; Christopher Sewell; Qingwu Yang; Paul A. Lindahl

    2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 Stopped-flow was used to evaluate the methylation and reduction kinetics of the isolated alpha subunit of acetyl-Coenzyme A synthase from Moorella thermoacetica. This catalytically active subunit contains a novel Ni-X-Fe4S4 cluster and a putative unidentified n =2 redox site called D. The D-site must be reduced for a methyl group to transfer from a corrinoid-iron-sulfur protein, a key step in the catalytic synthesis of acetyl-CoA. The Fe4S4 component of this cluster is also redox active, raising the possibility that it is the D-site or a portion thereof. Results presented demonstrate that the D-site reduces far faster than the Fe4S4 component, effectively eliminating this possibility. Rather, this component may alter catalytically important properties of the Ni center. The D-site is reduced through a pathway that probably does not involve the Fe4S4 component of this active-site cluster.

  3. Autoignition measurements and a validated kinetic model for the biodiesel surrogate, methyl butanoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The autoignition of methyl butanoate has been studied at 1 and 4 atm in a shock tube over the temperature range 1250-1760 K at equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 at fuel concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. These measurements are complemented by autoignition data from a rapid compression machine over the temperature range 640-949 K at compressed gas pressures of 10, 20, and 40 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.33 using fuel concentrations of 1.59 and 3.13%. The autoignition of methyl butanoate is observed to follow Arrhenius-like temperature dependence over all conditions studied. These data, together with speciation data reported in the literature in a flow reactor, a jet-stirred reactor, and an opposed-flow diffusion flame, were used to produce a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio, fuel fraction, and pressure for shock tube ignition delays. The agreement with rapid compression machine ignition delays is less accurate, although the qualitative agreement is reasonable. The model reproduces most speciation data with good accuracy. In addition, the important reaction pathways over each regime have been elucidated by both sensitivity and flux analyses. (author)

  4. Identification and separation of the organic compounds in coal-gasification condensate waters. [5,5 dimethyl hydantoin, dihydroxy benzenes, acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohr, D.H. Jr.; King, C.J.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantial fraction of the organic solutes in condensate waters from low-temperature coal-gasification processes are not identified by commonly employed analytical techniques, have low distriution coefficients (K/sub C/) into diisopropyl ether (DIPE) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and are resistant to biological oxidation. These compounds represent an important wastewater-treatment problem. Analytical techniques were developed to detect these polar compounds, and the liquid-liquid phase equilibria were measured with several solvents. A high-performance liquid - chromatography (HPLC) technique was employed to analyze four condensate-water samples from a slagging fixed-bed gasifier. A novel sample-preparation technique, consisting of an azeotropic distillation with isopropanol, allowed identification of compounds in the HPLC eluant by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin and related compounds were identified in condensate waters for the first time, and they account for 1 to 6% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Dimethyl hydatoin has a K/sub D/ of 2.6 into tributyl phosphate (TBP) and much lower K/sub D/ values into six other solvents. It is also resistant to biological oxidation. Phenols (59 to 76% of the COD), dihydroxy benzenes (0.02 to 9.5% of the COD), and methanol, acetonitrile, and acetone (15% of the COD in one sample) were also detected. Extraction with MIBK removed about 90% of the COD. MIBK has much higher K/sub D/ values than DIPE for dihydroxy benzenes. Chemical reactions occurred during storage of condensate-water samples. The reaction products had low K/sub D/ values into MIBK. About 10% of the COD had a K/sub D/ of nearly zero into MIBK. These compounds were not extracted by MIBK over a wide range of pH. 73 references, 6 figures, 35 tables.

  5. Engineering evaluation of the 618-9 Burial Ground expedited response action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout Hanford Site history, chemical waste products were disposed via burial in trenches. One such trench was the 618-9 Burial Ground, located in the 600 Area on the Hanford Site. The 618-9 Burial Ground was suspected to contain approximately 5,000 ga (19,000 L) of uranium contaminated solvent in 55-gal (208-L) steel drums. On December 20, 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) was instructed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) to initiate planning necessary to implement an expedited response action (ERA) for the 618-9 Burial Ground. The project was to be implemented in two phases: (1) removal of immediate human health and environmental hazards and (2) remediation of contaminated soil. Phase 1 of the project was initiated February 15, 1991. During Phase 1 activities approximately 700 gal (2,650 L) of methyl isobutyl ketone (hexone) and 900 gal (3,400 L) of kerosene solvent were removed from the 618-9 Burial Ground. A significant amount of scrap process equipment/building debris was excavated. The results of an environmental risk assessment for chemicals above detection further determined that risks posed by other detected constituents to human health and the environment are negligible. A compilation of activities utilized for determining subsequent remediation activities for the 618-9 Burial Ground is presented. This includes: (1) Phase 1 activities, (2) sampling performed and associated data results, (3) results of the risk assessment, and (4) applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used today, the one used most commonly is MTBE. To meet the oxygen requirements of the CAA Amendments, gasoline

  7. A Solid-State NMR Study of Tungsten Methyl Group Dynamics in [W(5-C5Me5)Me4][PF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    A Solid-State NMR Study of Tungsten Methyl Group Dynamics in [W(5-C5Me5)Me4][PF6] Douglas C. Maus Spinning (MAS) 13C and static 2H NMR studies of the dynamics of the methyl groups coordinated to tungsten

  8. Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    and oxidation mechanisms of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP reactor. Rate constants are also derived for three reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE

  9. Transparent Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (PMMA/SWNT) Composite Films with Increased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    Transparent Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (PMMA/SWNT) Composite Films to conventional polymer composites due to the stronger interac- tions between polymer and filler phases. Carbon and fast-growing class of materials with nanosized filler domains finely dispersed in a polymer matrix.[1

  10. MODELING FRETTING-CORROSION WEAR OF 316L SS AGAINST POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) WITH THE POINT DEFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 MODELING FRETTING-CORROSION WEAR OF 316L SS AGAINST POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) WITH THE POINT; ddm2@psu.edu c Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion Research Institute King Fahd University at investigating experimentally fretting corrosion, that is, corrosion induced by friction of AISI 316L SS against

  11. 270 | VOL.9 NO.3 | MARCH2012 | nature methods Key requirements for methylation analysis of large sample sizes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    ). This method eliminates five steps from Illumina's library- construction protocol such that multiplexed and sequenced all at once in a single Illumina HiSeq flowcell. Additionally we designed barcodes to process 384 an analysis pipeline for read mapping and methylation quantification, called bisReadMapper (Supplementary Fig

  12. Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

  13. Homogeneous Hydrogenation of CO? to Methyl Formate Utilizing Switchable Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Mahendra; Linehan, John C.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Van Der Eide, Edwin F.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Capture of CO? and subsequent hydrogenation allows for base/alcohol-catalyzed conversion of CO? to methylformate in one pot. The conversion of CO? proceeds via alkylcarbonates, to formate salts and then formate esters, which can be catalyzed by base and alcohol with the only byproduct being water. The system operates at mild conditions (300 psi H?, 140 °C). Reactivity is strongly influenced by temperature and choice of solvent. In the presence of excess of base (DBU) formate is predominant product while in excess of methanol methyl formate is major product. 110 °C yields formate salts, 140 °C promotes methylformate. The authors acknowledge internal Laboratory Directed Re-search and Development (LDRD) funding from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

  15. Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

    2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

  16. Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary system water + acetic acid + 2-methyl-2-butanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahim, M.A.; Al-Muhtaseb, S.A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system water + acetic acid + 2-methyl-2-butanol were measured over a temperature range of (288 to 323) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models and between each of the main groups of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 2} (paraffinic CH{sub 2}), OH, and COOH for the UJNIFAC model as a function of temperature. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the three models. The NRTL equation was the most accurate model in correlating the overall equilibrium compositions of the studied system. The UNIFAC model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium compositions.

  17. Crystallization of iysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozymemore »and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.« less

  18. Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

  19. Free Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate in Various Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongwei [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional free radical polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate was carried out in various room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The RTILs used in this research encompass a wide range of cations and anions. Typical cations include imidazolium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium; typical anions include amide, borate, chloride, imide, phosphate, and phosphinate. Reactions are faster and polymers obtained usually have higher molecular weights when compared to polymerizations carried out in volatile organic solvents under the same conditions. This shows that rapid rates of polymerization and high molecular weights are general features of conventional radical polymerizations in RTILs. Attempts to correlate the polarities and viscosities of the RTILs with the polymerization behavior fail to yield discernible trends.

  20. Mercury Methylation at Mercury Mines In The Humboldt River Basin, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, John E. (U.S. Geological Survey); Crock, James G. (U.S. Geological Survey); Lasorsa, Brenda K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total Hg and methylmercury concentrations were measured in mine-waste calcines (retorted ore), sediment, and water samples collected in and around abandoned mercury mines in western Nevada to evaluate Hg methylation at the mines and in the Humboldt River basin. Mine-waste calcines contain total Hg concentrations as high as 14 000?g/g. Stream-sediment samples collected within 1 km of the mercury mines contain total Hg concentrations as high as 170?g/g, whereas stream sediments collected>5 km from the mines, and those collected from the Humboldt River and regional baseline sites, contain total Hg concentrations<0.5?g/g. Similarly, methylmercury concentrations in mine-waste calcines are locally as high as 96 ng/g, but methylmercury contents in stream-sediments collected downstream from the mines and from the Humboldt River are lower, ranging from<0.05 to 0.95 ng/g. Stream-water samples collected below two mines studied contain total Hg concentrations ranging from 6 to 2000 ng/L, whereas total Hg in Humboldt River water was generally lower ranging from 2.1 to 9.0 ng/L. Methylmercury concentrations in the Humboldt River water were the lowest in this study (<0.02-0.27 ng/L). Although total Hg and methylmercury concentrations are locally high in mine-waste calcines, there is significant dilution of Hg and lower Hg methylation down gradient from the mines, especially in the sediments and water collected from the Humboldt River, which is> 8 km from any mercury mines. Our data indicate little transference of Hg and methylmercury from the sediment to the water column due to the lack of mine runoff in this desert climate.

  1. Insights antifibrotic mechanism of methyl palmitate: Impact on nuclear factor kappa B and proinflammatory cytokines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantawy, Eman M.; Tadros, Mariane G. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Awad, Azza S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faulty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faulty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Hassan, Dina A.A. [Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fibrosis accompanies most chronic liver disorders and is a major factor contributing to hepatic failure. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment is evident. The present study was designed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of MP and whether MP can attenuate the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in chronic liver injury. Male albino rats were treated with either CCl{sub 4} (1 ml/kg, twice a week) and/or MP (300 mg/kg, three times a week) for six weeks. CCl{sub 4}-intoxication significantly increased liver weight, serum aminotransferases, total cholesterol and triglycerides while decreased albumin level and these effects were prevented by co-treatment with MP. As indicators of oxidative stress, CCl{sub 4}-intoxication caused significant glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation while MP co-treatment preserved them within normal values. As markers of fibrosis, hydroxyproline content and ?-SMA expression increased markedly in the CCl{sub 4} group and MP prevented these alterations. Histopathological examination by both light and electron microscope further confirmed the protective efficacy of MP. To elucidate the antifibrotic mechanisms of MP, the expression of NF-?B, iNOS and COX-2 and the tissue levels of TNF-? and nitric oxide were assessed; CCl{sub 4} increased the expression of NF-?B and all downstream inflammatory cascade while MP co-treatment inhibited them. Collectively these findings indicate that MP possesses a potent antifibrotic effect which may be partly a consequence of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. -- Highlights: ? Methyl palmitate is free fatty acid methyl ester. ? It possesses a strong antifibrotic effect. ? It inhibits NF-?B and the consequent proinflammatory and oxidative stress response.

  2. Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

  3. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douillet, Christelle [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Currier, Jenna [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Saunders, Jesse [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Bodnar, Wanda M. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431 (United States); Matoušek, Tomáš [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veve?í 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stýblo, Miroslav, E-mail: styblo@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ? 0.1 ?M. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic ?-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ? Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ? MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ? 0.1 ?M. ? The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ? The inhibition of insulin secretion by arsenite, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} is reversible. ? Thus, pancreatic ?-cells may be primary targets for chronic exposure to arsenic.

  4. Evaluating the Identity and Diiron Core Transformations of a (?-Oxo)diiron(III) Complex Supported by Electron-Rich Tris(pyridyl-2-methyl)amine Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, Loi H.

    The composition of a (?-oxo)diiron(III) complex coordinated by tris[(3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy)pyridyl-2-methyl]amine (R[subscript 3]TPA) ligands was investigated. Characterization using a variety of spectroscopic methods and ...

  5. Evaluation of the Thermophysical Properties of Poly(MethylMethacrylate): A Reference Material for the Development of a flammability Test for Micro-Gravity Environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhaus, Thomas

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been conducted using PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) as a reference material in the development process of the Forced Flow and flame Spread Test (FIST). This test attempts to establish different criteria for ...

  6. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Ultra-Thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva Hernandez, Carlos Ardenis A.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    MOLECULAR DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THERMO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-THIN POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) FILMS A Dissertation by CARLOS ARDENIS SILVA HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... A Dissertation by CARLOS ARDENIS SILVA HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee...

  7. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora, Ciudad Obregon, Sonora (Mexico); Billheimer, Dean [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lu Zhenqiang [Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  8. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the systems methyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + hexane and + heptane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisniak, J.; Magen, E.; Shachar, M.; Zeroni, I.; Segura, H. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reich, R. [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium at 94 kPa has been determined for the binary systems of methyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether (MTBE) with hexane and with heptane. Both systems deviate slightly from ideal behavior, can be described as regular solutions, and do not present an azeotrope. The activity coefficients and boiling point of the solutions were correlated with its composition by the Redlich-Kister, Wohl, Wilson, UNIQUAC, NRTL, and Wisniak-Tamir equations.

  9. Z .The Science of the Total Environment 261 2000 91 98 Mercury methylation along a lake forest transect in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    and acidified controls 1 3 g dry wt. were slurried with local water and incubated in the dark at 25 28 C for y1 those heavily Z . Z y2 .colonized with periphyton 3.4 5.4% . Methylation in surface or near-bottom water: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br J.R. Guimaraes .~ 0048-9697r00r$ - see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All

  10. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  12. Reaction calorimetry study of the liquid-phase synthesis of tert-butyl methyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Iborra, M. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d'Enginyeria Quimica)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid-phase addition of methanol to isobutene to give tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 has been studied in a calorimetric reactor. Heat capacity of MTBE and enthalpy of the MTBE synthesis reaction in the temperature range 312--333 K have been determined. MTBE heat capacity in the liquid phase has been found to obey the equation c[sub P] (J/mol[center dot]K) = 472.34 [minus] 2.468(T/K) + 0.005071(T/K)[sup 2]. At 298 K the standard molar reaction enthalpy is [Delta]H[degree] = [minus]33.8 kJ/mol. A method to estimate apparent activation energies from heat flow rate in a given reaction has been developed and proved to be valid for the MTBE synthesis. Using this method, an apparent activation energy of 91.1--95.2 kJ/mol is calculated. A [minus]3.8 kJ/mol value has been found for the adsorption enthalpy of methanol on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 by a combination of reaction calorimetry and thermogravimetry. This allows the calculation of an activation energy on the gel phase of the resin of 91 kJ/mol.

  13. Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Observation on the biodegradation and bioremediation potential of methyl t-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salanitro, J.; Wisniewski, H.; McAllister, P. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been few reports documenting evidence for the biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate alkyl ether, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, soils, and biosludges. Partial (or complete) microbial breakdown of MTBE has been observed in an anaerobic subsoil, a river sediment under methanogenic conditions, a cyclohexane-degrading bacterial consortium and a pure culture of the methylotroph, Methylisnus trichosporium OB3b. An aerobic bacterial enrichment (BC-1) isolated from an industrial transient (non-accumulating) metabolic intermediate. The studies suggest that MTBE is cleaved by BC-1 to TBA which is then metabolized via isopropanol and acetone. There is little information on the occurrence of indigenous MTBE-degraders in groundwater, soils and activated sludges. Preliminary evidence has been obtained, however, from a marketing terminal groundwater site that naturally-occurring MTBE-degraders are present in some monitoring wells. Microcosm experiments with groundwater from this aquifer show that MTBE is aerobically degraded (no TBA formed) with a first-order decay rate (0.31/day) similar to BTEX. Also, MTBE did not inhibit the intrinsic biodegradation potential of BTEX in groundwater microcosms. In summary, the data presented indicate that MTBE biodegradation has been observed in some environmental media. Further work is needed to assess the feasibility of using indigenous or derived aerobic and anaerobic MTBE-degrading cultures for treating fuel ethers in groundwaters or wastewater with in-situ or ex-situ bioremediation technologies.

  15. Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A. [Stonybrook Labs. Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

  16. Methyl viologen mediated oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicles involves transmembrane diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, B.C.; Thompson, D.H.; Hurst, J.K.

    1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous reports have appeared describing oxidation-reduction across bilayer membranes. Mechanisms proposed for specific systems include the following: (i) electron tunneling across the hydrocarbon barrier between interfacially bound redox partners, (ii) molecular diffusion of bound redox components across the barrier, and (iii) formation of barrier-penetrating aggregates, or electron-conducting channels, across the bilayer. Nonetheless, the actual reaction mechanisms remain obscure due to the general unavailability of transverse diffusion rates, possible loss of compartmentation of reactants, particularly in photochemical systems, and the ambiguities inherent in deducing reaction mechanisms from rate data, which form the primary evidence in most systems studied. The reactions of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-bound methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) describes in this report are unique in allowing deduction of molecular details of a transmembrane redox event from the product composition and microphase distribution. Specifically, they have found that MV/sup 2 +/ bound at the outer vesicle interface mediates reduction of inner-localized MV/sup 2 +/ by dithionite ion in bulk solution in a manner that requires comigration of MV/sup +/ with the electron transferred across the membrane barrier.

  17. Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-?B expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ? Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ? MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ? MP and EP decreased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ? MP and EP reduced NF-?B expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ? MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  19. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data at 298. 15 K for binary systems containing methyl acetate or methanol with 2-methoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, M.C.; Cocero, M.J.; Mato, F.B. (Univ. de Valladolid (Spain))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured at 298.15 K for the systems containing methyl acetate or methanol with 2-methoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol. Mixtures containing methanol show a behavior close to ideal, while those containing methyl acetate exhibit positive deviations from ideality and satisfy the Redlich-Kister thermodynamic consistency test. The liquid-phase activity coefficients were fitted by using the van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and NRTL-m (a modified NRTL equation) equations.

  20. Unexpected effects of gene deletion on mercury interactions with the methylation-deficient mutant hgcAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hgcA and hgcB gene pair is essential for mercury (Hg) methylation by certain anaerobic bacteria,1 but little is known about how deletion of hgcAB affects cell surface interactions and intracellular uptake of Hg. Here, we compare hgcAB mutants with the wild-type (WT) strains of both Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 and observe differences in Hg redox transformations, adsorption, and uptake in laboratory incubation studies. In both strains, deletion of hgcAB increased the reduction of Hg(II) but decreased the oxidation of Hg(0) under anaerobic conditions. The measured cellular thiol content in hgcAB mutants was lower than the WT, accounting for decreased adsorption and uptake of Hg. Despite the lack of methylation activity, Hg uptake by the hgcAB continued, albeit at a slower rate than the WT. These findings demonstrate that deletion of the hgcAB gene not only eliminates Hg methylation but also alters cell physiology, resulting in changes to Hg redox reactions, sorption, and uptake by cells.

  1. Nonpremixed ignition, laminar flame propagation, and mechanism reduction of n-butanol, iso-butanol, and methyl butanoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei; Kelley, A. P.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-premixed ignition temperature of n-butanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), iso-butanol ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}OH) and methyl butanoate (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}) was measured in a liquid pool assembly by heated oxidizer in a stagnation flow for system pressures of 1 and 3 atm. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air–n-butanol/iso-butanol/methyl butanoate were determined from the outwardly propagating spherical flame at initial pressures of up to 2 atm, for an extensive range of equivalence ratio. The ignition temperature and laminar flame speeds of n-butanol and methyl butanoate were computationally simulated with three recently developed kinetic mechanisms in the literature. Dominant reaction pathways to ignition and flame propagation were identified and discussed through a chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and sensitivity analysis. The detailed models were further reduced through a series of systematic strategies. The reduced mechanisms provided excellent agreement in both homogeneous and diffusive combustion environments and greatly improved the computation efficiency.

  2. Structural and biochemical insights into 2?-O-methylation at the 3?-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Chio Mui; Zhou, Chun; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Huang, Raven H.; (UIUC); (NWU)

    2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Small RNAs of {approx}20-30 nt have diverse and important biological roles in eukaryotic organisms. After being generated by Dicer or Piwi proteins, all small RNAs in plants and a subset of small RNAs in animals are further modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation, carried out by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (MTase) Hen1. Methylation at the 3' terminus is vital for biological functions of these small RNAs. Here, we report four crystal structures of the MTase domain of a bacterial homolog of Hen1 from Clostridium thermocellum and Anabaena variabilis, which are enzymatically indistinguishable from the eukaryotic Hen1 in their ability to methylate small single-stranded RNAs. The structures reveal that, in addition to the core fold of the MTase domain shared by other RNA and DNA MTases, the MTase domain of Hen1 possesses a motif and a domain that are highly conserved and are unique to Hen1. The unique motif and domain are likely to be involved in RNA substrate recognition and catalysis. The structures allowed us to construct a docking model of an RNA substrate bound to the MTase domain of bacterial Hen1, which is likely similar to that of the eukaryotic counterpart. The model, supported by mutational studies, provides insight into RNA substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of Hen1.

  3. Directed metalation of N,N-diethylbenzamides. Silylated benzamides for the synthesis of naturally occurring peri-methylanthraquinones and peri-methyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, R.J.; Snieckus, V. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient methodologies based on directed ortho metalation, fluoride-induced carbodesilylation, and metal-halogen exchange processes (Scheme I) are reported for the synthesis of peri-methyl-substituted anthraquinone natural products 5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 6, 7. Benzamide 8 (Scheme II) is converted in a one-pot sequence into the disilylated derivative 10, which upon metalation, condensation with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, CsF desilylation, and TsOH cyclization leads to the key phthalide 11. Compound 11 is transformed into deoxyerythrolaccin tris(methyl ether) 5c, which has been previously converted into the natural product 5a. For the synthesis of erythrolaccin tetrakis(methyl ether) 5d, the silyl and bromo benzamides 14 and 15 (Scheme III) are condensed with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by CsF-induced carbodesilylation and metal-halogen exchange expedients, respectively, to give the phthalide 16, which is transformed into the target anthraquinone 55d by methods identical with those used in 5c. Along similar lines, the synthesis of 11-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6a, Scheme IV), 8-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6b), and 10-methyl-9,14-dibenz(a,c)anthraquinone (7) is described.

  4. LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

  5. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a bacterial pure culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, J.R.; Ackerman, C.E.; Scow, K.M.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bacterial strain, PM1, which is able to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from a mixed microbial consortium in a compost biofilter capable of degrading MTBE. Initial linear rates of MTBE degradation by 2 x 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1} were 0.07, 1.17, and 3.56 {mu}g ml{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for initial concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 {mu}g MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, respectively. When incubated with 20 {mu}g of uniformly labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, strain PM1 converted 46% to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and 19% to {sup 14}C-labeled cells within 120 h. This yield is consistent with the measurement of protein accumulation at different MTBE concentrations from which was estimated a biomass yield of 0.18 of cells mg MTBE{sup {minus}1}. Strain PM1 was inoculated into sediment core material collected from a contaminated groundwater plume at Port Hueneme, California, in which there was no evidence of MTBE degradation. Strain PM1 readily degraded 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1} added to the core material. The rate of MTBE removal increased with additional inputs of 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}. These results suggest that PM1 has potential for use in the remediation of MTBE-contaminated environments.

  6. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  7. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)] [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain) [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)] [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-?B signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of I?B? and I?B?, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-? and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ? LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ? IL-6, TNF-? and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ? Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ? LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ? LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?).

  8. Change of caged dynamics at Tg in hydrated proteins found after suppressing the methyl-group rotation contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. L. Ngai; S. Capaccioli; A. Paciaroni

    2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In conventional glassformers at sufficiently short times and low enough temperatures, molecules are mutually caged by the intermolecular potential. The fluctuation and dissipation from motion of caged molecules when observed by elastic incoherent neutron scattering exhibit a change in temperature dependence of the mean square displacement (MSD) at the glass transition temperature Tg. This is a general and fundamental property of caged dynamics in glassformers, which is observed always near Tg independent of the energy resolution of the spectrometer. Recently we showed the same change of T-dependence at Tg is present in proteins solvated with bioprotectants, coexisting with the dynamic transition at a higher temperature Td. In these solvated proteins, all having Tg and Td higher than the proteins hydrated by water alone, the observation of the change of T-dependence of the MSD at Tg is unobstructed by the methyl-group rotation contribution at lower temperatures. On the other hand, proteins hydrated by water alone have lower Tg and Td, and hence unambiguous evidence of the transition of MSD at Tg is hard to find. Notwithstanding, evidence on the break of the MSD at Tg can be found by deuterating the protein to suppress the methyl-group contribution. An alternative strategy is the use of a spectrometer that senses motions faster than 15 ps, which confers the benefit of shifting both the onset of methyl-group rotation contribution as well as the dynamic transition to higher temperatures, and again the change of MSD at Tg becomes evident. The break of the elastic intensity or the MSD at Tg coexists with the dynamics transition at Td in hydrated and solvated proteins. Recognition of this fact helps to remove inconsistency and conundrum encountered in interpreting the data that thwart progress in understanding the origin of the dynamic transition and its connection to biological function.

  9. Methyl Formate Oxidation: Speciation Data, Laminar Burning Velocities, Ignition Delay Times and a Validated Chemical Kinetic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Burke, M. P.; Chaos, M.; Stein, Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Zhukov, V. P.; Finch, O.; Simmie, J. M.; Curran, H. J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of methyl formate (CH{sub 3}OCHO) has been studied in three experimental environments over a range of applied combustion relevant conditions: 1. A variable-pressure flow reactor has been used to quantify reactant, major intermediate and product species as a function of residence time at 3 atm and 0.5% fuel concentration for oxygen/fuel stoichiometries of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at 900 K, and for pyrolysis at 975 K. 2. Shock tube ignition delays have been determined for CH{sub 3}OCHO/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures at pressures of ? 2.7, 5.4, and 9.2 atm and temperatures of 1275–1935 K for mixture compositions of 0.5% fuel (at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 2.0, and 0.5) and 2.5% fuel (at an equivalence ratio of 1.0). 3. Laminar burning velocities of outwardly propagating spherical CH{sub 3}OCHO/air flames have been determined for stoichiometries ranging from 0.8–1.6, at atmospheric pressure using a pressure-release-type high-pressure chamber. A detailed chemical kinetic model has been constructed, validated against, and used to interpret these experimental data. The kinetic model shows that methyl formate oxidation proceeds through concerted elimination reactions, principally forming methanol and carbon monoxide as well as through bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions. The relative importance of elimination versus abstraction was found to depend on the particular environment. In general, methyl formate is consumed exclusively through molecular decomposition in shock tube environments, while at flow reactor and freely propagating premixed flame conditions, there is significant competition between hydrogen abstraction and concerted elimination channels. It is suspected that in diffusion flame configurations the elimination channels contribute more significantly than in premixed environments.

  10. CORRELATION OF DNA METHYLATION WITH MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN MARINE ORGANISMS: A CASE STUDY OF NOAA MUSSEL WATCH TISSUE SAMPLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkmeyer, Robin; Taylor, Robert; Germ, Kaylyn E.

    2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    (mortality of 50% of test organisms) values of 20.74% mg/L at 96 hours (Liao et al. 2008). Another study examined the influence of elevated temperature on the effects of cadmium toxicity to C. virginica (Nikolic and Sokolovic, 2004). Exposure of oyster...-existent. The percent of methylated cytosines in insects is approximately 0-3%, 5% in birds and mammals, 10% in fish, and possibly more than 30% in plants (Field et al.,2004). One study examining the divergence of invertebrates and vertebrates compared level of DNA...

  11. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Silks, III, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  12. Electronic Structures and Spin Topologies of -Picoliniumyl Radicals. A Study of the Homolysis of N-Methyl--picolinium and of Benzo-, Dibenzo-, and Naphthoannulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    topologies in metalloenzymes. Introduction The redox reactions of quaternized nitrogen heterocycles interesting. For example, the herbicide methyl viologen (paraquat) and the promising antitumor agent equivalent of superoxide O2 ·-.1­4 The repeated enzymatic reduction and back-oxidation by O2, i.e., the redox

  13. Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markin, Alexey V.

    The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum ...

  14. Evidence for Thiol-Dependent Production of Oxygen Radicals by 4-Methyl-5-pyrazinyl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    to a peroxide species that undergoes a trace metal-catalyzed, Fenton-type reaction to generate oxygen radicalsEvidence for Thiol-Dependent Production of Oxygen Radicals by 4-Methyl-5-pyrazinyl-3H-1,2-dithiole the conversion of molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen radicals. Using a plasmid-based assay that monitors DNA

  15. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  16. Kinetics and modeling of mixture effects during complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dangi, S.; Abraham, M.A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a catalytic incinerator depends on the nature of the compounds being oxidized and cannot be predicted simply by knowing the performance of the incinerator with pure-component model compounds. Considering the importance of mixture effects, an attempt was made to develop a combined model to predict the conversion when benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are simultaneously oxidized. Complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and MTBE, singly and in mixtures, was investigated over a platinum catalyst. No inhibition effects were seen with benzene, but MTBE conversion was distinctly inhibited by benzene. A Mars-van Krevelen rate model was used to explain the results. Model parameters were obtained from pure-component experiments and then incorporated into a multicomponent model without any adjustment or additional rate parameters. The multicomponent model was able to predict the conversion of benzene and MTBE oxidation in the binary mixture using the pure-component data without adjustable parameters.

  17. Alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a wave of global protein hyperacetylation: Implications in cancer cell death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Min-Young [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung-Ae [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoe-Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo-In [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jong-Young [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jay H. [Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, NHLBI, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yun, Jeanho [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yunj@dau.ac.kr

    2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein acetylation modification has been implicated in many cellular processes but the direct evidence for the involvement of protein acetylation in signal transduction is very limited. In the present study, we found that an alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a robust and reversible hyperacetylation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins during the early phase of the cellular response to MMS. Notably, the acetylation level upon MMS treatment was strongly correlated with the susceptibility of cancer cells, and the enhancement of MMS-induced acetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors was shown to increase the cellular susceptibility. These results suggest protein acetylation is important for the cell death signal transduction pathway and indicate that the use of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancer is relevant.

  18. (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol: X-ray and DFT-calculated structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosar, B., E-mail: bkosar@omu.edu.tr; Albayrak, C. [Sinop University, Faculty of Education (Turkey); Odabasoglu, M. [Pamukkale University, Chemistry Program (Turkey); Bueyuekguengoer, O. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol is determined by using X-ray diffraction and then the molecular structure is investigated with density functional theory (DFT). X-Ray study shows that the title compound has a strong intramolecular O-H-N hydrogen bond and three dimensional crystal structure is primarily determined by C-H-{pi} and weak van der Waals interactions. The strong O-H-N bond is an evidence of the preference for the phenol-imine tautomeric form in the solid state. Optimized molecular geometry is calculated with DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The IR spectra of compound were recorded experimentally and calculated to compare with each other. The results from both experiment and theoretical calculations are compared in this study.

  19. Nicotine induced CpG methylation of Pax6 binding motif in StAR promoter reduces the gene expression and cortisol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tingting [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Chen, Man; Liu, Lian [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cheng, Huaiyan [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Yan, You-E [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Ying-Hong, E-mail: yhfeng@usuhs.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mediates the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of steroid hormones, essential to fetal development. We have reported that the StAR expression in fetal adrenal is inhibited in a rat model of nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Here using primary human fetal adrenal cortex (pHFAC) cells and a human fetal adrenal cell line NCI-H295A, we show that nicotine inhibits StAR expression and cortisol production in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and prolongs the inhibitory effect on cells proliferating over 5 passages after termination of nicotine treatment. Methylation detection within the StAR promoter region uncovers a single site CpG methylation at nt -377 that is sensitive to nicotine treatment. Nicotine-induced alterations in frequency of this point methylation correlates well with the levels of StAR expression, suggesting an important role of the single site in regulating StAR expression. Further studies using bioinformatics analysis and siRNA approach reveal that the single CpG site is part of the Pax6 binding motif (CGCCTGA) in the StAR promoter. The luciferase activity assays validate that Pax6 increases StAR gene expression by binding to the glucagon G3-like motif (CGCCTGA) and methylation of this site blocks Pax6 binding and thus suppresses StAR expression. These data identify a nicotine-sensitive CpG site at the Pax6 binding motif in the StAR promoter that may play a central role in regulating StAR expression. The results suggest an epigenetic mechanism that may explain how nicotine contributes to onset of adult diseases or disorders such as metabolic syndrome via fetal programming. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine-induced StAR inhibition in two human adrenal cell models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine-induced single CpG site methylation in StAR promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Persistent StAR inhibition and single CpG methylation after nicotine termination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single CpG methylation located at Pax6 binding motif regulates StAR expression.

  20. alcohols ketones alkanediols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    second, the efficacy of three psychotherapies for alcoholism in treating extreme West, Mike 292 Characterization of Catalysts for the Synthesis of Higher Alcohols using...

  1. Synthesis of a Ketone Analogue of Biotin via the Intramolecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of interest in living cells is a powerful technique for investigating protein function, interactions cyclohexene in one step in 98% yield according to literature procedure.6 Addition of in situ generated lithium

  2. Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that aging modifies substrate utilization and alters insulin sensitivity in mouse heart when provided multiple substrates. In vivo cardiac function was measured with...

  3. aromatic ketones aldehydes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 10-d laboratory experiments, feeding, egg production, egg hatching success, and fecal pellet production of Temora longicornis were measured for six different diatom species as...

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Reactivity versus steric effects in fluorinated ketones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    quantum mechanical computations, which combine gas phase B3LYP calculations with hydration free energies, the development of new CE inhibitors may lead to drugs with therapeutic and/or agrochemical interest [7, 8

  5. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

  6. Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms AboutRESEARCHHydrosilylation Catalysts Comparing Well-Defined

  7. A highly active manganese precatalyst for the hydrosilylation of ketones

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced Charged-CurrentN NA goldenand

  8. Design of highly ordered Ag-SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Yue [Key Laboratory of Design and Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Liu Jiawen, E-mail: jiawenliu@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Li Zhonghua, E-mail: lizh@hit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Microsystems and Microstructures Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ag-SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays were successfully prepared for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet irradiation. In order to form highly ordered SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays, the preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by anodic oxidation of titanium foil in different electrolytes was investigated. The selected organic solvents in electrolytes include glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide and glycol. The results indicate that the morphology of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays prepared in glycol containing ammonium fluoride electrolyte is more regular. Then SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays as the precursor. In order to further improve the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays, Ag nanoparticles were loaded on SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays by two sets of experiments. The loaded Ag results in an enhancement of photocatalytic activity of SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays. Moreover, the effect of pH on the photocatalytic degradation of MO was also studied. - Graphical abstract: Ag-SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays were successfully prepared. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet irradiation. Highlights: > TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays prepared in glycol+NH{sub 4}F electrolyte are more regular. > Highly ordered Ag-SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays were successfully synthesized. > Ag loading could enhance the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays. > Ag-SrTiO{sub 3} nanotube arrays show excellent catalytic activity at a low pH value.

  9. Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

  10. Solution medium control of the photoredox yield in the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen/EDTA system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, K.; Hoffman, M.Z.

    1984-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed quantum yield of formation of the methyl viologen radical cation, phi(MV/sup +/-), upon 450-nm irradiation of the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen dication/EDTA system at pH 11.0 is dependent on the concentrations of all three components. Under the conditions of the experiments, phi(MV/sup +/-)approx. =2eta/sub cr/ where eta/sub cr/ is the efficiency of release of redox products from the solvent cage. The maximum value of eta/sub cr/ is approx. =0.17 at high concentrations of all components where the photosensitizer, electron relay, and sacrificial electron donor exist as ion-paired aggregates within a single solvent-caged unit. 3 figures.

  11. Vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane at 101.3 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Tang, M.; Chen, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibria were measured at 101.3 kPa for the three binary and one ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane. The isobaric T-x-y data were reported, including an azeotropic point for the binary mixture cyclohexane + 3-methyl-2-butanone. The virial equation of state truncated after the second coefficient was used to calculate the vapor-phase fugacity coefficients. The Tsonopoulos correlation equation was applied to determine the second virial coefficients. Various activity coefficient models of the Wilson, the NRTL, and the UNIQUAC equations were used to correlate the binary experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium results. Optimally-fitted binary parameters of the activity coefficient models were obtained and those parameters of the NRTL model were employed to predict the ternary vapor-liquid equilibria. Satisfactory results were presented for the correlation and prediction of the vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary and ternary mixtures.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye in water solutions in the presence of MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Dalt, S., E-mail: silvana.da.dalt@ufrgs.br [Department of Material, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99, Laboratory 705C, ZIP 90035-190, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P. [Department of Material, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99, Laboratory 705C, ZIP 90035-190, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? MWCNTs/TiO{sub 2} composites were obtained to degrade organic dyes in water. ? MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites were analyzed by photocatalysis and structural characterization. ? The photocatalytic shows efficient method for the degradation of dyes from aqueous effluents. - Abstract: The textile and dyestuff industries are the primary sources of the release of synthetic dyes into the environment and usually there are major pollutants in dye wastewaters. Because of their toxicity and slow degradation, these dyes are categorized as environmentally hazardous materials. In this context, carbon nanotubes/TiO{sub 2} (CNTs/TiO{sub 2}) composites were prepared using multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), titanium (IV) propoxide and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P25{sup ®}) as titanium oxide sources, to degrade the methyl orange dye in solution through photocatalyst activity using UV irradiation. The composites were prepared by solution processing followed by thermal treatment at 400, 500 and 600 °C. The heterojunction between nanotubes and TiO{sub 2} was confirmed by XRD, specific surface area. The coating morphology was observed with SEM and TEM.

  13. Infrared spectra of methyl-, and nitrogen-modified void coronene; modeling a carrier of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ota, Norio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Void induced coronene C23H12++ was suggested to be a possible carrier of the astronomically observed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which shows unique molecular structure with carbon two pentagons connected with five hexagons. Well observed astronomical infrared spectrum from 3-15 micron could be almost reproduced based on density functional theory. However, there remain several discrepancies with observed spectra, especially on 11-15 micron band weaker intensity. Observed 11.2 micron intensity is comparable to 7.6-7.8 micron one. Methyl-modified molecule C24H14++ revealed that calculated peak height of 11.4 micron show fairly large intensity up to 70-90% compared with that of 7.6-7.8 micron band. Also, nitrogen atom was substituted to peripheral C-H site of void coronene to be C22H11N1++. Pentagon site substituted case show 60% peak height. This molecule also reproduced well 12-15 micron peak position and relative intensity. Vibration mode analysis demonstrated that 11.3 micron mode comes from C-H ou...

  14. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

  15. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei@ahut.edu.cn; Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. • The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. • Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 2–10 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

  17. Electrogenic and electroneutral pathways for methyl viologen-mediated transmembrane oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicular membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lymar, S.V. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States) Inst. of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

    1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Two pathways for transmembrane reduction of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-entrapped Co(bpy)[sub 3][sup 3+] ion by photogenerated methyl viologen radical cation have been identified by quantitative evaluation of the reaction kinetics. One pathway involves electrogenic diffusion of MV[sup +] and the other electroneutral diffusion of MV[sup 0] across the bilayer. The pathways were clearly distinguished by the self-impeding character of the electrogenic reaction, which was progressively retarded as the membrane polarization increased, and by the net stoichiometry of viologen uptake accompanying transmembrane oxidation-reduction. The first-order rate constants for transmembrane diffusion of MV[sup +] and MV[sup 0] were estimated to be 2.7 x 10[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] and 1.1 x 10[sup 3] s[sup [minus]1], respectively, at 23[degree]C. The rate constant for MV[sup +] diffusion is identical to the value previously measured by [sup 14]C-isotopic labeling methods, and other kinetic parameters were consistent with thermodynamic data obtained from measurements of Donnan equilibria. 31 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Studies on the binding of 5-N-methylated quindoline derivative to human telomeric G-quadruplex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wei; Tan, Jia-Heng; Chen, Shuo-Bin; Hou, Jin-Qiang; Li, Ding [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Zhi-Shu, E-mail: ceshzs@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gu, Lian-Quan, E-mail: cesglq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Hydrophobic interaction provided an important driving force for the interaction between ligand and G-quadruplex. {yields} Constrained water molecules were released from surface of G-tetrad upon the formation of the complex. {yields} The end-stacking mode for quindoline derivative was validated through UV-vis, ITC, steady-state, and time-resolved fluorescence experiment. {yields} The binding of compound 1 to quadruplex was found to be a temperature-dependent and enthalpy-entropy compensation process. -- Abstract: Quindoline derivatives as telomeric quadruplex ligands have shown good biological activity for telomerase inhibition. In the present study, we used spectroscopic and calorimetric methods to investigate the interactions between a quindoline derivative (5-methyl-11-(2-morpholinoethylamino)-10-H-indolo-[3,2-b]quinolin-5-ium iodide, compound 1) and human telomeric G-quadruplex. The thermodynamic studies using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that their binding process was temperature-dependent and enthalpy-entropy co-driven. The significant negative heat capacity was obtained experimentally from the temperature dependence of enthalpy changes, which was consistent with that from theoretical calculation, and all suggesting significant hydrophobic contribution to the molecular recognition process. Based on the results from UV-vis, ITC, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, their binding mode was determined as two ligand molecules stacking on the quartets on both ends of the quadruplex. These results shed light on rational design and development of quindoline derivatives as G-quadruplex binding ligands.

  19. Complete kinetic isotope effect description of transition states for acid-catalyzed hydrolyses of methyl. cap alpha. - and. beta. -glucopyranosides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennet, A.J.; Sinnott, M.L.

    1986-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The following kinetic isotope effects (k/sub light//k/sub heavy/) have been measured by the isotopic quasi-racemate method for the hydrolyses of methyl ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-glucopyranosides, respectively in 2.0 M HClO/sub 4/ at 80/sup 0/C (..cap alpha..-D 1.137 +/- 0.007, 1.089 +/- 0.006; ..beta..-D 1.073 +/- 0.003, 1.045 +/- 0.004; ..gamma..-D (C5) 0.987 +/- 0.002, 0.971 +/- 0.003; leaving group d/sub 3/ 1.006 +/- 0.001, 1.015 +/- 0.002; leaving group /sup 18/O 1.026 +/- 0.001, 1.024 +/ +/- 0.002; anomeric /sup 13/C 1.007 +/- 0.001, 1.011 +/- 0.002). In conjunction with studies of the effect of added solutes on the rates of hydrolysis of various aldopyranosyl derivatives, which indicate such reactions are truly unimolecular, and model ring /sup 18/O and ..beta..-deuterium effects, it is possible to locate the dihedral angles about the O5-C1 and C1-C2 bonds at the transition state using these data. If the dihedral angles so derived are used as constraints in calculations using N.L. Allinger's MM2 molecular mechanics program, transition-state structures are obtained. The geometry of these transition states stands in contradiction to the theory of stereoelectronic control.

  20. Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (?130?°C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k?=?3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

  1. DNA methylation-dependent regulation of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Wook [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Joo [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Soo [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Byung Ho [Department of Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 108 Pyung-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 108 Pyung-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Kyun, E-mail: choyk2004@hanmail.net [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 108 Pyung-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-Pyo, E-mail: kimhp@yuhs.ac [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC is significantly elevated in human hepatocellular carcinoma. {yields} Downregulation of Trks is correlated with their promoter hypermethylation. {yields} Inhibiting DNA methylation restored expression of Trks in normal liver cell lines. {yields} Trks promote the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma. {yields} Trks induce expression of the metastatic regulator, Twist. -- Abstract: The tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of neurotrophin receptors, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, has been implicated in the growth and survival of human cancers. Here we report that Trks are frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from patients and human liver cancer cell lines. To unravel the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for this phenomenon, DNA methylation patterns of CpG islands in TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC genes were examined in normal and cancer cell lines derived from liver. A good correlation was observed between promoter hypermethylation and lower expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC genes, which was supported by the data that inhibiting DNA methylation with 5-azacytidine restored expression of those genes in normal liver cell lines. Furthermore, Trks promoted the proliferation of HepG2 and induced expression of the metastatic regulator, Twist. These results suggest that Trks may contribute to growth and metastasis of liver cancer.

  2. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  3. Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chakicherla, Anu Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Schmidt, Radomir [University of California, Davis; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Legler, Tina C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Scow, Kate M. [University of California, Davis; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hristova, Krassimira R. [University of California, Davis

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

  4. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Electrodeposition of nickel-aluminum alloys from the aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room temperature molten salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitner, W.R.; Hussey, C.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stafford, G.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Al alloys on glassy carbon was investigated in the 66.7--33.3 mole percent (m/o) Al chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing electrogenerated Ni(II) at 40 C. The electrodeposition of Ni on glassy carbon involves 3-D progressive nucleation on a finite number of active sites with hemispherical diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. At potentials slightly more negative than those needed to induce the reduction of Ni(II) to the metal, Al is codeposited with Ni to produce Ni-Al alloys. Controlled-potential and controlled-current experiments revealed that it is possible to produce alloy deposits containing up to approximately 40 atomic percent (a/o) Al under conditions that circumvent the bulk deposition of Al. The Al content of the Ni-Al deposit was found to vary linearly with the deposition potential but nonlinearly with the current density. The electrodeposited Ni-Al alloys are thermodynamically unstable with respect to Ni(II), i.e., immersion of the alloy deposit in melt containing Ni(II) under open-circuit conditions leads to a reduction in the Al content of the alloy. The mechanism of alloy formation appears to involve underpotential deposition of Al on the developing Ni deposit; however, alloy formation must be kinetically hindered because the Al content is always less than predicted from theoretical considerations. Ni-Al alloys produced at 0.30 V in melt containing Ni(II) and 20% (w/w) benzene as a cosolvent contained about 15 a/o Ni and were of high quality with a disordered fcc structure, but alloys produced at more negative potentials had the visual appearance of a loosely adherent, finely divided, black powder and were heavily contaminated with chloride, probably as a result of the occlusion of the molten salt solvent by the dendritic alloy deposit during deposit growth.

  6. Analytical Methodologies for Detection of Gamma-Valerolactone, Delta-Valerolactone, Acephate and Azinphos Methyl and Their Associated Metabolites in Complex Biological Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink, E.; Clark, R.; Grant, K.; Campbell, J.; Hoppe, E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-invasive biomonitoring for chemicals of interest in law enforcement and similar monitoring of pesticides, together with their metabolites, can not only save money but can lead to faster medical attention for individuals exposed to these chemicals. This study describes methods developed for the analysis of gamma-valerolactone (GVL), delta-valerolactone (DVL), acephate, and azinphos methyl in saliva and serum. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) operated in the negative and positive ion mode and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to analyze GVL and DVL. Although both analytical techniques worked well, lower detection limits were obtained with GC/MS. The lactones and their corresponding sodium salts were spiked into both saliva and serum. The lactones were isolated from saliva or serum using newly developed extraction techniques and then subsequently analyzed using GC/MS. The sodium salts of the lactones are nonvolatile and require derivatization prior to analysis by this method. N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) was ultimately selected as the reagent for derivatization because the acidic conditions required for reactions with diazomethane caused the salts to undergo intramolecular cyclization to the corresponding lactones. In vitro studies were conducted using rat liver microsomes to determine other metabolites associated with these compounds. Azinphos methyl and acephate are classified as organophosphate pesticides, and are known to be cholinesterase inhibitors in humans and insects, causing neurotoxicity. For this reason they have both exposure and environmental impact implications. These compounds were spiked into serum and saliva and prepared for analysis by GC/MS. Continuation of this research would include analysis by GC/MS under positive ion mode to determine the parent ions of the unknown metabolites. Further research is planned through an in vivo analysis of the lactones and pesticides. These methodologies could be extended for further analysis of other similar compounds.

  7. Synthesis of tetraaza bromide macrocyclic and studies of its effect on poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) - lithium tertrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariam, Siti Nor; Yamin, Bohari M.; Ahmad, Azizan [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Good Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Grafted natural Rubber (MG49) films with homogeneous and smooth surface were obtained in the presence of Lithium Tertrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) and 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide, (Me{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 4})Br{sub 2} as dopants. The conductivity was found to be 3.63×10{sup ?6} S/cm an increase by seven fold compare to the undoped MG49.

  8. Electronic and optical response of Ru(II) complexes functionalized by methyl, carboxylate groups: joint theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge - a carboxyl group - is added to one or two of the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure, indeed, affect electronic and optical properties and consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru-systems. In this study, we apply both theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the Ru(II) bipyridine complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and linear response time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state structures of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase, as well as in acetonitrile solution. In addition, an inelaborate Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states. All theoretical results nicely complement experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes and contribute to their interpretation. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show a high probability of deprotonation of the carbboxyl group in the Ru-complexes resulted in a slight blue shift and decrease of intensities of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotanated complexes demonstrate strong agreement when acetonitrile solvent is used in simulations. A polar solvent is found to play an important role in calculations of optical spectra: it stabilizes the energy of states localized on the carboxyl or carboxylate groups eliminating artificial charge transport states, which typically appear in TDDFT calculations. Thus, it is validated that the excited-state structure of the functionalized Ru-complexes, specifically in the case of the deprotonated functions, can be accurately modeled by TDDFT with the addition of a dielectric continuum in simulations.

  9. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  10. Murine T cell activation is regulated by surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warford, Jordan, E-mail: jordan.warford@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)] [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Doucette, Carolyn D., E-mail: carolyn.doucette@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Easton, Alexander S., E-mail: alexander.easton@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Surfen is the first inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan function to be studied in murine T cells. •Surfen reduces T cell proliferation stimulated in vitro and in vivo. •Surfen reduces CD25 expression in T cells activated in vivo but not in vitro. •Surfen increases T cell proliferation when T cell receptor activation is bypassed. •Surfen’s effects are blocked by co-administration of heparin sulfate. -- Abstract: Surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide) binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and has been shown to influence their function, and the function of proteoglycans (complexes of GAGs linked to a core protein). T cells synthesize, secrete and express GAGs and proteoglycans which are involved in several aspects of T cell function. However, there are as yet no studies on the effect of GAG-binding agents such as surfen on T cell function. In this study, surfen was found to influence murine T cell activation. Doses between 2.5 and 20 ?M produced a graduated reduction in the proliferation of T cells activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated T cell expander beads. Surfen (20 mg/kg) was also administered to mice treated with anti-CD3 antibody to activate T cells in vivo. Lymphocytes from surfen-treated mice also showed reduced proliferation and lymph node cell counts were reduced. Surfen reduced labeling with a cell viability marker (7-ADD) but to a much lower extent than its effect on proliferation. Surfen also reduced CD25 (the ?-subunit of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor) expression with no effect on CD69 expression in T cells treated in vivo but not in vitro. When receptor activation was bypassed by treating T cells in vitro with phorbyl myristate acetate (10 ng/ml) and ionomycin (100 ng/ml), surfen treatment either increased proliferation (10 ?M) or had no effect (2.5, 5 and 20 ?M). In vitro treatment of T cells with surfen had no effect on IL-2 or interferon-? synthesis and did not alter proliferation of the IL-2 dependent cell line CTLL-2. The effect of surfen was antagonized dose-dependently by co-treatment with heparin sulfate. We conclude that surfen inhibits T cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. When T cell receptor-driven activation is bypassed surfen had a neutral or stimulatory effect on T cell proliferation. The results imply that endogenous GAGs and proteoglycans play a complex role in promoting or inhibiting different aspects of T cell activation.

  11. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mthethwa, T.P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa)] [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: mmoloto@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P. [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)] [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: {yields} TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. {yields} The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. {yields} The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. {yields} Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the polymer fibres at low concentration of quantum dots however at higher concentrations some interactions were observed which shows that QDs were present on the surfaces of the fibres.

  12. Controlling DNA Methylation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution And BylawsMetal-Organic FrameworksControlling DNA

  13. Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol amended to 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Final technical report, July 25, 1991--January 25, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1992-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a draft final technical report on Task 1 of a contract to synthesize 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol, as amended to 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. This report is a compilation of data presented in earlier reports. The first annual report dealt with an attempted synthesis of 4-methoxy-6-methyl-9- propyldibenzothiophene (the original target compound), the successful synthesis and delivery of 200 grams of the sulfide 1,4-diethyl-2- [(2{prime}-methoxyphenyl)-thio]benzene, and initial work on a new synthesis route for the preparation of the new target compound 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. The change to the new target compound and the new synthesis route became necessary when it was learned that the sulfide mixture could not be cyclized to the substituted dibenzothiophene mixture. The second annual report described the successful preparation of 45 g of the new target compound using the new synthesis route. Subsequently funds were provided to synthesize an additional 45 g of the new target using the same reaction scheme. This task was recently completed.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W. [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health] [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been investigated at an ultrasonic frequency of 205 kHz and power of 200 W L{sup {minus}1}. The observed first-order degradation rate constant for the loss of MTBE increased from 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} to 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} as the concentration of MTBE decreased from 1.0 to 0.01 mM. In the presence of O{sub 3}, the sonolytic rate of destruction of MTBE was accelerated substantially. The rate of MTBE sonolysis with ozone was enhanced by a factor of 1.5--3.9 depending on the initial concentration of MTBE. tert-Butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol, methyl acetate, and acetone were found to be the primary intermediates and byproducts of the degradation reaction with yields of 8, 5, 3, and 12%, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving three parallel pathways that include the direct pyrolytic decomposition of MTBE, the direct reaction of MTBE with ozone, and the reaction of MTBE with hydroxyl radical is proposed.

  15. Possible modulation of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid induced prolactin release by testicular steroids in the adult male rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arslan, M.; Rizvi, S.S.R.; Jahan, S.; Zaidi, P.; Shahab, M. (Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), an agonist of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to acutely stimulate the release of prolactin (PRL) in intact rats and monkeys. To further investigate the role of neuroexcitatory amino acids in PRL secretion, the effects of NMA administration were examined on PRL release in long term orchidectomized adult rhesus monkeys, in both the absence and presence of testosterone. Intact and long term castrated adult male monkeys weighing between 8-13 kg, were implanted with a catheter via the saphenous vein for blood withdrawal and drug infusion. Blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals for 50 min before and 70 min after administration of the drug or vehicle. Plasma PRL concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Whereas a single iv injection of NMA induced a prompt discharge of PRL in intact monkeys, an identical dose had surprisingly no effect on PRL secretion in orchidectomized animals. On the other hand, plasma PRL increases in response to a challenge dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone were similar in magnitude in the two groups of monkeys. Testosterone replacement in orchidectomized animals by parenteral administration of testosterone enanthate reinitiated the PRL responsiveness to acute NMA stimulation. These results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) dependent drive to PRL release in the adult male rhesus monkey may be overtly influenced by the sex steroid milieu.

  16. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200{degree}C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  17. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H[sub 2]/CO/CO[sub 2] coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200[degree]C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  18. Nickel-promoted reductive C-S bond cleavage: A model for the first step in the reaction promoted by methyl coenzyme M reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikyung Cha; Shoner, S.C.; Kovacs, J.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur-ligated Ni complexes are of interest as active-site models of the Ni-containing enzymes hydrogenase (H[sub 2]-ase), methyl coenzyme M reductase (Me-CoM reductase), and Co-dehydrogenase (CODH). Me-CoM reductase catalyzes the last step in the reaction sequence which converts CO[sub 2] to CH[sub 4] in methanogenic bacteria. This step involves the cleavage of the methyl thioether C-S bond of the substrate methyl coenzyme M (Me-S-CoM). Ni(I) is believed to be the active species responsible for promoting this reaction. However, it has been difficult to probe the mechanism by which this occurs, since Me-CoM reductase rapidly loses activity upon breakage of whole cells during purification. Only one Ni complex, Ni[sup II](dioxo[16]aneN[sub 5]), has been shown to induce stoichiometric methane formation from Me-S-CoM; however, the mechanism proposed to explain this reaction is difficult to understand, and involves a Ni(II/III), as opposed to a Ni(I/II), redox couple. Other nickel complexes have been shown to desulfurize thioethers in the presence of reducing agents (e.g., LiAlH[sub 4]); however, the reactive Ni species have not been characterized. As part of a systematic study aimed at determining the influence of the local Ni coordination environment on reactivity, the authors have synthesized a series of structurally related sulfur-ligated Ni(II) complexes, including Ni[sup II]L[sub S5] (1). Since redox changes (Ni(III) [yields] Ni(II) and/or Ni(II) [yields] Ni(I)) appear to play an important role in the mechanisms of the enzymes mentioned above, the authors have also examined the redox chemistry of these molecules. Herein, they report a Ni-promoted reductive C-S bond cleavage reaction that represents a plausible chemical model for the first step in the reaction promoted by Ni in Me-CoM reductase. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 45034514, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/4503/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    of glyoxal, methyl- glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, glyoxylic, pyruvic and glycolic acid as well as methacrolein (Charbouillot et al., 2012) such as pyruvic acid (Guzman et al., 2006; Carlton et al., 2006) have also been, ketones and organic acids in aqueous solutions L. Schöne and H. Herrmann Leibniz Institute

  20. Indoor Air Quality Survey of Boston Nail Salons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    ) suggest that spontaneous abortion in workers exposed to toluene may occur nearly 3 times more than salon owners and workers Nail salon employees are of reproductive age and are exposed to chemicals and Health Xylene, toluene, acetone, and methyl ethyl ketone in nail polishes and hardeners are neurological

  1. Chemical Name Company Quantiy Amount Units Estimated value 1,1,1 TRIFLUROETHANE 99% Aldrich 1 10 grams $14.50

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    $92.40 CALCIUM HYDROXIDE Mallinckrodt 2 500 g $170.60 CALCIUM LACTATE PENTAHYDRATE Sigma 1 250 grams DIHYDRATE Mallinckrodt 1 500 g $206.25 CUPRIC SULFATE Fischer Scientific 2 500 g $143.76 CUPRIC SULFATE 1 100 g $14.20 MAGNESIUM CARBONATE Allied Chemical 1 1 lb $30.10 METHYL ETHYL KETONE Mallinkrodt 2

  2. A novel, single-isomer, sulfated cyclodextrin for use as a chiral resolving agent in capillary electrophoresis: the sodium salt of octakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-?-cyclodextrin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busby, Michael Brent

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, single-isomer, sulfated cyclodextrin, the sodium salt of octakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)cyclomaltooctaose (ODMS) was used as a chiral resolving agent in both aqueous and non-aqueous chiral mediated electrophoretic separation of a large...

  3. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in a biotrickling filters. 2. Analysis of the rate-limiting step and behavior under transient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed experiments were performed with gas phase biotrickling filters treating vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern. A particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of the rate-limiting step, and it was found that the process was mostly limited by the biological reaction rather than by mass transfer. Further experiments involved the study of the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filters under simulated field conditions. In all cases, the biotrickling filters adapted rapidly to the new conditions, and new steady states were obtained within hours. The relevance of the results and the implications as far as implementation of biotrickling filters for field MTBE treatment are discussed.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of redox polymers of (M(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 )(PF sub 6 ) sub 2 (M = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have prepared polymers of (M(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (M = Ru, Os) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) in solution via free-radical polymerization and fractionated them according to molecular weight using size exclusion chromatography. Different fractions have been characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopic means. The authors find that whereas for the osmium containing polymers the relative polymer size varies in proportion to the number of vinyl groups consumed during the polymerization reaction, the same is not true for the analogous ruthenium polymers. In addition, the emission energy of both the ruthenium and osmium polymers is also related to the concentration of residual vinyl groups in the polymer. Upon polymerization, there is a shift in the emission toward higher energies. Electrochemically determined diffusion coefficients are consistent with the relative size of the various fractions.

  5. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shanju [Georgia Institute of Technology; Liu, Zhan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Bucknall, David G. [Georgia Institute of Technology; He, Lihong [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Allen, Mark [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of redox copolymers of (Ru(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ and (Os(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ : Unusual energy-transfer dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Copolymers of (Ru(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) and (Os(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) have been prepared in solution and by electropolymerization. The ruthenium and osmium monomers were incorporated in the copolymers in different ratios depending on the polymerization method. These results point to fundamental differences between solution polymerization and electropolymerization. In addition, luminescence experiments at liquid-nitrogen temperature and room temperature point to a significant degree of energy transfer from ruthenium to osmium states in the polymer.

  7. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane: A building block for chemicals and fuels from natural gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 01, September 30, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wineland, J.

    1997-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this cooperative agreement are to develop the oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) process for the conversion of methane to methyl chloride. In the first Phase of the project, Dow Corning has developed a stable selective catalyst and demonstrated the technology on a laboratory and a pilot plant scale. Specific tasks to achieve these objectives have been developed as follows: TASK 1 Fundamental Technical and Economic Evaluation TASK 2 Catalyst Selection Optimization and Characterization Studies TASK 3 Pilot Plant Design TASK 4 Pilot Plant Detailed Engineering, Procurement and Construction TASK 5 Pilot Plant Startup and Operation TASK 6 Pilot Plant Process Optimization TASK 7 Pilot Plant Extended Operation TASK 8 Pilot Plant Economic Evaluation/Scale-up Decision Significant progress has been completed in Task 1 with the objective to complete a fundamental technical and economic evaluation of learning gathered the Phase I effort of this project. A decision to proceed with the project will be made after completion of this Task. A computer model of the reactor system has been developed, which includes heat and mass transfer effects as well as reactions. Model validation is in progress. The Absorber/Stripper technology evaluated and implemented on the Phase I PDU to recover chlorocarbons (including methyl chloride) from reaction products has been scaled to evaluate economics for a commercial scale plant. In a parallel exercise, alternate recovery technologies were investigated for economic evaluation, to assure that the minimum capital option is pursued for the Phase II design. Commercial scale plant equipment and total plant costs are being evaluated using information from the Phase I PDU, reactor modeling and recovery system evaluation to estimate capital and operating costs for a commercial scale OHC unit.

  8. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  9. Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance study of the photoreduction of anthraquinone with 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol in alcoholic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plueschau, M.; Kroll, G. [Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Dinse, K.P. [TH Darmstadt (Germany)] [and others

    1992-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Using FT-EPR following laser excitation, the primary photochemical process in the photoreduction of anthraquinone with 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol was investigated. High-resolved spin-polarized EPR spectra taken with nanosecond time resolution gave unambiguous evidence for a two-step hydrogen abstraction reaction, consisting of a primary electron transfer followed by proton abstraction with a time delay, which allows for a noticeable escape probability of the initially generated anthrasemiquinone radical anion (AQ{sup {sm_bullet}minus}). The time dependence of the EPR intensities of the neutral 10-hydroxy-anthroxyl radical (AQH{sup {sm_bullet}}) as well as of AQ{sup {sm_bullet}} could be simulated for the full experimentally accessible time interval of 10 ns to 100 {mu}s. The kinetic model used invokes optical spin polarization, spin-lattice relaxation, radical generation, and AQH{sup {sm_bullet}}AQ interconversion. In addition, from an analysis of the highly-resolved FT-EPR spectra a complete set of AQH{sup {sm_bullet}} hyperfine splitting (hfs) constants could be measured in two different alcohols for the first time. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in biotrickling filters. 1. Reactor startup, steady-state performance, and culture characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste air biotrickling filters after continuous operation for 6 months. After this acclimation phase, the two laboratory-scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could be sustained for at least 4--6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were characterized by their almost full conversion of MTBE to carbon dioxide and the absence of any degradation byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation activity per amount of biomass, and a low rate of biomass accumulation. An observed biomass yield of 0.1 g g{sup {minus}1} and a specific growth rate of 0.025 day{sup {minus}1} were determined for the biotrickling filter process culture. Further data on MTBE mass transfer and on the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filter are presented in part 2 of this paper. Overall, the results demonstrate that MTBE can be effectively biodegraded under carefully controlled environmental conditions.

  13. Rotational spectroscopy as a tool to investigate interactions between vibrational polyads in symmetric top molecules: low-lying states v8 <= 2 of methyl cyanide, CH$_3$CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Holger S P; Drouin, Brian J; Pearson, John C; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L; Sung, Keeyoon; Ordu, Matthias H; Lewen, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627 GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2nu8 around 717 cm-1 with assignments covering 684-765 cm-1. Additional spectra in the nu8 region were used to validate the analysis. The large amount and the high accuracy of the rotational data extend to much higher J and K quantum numbers and allowed us to investigate for the first time in depth local interactions between these states which occur at high K values. In particular, we have detected several interactions between v8 = 1 and 2. Notably, there is a strong Delta(v8) = +- 1, Delta(K) = 0, Delta(l) = +-3 Fermi resonance between v8 = 1^-1 and v8 = 2^+2 at K = 14. Pronounced effects in the spectrum are also caused by reso...

  14. Alpha and recoil track detection in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)—Towards a method for in vitro assessment of radiopharmaceuticals internalized in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myhra, S., E-mail: sverre.myhra@materials.ox.ac.uk; Chakalova, R. [Oxford University Begbroke Science Park, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Oxford University Begbroke Science Park, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Falzone, N. [MRC/CRUK Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom and Department of Biomedical Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)] [MRC/CRUK Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom and Department of Biomedical Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detection and characterization of single MeV ?-particle and recoil tracks in PMMA photoresist by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis has been demonstrated. The energy deposition along the track is shown to lead to a latent pattern in the resist due to contrast reversal. It has been shown that the pattern, consisting of conical spikes, can be developed by conventional processing as a result of the dissolution rate of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) being greater than that for the modified material in the cylindrical volume of the track core. The spikes can be imaged and counted by routine AFM analysis. Investigations by angular-resolved near-grazing incidence reveal additional tracks that correspond to recoil tracks. The observations have been correlated with modelling, and shown to be in qualitative agreement with prevailing descriptions of collision cascades. The results may be relevant to technologies that are based on detection and characterization of single energetic ions. In particular, the direct visualization of the collision cascade may allow more accurate estimates of the actual interaction volume, which in turn will permit more precise assessment of dose distribution of ?-emitting radionuclides used for targeted radiotherapy. The results could also be relevant to other diagnostic or process technologies based on interaction of energetic ions with matter.

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy of dimeric and polymeric products of electroreduced (Re(CO) sub 3 (4-vinyl,4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine)Cl)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, S.R.; White, H.S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Lopez, S.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to image adsorbed products resulting from electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (vbpy = 4-vinyl,4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). STM images, in air, of HOPG electrodes following electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (in acetonitrile/0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate) by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}2.0 V vs a sodium saturated colomel electrode (SSCE) show molecular species uniformly distributed on the surface including approximately dumbbell shaped molecules ({approx} 40 {times} 20 {angstrom}). The size and shape of these aggregates is consistent with products derived from vinyl-vinvyl coupling of Re-Re bonded dimers: ((vbpy)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpyH-vbpyH)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)). STM images of electrodes prepared by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}1.45 V vs SSCE (less reducing conditions) show highly nonuniform coating of the surface by polymer. Several polymer morphologies were observed with polymer nucleation preferentially occurring at step sites on HOPG.

  16. On the inapplicability of electron-hopping models for the organic semiconductor Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajdos, Fruzsina; Oberhofer, Harald; Dupuis, Michel; Blumberger, Jochen

    2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM) is one of the most popular semiconductors in organic photovoltaic cells, but the electron transport mechanism in the microcrystalline domains of this material as well as its preferred packing structure remains unclear. Here we use density functional theory to calculate electronic coupling matrix elements, reorganization energies and activation energies for available experimental and model crystal structures. We find that the picture of an excess electron hopping from one fullerene to another does not apply for any of the crystalline phases, rendering traditional rate equations inappropriate. We also find that the cohesive energy increases in the order body-centred-cubic < hexagonal < simple cubic < monoclinic < triclinic, independently on the type of dispersion correction used. Our results indicate that the electron-ion dynamics needs to be solved explicitly in order to obtain a realistic description of charge transfer in this material. M.D. was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  17. Pump-beam-induced optical damage depended on repetition frequency and pulse width in 4-dimethylamino-N Prime -methyl-4 Prime -stilbazolium tosylate crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsukawa, Takeshi; Nawata, Kouji; Notake, Takashi; Qi Feng; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Minamide, Hiroaki [Tera-photonics Laboratory, RIKEN, 519-1399, Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan)

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the dependence of optical damage to an organic nonlinear optical crystal of 4-dimethylamino-N Prime -methyl-4 Prime -stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) on the repetition frequency and pulse width of the pump beam used to cause the thermal damage. For a pump beam with a pulse width of 15 ns at a wavelength of 1064 nm, the highest damage threshold of 8.0 J/cm{sup 2} was measured for repetition frequencies in the range from 10 to 40 Hz. On the other hand, DAST crystals were easily damaged under the repetition rates from 50 to 100 Hz. For 600-ps pulses, a higher damage threshold that was a factor of 11 to 28 times higher in terms of peak intensity was obtained compared with that of 15-ns pulses. In both the cases of 15-ns pulse duration and 600-ps duration, we demonstrated that the thermal effects in DAST crystals dominated the optical damage, which depended on thermal accumulation and dissipation.

  18. Synthesis of selected aminohexanols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Jack Lynn

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -hexanol 2- a min o - 3-he xano1 The previously unreported 5-amino-2-hexanol was prepared in a three step synthesis. Nitroethane in ether was treated with methyl vinyl ketone in the presence of a catalytic amount of Triton 9 B to give 5-nitro-2.... For the synthesis of the previously unreported 6-amino-3- hexanol a procedure similar to that required for 5-amino-2-hexanol r was used. A large excess of nitromethane in ether was treated with ethyl vinyl ketone in the pr'esence of a catalytic amount of Triton...

  19. Broensted superacidity of HCl in a liquid chloroaluminate. AlCl sub 3 -1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.P.; Dworkin, A.S.; Zingg, S.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Pagni, R.M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

    1989-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The system HCl (0.1-1 atm)/AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC (55.0 mol % AlCl{sub 3}) (EMIC = 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride) at 23{degree}C is a Broensted superacid capable of protonating arenes to a degree similar to that of liquid HF at 0{degree}C (H{sub 0} = {minus}15.1). Arenes used in this investigation were biphenyl (I), naphthalene (II), 9H-fluorene (III), chrysene (IV), 2-methylnaphthalene (V), mesitylene (VI), pentamethylbenzene (VII), hexamethylbenzene (VIII), anthracene (IX), and 9,10-dimethylanthracene (X). In both the chloroaluminate melt and HF I is a weak base while VIII-X are strong bases. In between these extremes the order of basicities in both media is II < III and IV < V < VI < VII < VIII. A study of the effect of HCl partial pressure showed, for example that V is 50% protonated at 0.3 atm HCl. The overall reaction is arene + HCl + Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}} {r reversible} arene {times} H{sup +} + 2AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and is reversible. The degree of protonation was measured by optical absorption spectrophotometry. The arenes are stable in the liquid chloroaluminate for many hours, and their protonated forms (arenium ions) are stable for 1 h or more. A new procedure for the preparation of EMIC was developed that yields exceptionally clean AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC melts with very low concentrations of protic and oxidizing impurities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

    2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

  1. Miscibility of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) and oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and ethylene oxide or propylene oxide branches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jaffrennou; E. R. Soule; F. Mechin; J. Borrajo; J. P. Pascault; R. J. J. Williams

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud-point curves of blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with a series of oligodiols based on a bisphenol A nucleus and short branches of poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(propylene oxide) (BPA-EO or BPA-PO), and with PEO and PPO oligomers, were obtained using a light transmission device. Experimental results were fitted with the Flory- Huggins model using an interaction parameter depending on both temperature and composition. For PMMA/PEO and PMMA/PPO blends, the miscibility increased when increasing the size of the diol, due to the significant decrease in the entropic and enthalpic terms contributing to the interaction parameter. This reflected the decrease in the selfassociation of solvent molecules and in the contribution of terminal OH groups to the mismatching of solubility parameters. For PMMA/BPA-EO blends, a decrease of the entropic contribution to the interaction parameter when increasing the size of the oligodiol was also found. However, the effect was counterbalanced by the opposite contribution of combinatorial terms leading to cloud-point curves located in approximately the same temperature range. For PMMA/BPA-PO blends, the interaction parameter exhibited a very low value. In this case, the effect of solvent size was much more important on combinatorial terms than on the interaction parameter, leading to an increase in miscibility when decreasing the oligodiol size. For short BPA-PO oligodiols no phase separation was observed. The entropic contribution of the interaction parameter exhibited an inverse relationship with the size of the oligodiols, independent of the nature of the chains bearing the hydroxyls and the type of OH groups (primary or secondary). This indicates that the degree of self-association of solvent molecules through their OH terminal groups, was mainly determined by their relative sizes.

  2. Electrochemistry and photocurrents of the tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) and methyl viologen cations immobilized in carrageenan hydrogel. [tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rillema, D.P.; Edwards, A.K. (Univ., of North Carolina, Charlotte (United States)); Perine, S.C.; Crumbliss, A.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

    1991-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure for immobilization of both a photochromophore, tris(2,2{prime}-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}), and a quencher, methyl viologen (MV{sup 2+}), within a carrageenan hydrogel matrix at an electrode surface is described. Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and MV{sup 2+} exhibited diffusion coefficients that ranged from 10{sup {minus} 7} to 10{sup {minus} 6} cm{sup 2}/s in the hydrogel, which represents an improvement over other immobilization matrices. Photolysis of the resulting hydrogel surface modified electrodes gave rise to a significant photocurrent which depended on the concentrations of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, MV{sup 2+}, and triethanolamine and resulted in a maximum value of 12 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} after the hydrogel was cured with a solution containing 5 mM Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and 50 mM MV{sup 2+}. The photocurrent was the result of reoxidation of MV{sup +} at the electrode surface following reduction of MV{sup 2+} by photoexcited Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. The quenching rate constant of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} by MV{sup 2+} in the hydrogel was 4.2 {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The photocurrent action spectrum was consistent with Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} acting as the photochromophore. Offsetting the potential of the hydrogel electrode verified the role of the MV{sup 2+}/{sup +} redox couple as the source of the current.

  3. Photochemical generation of alkyl radicals and their reactions with methyl viologen radical cation and with transition-metal complexes in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakac, A.; Espenson, J.H. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA))

    1989-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The irradiation of aqueous solutions of RCo((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} (R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, 1-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}, CH{sub 2}Cl, CH{sub 2}Br, CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}) with visible light, {lambda} {le} 400 nm, results in the homolysis of the cobalt-carbon bond. These complexes are quite unreactive toward a variety of dealkylating and redox reagents and thus represent a convenient source of small unstabilized carbon-centered radicals in the presence of potential substrates. The radicals react rapidly with the methyl viologen radical cation, k{sub MB} = (1-2) {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The kinetics of the formation of RCr{sup 2+} and RCo((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} in the reactions of radicals with Cr{sup 2+} and Co((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively, were studied by using MV{sup +} as a probe. The respective rate constants have values k{sub Cr} = (1.9-2.4) {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} and k{sub Co} = (1-2) {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} for all the radicals examined. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether protects FL83B cells from copper induced oxidative stress through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tseng, Hsiao-Ling, E-mail: lily1001224@gmail.com [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Li, Chia-Jung, E-mail: 97751101@stmail.tcu.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Lin-Huang, E-mail: yg1236@yahoo.com.tw [School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Yao, E-mail: cychen@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chun-Hao, E-mail: 100726105@stmail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Nan, E-mail: lincna@cc.kmu.edu.tw [Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hsue-Yin, E-mail: hsueyin@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that exhibits several biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether (Q3) is a natural product reported to have pharmaceutical activities, including antioxidative and anticancer activities. However, little is known about the mechanism by which it protects cells from oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which Q3 protects against Cu{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. Exposure to Cu{sup 2+} resulted in the death of mouse liver FL83B cells, characterized by apparent apoptotic features, including DNA fragmentation and increased nuclear condensation. Q3 markedly suppressed Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage, in Cu{sup 2+}-exposed cells. The involvement of PI3K, Akt, Erk, FOXO3A, and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was shown to be critical to the survival of Q3-treated FL83B cells. The liver of both larval and adult zebrafish showed severe damage after exposure to Cu{sup 2+} at a concentration of 5 ?M. Hepatic damage induced by Cu{sup 2+} was reduced by cotreatment with Q3. Survival of Cu{sup 2+}-exposed larval zebrafish was significantly increased by cotreatment with 15 ?M Q3. Our results indicated that Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis in FL83B cells occurred via the generation of ROS, upregulation and phosphorylation of Erk, overexpression of 14-3-3, inactivation of Akt, and the downregulation of FOXO3A and MnSOD. Hence, these results also demonstrated that Q3 plays a protective role against oxidative damage in zebrafish liver and remarked the potential of Q3 to be used as an antioxidant for hepatocytes. Highlights: ? Protective effects of Q3 on Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. ? Cu{sup 2+} induced apoptosis in FL83B cells via ROS and the activation of Erk. ? Q3 abolishes Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway.

  5. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters--Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conditions, at a pressure of 1.06 bar and for a residence time of 1.5 s: more than 30 reaction products change and the impending scarcity of oil resources have led to increasing interest in shifting from toxic by-products such as aldehydes [5]. Therefore, a deeper understanding of oxygenate biofuel

  6. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  7. Removal patterns of some alkyl phenyl ketones in a heterogeneous bacterial system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salitros, James Joseph

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    never lrave been wri t ten, I can only say thank you. TABLE OF CONTENTS pacCe ABSTRACT ACKNONLEDGEMENTS iLIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES SECTION I Introduction and Literature Review SECTION II Apparatus and Materials Reactor Gas Chromatograph... 2 3 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3 0 Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas hyl Alkyl Gas Gas Gas Gas Chemical Nomenclature Inorganic i'Jutrients Test A. Reactor Conditions Test A...

  8. Investigation into the Nazarov Cyclization of Aryl Dienyl Ketones and Synthetic Studies Toward Tetrapetalone A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Andrew Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.145a The Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis involves the acid-perform the Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis with aniline 2.145a

  9. INVENTORY -EDITED SARA TITLE III TOXIC CHEMICALS Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    -07-5 Lubricating Oil 64742-54-7 Methyl vinyl ketone 78-94-4 Nickel carbonyl 13463-39-3 Nitric acid 7697) 75-71-8 Dielectric Oil 64742-53-6 Emetine Dihydrochloride 316-42-7 Formaldehyde 50-00-0 Fuel Oil, #2 (Inside) 68476-30-2 Fuel Oil, #4 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #4 (Underground) 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #6 68553

  10. Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

  11. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ?2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  12. Conserve Energy: Modernize Your Solvent Deasphalting Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, J. S.; Gleitsmann, J. W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    refining and salt crystallization. It has also been used for more than 45 years in petroleum refining to recover solvents such as furfural, phenol, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), methyl-ethyl- ketone/toluene mixtures, and other luble oil extraction... recovery is shown in Table I. Calculations were based on charging 1700 BPSD of vacuum residue to obtain a 93 volume percent yield of DAO, operating for 350 days a year. Payouts before taxes are estimated to be 0.9 year for converting to double effect...

  13. 2-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-one (HKL-1) induces G2/M arrest and mitotic catastrophe in human leukemia HL-60 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Mei-Hua; Liu, Chin-Yu; Lin, Chiao-Min; Chen, Yen-Jung; Chen, Chun-Jen; Lin, Yu-Fu; Huang, Li-Jiau [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Kuo-Hsiung [Natural Products Research Laboratories, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States) [Natural Products Research Laboratories, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Sheng-Chu, E-mail: sckuo@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-one (HKL-1), a 2-phenyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4-one (2-PN) derivative, was synthesized and evaluated as an effective antimitotic agent in our laboratory. However, the molecular mechanisms are uncertain. In this study, HKL-1 was demonstrated to induce multipolar spindles, sustain mitotic arrest and generate multinucleated cells, all of which indicate mitotic catastrophe, in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Western blotting showed that HKL-1 induces mitotic catastrophe in HL-60 cells through regulating mitotic phase-specific kinases (down-regulating CDK1, cyclin B1, CENP-E, and aurora B) and regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating Bax and Bak), followed by caspase-9/-3 cleavage. These findings suggest that HKL-1 appears to exert its cytotoxicity toward HL-60 cells in culture by inducing mitotic catastrophe. Highlights: ? HKL-1 is a potential antimitotic agent against HL-60 cells. ? HKL-1 induces spindle disruption and sustained resulted in mitotic catastrophe. ? CENP-E and aurora B protein expressions significantly reduced. ? Bcl-2 family protein expressions altered and caspase-9/-3 activation. ? HKL-1 is an attractive candidate for possible use as a novel antimitotic agent.

  14. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  15. Photochemistry of 1 and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene. [4a-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrows, R.D.; Hornback, J.M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to synthesize partially saturated phenanthrene derivatives by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction between a photochemically produced o-xylylene (diene) and a tethered dienophile, it was found that 1 and 2 underwent a photochemically allowed (2 + 2) cycloaddition. Irradiation of 1 gave 6-(2-methylphenyl)bicyclo(3.2.0)heptane in 86% yield. Upon irradiation of 2, a benzvalene rearrangement of 2 first took place, producing the meta isomer 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene, followed by a (2 + 2) photocycloaddition giving 1-(3-methylphenyl)bicyclo(3.2.0)heptane in 15% yield. Direct irradiation of 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene gave the same bicyclo derivative as 2 in 34% yield. Examination of the fluorescence spectra of 1 and 2 in comparison with 1-(2-methylphenyl)propene and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1-butene, respectively, has shown that 1 may be biased toward (2 + 2) cycloaddition where 2 is not biased toward (2 + 2) photocycloization. Attempts to produce 4a-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of the o-xylylene produced by irradiation of 3 will also be described.

  16. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  17. A novel approach for the characterization of a bilayer of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester and pentacene using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and argon gas cluster ion beam sputtering process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Chung, JaeGwan; Jung, Changhoon; Chung, Yeonji; Kim, SeongHeon; Lee, Seunghyup; Kim, Ki-Hong; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Gyeong-Su; Park, SungHoon [Analytical Science Laboratory of Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 14-1, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Analytical Science Laboratory of Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 14-1, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The material arrangement and energy level alignment of an organic bilayer comprising of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PCBM-71) and pentacene were studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and the argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering process. Although there is a small difference in the full width at half maximum of the carbon C 1s core level peaks and differences in the oxygen O 1s core levels of an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy spectra, these differences are insufficient to clearly distinguish between PCBM-71 and pentacene layers and to classify the interface and bulk regions. On the other hand, the valence band structures in the UPS spectra contain completely distinct configurations for the PCBM-71 and pentacene layers, even when they have similar atomic compositions. According to the valence band structures of the PCBM-71/pentacene/electrodes, the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) region of pentacene is at least 0.8 eV closer to the Fermi level than that of PCBM-71 and it does not overlap with any of the chemical states in the valence band structure of PCBM-71. Therefore, by just following the variations in the area of the HOMO region of pentacene, the interface/bulk regions of the PCBM/pentacene layers were distinctly categorized. Besides, the variation of valence band structures as a function of the Ar GCIB sputtering time fully corroborated with the surface morphologies observed in the atomic force microscope images. In summary, we believe that the novel approach, which involves UPS analysis in conjunction with Ar GCIB sputtering, can be one of the best methods to characterize the material distribution and energy level alignments of stacks of organic layers.

  18. Quantum Chain Reactions and ?-Hydrogen Abstraction of Aromatic Ketones: Insights into Solid to Solid Transformations and Efficiency in Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Amy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4_1 # b3lyp/6-31+g scrf=(cpcm, solvent=benzene) guess=read4_2 # b3lyp/6-31+g scrf=(cpcm, solvent=benzene) guess=read4_3 # b3lyp/6-31+g scrf=(cpcm, solvent=benzene) guess=read

  19. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

  20. METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Bieging, J. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.

  1. Inter- and intracellular dynamics of DNA methylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoemaker, Robert Field

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of SOAP and Bowtie mapping algorithms. 164  the mapping output from Bowtie and Soap using the same inputMapping algorithms such as Bowtie(228), SOAP(206), and BWA(

  2. The stereochemistry and steric requirement of phosphonate Wittig reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsen, Chung-Ye

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) -activated olefin synthesis can be carried out under quite mild conditions in a suitable solvent (dimethyl formamide, 1, 2-dimethoxyethane, cyclo- hexane, benzene, toluene) . It has been found that in ether and anisole the olefin yields are low.... The ketones used in this study were 2 ? (3-butenyl)cyclohexanone (34), 2, 4, 4-trimethyl- cyclohexanone (35), 2-methyl-4-t-butylcyclohexanone (36), cis-cis-2, 6-dimethyl-4-t-butylcyclohexanone (37a), cis-trans-2, 6-dimethyl-4-t-butylcyclohexanone (37b...

  3. The Role of the Ocean in the Atmospheric Budgets of Methyl Bromide, Methyl Chloride and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lei

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , which was 700 (490 to 920) Gg yr^-1 and -370 (-440 to -280) Gg yr^-1, respectively. The ocean accounts for 10 - 19 % in the global CH3Cl emission and 6 - 9 % in its global sinks. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas, which has a warming potential...

  4. Additivity of detector responses of a portable direct-reading 10. 2 eV photoionization detector and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for atmospheres of multicomponent organics: use of PID/FID ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, I.N.; Hee, S.S.Q.; Clark, C.S.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2 eV and Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixtures of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was accounted for the PID. The PI-101 was not as precise as the Century OVA-128 for 90% RH atmospheres. PID/FID ratios did not change in the presence of 90% RH as long as the effect of RH also was accounted for in the PID reading. The compounds investigated included: toluene, benzaldehyde; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, methyl chloroform, methylene dichloride, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol and acetonitrile.

  5. Coordination Compounds of Strontium. Syntheses, Characterizations, and Crystal Structures of [Sr(u-ONc)(2)(HONc(4))]2 and Sr(5)(u(4)-O)(u(3)-ONep)(4)(u-ONep)(4)(HONep)(solv)(4) (ONc=O(2)CCH(2)CMe(3));Nep=CH(2)CMe(3); solv=tetrahydrofuran or 1-methyl-imida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Tafoya, Cory J.; Scott, Brian L.; Ziller, Joseph W.

    1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have synthesized and characterized two novel Sr compounds: [Sr({mu}-ONc){sub 2}(HONc){sub 4}]{sub 2} (1, ONc = O{sub 2}CCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 3}), and Sr{sub 5}({mu}{sub 4}-O)({mu}{sub 3}-ONep){sub 4}({mu}-ONep){sub 4}(HONep)(solv){sub 4} [ONep = OCH{sub 2}CMe{sub 3}, solv = tetrahydrofuran (THF), 2a; 1-methyl-imidazole (MeIm), (2b)], that demonstrate increased solubility in comparison to the commercially available Sr precursors. The two metal centers of 1 share 4 unidentate bridging {mu}-ONc ligands and complete their octahedral geometry through the coordination of 4 monodentate terminal HONc ligands. The structure arrangement of the central core of 2a and b are identical, wherein 4 octahedral Sr atoms are arranged in a square geometry around a {mu}{sub 4}-O ligand. An additional 7-coordinated Sr atom sits directly atop the {mu}{sub 4}-O to form a square base pyramidal arrangement of the Sr atoms but the apical Sr-O distance is too long to be considered a bond. In solution, compound 1 is disrupted forming a monomer but 2a and b retain their structures.

  6. Batch and Flow Photochemical Benzannulations Based on the Reaction of Ynamides and Diazo Ketones. Application to the Synthesis of Polycyclic Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willumstad, Thomas P.

    Highly substituted polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds are produced via a two-stage tandem benzannulation/cyclization strategy. The initial benzannulation step proceeds via a pericyclic cascade mechanism ...

  7. Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Classical trajectory simulations of photodissociation of methyl bromide at surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Joseph Marion

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. II STOCHASTIC CLASSICAL TRAJECTORY METHOD. . . . A. 3D generalized Langevin formalism . B. Approximations to friction and random forces . . . C. Switching of primary lattice atoms. III POTENTIAL ENERGY SURFACES 6 9... potential energy surface. The forces in the solid are modeled as purely harmonic. The motion of the primary latdce atoms and the gas atoms are described by numerical integration of the classical equations of motion. The effects of the rest of the surface...

  9. Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, W P L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 1988 and Subsequent Model Passenger Cars, Light Duty Trucks and

  10. DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOF...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, W P L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glyphosate, isopropylamine salt Acrolein Glycerine Propylenefrom methacrolein and other acroleins. Steady State Radical

  12. Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylation Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segal, Mark R

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis. In: Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols, M.Segal: Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylationpackage and applications to genomics. Bioinformatics and

  13. Supporting Information Microbial methylation of mercury sulfide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to assess crystal structure of the particles (Figure S4a through 0.025 m pore size mixed cellulose ester membranes (Millipore). The material that deposited on the filter membrane was analyzed for crystallographic structure by synchrotron XRD performed at the Stanford

  14. Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, W P L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0692; South Coast Air Quality Management District Contractand South Coast Air Quality Management District, Contractthe South Coast Air Quality Management District Contract No.

  15. acid methyl esters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 (> 170 o C). Each fraction was analyzed composition of fatty acid ethyl esters using gas chromatography (GC). The result showed that the yield medium chain fatty acid ethyl...

  16. acid methyl ester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 (> 170 o C). Each fraction was analyzed composition of fatty acid ethyl esters using gas chromatography (GC). The result showed that the yield medium chain fatty acid ethyl...

  17. anhydroecgonine methyl ester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2 W Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: distinct GAs have been identified from natural sources (http:www. plant encode enzymes that...

  18. Development of a Methyl Bromide Collection System for Fumigated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the practice of complete coverage of the fields with polyethylene (PE) tarp. To reduce the emission of Me fumigation, there is a good potential for collection and recycle or proper disposal of MeBr (1). However as well as its low cost. Research has indicated that less MeBr is emitted when the entire field is covere

  19. The alkaloid of Acacia berlandieri, N-methyl-B-phenylethylamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camp, Bennie Joe

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the oily base proved fruitless from such solvents as acetone, absolute alcohol, hexane, petroleum ether, ether, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Crystallization was finally induced by dissolving the liquid base in chloroform, and then adding a relatively... large volume of anhydrous ether. Qualitative Analysis: Qualitative analysis for the elements was carried out according to the procedure out? lined by McElvain (6). This procedure employs fusion with metallic sodium which converts the organically...

  20. Synthetic approaches to the activation of substituted 2-methyl pyridines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cancanon, Fernadina de la Caridad

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (21%), 148 (42%), 135 (100%), 1 08 (35%), 93 ( 43%), 83 (38%), 55 (49%), 41 (48%), 29 (27 la) 2-[N(4, 4-Dimethyl-2, 6-dioxopiperidinyl))-6-pycolyl-tert-butytdi phenylsilyl ether (26) O Bu'Ph zSi0 N N The same procedure for the preparation.... 14%, ' N, 16. 52%. Attempted ring opening of 2-[N-(4, 4-dimethyl-2, 6-dioxo piperidinyl)]-6- picolyl-tert-butyl diphenylsilyl ether (26) with 6-amino-2-pyridine methanol-fert-butyldiphenylsilyl ether (22) The cyclic imide 26 (0. 487g, 0. 001 mole...

  1. Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-n-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1991-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The material covered in this report is divided into two parts: further cyclization experiments on 1,4-diethyl-2-[(2'- methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene and its sulfone both by chemical and photochemical means, and progress toward synthesis of modified target molecule, 9-isopropyl-4-methoxy-6-methyldibenzo-thiophene. 8 refs, figs.

  2. aberrant gene methylation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

  3. aberrant dna methylation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

  4. aberrant promoter methylation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

  5. aberrant methylation impairs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

  6. Statistical algorithms in the study of mammalian DNA methylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Meromit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an aligner such as Bowtie [85]. The library constructed ingenome (hg18 [108]) with Bowtie [85] resulting in 18,218,420respective genomes with Bowtie [85], which produced stacks

  7. The Genetics of de novo Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Maxim Van Cleef

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell run were aligned with bowtie 0.10.1(using qualities,genome (TAIR8) using Bowtie (Langmead et al. , 2009). OnlyChen et al. , 2010) of the Bowtie aligner (Langmead et al. ,

  8. The contribution of oceanic methyl iodide to stratospheric iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CH 3 I transport from the surface to the cold point (giventhe vertical transport from the surface to the cold point atCH 3 I transport from the ocean surface to the cold point in

  9. Kopesky et al. Thermomechanical Properties of Poly(methyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    _k@mit.edu Timothy S. Haddad: Timothy.Haddad@edwards.af.mil Keywords: POSS, nanocomposites, nanodispersion, rheology. The principles of time-temperature superposition are followed by these nanocomposites; however, fits to the WLF oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS)1 have drawn considerable interest due to their hybrid organic

  10. "Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfiresImpurityRotation; 13-2808-1,TransmissionMercury in the

  11. Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution AndControlling Graphene'sPortal Conversion of

  12. Health-hazard evaluation report MHETA 89-009-1990, Consolidation Coal Company, Humphrey No. 7 Mine, Pentress, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kullman, G.J.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation was made of worker exposure to hydraulic fluid used on the longwall-mining operations at Consolidated Coal Company's Humphrey Number 7 Mine, Pentress, West Virginia. Employees were complaining of headache, eye and throat irritation, congestion, and cough. A particular emulsion oil, Solcenic-3A, was used with water in the mine's hydraulic roof-support system. An analysis of the oil indicated the presence of methyl-isobutyl-carbinol (MIBC), dipropylene glycol, and paraffin hydrocarbons. Personal breathing-zone samples for MIBC were collected from all workers on the longwall mining operation during the two days of the visit. All the analysis indicated concentrations of MIBC below the limit of quantification, which was 0.6 parts per million for an 8 hour sample. These levels were well below the exposure recommendations of the Mine Safety and Health Administration. Exposure to MIBC may be occurring through skin contact with oil through hydraulic line leaks, accidents, and maintenance activity on the hydraulic machines. The report concludes that Solcenic-3A oil constituents in air did not pose a health hazard at the time of the survey.

  13. cAMP enhances BMP2-signaling through PKA and MKP1-dependent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghayor, Chafik; Ehrbar, Martin; Miguel, Blanca San; Graetz, Klaus W. [Oral Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Dept. of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weber, Franz E. [Oral Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Dept. of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: Franz.Weber@zzmk.uzh.ch

    2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies suggest that the elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the activation of the protein kinase A regulate BMP-induced osteogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the enhancing effect of cAMP on BMP2 signaling were not completely revealed. In this study we investigated the effect of elevated cAMP level and PKA activation on the BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation in pluripotent C2C12 cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity and its mRNA were consistently induced by BMP2 treatment. The pretreatment of C2C12 cells with Forskolin, a cAMP generating agent, dbcAMP, an analogue of cAMP, or IBMX (3-isobutyl 1-methyl xanthine), and a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases elicited further activation of alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, elevated intracellular cAMP level increased BMP2-induced MKP1. On the other hand, BMP2-induced Erk phosphorylation (p44/p42) and cell proliferation were suppressed in the presence of cAMP. Thus, cAMP might enhance BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation by a MKP1-Erk-dependent mechanism.

  14. Kinetic and mechanistic study of methyl transfer from methylcobalamin (methyl vitamin B??) to mercuric ion in aqueous and micellar environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Glenn Clarke

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , kl, in 0. 1 H SDS Dependence of Observed Rate Constants, kg, on the Concentration of CTABr, CTABu, and ?JaBr at pH 5. 0 43 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Three Dimensional Structure of Methylcobalamin Reaction Vessel for Preparation...H's 2. 50 x 10 3. 67 x 10 5. 00 x 10 5. 5 5. 5 5. 5 3. 6 and below buffered with 0 1 M glycine above 3. 6 buffered wath 0. 1 M NaOAc 9. 00 14. 4 21. 7 20 18 17 16 15 13 12 10 I o 9 8 A 7 10 20 30 40 50 [Hg ] x 10, N Figure 6...

  15. Global budgets of oceanic and atmospheric methyl iodide: development of methyl iodide as a tracer for marine convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    , Irvine, CA J.H. Butler and D.B. King NOAA/CMDL, Boulder, CO J.M. Lobert API, San Diego, CA E. Maier the rest of the troposphere reflecting convective outflow at all altitudes. We define a quantitative index

  16. Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

  17. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hangson, Susan Kloek

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising hydroxymethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.2, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  18. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hanson, Susan Kloek

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons. comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising chloromethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.3, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  19. Pilot-scale boiler study of sulfur hexafluoride and emissions of CO, CO sub 2 , O sub 2 , and unburned hydrocarbons as surrogates for verification of hazardous waste destruction removal efficiency. Final report, October 1986-June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proctor, C.L.; Fournier, D.L.; Hopmeier, M.; Roychoudhury, S.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and unburned hydrocarbons as surrogates for verification of hazardous-waste destruction removal efficiency (DRE) is discussed. These measurements were made in a pilot-scale firetube boiler facility and in a natural gas fired steam plant boiler. The data indicates that toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and isopropanol are well-suited for destruction in a firetube boiler environment. Trichloroethylene and monochlorobenzene required auxillary fuel to maintain stable combustion. SF6 DRE was significantly lower than waste DREs for all runs. It also tracked waste DREs in most runs. Reduced waste and SF6 DREs were accompanied by lower emissions of CO{sub 2} and by increased emissions of O{sub 2} and total unburned hydrocarbons (TUHC). DREs tended to fall with increased CO concentration depicted by a few data points.

  20. FLAME-SAMPLING PHOTOIONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY - FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Nils

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research focused on detailed studies of the complex combustion chemistry of oxygenated, bio-derived fuels. In particular, studies were done of the flame chemistry of simple methyl and ethyl esters chosen as surrogates for the long-chain esters that are primary constituents of biodiesel fuels. The principal goals of these studies were: (1) show how fuel-specific structural differences including degree of unsaturation, linear vs. branched chain structures, and methoxy vs. ethoxy functions affect fueldestruction pathways, (2) understand the chemistry leading to potential increases in the emissions of hazardous air pollutants including aldehydes and ketones inherent in the use of biodiesel fuels, and (3) define the key chemical reaction mechanisms responsible for observed reductions in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter when oxygenated fuels are used as replacements for conventional fuels.

  1. Enhanced Self-organized Dewetting of Ultrathin Polymer Films under Water-organic Solutions: Fabrication of Sub-micron Spherical Lens Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankur Verma; Ashutosh Sharma

    2010-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Field-induced self-organized patterning in ultrathin (energy penalty for the surface deformations on small scales. We propose here a very simple but versatile method to fabricate sub-micron (~100 nm) ordered and tunable polymeric structures by self-organized room temperature dewetting of ultrathin polystyrene films by minimizing the surface tension limitation. We illustrate this technique by fabricating sub-micron lens arrays of tunable curvature. This is achieved by switching to controlled room temperature dewetting under an optimal mix of water, acetone and methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK). Organic solvents used decrease the glass transition temperature, greatly decrease the interfacial tension, intensify the field and increase the contact angle/aspect ratio of the resulting tunable nano-structures, without a concurrent solubilization of PS owing to water being the majority phase in the outside mixture.

  2. Synthesis of highly substituted benzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles via tandem benzannulation/cyclization strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willumstad, Thomas P. (Thomas Paul)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Benzannulations employing ynamides and vinylketenes (generated in situ from [alpha]-diazo ketones) were investigated. Irradiation of the diazo ketones using a batch or continuous-flow reactor leads to the formation of ...

  3. Chemical Dynamics Beamline Publications 381. T. Bierkandt, T.Kasper, E. Akyildiz, A. Lucassen, P. Owald, M. Khler, and P. Hemberger "Flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biofuels: resonance-stabilized QOOH in the oxidation of diethyl ketone" Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., DOI: 10 of the combustion chemistry of diisopropyl ketone, a prototype for biofuels produced by endophytic fungi

  4. Ligand field photofragmentation spectroscopy of [Ag(L){sub N}]{sup 2+} complexes in the gas phase: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Jingang; Puskar, Ljiljana; Esplugas, Ricardo O.; Cox, Hazel; Stace, Anthony J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been undertaken to record photofragmentation spectra from a series of [Ag(L){sub N}]{sup 2+} complexes in the gas phase. Spectra have been obtained for silver(II) complexed with the ligands (L): acetone, 2-pentanone, methyl-vinyl ketone, pyridine, and 4-methyl pyridine (4-picoline) with N in the range of 4-7. A second series of experiments using 1,1,1,3-fluoroacetone, acetonitrile, and CO{sub 2} as ligands failed to show any evidence of photofragmentation. Interpretation of the experimental data has come from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), which very successfully accounts for trends in the spectra in terms of subtle differences in the properties of the ligands. Taking a sample of three ligands, acetone, pyridine, and acetonitrile, the calculations show all the spectral transitions to involve ligand-to-metal charge transfer, and that wavelength differences (or lack of spectra) arise from small changes in the energies of the molecular orbitals concerned. The calculations account for an absence in the spectra of any effects due to Jahn-Teller distortion, and they also reveal structural differences between complexes where the coordinating atom is either oxygen or nitrogen that have implications for the stability of silver(II) compounds. Where possible, comparisons have also been made with the physical properties of condensed phase silver(II) complexes.

  5. Model Estimates of the Contributions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke to Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl ketone 2,3-Butadione Acrolein Limonene 1,3-Butadieneconcentrations for for acrolein, acetaldehyde and 1,3-

  6. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

  7. Ketone-like derivatization reactions of metal carbonyls. Attempts to measure the equilibrium constant for ketalization of a carbonyl ligand in (Re(CO)/sub 6/)/sup +/ by ethylene glycol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, M.A.; Myles, W.L.

    1988-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine whether the inability to ketalize simple metal carbonyls such as W(CO)/sub 6/ and Fe(CO)/sub 5/ with alcohols under typical neutral or acidic conditions was a kinetic or thermodynamic problem, the reaction was approached from the reverse direction. Cationic complexes such as (Re(CO)/sub 6/)/sup +/ for which the forward and reverse kinetics were expected to be more favorable were also studied. It is concluded from the slow kinetics and unfavorable equilibrium constant observed here for ketalization of a metal carbonyl that it will be difficult to achieve practical carbon monoxide activation by this type of reaction. 17 refs.

  8. Synthesis and crystal structure of ?,?-unsaturated ketone: 3,3?-[1,2-ethanediylbis(oxy-2,1-phenylene)]bis[1-(2-pyridyl) -2-propen-1-one

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, G.-F., E-mail: wgf1979@126.com; Gong, Q.-J., E-mail: gqjuan@163.com; Sun, H.; Yao, C-Z. [Yuncheng University, Department of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The title compound, C{sub 30}H{sub 24}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3,3?-[1,2-ethanediyl-bis(oxy-2,1-phenylene)]bis[1-(2-pyridyl) -2-propen-1-one] was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectra, {sup 1}H NMR, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. In the molecule, the pyridine plane and the adjacent phenyl plane are almost coplanar with the dihedral angle of 3.07°, while the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two asymmetric units is 67.56°. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak intermolecular C-H...N and C-H...O hydrogen bonds, C-H...? and ?...? stacking interactions.

  9. Electron-transfer photochemistry of thianthrene. Nucleophile-assisted photooxidation to sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. II; Huang, B.; Griffin, S.F. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

    1993-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The photochemistry of thianthrene (1) in the presence of a variety of electron acceptors in acetonitrile/water has been investigated. Diffusion-limited rates of fluorescence quenching were observed on excitation of 1 (with fumaronitrile and with methyl phthalate). Alternatively, addition of 1 led to quenching of the fluorescence emission of ketones, biacetyl, and fluorenone and to the quenching of the excited triplet states of quinones such as 2,5-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (5) and 9,10-anthraquinone (3). Steady irradiation of 1 with selected acceptors results in photooxidation yielding the sulfoxide (2) and the expected photoreduction products. The electron-transfer mechanisms were further studied by laser flash photolysis. The quenching of ketone triplets by 1 resulted in formation of the radical cation of 1([lambda][sub max]540 nm). The decay of this species and its dependence on the concentration of water present were determined; the bimolecular rate constant for trapping of 1[sup [center dot]+] by water in acetonitrile-water solution is 4.9 x 10[sup 4] M[sup [minus]1]s[sup [minus]1] under conditions in which 5 acts as a sensitizer. The nucleophilic trapping of the 1 radical cation by imidazole ([kappa] = 3.6 x 10[sup 7] M[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1]) was also investigated. The mechanism of photoinduced two-electron oxidation of 1 and the role played by nucleophiles in facilitating the reaction are discussed in detail. 37 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. PRMT5/MEP50 Methylates Histones and Nucleoplasmin in Xenopus Protein Arginine Methyltransferase PRMT5/MEP50 Methylates Histones H2A and H4 and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chait, Brian T.

    demonstrate that Nucleoplasmin (Npm), an exceedingly abundant maternally- deposited protein, is a potent substrate for PRMT5/MEP50 and is mono- and symmetri- cally dimethylated at Arg187. Furthermore, Npm modulates PRMT5/MEP50 activity di- rected towards histones, consistent with a regulatory role for Npm

  11. Computational Analysis of Receptor-Odor Interactions and Prediction of Behavior-Modifying Chemical Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyle, Sean Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-butenal Isovaleronitrile 3-methyl-1-butanol 2-methyl tetrapentene-2-one O O HO O 3-methyl-1-butanol dimethyl carbonatealcohol 3-Methyl-1-pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-3-

  12. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Lynn C.

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit. Noise dosimetry sampling was performed on a random basis and was representative of the different work activities within the four shops. Twenty three percent of the noise samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 85 decibels for an 8-hour time-weightedaverage. Work activities where noise levels were higher included use of impact wrenches and grinding wheels.

  13. Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

  14. Essential versus potentially toxic dietary substances: A seasonal comparison of essential fatty acids and methyl mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    , Asit Mazumder a a Water and Aquatic Sciences Research Program, University of Victoria, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3020, Stn. CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3N5, Canada b Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada Received 21 August 2007; received in revised form 15 November 2007; accepted

  15. An experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be burned pure in current internal combustion engines with similar performance to gasoline. Measurements Glaudeb , Henry J. Currana a Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway, Ireland the oxidation of any of the alkylated furans. The mechanism developed herein to describe 2MF combustion should

  16. abiotic acibenzolar-s-methyl stresses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The macroscopic stress evolution is connected to a length scale of residual liquefaction displayed by microscopic mean-squared displacements. The theory describes this...

  17. Isolation, Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry, and Asymmetric Synthesis of Insect Methyl-Branched Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bello, Jan Edgar

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    d’Ettore, P. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,A.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry, ChemicalMillar, J.G. In Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry,

  18. Molecular detection of B-cell neoplasms by specific DNA methylation biomarkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poor prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia may relate toor not patients with acute leukemia are in true remission isdisease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Hematol. [24

  19. Molecular detection of B-cell neoplasms by specific DNA methylation biomarkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poor prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia may relate todisease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Hematol. [24]for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 2008;

  20. FadE: whole genome methylation analysis for multiple sequencing platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ting

    and disease. Sodium bisulfite treatment (SBT) causes unmethylated cytosines to be sequenced as thymine, which to bases because single sequencing errors effect the down- stream sequence. We describe FadE, an algorithm describing its distribution at every reference cytosine. We sequenced two slides of human fibroblast cell

  1. Nanoporous poly(methyl methacrylate)-quantum dots nanocomposite fibers toward biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    , Ashwini Kucknoor c , Lauren James c , Andrew Wang d a Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lamar of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA c Department of Biology, Lamar University

  2. Extensive changes in DNA methylation are associated with expression of mutant huntingtin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Christopher W.

    The earliest stages of Huntington disease are marked by changes in gene expression that are caused in an indirect and poorly understood manner by polyglutamine expansions in the huntingtin (HTT) protein. To explore the ...

  3. Biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) using a granular activated carbon trickling filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Converse, B.M.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot scale trickling filter was constructed using granular activated carbon (GAC) as the packing medium and inoculated with a microbial culture known to degrade MTBE. The packing dimensions were 0.076 m in diameter and 0.22 m deep. The unit operated with recycling flow for two months before a biofilm was observed on the GAC. After two additional months the biofilm had visibly spread throughout the packing. A few pieces of GAC were placed in a sealed bottle with MTBE-contaminated water and nutrients. Headspace analysis performed over 14 days confirmed that MTBE degradation was occurring. The trickling filter was converted to continuous flow and operated for one month at a nominal flow rate of 0.1 L/min and a hydraulic loading rate of 32 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-d. Samples were collected for analysis at the spray nozzle and at the bottom of the trickling filter. Fractional removal varied with influent MTBE concentration, temperature and liquid flow rate. Percent MTBE removal was as high as 85%. A mechanical failure resulted in the trickling filter bed drying and percent removal dropping to less than 1 percent. However, the system recovered within five days.

  4. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    -butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas chromatog- raphy-massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found

  5. he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ether (MTBE) in both ground and sur- face waters is receiving much attention from the media and 10% of community drinking water sup- plies in high MTBE use areas show at least detectable concentrations of MTBE, and about 1% of those sys- tems are characterized by levels of this compound

  6. Extended Summaries: IUPAC Conference glyphosate, AMPA, and N-methylAMPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Minghua

    and Sue Hayes 2 1 Zeneca Ag Products , 1200 S 47th Street, Richmond, CA 94804, USA 2 Zeneca Agrochemicals

  7. Bioremediation of the organophosphate methyl parathion using genetically engineered and native organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz Casas, Adriana Z.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic waste disposal problems have become enormous due to the proliferation of xenobiotic compounds for use in agricultural, industrial and numerous other applications. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly used in agriculture...

  8. Modeling study of the lowtemperature oxidation of large methyl esters from C11 to C19

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in biodiesel fuels has been investigated. Models have been developed for these species and then detailed; Biodiesel fuels; Modeling; Oxidation * Corresponding author: Olivier Herbinet Laboratory of Reaction the differences with the combustion of alkanes induced by the ester function. While biodiesel fuels deriving from

  9. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melak, Dawit [Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ferreccio, Catterina [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Kalman, David [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parra, Roxana [Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 ?g/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 ?g/L (median = 60 ?g/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 ?g/L.

  10. DNA methylation map of mouse and human brain identifies target genes in Alzheimer's disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. Figure 3 Epigenetic deregulation of target genes in the3027 Figure 2 Epigenetic deregulation of target genes in

  11. anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    receptor A Abbreviations: Ad, adenovirus; BMDCs, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells; CFDA-SE, 5 Nicchitta, Chris 44 Glycosylation of b1-adrenergic receptors regulates receptor...

  12. DNA methylation map of mouse and human brain identifies target genes in Alzheimer's disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PLoS One 2009; 2: e895. Song CX, Szulwach KE, Fu Y, Dai Q,Szulwach KE, Li X, Li Y, Song CX, Wu H, Dai Q, et al. 5-hmC-cells), cerebral cortex (CX, CA1, CA3 and den- tate gyrus)

  13. A global inventory of ecosystem sources of methyl bromide, an ozone destroying gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenney, Gareth

    2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    and anthropogenically produced. Biomass burning, salt marsh and agriculture are reported as the largest natural sources. However, there exists a need for a global inventory as current budget estimates are uncertain, based on limited data and show a 45Gg yr-1 discrepancy...

  14. Characterization of Multiphase Biogenic Polymer Blends from Poly(L-lactide) and Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Center, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA 2 Department of Physics, Washington and Lee University fillers and scaffolds, where the biodegradability of PLLA will enable the integration of native tissue

  15. Methyl halide and biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes from perennial bioenergy crops and annual arable crops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Eilidh Christina

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The depletion of fossil fuel resources, pollution concerns and the challenge of energy security are driving the search for renewable energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an energy source is increasing ...

  16. A homolog of tocopherol C-methyltransferases catalyzes N-methylation in anticancer alkaloid biosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liscombe, David K.

    Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is the sole source of the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine, bisindole alkaloids derived from the dimerization of the terpenoid indole alkaloids vindoline and ...

  17. Reprogramming DNA Methylation in Bovine Cells by Knocking Down DNA Methyltransferase-1 with RNA Interference 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroud, Todd

    2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Embryos derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) produce few pregnancies that result in a live, healthy offspring. This has largely been attributed to the aberrant reprogramming of the somatic cell DNA used for ...

  18. array-based dna methylation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72 Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic CiteSeer Summary: The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive...

  19. alternative 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 9 Alternating and Empty Alternating...

  20. Type II restriction-modification system methylation subunit of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Brady D; Newby, Deborah T; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Roberto, Francisco F; Reed, David W

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering recombination inside or outside of a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and/or nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  1. RNA Methylation by the MIS Complex Regulates a Cell Fate Decision in Yeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwala, Sundeep

    For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation is a key developmental signal causing diploid cells to switch from yeast-form budding to either foraging pseudohyphal (PH) growth or meiosis and sporulation. ...

  2. Thermomechanical properties of chemically modified graphene/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites made

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ray scattering sug- gested an exfoliated morphology of both types of CMG fillers dispersed in the PMMA matrix dispersed in the matrix. Both techniques suggested similar exfoli- ation and dispersion of both types of CMG to facilitate the exfoliation of layered GO particles into single- or few-layer graphene oxide (G-O) platelets

  3. agent tm208 4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbodithioc: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Computer Science) 12;Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2011 Edition Evaluation Zachmann, Gabriel 125 Agent Communication and Cooperative Information Frank Dignum Computer...

  4. Methyl mercury toxicokinetics in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) after intravascular administration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, I.R.; Newman, M.C. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors compared the differences in the distribution and elimination of Ch{sub 3}Hg after intraarterial injection and serial blood removal in catfish and bass of similar body size under consistent water quality conditions. The blood and plasma concentration-time profiles of individual fish were analyzed using a three-compartment, clearance-volume model. The plasma protein binding of CH{sub 3}Hg was determined by ultrafiltration and the binding affinity ({rho}) of CH{sub 3}Hg for red blood cells (RBCs) was also calculated. Toxicokinetic analysis of the plasma concentration-time profiles provided the following values: apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V{sub ss}) = 30 {+-} 14 ml/g (catfish), 6.2 {+-} 2 ml/g (bass); total body clearance (Cl{sub b}) = 0.026 {+-} 0.011 ml/h/g (catfish), 0.0057 {+-} 0.001 ml/h/g (bass). The values of V{sub ss} and Cl{sub b} estimated from the blood concentration-time profiles in catfish and bass were fivefold lower. The elimination half-life from blood and plasma was between 814 and 1670 h and was not statistically different between species or reference fluid. The AUC{sub 0{yields}x} for blood was over three times higher than plasma, due to the binding of CH{sub 3}Hg to RBCs. The unbound fraction of CH{sub 3}Hg in bass plasma was 14-fold lower and the {rho} for RBCs was 20 times greater than catfish. The decreased binding to plasma and RBCs in catfish is consistent with the increased extravascular distribution and clearance capacity of CH{sub 3}Hg in catfish because a larger fraction of the CH{sub 3}Hg in blood is available to distribute outside the vascular system.

  5. alters l-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic: Topics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in chronic human spinal cord injury Katherine M. Deutscha, b, T. George Hornbya, c, Brian D joint torques at the ankle, knee and hip. The results showed that SCI individuals...

  6. Photochemistry of Methyl Bromide on the ?-Cr2O3(0001) Surface...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    formed. In contrast, pre-oxidation of the surface (using an oxygen plasma source) led to capping of surface Cr3+ sites and near complete removal of CH3Br TPD states above...

  7. Use of advanced cluster analysis to characterize seafood consumption patterns and methyle mercury exposures among

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the central nervous system (Alessandri et al., 2004). At the same time, fish consumption is also the primary

  8. Temperature dependence of the vapour tension of methyl-substituted phenol derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Gagarin [Institute of Mineral Fuels (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Notable among the coking products of coal are phenol and its derivatives, derived for the coal tar and water layer above ht tar. Given that phenol an its derivatives are mainly extracted from coal tar fractions by rectification, information on how the vapor tension of the individual components depends on the temperature is of great importance. For phenol and various substituted alkylphenols there are tabular data. In the pre-computer era these data were sufficient for the separation of phenol mixtures. However, the development and introduction of information technology in the coal industry and in the design process demands the mathematical description of the physicochemical processes of coking products. The temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure for organic compounds is commonly described by the Antoine equation.

  9. Backbone and Ile-?1, Leu, Val Methyl 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fused in tandem. The active form of ISG15 is conjugated to target proteins via the C-terminal glycine residue through an isopeptide bond in a manner similar to ubiquitin. The...

  10. Manipulating the jasmonate response: How do methyl jasmonate additions mediate characteristics of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Lynn

    of Massachusetts at Amherst, Massachusetts, USA; 3 Kellogg Biological Station and Plant Biology Department. Jasmonates also regulate key mutualist relationships, leading to a suit of potential conflicting selection conflicts for the host in the regulation of their mutualists under different conditions and suggest

  11. Simultaneous Design, Scheduling, and Optimal Control of a Methyl-Methacrylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    based on orthogonal collocation on finite elements, rendering a Mixed Integer Non-Linear programming

  12. Water Overcomes Methyl Group Directing Effects in Epoxide-Opening Cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morten, Christopher J.

    Water is an effective promoter of the endo-selective opening of trisubstituted epoxides, enabling related cascades leading to a variety of substituted ladder polyether structures. When used in conjunction with a ...

  13. Intradimer and interdimer methylation response by bacterial chemoreceptors to attractant stimulus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bormans, Arjan Frank

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    of the current concentration with the concentration in the recent (a few seconds) past. The current concentration is measured as the percent occupancy of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the receptor, and the past is represented by the extent...

  14. Electronic structure calculations of radical reactions for poly(methyl methacrylate) degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irradiation of polymeric materials by ultraviolet (UV) laser light initiates chemical reactions that change in a highly integrated, multilayer printed circuit board [1,2], drilling holes for ink jet nozzles [3], stripping poly- mer coatings of optical fibers [4], and, most notably, laser in situ keratomileusis

  15. Temporal and spatial variation in methyl bromide emissions from a salt marsh 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drewer, Julia; Heal, Mathew R; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurements of CH3Br emissions from a salt marsh in Scotland (56°00?N, 2°35?W) were made during one year using eight static enclosures. Net emissions showed both strong seasonal and diurnal cycles. Day-to-day maxima in emissions were associated with sunny days...

  16. Quantitative correlation between promoter methylation and messenger RNA levels of the reduced folate carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    complete silencing of RFC in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells,cell lines (n = 8), including MDA-MB-231, and M805, a MTXlack of RFC expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell

  17. 3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Michael R.; Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in producing biofuels from renewable sources hasafter 60 h. Keywords Biofuels . Metabolic engineering .2008; Stephanopoulos 2007). Biofuels produced from renewable

  18. Methyl chloride variability in the Taylor Dome ice core during the Holocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verhulst, Kristal R; Aydin, Murat; Saltzman, Eric S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Taylor Dome ice core during the Holocene Kristal R.2005GB002680. Lee-Taylor, J. , and K. R. Redeker (2005),

  19. 4-O-methylation of glucuronic acid in Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan is catalyzed by a domain of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; and d Center for Environmental Research and Technology cell walls was a critical adaptive event in the history of land plants (1). These tissues are required the extensive upright growth needed to compete for sunlight (1). Secondary walls have also had an impact

  20. Methylations of Tryptophan-Modified Naphthoquinone Affect Its Inhibitory Potential toward A Aggregation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    , Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Aggregation of amyloid beta, physiological and biochemical evidence suggests that the 42-residue amyloidogenic peptide amyloid beta (A) plays amyloid fibrils in vitro that are very similar to those found in the brains of AD patients. Accumulating

  1. Journal of Theoretical Biology 242 (2006) 643651 Competitive signal discrimination, methylation reprogramming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, Jon F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -acting and trans-acting elements. In most cases, these trans-acting elements represent ``genetic factions'' whose

  2. anhydride-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  3. acid-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  4. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of fatty acid esters experience the typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequence; the alkyl chain length of fatty acid esters has a crucial impact on the ignition...

  5. Identical sets of methylated and nonmethylated genes in Ciona intestinalis sperm and muscle cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and mapped to the genome assembly using Bowtie with the –best option (http://bowtie-bio.sourceforge.net/

  6. Methylation Study of a Population Environmentally Exposed to Arsenic in Drinking Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~suseI~~~~~~~~....s.. ..... ofMMA DMA, which~~~~~~~~Awa oetan1 ie gerti teepsd r

  7. Methylation analysis and diagnostics of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in 1,000 subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Abdulla; Kirby, Gail; Hardy, Carol; Dias, Renuka P.; Tee, Louise; Lim, Derek; Berg, Jonathan; MacDonald, Fiona; Nightingale, Peter; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    of BWS, in comparison to current clinical diagnostic criteria, for any given sensitivity it has the highest specificity and vice versa, thus improving the overall diagnosis of the disorder. Moreover, in view of the tumour risk to a missed diagnosis of BWS... the diagnostic testing service was approved by the Birmingham Women’s Hospital Research and Devel- opment Office.that the ratio of normalised peak intensities was compared between the reference and the sample trace; ratios of ?0.75 and ?1.25 for each of the four...

  8. Stabilizing effect of oxygen on thermal degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    in three successive runs. The integral heat consumption in the temperature Macromol. Rapid Commun. 20, No of NO in its mixture with N2. Data obtained at heating rates of 0.5 (dotted line) and 188C N min­1 (solid lines TGA 1000M+. PMMA sam- ples of 1­2 mg were placed in aluminium pans and heated at heating rates of 0

  9. Catalytic Transformation of C7-C9 Methyl Benzenes over USY-based FCC Zeolite Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    in the petrochemical market. Most of the currently working isomerization plants are using zeolite based catalysts. One) and the diphenyl methane mechanism. It was shown that toluene disproportionation does not require Brönsted acid

  10. Theoretical Study of Zeolite-Catalyzed Dimethoxymethane Carbonylation to Methyl Methoxyacetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    and as an intermediate in the manufacturing of synthetic fibers, foams, and plastics. At present MEG is made exclusively by the epoxidation of ethene and the subsequent hydration of the resulting ethylene oxide.1 Since the demand

  11. 2?-O Methylation of Internal Adenosine by Flavivirus NS[subscript 5] Methyltransferase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Hongping

    RNA modification plays an important role in modulating host-pathogen interaction. Flavivirus NS5 protein encodes N-7 and 2?-O methyltransferase activities that are required for the formation of 5? type I cap (m[superscript ...

  12. Inhibition of IFN-[gamma] promoter function by site-specific methylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Brendan T. (Brendan Taber)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When they become activated, naive helper T cells are able to polarize into either THI cells or TH2 cells. Development of naive CD4+ T cells into TH1 cells is characterized by the expression of IFN-y and the silencing of ...

  13. A Role for Repressive Histone Methylation in Cocaine-Induced Vulnerability to Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covington, Herbert E.

    Substance abuse increases an individual's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses, which is presumably mediated by drug-induced neural adaptations that alter subsequent responses to stress. Here, we identify repressive ...

  14. Calibration and Optimization of PTR-MS for Measurement of Methyl Hydroperoxide (CH3OOH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    is to optimize and calibrate a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) for the analysis of MHP with the sensitivity to measure this species in air. A promising technique is proton transfer reaction mass by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) grant ATM- 0754990. I would like to thank all

  15. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in advanced engines for transportation applications." Second Generation and Optimal Biodiesel Howell (DEER 2007) pointed to optimizing the fatty acid ester distribution...

  16. Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Ratcliff, M.; Pedersen, D.; McCormick, R.; Cavataio, G.; Ura, J.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300 C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NO{sub x}-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NO{sub x} conversion begins at between 100 and 200 C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250-400 C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NO{sub x} conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400 C. However, when masked with biodiesel, NO{sub x} conversion is observed to begin at temperatures as low as 200 C. Engine test results also show low-temperature recovery from HC storage. Engine tests indicate that, overall, the SCR system has a faster recovery from HC masking with biodiesel. This is at least partially due to a reduction in exhaust HCs, and thus total HC exposure with biodiesel.

  17. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). School of Medicine; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Alexoff, David L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Sung Won [National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Bethesda, MD (United States); Logan, Jean [New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Pareto, Deborah [Institut de Recerca Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Alta Tecnologia, Barcelona (Spain); Schlyer, David [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, Gene-Jack [National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels in breasts, lungs and bones are low, supporting further investigation of this tracer as a new tool for detection of aromatase-overexpressing primary tumors or metastases in these organs and optimization of treatment in cancer and other disorders in which aromatase inhibitors are useful.

  18. aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-9h-pyrido: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the reactions of amines with aldehydes and with aromatic nitro - compounds in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kinetic and equilibrium studies of...

  19. Diethyl 2-([alpha]-methoxymethylene)-3-methyl-4,6-dimethoxyhomophthalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takusagawa, Fusao; Uemura, M.; Higuchi, T.; Sakan, T.; Shimada, A.

    1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -radius Weissenberg photographs with A1 calibration lines); Z = 4 , £>0 = 1256, Dc= 1-260 " ~ ' ""• - -#=0-074. g c m - 3 ; fi = 9-35 cm The final (i) B33 Bn Ba Ba 76 (2) 6(3) 67(2) 10(4) 76 (2) - 5 ( 3 ) 72(2) - 5 ( 4 ) 68 (2) 3 (3) 59(2) 0(4) 70 (2) 15(3) 51 (2) 3(4...) C(10) C(LL) C(12) C(13) C(14) C(15) C(16) C(17) C(18) 0(1) 0(2) 0 ( 3 ) 0 ( 4 ) 0 ( 5 ) 0(6) 0 ( 7 ) 1934 (1) 2341 (1) 3101 (2) 3420 (1) 3018 (1) 2277 (1) 1138 (2) - 3 0 0 (2) - 6 7 9 (3) 1949 (2) 1475 (2) 518 (3) - 6 6 (3) 1981 (2) 2305...

  20. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLos AngelesGuillermo10Reactivity

  1. Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGeneGenomeGeoffrey F.GeographyIntermediates

  2. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential Application to ARMTransesterification: Laboratory

  3. Metal carbonyl-hydrosilane reactions and hydrosilation catalysis. Final report for period May 1, 1995 - August 14, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, Alan R.

    2001-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Manganese carbonyl complexes serve as hydrosilation precatalysts for selectively transforming a carbonyl group into a doxy methylene or a fully reduced methylene group. Substrates of interest include (1) aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, silyl esters, and esters, and (2) their organometallic acyl counterparts. Two types of manganese precatalysts have been reported: (a) alkyl and acyl complexes (L)(CO){sub 4}MnR [L = CO, PPh{sub 3}; R = COCH{sub 3}, COPh, CH{sub 3}] and (b) halides (CO){sub 5}MnX and [(CO){sub 4}MnX]{sub 2} (X = Br, I). The former promote hydrosilation and deoxygenation catalysis; the latter promote dehydrogenative silation of alcohols and carboxylic acids as well as hydrosilation and deoxygenation of some metallocarboxylic acid derivatives. In every case studied, these Mn precatalysts are far more reactive or selective than traditional Rh(l) precatalysts. The reaction chemistry of the above and other Mn alkyl complexes with hydrosilanes was studied in order to probe catalysis mechanism(s). Thus, Mn(CO){sub 5} methyl, benzyl, acetyl, and benzoyl (4 p-substituents) complexes reacted with hydrosilines by four different mechanisms, which were established. A noteworthy development was that the methyl and benzoyl complexes gave moderate yields of a new ({eta}{sup 2}-Si-H) silane adduct (CO){sub 4}Mn(SiMe{sub 2}Ph)(H-SiMe{sub 2}Ph), which is stable in the presence of excess silane. This silane adduct promotes all three catalytic reactions; its extraordinary activity and potential selectivity are under study.

  4. An investigation of the preparation of some alkylphosphonyl dichlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Sidney Henry

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (ies using the phosphorus trichloride-aluminum chloride method. They noted that n-propyl, n-butyl, and isobutyl chloride yielded ~iso ropyl, isobutyl, and t-butyl- phosphonyl dichloride, respectively, with no trace of un- isomerized products Although..., that with respect to iso- butyl alcohol and. other primary alcohols with an adjacent tertiary position, two mechanisms are competing ? either a combination of' an SN1 with and SN2 or SNi mechanism. It must further be postulated that with respect to 5-methyi- 2...

  5. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 79-034-1440, Intex Plastics, Corinth, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salisbury, S.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from the president of the United Rubber Workers, Local 759, an investigation was begun into possible hazardous working conditions at the Hatco Plastics Division, Currently known as Intex Plastics, Corinth, Mississippi. The request indicated that several production and maintenance employees at that site had been disabled due to chemical poisoining and related illnesses. A medical survey was begun at the facility in March of 1979. Fifty employees participated by completing a questionnaire. A high prevalence of eye, nose, and throat irritation was found along with shortness of breath, cough, and skin rash among workers assigned to the Calender, Color, and Laminating Departments. Air sampling was performed in several departments. Except for methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK), the levels of substances detected were quite low. The department with the highest exposure to airborne contaminants included the Print Service with 36 to 299 parts per million (ppm) MEK, laminating at 74 to 105ppm MEK, printing at 15 to 113ppm MEK, color at 15 to 24ppm MEK, premix at 0.3 to 6.8mg/cu m total dust, and calender at 0.1 to 0.6mg/cu m total dust.

  6. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  8. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  9. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  10. Submicrometer Pattern Fabrication by Intensification of Instability in Ultrathin Polymer Films under a Water-Solvent Mix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankur Verma; Ashutosh Sharma

    2011-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Dewetting of ultrathin (energy penalty required for deformations on small scales. We show a simple, one-step versatile method to fabricate sub-micron (>~100 nm) droplets and their ordered arrays by room temperature dewetting of ultrathin polystyrene (PS) films by minimizing these limitations. This is achieved by controlled room temperature dewetting under an optimal mixture of water, acetone and methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK). Diffusion of organic solvents in the film greatly reduces its glass transition temperature and the interfacial tension, but enhances the destabilizing field by introduction of electrostatic force. The latter is reflected in a change in the exponent, n of the instability length scale, {\\lambda} ~h^n, where h is the film thickness and n = 1.51 \\pm 0.06 in the case of water-solvent mix, as opposed to its value of 2.19 \\pm 0.07 for dewetting in air. The net outcome is more than one order of magnitude reduction in the droplet size as well as their mean separation and also a much faster dynamics of dewetting. We also demonstrate the use of this technique for controlled dewetting on topographically patterned substrates with submicrometer features where dewetting in air is either arrested, incomplete or unable to produce ordered patterns.

  11. the high content of acids in honey. The pos-sibilities of the S-treatment need to be tested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - Nebenprodukte wurden Acetaldehyd, Iso- butanol, 3-Methyl-1-Butanol, 2-Methyl-1- Butanol, 1-Butanol, Pr

  12. Evaluation of host-seeking behavior in a diverse group of nematode species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaisson, Keely Ellen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3-heptanol isovaleric acid 3-methyl-1-butanol CI = -1 CI= 1 isovaleric acid 3-methyl-1-butanol 2-methyl-1-butanol 3-in human sweat (3-methyl-1-butanol, 2- methyl-1-butanol, 6-

  13. Pentanol isomer synthesis in engineered microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol are a useful classMethyl-1-butanol . 3-Methyl-1-butanol . Biofuels 32 MJ/L for2007). In particular, 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol)

  14. Membrane proteomic analysis of pancreatic cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Min; Go, Vay Liang W; Hu, Shen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and amino acids, protein folding/ unfolded protein response,ER regulation of protein folding 8.98 Ketone body metabolismcatabolic process; protein folding/transport; response to

  15. ac-type microarc oxidation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  16. aldehyde oxidation level: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  17. area perovskite-type oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  18. alkene metathesis catalyst: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  19. ameliorating oxidative damage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  20. autotrophic feiii oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  1. alleviates oxidative damage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  2. americium oxides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  3. aldehyde oxidizing enzymes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  4. astaxanthin decreased oxidative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  5. amide decreases oxidative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  6. arsenide oxides sr2cro3feas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  7. alleviating oxidative damage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas phase oxidation of alkenes as propene to unsaturated aldehydes or ketones such as acrolein. A 19 Cu20 catalyst was used and periodically reactivated... Billingsley, David...

  8. 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    (MTBE),ethyl (ETBE),n-propyl,isopropyl,and isobutyl tert-butyl ethers have been examined experimentally spectroscopy (MIKES) experiments on deuterated ions from MTBE and ETBE. Mechanistic possibilities are probed tert-amyl ether and its deuterated analogues. Protonated MTBE displays a single unimolecular

  9. Sirt1 promotes fat mobilization in white adipocytes by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    of Pharmacy and Environmental Health Science Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 mediating fat storage. Sirt1 represses PPAR-g by docking with its cofactors NCoR (nuclear receptor co by the nuclear receptor PPAR-g9 . Upon induction of adipogenesis by insulin, dexamethasone and isobutyl

  10. THE EFFECT OF FASTING ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in plasma glucose, ketones, free fatty acids, lactic acid and pyruvic acid (table I). Cows reacted more it did in fasted sheep ; and the plasma ketones and free fatty acids of cows reached higher levels than and LEVEILLE (1970) reported that plasma levels of free fatty acids increased after only 2 hours of fasting

  11. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a c t Keywords: Nanowires; PEKK; Composites; Conductivity; Mechanical properties High-performance conductive thermoplastic composites poly(ether ketone ketone) (PEKK)/silver nanowires were elaborated by melt obtained above the percolation threshold were among the highest measured for low-filled conductive polymer

  12. Some characteristics of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in the liver of the neonatal pig : preliminary results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    body uti- lization but to a low rate of hepatic ketone body production (Pégorier et al., 1983). The low rate of ketone body production also results from a limited capacity for fatty acid oxidation associated to Mersmann et al. (1972). The mitochondrial pellet was suspended in sucrose-Tris buffer to give

  13. Engineering metabolic systems for production of advanced fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Yajun; Liao, James C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the production of 3-methyl-1-butanol. Appl Environ Microbiolsubstrate for 3-methyl-1-butanol (3MB). The phenylalaninepentanoate KDC ADH 3-Methyl-1-butanol Fig. 3 Schematic

  14. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acrylate Ethy lbenzene 3-Methyl- 1-butanol Pyridine Pyrroleethyl acrylate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, N-nitrosodiethylamineEthylbenzene Formaldehyde 3-Methyl-1-butanol Phenol Styrene

  15. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FY11 Objectives: * Develop a chemical kinetic models for an actual components in biodiesel Methyl palmitate Methyl linoleate Methyl linolenate * Develop a chemical...

  16. Bioaccumulation patterns of methyl mercury and essential fatty acids in lacustrine planktonic food webs and fishB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    Program, Department of Biology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3020, Stn CSC, Victoria (BC) V8W 3N5 Canada b School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055 STN CSC Victoria (BC) V8W 3P6 Canada Received 13 October 2004; received in revised form 5 August 2005; accepted 12

  17. Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pathways have re- ceived less attention. Since marine microalgae may be considered to be major contributors true for microalgae. Virtually all recent microalgae investigated for the presence and nature of acid

  18. A 2000 year atmospheric history of methyl chloride from a South Pole ice core: Evidence for climate-controlled variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Margaret B; Aydin, Murat; Tatum, Cheryl; Saltzman, Eric S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from NW Atlantic and Pacific Ocean studies, J. Geophys.in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans for elevated low

  19. Radiosensitization by a new nucleoside analogue: 1-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole (RP-170)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murayama, C.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Miyata, Y.; Sakaguchi, M.; Tanabe, Y.; Tanaka, N.; Mori, T. (Tokai Univ. (Japan))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new potent hypoxic cell sensitizer, a 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside analogue having methoxyglycerol as a sugar moiety at the N-1 position of the imidazole ring (RP-170), has been synthesized. Its radiosensitizing activities in vitro and in vivo were investigated and compared with those of misonidazole (MISO) and etanidazole (SR-2508). As might be expected from the almost identical electron affinities of the three compounds, they were equally effective against hypoxic EMT6 cells in vitro. The in vivo-in vitro excision analysis showed that RP-170 was also as effective as MISO and etanidazole to radiosensitize solid tumor cells in vivo. An intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg of RP-170 and an intravenous administration of the same dose of etanidazole showed an equal sensitizer-enhancement ratio of 1.51 to solid EMT6/KU tumors. Its effectiveness was also demonstrated by growth delay assay using solid SCCVII tumors. As predicted from the low partition coefficient, RP-170 and etanidazole showed apparently lower toxicity in vivo than MISO; their LD50/14 were 4.3, 4.8, and 1.8 g/kg in our experiment, respectively. Moreover, RP-170 showed fast clearance from serum in mice (t1/2 = 10.24 min) and poor penetration into neural tissues. Although RP-170 does not show any advantages over etanidazole in terms of sensitization or toxicity, RP-170 might be preferable under certain circumstances because it can be given orally.

  20. The role of methylation in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia : potential therapeutic targets of leukemic pathogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anvar, Elhaam

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a patient with acute leukemia. Ann. Genet. 16, 109–112.AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults and isand prognostic factors of acute myeloid leukemia with t (8;

  1. Effect of Amino Acid Subsititution in Set1 on Histone H3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saaccharomyces Cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chateau, Morgan

    2008-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    silencing is necessary for normal cell development and regulation. Incorrect or missing histone modifications can cause the loss of gene silencing and uncontrolled gene expression similar to the situation in cells of patients with cancer or leukemia. My...

  2. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  3. A determination of the heats of combustion of the five-carbon fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilby, Ralph F

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; g7;P~. X% FATTI ACXDS ND TAX'. K~~~. Ah. ' RKg', Ei~K'~ P~ FuXVQJ~ ef %he 1&aydgewetie fea %he Twine of ~ of . "-elmer F~ F QQXly xy, ay~ Oe esther w9atew to thank Lh ~ C+ K ~ eeet W 9 H~ Vetoes ebs 45xoe~ @de esesaveh The ~ also ~ to thsnk N... of preparation had to be used? Tbongh sane diff ioalt and tins oonsnaing than sxxidationx the prsparatdon through the Orignard synthesis prosed quite satisfaotory? Isobntyl ~ prepared frcxa the aloohol was converted to isobutgrl nayvvxtuxs bread, de whioh...

  4. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MtBE) contamination of the City of Santa Monica drinking water supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Rodriguez, R.A. [City of Santa Monica, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 1996, the City of Santa Monica ceased pumping groundwater from two Well Fields (Charnock and Arcadia) used for public drinking water supply due to persistent and increasing concentrations of MtBE in all seven municipal water supply wells. This lost production accounted for 50% of the City`s total drinking water supply. In late 1996, the City, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, initiated an investigation of MtBE contamination at the two well fields. The objectives of the investigation were as follows: (1) Review available data on the production, use, chemical characteristics, fate and transport, toxicology, and remediation of MtBE; (2) Identify locations of potential sources of MtBE groundwater contamination at the well fields; (3) Develop an understanding of the hydrologic pathways from the potential sources to the drinking water wells; and (4) Evaluate alternative treatment technologies for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. In addition to a review of available information about MtBE, the investigation included an extensive review of literature and available data relevant to the well fields, including well field production histories, site and regional hydrogeology, all well logs and production in the groundwater basins, general groundwater quality, and the record of MtBE detection. Based upon the review of background information, conceptual hydrogeologic models were developed. A detailed review of agency files for over 45 potential source sites was conducted. The information from this review was summarized, and source site screening and ranking criteria were developed. A field program was conducted at the major well field (Charnock), including soil gas surveys, CPTs, soil borings and well installations, geophysics, and aquifer testing. The field program provided site data which allowed the conceptual hydrogeologic model to be refitted to actual site conditions.

  5. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. J. Slomczynski. 2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: BionetsScow, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. MTBE and benzene biodegradationinteractions in BTEX and MTBE mixtures by an MTBE-degrading

  6. Review of potential technologies for the treatment of Methyl tertiary butyl Ether (MtBE) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Browne, T.E. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, the state of knowledge on effective treatment technologies for MtBE in drinking water, and groundwater in general, is limited. Research by others is focusing on the remediation of MtBE close to the point of release. The City of Santa Monica, MWD, Komex and USC are currently conducting research into different technologies that could be used to remove MtBE from drinking water supplies. The objectives of the research are to evaluate different treatment technologies to identify cost-effective and technically feasible alternatives for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. The evaluation is considering moderate to high water flow rates (100 to 2,000+ gpm) and low to moderate MtBE concentrations (<2,000 {mu}g/l). The research program includes four phases: (1) Literature Review; (2) Bench Scale Study; (3) Field Scale Pre-pilot Study; and (4) Summary Evaluation. This paper presents some preliminary information and findings from the first phase of this research - the literature review. The review discusses the chemical properties of MtBE and how they affect remediation and thus, an evaluation of alternative treatment technologies. The review of available literature, and the applicability and limitations of the following technologies are presented in detail.

  7. Dispersed Activity during Passive Movement in the Globus Pallidus of the 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Gad, Izhar

    activity and synchronized firing patterns. In this study, we used multi-electrode recordings to directly [7], direction and amplitude [8] and context [9]. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative

  8. Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ick Chan

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Burzo, Dr. Pavel L. Komarov, and Dr. Peter E. Raad for their help in experimental accomplishment, valuable suggestions, and significant advice. I also deeply appreciate their kindness that allowed me to use the apparatus of the Nanoscale Electro...

  9. Selective, On-Resin N-Methylation of Cyclic Peptides and Implications for the Discovery of Membrane Permeable Scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Tina Renea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Org. Chem. 1992, 57, 4394-4400. 29. Pettibone, D. J. ,J. Org. Chem. 1992, 57, 4394-4400. 59. Pettibone, D. J. ,

  10. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    drilling fluid, which probably penetrated the ice along fractures that later healed, appear to contaminate C 3 H 8 as well

  11. Sub-10-nm half-pitch electron-beam lithography by using poly,,methyl methacrylate... as a negative resist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    is of great importance for high-density magnetic storage, integrated circuits, and nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. Until now, hydrogen silsesquioxane HSQ and calixarene were the only two reported negative, the authors report that 10-nm half-pitch dense nanostructures can also be readily fabricated using the well

  12. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    study of ethane and propane oxidation in the tropo- sphere,alkanes (ethane, C 2 H 6 ; propane, C 3 H 8 ; n-butane, n-Cfluid contamination. 4.1.2. Propane [ 24 ] Propane levels in

  13. A determination of the heats of combustion of the five-carbon fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilby, Ralph F

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; g7;P~. X% FATTI ACXDS ND TAX'. K~~~. Ah. ' RKg', Ei~K'~ P~ FuXVQJ~ ef %he 1&aydgewetie fea %he Twine of ~ of . "-elmer F~ F QQXly xy, ay~ Oe esther w9atew to thank Lh ~ C+ K ~ eeet W 9 H~ Vetoes ebs 45xoe~ @de esesaveh The ~ also ~ to thsnk N... of preparation had to be used? Tbongh sane diff ioalt and tins oonsnaing than sxxidationx the prsparatdon through the Orignard synthesis prosed quite satisfaotory? Isobntyl ~ prepared frcxa the aloohol was converted to isobutgrl nayvvxtuxs bread, de whioh...

  14. Growth and response of whitebrush to 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid as conditioned by available soil moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCully, Wayne Gunter

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A & M COLLEGE OF TEXAS A&MCOL EGF &?*/MG*? MH CLeO?a&d*L OM - of?OLDp- b orLpM&M/L?GMtDEr?Oer EreF E* rMGFeOeMG?F aD EmEepEap? *Mep fMe*Od&? E Fnyy19585nKN aW C8WN1 AT fSrhuuW ? ? * *hscn551i 5K 5l1 A98ih851 *SlKKu Kv 5l1 Eb9nShu5h...98u 8Ni f1Sl8NnS8u rKuu1b1 Kv O1,8y nN B895n8u vhuvnuuc1N5 Kv 5l1 91.hn91c1N5y vK9 5l1 i1b911 Kv FMrOM& MH /LepM*M/LD f8W P>xg fE?M& *da??rOJ /pEGO /LD*eMpMAD A&MCOL EGF &?*/MG*? MH CLeO?a&d*L OM - of?OLDpow orLpM&M/L?GMteEr?Oer EMeF E* r...

  15. Adsorption of As(V), As(III) and methyl arsenic by calcite and the impact of some groundwater species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert Garret

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    on arsenic solubility, adsorption and precipitation phenomena. Adsorption kinetics of iAsV, evaluated at a low and high concentration, was a relatively rapid process, with a fast initial reaction rate within the first few minutes and a subsequent slower...

  16. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    firn and ice at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. , 98,AL. : TRACE GASES IN GREENLAND ICE CORE ¨ . Andreae Kettle,and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin, 1 M. B.

  17. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric

    , and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin,1 M. B. Williams,1 and E. S. Saltzman1 Received 7-lived atmospheric trace gases were measured in 25 ice core samples from Summit, Greenland. Samples were selected. The CH3Br results are consistent with previous observations of ``excess'' CH3Br in Greenland firn air

  18. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Prmt5-Mep50 Methylates Histones H2A and H4 and the Histone Chaperone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chait, Brian T.

    that nucleoplasmin (Npm), an exceedingly abundant maternally deposited protein, is a potent substrate for Prmt5-Mep50 and is monomethylated and symmetrically dimethylated at Arg-187. Furthermore, Npm modulates Prmt5-Mep50 activity directed toward histones, consistent with a regulatory role for Npm in vivo. We show that H2A

  19. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: Bionets containing Isolite,In Situ and On-site Bioremediation Symposium. Battellebacteria for use in bioremediation. FEMS Lett. 22. Dennis,

  20. The effect of methyl silicone upon feedlot performance digestibility of nutrients and prevention of bloat in beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Landon Douglas

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    45. 50, choice 44. 00, lov choice 42. 50, high good 40. 00, good. 38. 50, lov good 37. 00, high commercial $4. 00. ' R~CII544@@jsi'ei'xiii''nisi'ines'i'i'eeeeiyeaeeieiime'ei'iieii'mijn'. '1' Xa':, ' ~ $%, "~ ~~LCLeiir ee'i+ j e... i s ii y j ii i @w'ia i y ji i' ii iw y ii ma i~ i i e i+i? ii y w+? e a + 5V 15'. ~QQ'"~ 0E ~ ~ ~ 40&~8@' ix4 T~p, ~equi % ' '. : 'j X9k~meaw'aiw'i'i++'i'aiiaai eaiiie'ei'ae''iii ae'sii &'&'ii'i'ii&i. ' ''N ee+e'i~e@iaege~eiimei~seae'ii ?+'~ex...

  1. Modeling Xylene Reactions over ZSM-5 Zeolite in a Riser Simulator: 1,3 versus 1,2-Methyl Shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    -xylene p-xylene). The rate constants and activation energies are obtained from simplified kinetic models include solvent use, manufacture of di- paraxylene and herbicides. Total U.S. consumption of p

  2. An XAFS Study of Nickel Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roeper, D.; Cheek, G; Pandya, K; O'Gragy, W

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of metals from aqueous solutions has a successful history for many metals. However, some metals cannot be deposited from aqueous solutions because their potentials fall outside of the window of stability for water. Using ionic liquids for the electrodeposition of metals can avoid some of these difficulties because they have a larger region of stability than water. The electrochemical window can be tailored to fit a particular application by choosing appropriate anions and cations to form the melt. There is also the possibility to deposit pure metals without the oxides and hydrides that can form in aqueous solutions. The study of the structure of metal salts in ionic liquids is an important step towards achieving these goals.

  3. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl-tert butyl ether (ETBE), occurs via a cytochrome P450protein complexes involved in ETBE degradation from R. rubernot been shown to degrade ETBE. Many pollutant degradation

  4. EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to advance Oxyhydrochlorination technology to an integrated engineering-scale process.

  5. Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is associated with the transcriptional reprogramming efficiency of somatic nuclei by oocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murata, Kazutaka; Kouzarides, Tony; Bannister, Andrew J; Gurdon, John

    2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    containing injected nuclei at around pH 7.5. The chro- mosomes in nuclear pellets were digested by micrococ- cal nuclease (MNase, 0.1 units/sample) at 18°C for 10 min in order to obtain mononucleosomes. The cell per- meabilization step was omitted because... these cells were already permeabilized before injection. 1 ?l of 0.5 M EDTA and 1 ?l of NP-40 was added to a 100 ?l sample solution in order to stop micrococcal nuclease activities. The pellets were shaken gently for 30 min at 4°C to lyse nuclei completely...

  6. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

  7. Synthesis and crystal structure studies of ethyl 5-methyl-1, 3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra,; Babu, E. A. Jithesh; Mahendra, M., E-mail: mahendra@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India); Srikantamurthy, N.; Umesha, K. B. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore-570005 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The title compound, C{sub 19}H{sub 18}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}, was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. It crystallizes in monoclinic class under the space group P2{sub 1}/c with cell parameters a= 8.4593(4) Å, b=15.6284(6) Å, c=12.4579(5) Å, ?=90°, ?=98.241(3)°, ?=90° and Z=2. The ethoxycarbonyl group is slightly twisted from the pyrazole ring, and adopts syn-periplanar conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C-H….O hydrogen bonds, which help in stabilizing the crystal structure.

  8. The role of mismatch repair in mediating cellular sensitivity to cisplatin : the Escherichia coli methyl-directed repair paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticancer drug cisplatin is in widespread use but its mechanism of action is only poorly understood. Moreover, human cancers acquire resistance to the drug, which limits its clinical utility. A paradox in the field ...

  9. Adsorption of As(V), As(III) and methyl arsenic by calcite and the impact of some groundwater species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert Garret

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    on arsenic solubility, adsorption and precipitation phenomena. Adsorption kinetics of iAsV, evaluated at a low and high concentration, was a relatively rapid process, with a fast initial reaction rate within the first few minutes and a subsequent slower...

  10. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 CleanFOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 13,

  11. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1994, well point water and near surface water (bucket) samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E would migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from near surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. Results of the March 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near the old F-Area effluent ditch. Six different analytes were detected in the well points at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit: d 1,2-dichloroethylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium. 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium were detected at levels above Primary Drinking Water Standards or Maximum Contaminant Levels list. Four analytes, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride, were detected at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit and least once at concentrations above the PDWS or the MCL. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets were negligible.

  12. Development of Biosensors for Real Time Analysis of Perchlorate in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frankenberger, William T; Okeke, Benedict C; Cheng, Quan Jason

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    element and redox colorants, particularly methyl viologen (the methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) is used as a redox regenerator

  13. KDG, Robinson Lab RR EE CC II PP EE SS II NN DD EE XX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Douglas N.

    Stock Drugs_________ ________________ 02 LB, LB-Agar, & Pouring LB-Agar Plates______ 03 15% Acrylamide is dissolved. Takes 5-10 min. WATER EQUILIBRATED BUTANOL 35mL isobutyl alcohol 15mL 18 M dH2O Mix in 50m gel when making Acrylamide Gels. #12;KDG, Robinson Lab 2 AMPICILLIN Want 50mg/mL stock Mix 2.5g

  14. Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of Armatol A through a polyepoxide cyclization cascade : revision of the proposed structures of Armatols A-F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Brian Saxton

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclization Cascades Leading to the Tricyclic Fragment of Armatol A The synthesis of the fused 6,7,7-tricycle of armatol A was investigated. Fragments containing both a ketone and an aldehyde for subsequent fragment coupling ...

  15. A&A 459, 317320 (2006) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20065777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ketones and aldehydes (e.g. acetone, Snyder et al. 2002; propenal and propanal, Hollis et al. 2004b; Fuchs et al. 2005) towards different hot core regions pro- vide evidence that large organic molecules

  16. A Novel Route to Enantioenriched ?-Allyl ?-Fluoroketones via Palladium Catalyzed Decarboxylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Briana R.

    2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details the development of a novel catalytic asymmetric route to ?-fluorinated ketones. Enantioenriched ?-fluoroketones were produced in good yields and high enantiomeric ratios via palladium-catalyzed ...

  17. Published: August 02, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 12910 dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja202277h |J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 1291012913

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    in a ratiometric fluorescence response. The thin films show orthogonal responses when exposed to cyclic ketones- (trifluoromethyl)phenyl isocyanate, CH2Cl2, rt, 12 h. (ii) Squaric acid, toluene/n-butanol (3:1), r

  18. INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS When certain hazardous chemicals are stored or mixed together, violent reactions may occur because the chemicals are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Junghyun

    metals acids, chromium, ethylene, halogens, hydrogen, mercury, earth nitrogen, oxidizers, plastics, ethylene, fluorine, hydrogen, ketones (acetone, carbonyls, etc.), metals, sulfur #12;Calcium oxide acids, ethanol, fluorine, organic materials Carbon (activated) alkali metals, calcium hypochlorite, halogens

  19. Studies directed towards the total synthesis of (+)-sieboldine A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gehling, Victor S. (Victor Scott)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress towards the total synthesis of sieboldine A is described. This synthetic approach uses a nickel-catalyzed alkyne-ketone reductive cyclization to form the hydrindane core of the natural product in good yield and ...

  20. Gilbert Stork: Explorations into Position Selectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Regiospecific deprotonation & trapping with saturated ketones · -Vetivone Cyano-epoxide and allylic-Patchouli alcohol · (+)-Digitoxigenin Radical cyclization to form a temporary ring Mixed acetal linkage · 12a