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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An exploded view of the monitor is illustrated in Figure 1. The theory of diffusive sampling considers a concentration gra- dient between the ambient air and the adsorbent to be the driving force for sampling. For the adsorption to be controlled by diffu...AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM...

Andrew, Lloyd B.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

2

Storage effects on desorption efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and styrene collected on activated charcoal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the worker ' s breathir ng zone cont ir uously during his working day. Solid ad- sorbents are used almost exclusively I' or this type of sampling. Among the marr, adsorbents avail able (s ! i ca gel, activated alumina, Tenax, etc. } acti&!ated charcoa&1 I... efficier&cy nf methyl etiiy', Ketone and styrene monomer adsorbed on activated charcoal samples, and stored under isotherm&al condit'ions, were investigated as a function of storage time. The dependence of the storage time effects on the storage temp...

Dommer, Richard Alvin

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ketone synthesis for biofuels Ee-Been Goh†† 1,3 , Edward E.microbes for use as biofuels, such as fatty acid ethylother fatty acid-derived biofuels, such as fatty acid ethyl

Goh, Ee-Been

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-tosyloxy ketones applications Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

production of instant these are solvent extraction with methyl-ethyl- -ketone and the sublimation methods... features making them particularly applicable to the large-scale...

5

Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters transportation fuel dedicated to the diesel engine, biodiesel, with an emphasis on ethyl esters because of biodiesel and related components, the main gaps in the field are highlighted to facilitate the convergence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

akap12 promoter methylation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(MEK) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is widely used in industry as a radicalThermal Hazard Analysis of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide Ron-Hsin Chang, Chi-Min Shu and Po-Yin Yeh...

7

Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

8

Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-?B expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ? Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ? MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ? MP and EP decreased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ? MP and EP reduced NF-?B expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ? MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Using solubility and Henry`s law constant data for ketones in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When a chemical spill occurs in water, the extent of chemical contamination is determined by the chemical`s solubility in the water. If contaminated water comes into contact with air, such as in a pond or a storage vessel, the contaminant`s emissions into the air can be determined based upon Henry`s law constant for that particular constituent. A high Henry`s law constant value translates into a greater emissions level. The engineering design and operation of strippers to remove contaminants from water require data for both water solubility and Henry`s law constant. A new correlation developed by researchers at Lamar University provides reliable values down to very, very low concentrations for the solubility of ketones in water. The correlation is based on the boiling point temperature of the ketone and can be used for engineering studies involving health, safety and environmental considerations. Results for water solubility and Henry`s law constant are provided here for a wide variety of ketones. Representative values are about 249,000 parts per million (ppm) per weight (wt) for methyl ethyl ketone (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O) and 360 ppm/wt for 5-nonanone (C{sub 9}H{sub 18}O).

Yaws, C.L.; Sheth, S.D.; Han, M. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Broensted superacidity of HCl in a liquid chloroaluminate. AlCl sub 3 -1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The system HCl (0.1-1 atm)/AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC (55.0 mol % AlCl{sub 3}) (EMIC = 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride) at 23{degree}C is a Broensted superacid capable of protonating arenes to a degree similar to that of liquid HF at 0{degree}C (H{sub 0} = {minus}15.1). Arenes used in this investigation were biphenyl (I), naphthalene (II), 9H-fluorene (III), chrysene (IV), 2-methylnaphthalene (V), mesitylene (VI), pentamethylbenzene (VII), hexamethylbenzene (VIII), anthracene (IX), and 9,10-dimethylanthracene (X). In both the chloroaluminate melt and HF I is a weak base while VIII-X are strong bases. In between these extremes the order of basicities in both media is II < III and IV < V < VI < VII < VIII. A study of the effect of HCl partial pressure showed, for example that V is 50% protonated at 0.3 atm HCl. The overall reaction is arene + HCl + Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}} {r reversible} arene {times} H{sup +} + 2AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and is reversible. The degree of protonation was measured by optical absorption spectrophotometry. The arenes are stable in the liquid chloroaluminate for many hours, and their protonated forms (arenium ions) are stable for 1 h or more. A new procedure for the preparation of EMIC was developed that yields exceptionally clean AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC melts with very low concentrations of protic and oxidizing impurities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Smith, G.P.; Dworkin, A.S.; Zingg, S.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Pagni, R.M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1989-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

arrhizus ethyl esters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1. Introduction Biodiesel, consisting of the methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids with biodiesel. To the extent that these deal with biodiesel from virgin vegetable fatty acids,...

13

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols ketones alkanediols Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydrogenation (TH) of ketones under basic conditions employing ... Source: Stradiotto, Mark - Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University Collection: Chemistry 33 CHEMISTRY...

15

analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de 170 High Purity Ethyl Acetate Production with a Batch Reactive Distillation Column using Dynamic Optimization Strategy CiteSeer Summary: AbstractEthyl acetate with the...

16

Oligomerization and Catalytic Ketonization in the Mixalco™ Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

–3 Depending how many steps are employed, the final product is ketones, alcohols, or hydrocarbons. Potential biomass feedstocks include municipal solid waste, animal manure, and energy crops.4–8 The MixAlco™ process is a version of the carboxylate platform...

Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl aryl ketones Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Columbia University Collection: Chemistry 60 Production of 11C-Labeled Summary: . 11CCarbon Monoxide - For preparation of 11C-labeled ketones from iodides (1) Radiochemical...

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - arginine chloromethyl ketone Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

presence of the tetrapeptide chloromethyl ketone... arginines (Arg209), one from each monomer, are buried within the same region of the dimer interface. We... propose that this...

19

Studies of Various Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions on Pt Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with various reactants. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,hydrogenation products. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,

Kaneko, Shinji

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of liquid-phase ethyl tert-butylether (ETBE) synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is now the second largest volume organic chemical, only behind ethylene, produced in the U.S. This is remarkable since its commercial production began barely two decades ago. Although MTBE is currently the industry standard, it has been proposed that ethanol and other renewable additives make up to 30% of the oxygenate market. As a result, ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, or 2-ethyoxy 2-methyl propane), derived from renewable ethanol and isobutylene, has emerged as a promising new oxygenate. ETBE also has a somewhat lower blending Reid vapor pressure as well as a higher octane number than MTBE. This paper describes the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the production of ETBE.

Jensen, K.L.; Datta, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Catalytic ionic hydrogenation of ketones using tungsten or molybdenum organometallic species  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a process for the catalytic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes to alcohols at low temperatures and pressures using organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes. The functional group is selected from groups represented by the formulas R(C.dbd.O)R' and R(C.dbd.O)H, wherein R and R' are selected from hydrogen or any alkyl or aryl group. The active catalyst for the process has the form: [CpM(CO).sub.2 (PR*.sub.3) L].sup.+ A.sup.-, where Cp=.eta..sup.5 -R.sup..tangle-solidup..sub.m C.sub.5 H.sub.5-m and R.sup..tangle-solidup. represents an alkyl group or a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) or R.sup..tangle-solidup. =OR' (where R'=H, an alkyl group or an aryl group) or R.sup..tangle-solidup. =CO.sub.2 R' (where R'=H, an alkyl group or an aryl group) and m=0 to 5; M represents a molybdenum atom or a tungsten atom; R*.sub.3 represents three hydrocarbon groups selected from a cyclohexyl group (C.sub.6 H.sub.11), a methyl group (CH.sub.3), and a phenyl group (C.sub.6 H.sub.5) and all three R* groups can be the same or different or two of the three groups can be the same; L represents a ligand; and A.sup.- represents an anion. In another embodiment, one, two or three of the R* groups can be an OR*.

Voges, Mark (Leverkusen, DE); Bullock, R. Morris (Wading River, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen Abstraction by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen carried out of the kinetics of inter- and intramolecular phenolic hydrogen abstraction phenolic hydrogen, which yields the corresponding phenoxyl-hemipinacol biradical. The biradicals have also

Leigh, William J.

24

An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Wheeler G.S. 2009. “Silicate Consolidants for Stone. ”4   2.2.   Ethyl Silicate: Chemistry and6   2.2.1.   Ethyl Silicates for Stone

Dolph, Brittany Helen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

500 600 700 800 900 1000 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 Apparent Heat Release Rate (kJDeg) Bulk Cylinder Gas Temperature (K) CA (Deg) -0.01 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.11 50 250 450...

26

Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Term Storage ofEnergyReactivity SI

27

The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl-phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl- phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium chloride Andrew Hempel,a * Norman Research, 8515C 35 Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA Correspondence e-mail: andrew

28

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

Collum, David B.

29

Lithium Enolates of Simple Ketones: Structure Determination Using the Method of Continuous Variation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium Enolates of Simple Ketones: Structure Determination Using the Method of Continuous of continuous variation in conjunction with 6Li NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize lithium enolates,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine and cubic tetramers in tetrahydrofuran and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. Introduction Lithium enolates are used

Collum, David B.

30

. The tin centre is responsible for the activation of the ketone substrate and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedure3 . The tin centre is responsible for the activation of the ketone substrate and increases catalysts, tin is substituted for some of the silicon or aluminium atoms facing the channel, and so is incorporated into the framework. Tin centres are responsible for the catalytic activity of these materials

Flanagan, Randy

31

Organoselenium Chemistry. Conversion of Ketones to Enones by Selenoxide Syn Elimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are direct selenenylation of ketone enolates using PhSeBr and the reaction of enol acetates%bdichlorodicyan- oquinone,2c periodic acid,2doxygen in the presence of tran- sition metal catalysts,2eand pyridine N-oxide-acetic eliminations synthetically in the conversion of epoxides to allyl alco- h o l ~ . ~ ~ , ~Several have explored

Reich, Hans J.

32

The Fusion Curve of Ammonia and Ethyl Alcohol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

’ Center for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Kansas for partial completion of Master of Arts. THE FUSION CURVE OF AMMONIA AND ETHYL ALCOHOL H. J. BRODERSON THE 2?03IOH CUHVB OP... AMMOHIA AND ETHXL ALCOHOL. A part of the requirement for the lh A. 2)egree. By K. J. Brodereon, University of Kangaa, May 1911, THE PUSIOB CURVS OP AliKOHlA AHD ETHYL ALCOHOL* Only within tho last fow ycara has any worlc boon done on tho fusion...

Broderson, H.J.

1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

34

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures and Relative Reactivities of Mixed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures-1301 ReceiVed April 30, 1997. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 26, 1997 Abstract: Addition of lithiumLi and 13C NMR spectroscopies reveal lithium cyclopropylacetylide in THF to be a dimer

Collum, David B.

35

Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.bacsa@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

36

Vapor phase ketonization of acetic acid on ceria based metal oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activities of CeO2, Mn2O3-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO2 were measured for acetic acid ketonization under reaction conditions relevant to pyrolysis vapor upgrading. We show that the catalyst ranking changed depending on the reaction conditions. Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 oC, while ZrO2 - CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 450 oC. Under high CO2 and steam concentration in the reactants, Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 and 450 °C. The binding energies of steam and CO2 with the active phase were calculated to provide the insight into the tolerance of Mn2O3-CeO2 to steam and CO2.

Liu, Changjun; Karim, Ayman M.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Synthesis and crystal structure studies of ethyl 5-methyl-1, 3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The title compound, C{sub 19}H{sub 18}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}, was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. It crystallizes in monoclinic class under the space group P2{sub 1}/c with cell parameters a= 8.4593(4) Å, b=15.6284(6) Å, c=12.4579(5) Å, ?=90°, ?=98.241(3)°, ?=90° and Z=2. The ethoxycarbonyl group is slightly twisted from the pyrazole ring, and adopts syn-periplanar conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C-H….O hydrogen bonds, which help in stabilizing the crystal structure.

Chandra,; Babu, E. A. Jithesh; Mahendra, M., E-mail: mahendra@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India); Srikantamurthy, N.; Umesha, K. B. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore-570005 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

38

An XAFS Study of Nickel Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ Aluminum Chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrodeposition of metals from aqueous solutions has a successful history for many metals. However, some metals cannot be deposited from aqueous solutions because their potentials fall outside of the window of stability for water. Using ionic liquids for the electrodeposition of metals can avoid some of these difficulties because they have a larger region of stability than water. The electrochemical window can be tailored to fit a particular application by choosing appropriate anions and cations to form the melt. There is also the possibility to deposit pure metals without the oxides and hydrides that can form in aqueous solutions. The study of the structure of metal salts in ionic liquids is an important step towards achieving these goals.

Roeper, D.; Cheek, G; Pandya, K; O'Gragy, W

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A determination of the heats of combustion of the five-carbon fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; g7;P~. X% FATTI ACXDS ND TAX'. K~~~. Ah. ' RKg', Ei~K'~ P~ FuXVQJ~ ef %he 1&aydgewetie fea %he Twine of ~ of . "-elmer F~ F QQXly xy, ay~ Oe esther w9atew to thank Lh ~ C+ K ~ eeet W 9 H~ Vetoes ebs 45xoe~ @de esesaveh The ~ also ~ to thsnk N... of preparation had to be used? Tbongh sane diff ioalt and tins oonsnaing than sxxidationx the prsparatdon through the Orignard synthesis prosed quite satisfaotory? Isobntyl ~ prepared frcxa the aloohol was converted to isobutgrl nayvvxtuxs bread, de whioh...

Gilby, Ralph F

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Pd-Catalyzed O-Arylation of Ethyl Acetohydroximate: Synthesis of O-Arylhydroxylamines and Substituted Benzofurans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An efficient Pd catalyst for the O-arylation of ethyl acetohydroximate with aryl chlorides, bromides, and iodides has been developed. Ethyl acetohydroximate serves as an efficient hydroxylamine equivalent for C?O cross-coupling, ...

Maimone, Thomas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Development of Broad-Spectrum Halomethyl Ketone Inhibitors Against Coronavirus Main Protease 3CL(pro)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coronaviruses comprise a large group of RNA viruses with diverse host specificity. The emergence of highly pathogenic strains like the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the discovery of two new coronaviruses, NL-63 and HKU1, corroborates the high rate of mutation and recombination that have enabled them to cross species barriers and infect novel hosts. For that reason, the development of broad-spectrum antivirals that are effective against several members of this family is highly desirable. This goal can be accomplished by designing inhibitors against a target, such as the main protease 3CLpro (Mpro), which is highly conserved among all coronaviruses. Here 3CLpro derived from the SARS-CoV was used as the primary target to identify a new class of inhibitors containing a halomethyl ketone warhead. The compounds are highly potent against SARS 3CLpro with Ki's as low as 300 nm. The crystal structure of the complex of one of the compounds with 3CLpro indicates that this inhibitor forms a thioether linkage between the halomethyl carbon of the warhead and the catalytic Cys 145. Furthermore, Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds have led to the identification of a pharmacophore that accurately defines the essential molecular features required for the high affinity.

Bacha,U.; Barilla, J.; Gabelli, S.; Kiso, Y.; Amzel, L.; Freire, E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

acid methyl esters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 (> 170 o C). Each fraction was analyzed composition of fatty acid ethyl esters using gas chromatography (GC). The result showed that the yield medium chain fatty acid ethyl...

43

acid methyl ester: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 (> 170 o C). Each fraction was analyzed composition of fatty acid ethyl esters using gas chromatography (GC). The result showed that the yield medium chain fatty acid ethyl...

44

Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl oleate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate renewable sources, can reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases. An important class of biodiesel fuels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Catalytic ionic hydrogenation of ketones using tungsten or molybdenum catalysts with increased lifetimes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a process for the catalytic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes to alcohols at low temperatures and pressures using organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes and the catalyst used in the process. The reactants include a functional group which is selected from groups represented by the formulas R*(C.dbd.O)R' and R*(C.dbd.O)H, wherein R* and R' are selected from hydrogen or any alkyl or aryl group. The process includes reacting the organic compound in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst to form a reaction mixture. The catalyst is prepared by reacting Ph.sub.3 C.sup.+ A.sup.- with a metal hydride. A.sup.- represents an anion and can be BF.sub.4.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, CF.sub.3 SO.sub.3.sup.- or Bar'.sub.4.sup.-, wherein Ar'=3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl. The metal hydride is represented by the formula: HM(CO).sub.2 [.eta..sup.5 :.eta..sup.1 --C.sub.5 H.sub.4 (XH.sub.2).sub.n PR.sub.2 ] wherein M represents a molybdenum (Mo) atom or a tungsten (W) atom; X is a carbon atom, a silicon atom or a combination of carbon (C) and silicon (Si) atoms; n is any positive integer; R represents two hydrocarbon groups selected from H, an aryl group and an alkyl group, wherein both R groups can be the same or different. The metal hydride is reacted with Ph.sub.3 C.sup.+ A.sup.- either before reacting with the organic compound or in the reaction mixture.

Bullock, R. Morris; Kimmich, Barbara F.; Fagan, Paul J.; Hauptman, Elisabeth

2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

46

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

Thermochemistry of Ethyl 3-Oxobutanoate Revisited: Observance of a Non-Zero Enthalpy of Mixing between Tautomers and Its Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Equation 1 was used for this purpose. The term Cp(l)m represents the heat capacity of the liquid that was estimated by group additivity.6 Since the heat capacity of the liquid enol-ester and keto-ester estimate The enthalpies of formation of pure liquid and gas-phase ethyl 3-oxobutanoate and ethyl Z-3-hydroxy- 2-butenoate

Chickos, James S.

48

Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute 2010 Keywords: Poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) Micelle Small angle neutron scattering a b angle neutron scattering. We found three transitions of the poly ((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate

Kofinas, Peter

49

Detection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase-Peroxidase Coupling Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bioassay may be suitable for field monitoring of BTEX to identify and track contaminated water and follow in contaminated water because of their accuracy and sensitivity. Although very sensitive, the cost associatedDetection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase

Chen, Wilfred

50

Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Alkylation in the Synthesis of Cyclopentanoid and Cycloheptanoid Core Structures Bearing All-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, iodoethane, acrylonitrile, methyl vinyl ketone, and acrolein were distilled prior to use. Purified water

Stoltz, Brian M.

51

Association Behavior of Biotinylated and Non-Biotinylated PolyEthylene Oxide-b-Poly(2-(Diethylamino)Ethyl Methacrylate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biotinylated and non-biotinylated copolymers of ethylene oxide (EO) and 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) were synthesized by the atom transfer radical polymerization technique (ATRP). The chemical compositions ...

Tan, J. F.

52

Distribution and origin of ethyl-branched alkanes in a Cenomanian transgressive shale of the Western Interior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note Distribution and origin of ethyl-branched alkanes in a Cenomanian transgressive shale hydrocarbon fraction of the basal Graneros Shale (Cenomanian, Western Interior Seaway, USA). On the basis rights reserved. Keywords: Monoethylalkanes; Branched alkanes; Black shales; Cenomanian; Graneros Shale

Kenig, Fabien

53

Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

54

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol + 1-pentanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-butanol + 1-pentanol have been measured at 373.15 K. The binary VLE results have been correlated by different liquid-phase activity coefficient models. The binary interaction parameters obtained from Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models in this and a previously study are used to predict the VLE data for the ternary system. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data are necessary for the design of distillation processes.

Aucejo, A.; Burguet, M.C.; Monton, J.B.; Munoz, R.; Sanchotello, M.; Vazquez, M.I. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

Bakalyar, S.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will be replaced by an ester bond between the fatty acid and a methyl group, producing methyl esters of the fatty acids (FAME) and free glycerol. 1.4 The FAME are then...

57

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER

Baker, Chris I.

58

Comparative Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine and in a ProteinHydrophobic Core Probed by Solid-State Deuteron Comparative Dynamics of Leucine Methyl Groups in FMOC-Leucine and...

59

Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

Walter, M.Todd

60

Vapor-liquid equilibria for systems of 1-butanol with 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 30 and 100 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data were measured for binary systems of 1-butanol with 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 30 and 100 kPa. The experimental data obtained in this work are thermodynamically consistent according to a point-to-point consistency test, and deviation from ideal behavior is small in all cases. They can be equally well correlated with the Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations.

Aucejo, A.; Burguet, M.C.; Monton, J.B.; Munoz, R.; Sanchotello, M.; Vazquez, M.I. (Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - amplified methylation polymorphism Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 Infraspecific DNA Methylation Polymorphism in Cotton (Gossypium Summary: Infraspecific DNA Methylation Polymorphism in Cotton (Gossypium...

62

Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

Trofimov, V.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

66

Methyl viologen radical reactions with several oxidizing agents. [Gamma Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rates of oxidation of the methyl viologen radical by peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide has been investigated. The methyl viologen free radical was produced by pulse radiolysis. The reaction of the peroxodisulfate radical with the methyl viologen radical was first order in both species, and the reaction rate constant is reported. A el-radiation study revealed a chain decomposition of the peroxodisulfate radical involving the methyl viologen radical when methanol, ethanol, or 2-propanol was present. Loss of the methyl viologen radical was then no longer observed to be a simple first-order reaction. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with the methyl viologen radical was very slow in the presence of 1 M methanol. A much faster reaction in the absence of methanol was interpreted to be a reaction of the methyl viologen radical with the peroxy radicals. Hydrogen peroxide, in contrast to the chain decomposition of peroxodisulfate radicals, does not participate in a chain reaction involving the methyl viologen radical and methanol. Rate constants for the reaction of methyl viologen radical with dichromate radical, iodate radical, and ferricyanide radical are reported.

Levey, G.; Ebbesen, T.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.

Nancharaiah, Y. V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Kalpakkam (India). Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Sect.; Francis, A. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Rep. of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

Wang, Hui [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gurau, Gabriela [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neil, Hugh [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL] [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL] [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, Robin D [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Stabilizing contributions of sulfur-modified nucleotides: crystal structure of a DNA duplex with 2'-O-[2-(methoxy)ethyl]-2-thiothymidines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substitution of oxygen atoms by sulfur at various locations in the nucleic acid framework has led to analogs such as the DNA phosphorothioates and 4'-thio RNA. The phosphorothioates are excellent mimics of DNA, exhibit increased resistance to nuclease degradation compared with the natural counterpart, and have been widely used as first-generation antisense nucleic acid analogs for applications in vitro and in vivo. The 4'-thio RNA analog exhibits significantly enhanced RNA affinity compared with RNA, and shows potential for incorporation into siRNAs. 2-Thiouridine (s{sup 2}U) and 5-methyl-2-thiouridine (m{sup 5}s{sup 2}U) are natural nucleotide analogs. s{sup 2}U in tRNA confers greater specificity of codon-anticodon interactions by discriminating more strongly between A and G compared with U. 2-Thio modification preorganizes the ribose and 2'-deoxyribose sugars for a C3'-endo conformation, and stabilizes heteroduplexes composed of modified DNA and complementary RNA. Combination of the 2-thio and sugar 2'-O-modifications has been demonstrated to boost both thermodynamic stability and nuclease resistance. Using the 2'-O-[2-(methoxy)ethyl]-2-thiothymidine (m{sup 5}s{sup 2}Umoe) analog, we have investigated the consequences of the replacement of the 2-oxygen by sulfur for base-pair geometry and duplex conformation. The crystal structure of the A-form DNA duplex with sequence GCGTAT*ACGC (T* = m{sup 5}s{sup 2}Umoe) was determined at high resolution and compared with the structure of the corresponding duplex with T* = m{sup 5}Umoe. Notable changes as a result of the incorporation of sulfur concern the base-pair parameter 'opening', an improvement of stacking in the vicinity of modified nucleotides as measured by base overlap, and a van der Waals interaction between sulfur atoms from adjacent m{sup 5}s{sup 2}Umoe residues in the minor groove. The structural data indicate only minor adjustments in the water structure as a result of the presence of sulfur. The observed small structural perturbations combined with the favorable consequences for pairing stability and nuclease resistance (when combined with 2'-O-modification) render 2-thiouracil-modified RNA a promising candidate for applications in RNAi.

Diop-Frimpong, Benjamin; Prakash, Thazha P.; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G.; Manoharan, Muthiah; Egli, Martin (Isis Pharm.); (Alnylam Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

71

ORTH/VIM proteins that regulate DNA methylation are functional ubiquitin E3 ligases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORTH/VIM proteins that regulate DNA methylation are functional ubiquitin E3 ligases Edward Kraft1 methylation status in vivo. Keywords: RING, E3 ligase, DNA methylation, ubiquitylation, ORTH/VIM, SRA

Jacobsen, Steve

72

Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

Chou, Howard H. (Berkeley, CA); Keasling, Jay D. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

73

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic methylation profiles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , urinary arsenic methylation profiles, and urothelial carcinoma susceptibility. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 929... and in vitro studies suggest that methylated arsenic...

74

Methyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere from temperate woodland ecosystems   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The environmental importance of methyl bromide (CH3Br) arises from its contribution to stratospheric ozone loss processes and, as a consequence, its emissions from anthropogenic sources are subject to the Montreal Protocol. A better understanding...

Drewer, Julia; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A; Heal, Mathew R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The Genetics of de novo Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

domains akin to UHRF1 and the VIM proteins. These proteinsthe VARIANT IN METHYLATION (VIM) family. In higher orderUHRF1 in mammal or the VIM proteins in plants. UHRF1/VIM

Greenberg, Maxim Van Cleef

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Regulation of yeast development by mRNA methylation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The internal methylation of mRNA post-transcriptionally is an essential component of the mRNA editing machinery in virtually every eukaryotic system. Despite this ubiquity, little is known about the relevance, consequences ...

Agarwala, Sudeep D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Methyl arsenic adsorption and desorption behavior on iron oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHYL ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR ON IRON OXIDES A Thesis by BRANDON JAMES LAFFERTY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2004 Major Subject: Soil Science METHYL ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR ON IRON OXIDES A Thesis by BRANDON JAMES LAFFERTY Submitted to Texas A&M University...

Lafferty, Brandon James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

79

The synthesis of some N-methylated aminoalkylphosphonic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(XLIII) were o heated with diethyl hydrogenphosphonate (XVI) at approximately 100 until the evolution of dimethylarnine (XXX) ceased. The 1-dimethyl- amino 1-alkenes (XLIV) reacted exothermically with diethyl hydro- genphosphonate (XVI) once... exothermically with methyl iodide at room temperature whereas the other eaters, which contained more bulky (R) substituents, did not. Secondly, the betaine obtained m the highest yield, N, N, N-trimethyl-N-(phosphono- methyl)ammonium hydroxide, mner salt...

Eikenberry, Jon Nathan

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

Morton, Thomas Hellman

82

Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Complete oxidation of CO, ethanol, and ethyl acetate over copper oxide supported on titania and ceria modified titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titania and titania modified with 3 and 12 {mu}mol Ce/m{sup 2} surface area of the titania were prepared and were used as supports for copper oxide. Preparations with 3 and 12 {mu}mol CuO{sub x}/m{sup 2} surface area of the support were tested for the combustion of CO, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The results show that the Ce-doped titania surface is good as support for CuO{sub x} and that the cerium not only enhances the activity of the copper species, but also stabilizes the surface area of the TiO{sub 2} support in the presence of copper oxide. Additions of Al, K, and La are also found to stabilize the TiO{sub 2} support but, compared with Ce, these elements do not to the same extent enhance the activity of the copper species. Acetaldehyde is observed to ban an intermediate in the combustion of both ethanol and ethyl acetate over Cu-Ce-Ti-O catalysts. Since acetaldehyde is more harmful than any of the reactants and also is photochemically active, it is in applications important to assure that the combustion is complete. Cu-Ce-Ti-O catalysts show good performance not only for feeds without water vapor, but also for humid feeds. Although the concentrations of intermediates are affected by the addition of water, there is little effect on the temperature required for obtaining complete conversion to carbon dioxide and water. Characterization with XRD, FT-Raman, TPR, and XPS indicates that the dispersed copper species are in the form of patches or a bidimensional layer which interacts with the surface of the support. When the content of cerium and copper is low, other types of dispersed copper species are present, which possibly are monomers or dimers. The copper species are predominantly Cu{sup 2+} species.

Larsson, P.O. [Perstorp AB (Sweden)] [Perstorp AB (Sweden); Andersson, A. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II] [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

85

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

86

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

87

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

88

Effects of hydration water on protein methyl group dynamics insolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments have been used to investigate the dynamics of methyl groups in a protein-model hydrophobic peptide in solution. The results suggest that, when the hydrophobic side chains are hydrated by a single hydration water layer, the only allowed motions are confined and attributed to librational and rotational movement associated with the methyl groups. They provide unique experimental evidence that the structural and dynamical properties of the interfacial water strongly influence the side-chain dynamics and the activation of diffusive motion.

Russo D; Hura GL; Copley JRD

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidmethyl ester concentration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

or polymers, which, if in high enough concentration, can... methyl ester (CME) Canola ethyl ester (CEE) Mustard methyl ester (MME) Soy methyl ester (SME... degraded....

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated ester terminated Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to oxidation, contact with water, andor microbial activity... methyl ester (CME) Canola ethyl ester (CEE) Mustard methyl ester (MME) Soy methyl ester (SME... degraded....

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride-vinyl methyl ether Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4-Methyl-2-pentanol Other secondary alcohols... - quire handling with precautions. Acrolein tert-Butyl methyl ether Di(1-propynl) ether n... Methoxy-1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene...

92

Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic Core at Cryogenic Temperatures by Deuteron NMR Spectroscopy. Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein...

93

Environmental and age effects on methylation changes in human brain and blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous studies have shown that DNA methylation may 1 e associated with disease, aging, the rate of aging and genetics. In this thesis, age is accurately predicted from DNA methylation in brain and blood tissues using two ...

Giguzinsky, Orit

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ultrafast photochemistry of methyl hydroperoxide on ice particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast photochemistry of methyl hydroperoxide on ice particles M. A. Kambouresa , S. AOOH, on water clusters produces a surprisingly wide range of products on a subpicosecond time scale | photodissociation Photoinduced processes at surfaces of water or ice are of interest in atmospheric chemistry

Nizkorodov, Sergey

95

Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that are soluble in NaOH scrubbing solution for iodine analysis. But when NOx and H2O are not present, then the majority of the uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent is in the form of methyl iodide. Methyl iodide adsorption efficiencies have been high enough so that initial DFs exceed 1,000 to 10,000. The methyl iodide mass transfer zone depths are estimated at 4-8 inches, possibly deeper than mass transfer zone depths estimated for I2 adsorption on AgZ. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Experimental Autoignition of C4-C6 Saturated and Unsaturated Methyl and Ethyl Esters H. Bennadji*, J. Biet, L. Coniglio-Jaubert, F. Billaud, P.A. Glaude, F. Battin-Leclerc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an alternative fuel which can be used directly to a diesel engine without modifying the engine system. Basically lubricity and no sulfur content [2]. It can be stored just like mineral diesel and hence does not require separate infrastructure. The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in substantial

Boyer, Edmond

97

Synthetic approaches to the activation of substituted 2-methyl pyridines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volume and the resulting suspension was poured into an ice-cold solution of NaOH (1M, 500 ml). The solid obtained was filtered and washed 32 with water (2x100 ml). The filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate (9x'I 00 ml) and the combined extracts...), 6: 1. 17 (6H, s, 2xCHs); 2. 45 (6H, s, 2xCHs of pyridine rings); 2. 51 (4H, s, 2xC~H); 6. 89 (2H, d, J'=7. 5Hz, H-3); 7. 59 (2H, t, J'=7. 5Hz, Jz=8. 2Hz, H-4); 8. 10 (2H, d, Jz=8, 2Hz, H-5); 9. 27 (1H, s, broad, NH), 13C nmr (CDCls, 50MHz), 6: 23...

Cancanon, Fernadina de la Caridad

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a sampling device for ethyl acrylate and the effect of discontinued exposure on vapor retention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sampling Theories of Adsorption Forces of Adsorption Activation Procedures Surface Structure Statement of Hypotheses METHODOLOGV Test Atmosphere Generation Exposure Chamber MIRAN Calibration and Use Monitor Exposure to EA Analytical Procedures...EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 53500 AS A SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ETHYL ACRYLATE AND THE EFFECT OF DISCONTINUED EXPOSURE ON VAPOP, RETENTION A Thesis by ROBERT WAYNE BARR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al!M University...

Barr, Robert Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mercury Methylation in Mine Wastes Collected from Abandoned Mercury Mines in the USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury mines contain highly elevated Hg contents, but more problematic environmentally are elemental Hg and soluble Hg salts produced during ore retorting that remain in wastes at mine sites. Under certain conditions, these inorganic Hg compounds convert to bioavailable, highly toxic organic Hg forms. Speciation and transformation of Hg was studied in wastes collected from abandoned Hg mines at McDermitt, NV, and Terlingua, TX, which are moderate size on an international scale and produced about 10,000 and 5,000 t of elemental Hg, respectively. In waste samples, we measured total Hg and methyl-Hg contents, identified various Hg compounds using Hg-thermo-desorption pyrolysis, and determined rates of Hg methylation and methyl-Hg demethylation using isotopic-tracer methods. Pyrolysis analysis of mine wastes showed variable amounts of cinnabar, metacinnabar, Hg salts, elemental Hg, and elemental Hg sorbed onto particulates such as clay and Fe-oxides. Mine wastes with the highest methyl-Hg contents correspond to those with elemental Hg and particulate-sorbed elemental Hg, and also produced the highest laboratory-estimated potential Hg methylation rates, as much as 4.8%/day. Samples containing dominantly cinnabar showed little or no Hg methylation. Mine wastes with high methyl-Hg contents generally showed low methyl-Hg demethylation, suggesting that Hg methylation was dominant. Both mines are located in semiarid climates, and during this study, streambeds below the mines were dry. Total Hg contents in stream sediment collected below the mines show significant dilution, and methyl-Hg contents were typically below the limit of determination. Methylation of Hg downstream from Hg mines is probably lower in arid climates due to lack of mine-water runoff and lower microbial activity. The correspondence of mine wastes containing elemental Hg and high methyl-Hg contents suggests that Hg0 oxidizes to Hg2+, which is subsequently bioavailable for microbial Hg methylation.

Gray, John E. (U.S. Geological Survey); Hines, Mark E. (Massachusetts, Univ Of); Biester, Harald (Heidelberg College); Lasorsa, Brenda K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ethyl Alcohol Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+------.-----.------.------.-----.------.-- o 2 3 4 5 6 Time (hrs.) Batch 29 Cooking and Fermenting Log Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682 pounds (12.2 bushels) Natural gas used Meter measures in increments of 100 cubic feet. Cooking.... The following general production steps are the ones presently used and may change with future production experience. 1. The grain is ground in a hammermill with a 1/8- inch screen. Each of the 350 gallon cooker fermenter tanks normally handles a 12...

O'Neal, Henry

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

E-Print Network 3.0 - acibenzolar-s-methyl para controle Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a coffee-leaf extract formulation in tomato Summary: ), acibenzolar-S-methyl (Bion) or water (control) and three days subsequently infected with the tomato pathogen... in the...

102

Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

103

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydroecgonine methyl ester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Idaho Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 A Novel Post-translational Modification of Yeast Elongation Factor 1A Summary: that is released as volatile methyl groups...

104

Additivity of detector responses of a portable direct-reading 10. 2 eV photoionization detector and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for atmospheres of multicomponent organics: use of PID/FID ratios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2 eV and Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixtures of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was accounted for the PID. The PI-101 was not as precise as the Century OVA-128 for 90% RH atmospheres. PID/FID ratios did not change in the presence of 90% RH as long as the effect of RH also was accounted for in the PID reading. The compounds investigated included: toluene, benzaldehyde; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, methyl chloroform, methylene dichloride, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol and acetonitrile.

Lee, I.N.; Hee, S.S.Q.; Clark, C.S.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in contaminated and uncontaminated stream sediments and identification of potential mercury methylators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at 5 contaminated sites and 1 control site near Oak Ridge, TN, USA, to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury (Hg) methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over 3 quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85% of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria, the only group known to methylate Hg, using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated statistically significant positive linear correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl-Hg concentrations at the Hg-contaminated sites. In contrast, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax spp. was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations but not to Hg or methyl-Hg. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in uncontaminated sediments, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known potential metal-reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species. Given the abundance relative to other known Hg methylators and the association with methyl-Hg, Desulfobulbus spp. is considered a prime candidate for involvement in Hg methylation in these streams.

Mosher, Jennifer [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in CaseControl Studies in Argentina and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in Case­Control Studies in Argentina and the United's susceptibility to bladder cancer. Methods: Urinary methylation products were measured in subjects from Argentina (114 cases and 114 controls) and the United States (23 cases and 49 controls). Results: In Argentina

California at Berkeley, University of

107

et al. (2008) identified several additional methylation sites on FOXO1 that ap-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it remains to be deter- mined how methylation alters the activity and posttranslational regulation. In this light, methylation could, therefore, play a very general role in the regulation of FOXO1 activity serve as a link between aging and age-related diseases such as diabe- tes and cancer. FOXO dysregulation

Hertel, Klemens J.

108

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern MTBE treatment are discussed. Introduction The rapidly rising number of reports of groundwater con- taminated with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has raised concerns about its

109

Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

Cohen, Ronald C.

110

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

111

Mercury methylation in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance of anaerobes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury methylation in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance Keywords: Methylmercury Oxygen minimum zone Arabian Sea Equatorial Eastern Pacific Mercury methylation Although a large fraction of the world's population is exposed to mercury through consumption of marine

Morel, François M. M.

112

Valence and ionic lowest-lying electronic states of ethyl formate as studied by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl formate, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCHO, yet reported is presented over the wavelength range 115.0–275.5 nm (10.75–4.5 eV) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series, observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded He(I) photoelectron spectrum (from 10.1 to 16.1 eV). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of ethyl formate in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

?mia?ek, M. A., E-mail: smialek@pg.gda.pl [Department of Control and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gda?sk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gda?sk (Poland); ?abuda, M.; Guthmuller, J. [Department of Theoretical Physic and Quantum Information, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gda?sk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gda?sk (Poland); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Département de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Duflot, D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules (PhLAM), UMR CNRS 8523, Université Lille1 Sciences et Technologies, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V.; Jones, N. C. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, Building 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

113

Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

Dunn, John J

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 054301 (2013) Photodissociation dynamics of the methyl perthiyl radical at 248 nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the photodissociation of the methyl perthiyl radical CH3SS at 248 nm. The radical was produced by flash pyrolysis

Neumark, Daniel M.

115

Optical measurements of methyl group tunneling in molecular crystals: Temperature dependence of the nuclear spin conversion rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) The tunneling methyl groups in dimethyl-s-tetrazine (DMST) doped single crystals of durene were investigated

116

Direct observation of surface ethyl to ethane interconversion uponC2H4 hydrogenation over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-resolved FT-IR spectra of ethylene hydrogenation over alumina-supported Pt catalyst were recorded at 25 ms resolution in the temperature range 323 to 473 K using various H2 flow rates (1 atm total gas pressure). Surface ethyl species (2870 and 1200 cm-1) were detected at all temperatures along with the gas phase ethane product (2954 and 2893 cm-1). The CH3CH2Pt growth was instantaneous on the time scale of 25ms under all experimental conditions. At 323 K, the decay time of surface ethyl (122 + 10 ms) coincides with the rise time of C2H6 (144 + 14 ms).This establishes direct kinetic evidence for surface ethyl as the kinetically relevant intermediate. Such a direct link between the temporal behavior of an observed intermediate and the final product growth in a heterogeneous catalytic system has not been demonstrated before to our knowledge. A fraction (10 percent) of the asymptotic ethane growth at 323 K is prompt, indicating that there are surface ethyl species that react much faster than the majority of the CH3CH2Pt intermediates. The dispersive kinetics is attributed to the varying strength of interaction of the ethyl species with the Pt surface caused by heterogeneity of the surface environment. At 473 K, the majority of ethyl intermediates are hydrogenated prior to the recording of the first time slice (24 ms), and a correspondingly large prompt growth of ethane is observed. The yield and kinetics of the surface ethylidyne are in agreement with the known spectator nature of this species.

Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric hetero-diels-alder reactions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Correction Paper No. b927076k Summary: . The classic hetero-Diels Alder reaction of acrolein with methyl vinyl ketone (Scheme 3) was examined in great... is unsymmetrically...

118

Novel mixed organoboranes for the reductive alkylation of p-benzoquinone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with methyl vinyl ketone or acrolein 20 was found to beWhen this is reacted with acrolein, 15% of the product is 4-

Hincapié, Gloria

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Modelling Study of the Low-Temperature Oxidation of Large Methyl Esters J. Biet, V. Warth, O. Herbinet*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-decane / methyl palmitate mixture in a jet-stirred reactor. This paper also presents the construction and a comparison of models for methyl esters from C7 up to C17 in terms of conversion in a jet-stirred reactor, the development of renewable energy is more vital than ever [1,2]. The production of biofuels such as methyl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

Original article Novel attractants of Galleria mellonella L  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1957). Methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, allyl esters of octanoic and decanoic acids were synthesized via the reaction of the corre- sponding acid chlorides and alcohols. Decyl and octyl acetates, methyl, ethyl

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Genomic DNA methylation in various developmental stages of two plant pathogenic fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blotting procedure. The blots were then hybridized with DNA probes from the highly repeated Neurospora crassa rDNA repeat unit labeled with [a. P] dCTP in a random-primed oligolabeling reaction. Results of the hybridizations were visualized... shows s. high degree of methylation at the inner (3') C in both stages (mycelia and sclerotia) at the genomic level. The rRNA genes exhibit the same high level of methylation at the 3' C with the addition of some stage specific methylation...

Schliesing, Laura Jo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorene (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) were measured over the temperature range (283 to 313) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds of the systems studied for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the two models; experimental data were successfully reproduced. The UNIQUAC model was the most accurate in correlating the overall equilibrium composition of the studied systems. Also the NRTL model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium composition. Isophorone experimentally resulted in a better extraction capacity for acetic acid and in a lower miscibility with water.

Colombo, A.; Battilana, P.; Ragaini, V.; Bianchi, C.L. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Carvoli, G. [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)] [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fluorohydrogenate Cluster Ions in the Gas Phase: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of the [1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium+][F(HF)2.3–] Ionic Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrospray ionization of the fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][F(HF)2.3] ionic liquid was conducted to understand the nature of the anionic species as they exist in the gas phase. Abundant fluorohydrogenate clusters were produced; however, the dominant anion in the clusters was [FHF-], and not the fluoride-bound HF dimers or trimers that are seen in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that HF molecules are bound to the clusters by about 30 kcal/mol. The DFT-calculated structures of the [FHF-]-bearing clusters show that the favored interactions of the anions are with the methynic and acetylenic hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium cation, forming planar structures similar to those observed in the solid state. A second series of abundant negative ions was also formed that contained [SiF5-] together with the imidazolium cation and the fluorohydrogenate anions that originate from reaction of the spray solution with silicate surfaces.

Gary S. Groenewold; James E. Delmore; Michael T. Benson; Tetsuya Tsuda; Rika Hagiwara

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ? 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ? This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ? 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Repair of O sup 6 -ethylguanine in DNA protects rat 208F cells from tumorigenic conversion by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

O{sup 6}-Ethylguanine (O{sup 6}-EtGua) is one of about a dozen different alkylation products formed in the DNA of cells exposed to the alkylating N-nitroso carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors have evaluated selectively the relative capacity of cells for the specific enzymatic repair of O{sup 6}-EtGua as a determinant for the probability of malignant conversion. Eleven O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-proficient (R{sup +}) variant subclones were isolated from the O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-deficient (R{sup {minus}}) clonal rat fibroblast line 208F by selection for resistance to 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Contrary to the 208F wild-type cells, all variants expressed O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity, while both kinds of cells were deficient for repair of the DNA ethylation products O{sup 2}- and O{sup 4}-ethylthymine. After exposure to EtNU cells were analyzed for the formation of piled-up foci in monolayer culture and of anchorage-independent colonies in semisolid agar medium. No significant differences in the frequencies of piled-up foci were found between wild-type and variant cells after exposure to the major reactive metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene, (+)-7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9,10{alpha}-epoxy7,8,9,10{alpha}-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, for which stable binding to guanine O{sup 6} in cellular DNA has not been observed. The relative capacity of cells for repair of O{sup 6}-alkylguanine is, therefore, a critical determinant for their risk of malignant conversion by N-nitroso carcinogens.

Thomale, J.; Huh, Namho; Nehls, P.; Eberle, G.; Rajewsky, M.F. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (West Germany))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Bioremediation of the organophosphate methyl parathion using genetically engineered and native organisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to remediate hazardous substances at significantly higher rates than found with natural systems. Specifically, degradation of methyl parathion (MP) by hydrolysis with a genetically engineered Escherichia coli was investigated along with degradation of one...

Diaz Casas, Adriana Z.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thermomechanical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane- poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA) containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles (d [approx.] 1.5 nm) were subjected to heological, mechanical, and morphological tests to determine the effects that ...

Kopesky, Edward Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methylcytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum ...

Chan, Michelle M.

131

active methyl tert-butyl: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

132

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

Pangallo, Kristin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Temporal and spatial variation in methyl bromide emissions from a salt marsh   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is a trace gas involved in stratospheric ozone depletion with both anthropogenic and natural sources. Estimates of natural source strengths are highly uncertain. In this study, >320 highly temporally ...

Drewer, Julia; Heal, Mathew R; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G island [13-15], chromosome-wide [15], or genome-wide [16] til- ing microarrays or to analyze by next generation sequen- cing [17,18]. Here, we describe the use of an MBD-chip approach (Figure 1A) to compare the chromosome-wide DNA methylation patterns... identified as differentially methylated in the LNCaP cells compared to the PrEC cells. We could then compare the distribution of CpG dinucleotide content and number of regions overlapping CpG islands in these simulated data sets with these parameters in our...

Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wu, Zhijin; Haffner, Michael C; Esopi, David; Aryee, Martin J; Badrinath, Raghav; He, Tony L; Morgan, James D; Carvalho, Benilton S; Zheng, Qizhi; De Marzo, Angelo M; Irizarry, Rafael A; Nelson, William G

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

135

Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

136

Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

137

INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2-containing complex involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At least three pathways control maintenance of DNA cytosine methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is solely responsible for establishment of this silencing mark. We previously described INVOLVED IN DE NOVO 2 (IDN2) as being an RNA-binding RdDM component that is required for DNA methylation establishment. In this study, we describe the discovery of two partially redundant proteins that are paralogous to IDN2 and that form a stable complex with IDN2 in vivo. Null mutations in both genes, termed IDN2-LIKE 1 and IDN2-LIKE 2 (IDNL1 and IDNL2), result in a phenotype that mirrors, but does not further enhance, the idn2 mutant phenotype. Genetic analysis suggests that this complex acts in a step in the downstream portion of the RdDM pathway. We also have performed structural analysis showing that the IDN2 XS domain adopts an RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold. Finally, genome-wide DNA methylation and expression analysis confirms the placement of the IDN proteins in an RdDM pathway that affects DNA methylation and transcriptional control at many sites in the genome. Results from this study identify and describe two unique components of the RdDM machinery, adding to our understanding of DNA methylation control in the Arabidopsis genome.

Ausin, Israel; Greenberg, Maxim V.C.; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Hale, Christopher J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Simon, Stacey A.; Lee, Tzuu-fen; Feng, Suhua; Española, Sophia D.; Meyers, Blake C.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Jacobsen, Steven E. (UCLA); (MSKCC); (Delaware)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

138

Polystyrene/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends in the Presence of Cyclohexane: Selective Solvent Washing or Equilibrium Adsorption?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cyclohexane (PS:CH), poly(methyl methacrylate)-carbon tetrachloride (PMMA:CCl4), and PS:CCl4 adsorbing

139

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Ionizing radiation induced degradation of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy) -1,4-phenylene vinylene) in solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the causes of the chromatic alteration observed in chloroform solutions of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) after gamma ray irradiation. Structural and chemical changes were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and complemented by electronic structure calculations. The results indicate chlorine incorporation in the polymer structure and main chain scission after irradiation. Based on our findings we propose that the main mechanism for the blue-shifts, observed in the UV-Vis absorption spectra of MEH-PPV after irradiation, is the result of a radical attack on the polymer main chain. Gamma rays generate radicals, Cl and CHCl{sub 2} from chloroform radiolysis that attack preferentially the vinyl double bonds of the polymer backbone, breaking the electronic conjugation and eventually the chain. Our results indicate that oxygen does not play a major role in the effect. Electronic spectra simulations were performed based on these assumptions reproducing the UV-Vis experimental results.

Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Batagin-Neto, A.; Lavarda, F. C.; Graeff, C. F. O. [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

Gray, Joshua P. [Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Mishin, Vladimir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

FLAME-SAMPLING PHOTOIONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY - FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research focused on detailed studies of the complex combustion chemistry of oxygenated, bio-derived fuels. In particular, studies were done of the flame chemistry of simple methyl and ethyl esters chosen as surrogates for the long-chain esters that are primary constituents of biodiesel fuels. The principal goals of these studies were: (1) show how fuel-specific structural differences including degree of unsaturation, linear vs. branched chain structures, and methoxy vs. ethoxy functions affect fueldestruction pathways, (2) understand the chemistry leading to potential increases in the emissions of hazardous air pollutants including aldehydes and ketones inherent in the use of biodiesel fuels, and (3) define the key chemical reaction mechanisms responsible for observed reductions in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter when oxygenated fuels are used as replacements for conventional fuels.

Hansen, Nils

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

143

Biogeochemistry of arsenic in natural waters: The importance of methylated species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water samples from a number of lakes and estuaries, mostly in California, showed measurable concentrations of methylated arsenic (equivalent to 1-59% of total As) with the exception of one highly alkaline lake. Neither depleted phosphate concentrations nor high dissolved salts correlated with the appearance of methylated forms of As. A temporal study of As speciation in Davis Creek Reservoir, a seasonally anoxic lake in northern California, demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid increased sufficiently to become the dominant form of dissolved As within the surface photic zone during late summer and fall. Methylated forms decreased while arsenate increased when the lake over-turned in early December, which suggested a degradation of dimethylarsinic acid to arsenate.

Anderson, L.C.D.; Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Salt effect on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methyl acetate + methanol system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of sodium thiocyanate at constant salt mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.05 and at saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of methyl acetate + methanol has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited both salting-in and salting-out effects on the methyl acetate, the azeotrope being eliminated at saturation. The results were correlated using the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. and the electrolytic NRTL model of Mock et al.

Iliuta, M.C.; Thyrion, F.C. [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.] [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.; Landauer, O.M. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)] [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Kinetics of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen on a colloidal Pt catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of H/sub 2/ on a Pt catalyst under the influence of one-electron reductors is part of the photocatalytic process of decomposition of H/sub 2/O into H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. As a model reaction we selected the reduction of methyl viologen. The bonding constant for hydrogen on colloidal Pt, as well as the effective rate constant of the heterolytic splitting of H/sub 2/ on the same Pt catalyst are determined. A mathematical description of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen is suggested.

Maier, V.E.; Shafirovich, V.Ya.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Effect of Amino Acid Subsititution in Set1 on Histone H3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saaccharomyces Cerevisiae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF AMINO ACID SUBSITITUTION IN SET1 ON HISTONE H3 METHYLATION AND GENE SILENCING IN SAACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE A Senior Honors Thesis by MORGAN CHATEAU Submitted to the Office...3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (April 2008) Morgan Chateau Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics Texas A&M University Fellows Advisor: Associate Professor Dr. Mary Bryk Department of Biochemistry...

Chateau, Morgan

2008-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

148

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

149

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

The Action of Certain Acid Reagents on the Substituted Ureas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aniline and methyl phenyl urea chloride with pyridine - 6 Di-phenyl ethyl thio urea and phosgene with pyridine 7 Para mono brom di-phenyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride - 8 Di-phenyl thio urea and chlor formic ethyl ester with pyridine 9... Methyl ether of di-phenyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride with pyridine - - 10 Ethyl ether of ortho di-tolyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride 13 Ethyl ether of ortho di-tolyl thio urea and di-phenyl urea chloride 14 Methyl ether...

Brewster, Ray Q.

1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received 14, the removal and recycling of the catalytic materials become important. It is expected that using ionic liquids as ATRP media. They performed the copper(I)-mediated ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in 1-butyl-3

Wan, Xin-hua

152

Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by volume to gasoline from November to February, and blending 11% MTBE by volume during the rest of the year; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

Toran, Laura

153

Electronic structure calculations of radical reactions for poly(methyl methacrylate) degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposed to UV light in low-Earth orbit (LEO) conditions experience degradation. Under LEO conditionsElectronic structure calculations of radical reactions for poly(methyl methacrylate) degradation to calculate the reaction energetics for decomposition reactions of radicals formed from UV radiation

154

Sequential 2 -O-Methylation of Archaeal Pre-tRNATrp Nucleotides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sequential 2 -O-Methylation of Archaeal Pre-tRNATrp Nucleotides Is Guided by the Intron -O-methyla- tion of nucleotides C34 and U39 followed by intron exci- sion. Positioning of the box C proteins. With both kinetic studies and single nucleotide substitutions of target and guide nucleotides, we

Maxwell, E. Stuart

155

Selective Methylation Changes on the Bacillus subtilis Chemotaxis Receptor McpB Promote Adaptation*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the same background, McpB(E630D,E637D) produced methanol only upon aspara- gine addition, whereas McpB(Q371D,E630D) produced methanol only upon asparagine removal. Thus methanol release from Mcp, from which methanol is released in response to all stimuli. McpB has four putative methylation sites

Ordal, George W.

156

Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester: Comparison between  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester-Blodgett transfer. The presence in the infrared spectra of several bands due to the methylene wagging and twisting and infrared spectroscopy have been developed to study these films. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly

Pezolet, Michel

157

Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

159

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

160

Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

Dandy, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate Mercuric Sulfides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate in the environment is partly controlled by the bioavailability of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) to anaerobic matter to form chemical species that include organic-coated mercury sulfide nanoparticles as reaction

162

Neutralization of Methyl Cation via Chemical Reactions in Low-Energy Ion-Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Self-Assembled Monolayer Films A´ rpa´d Somogyi, Darrin L. Smith, and Vicki H-surface collisions of methyl cation at hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self- assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces produce with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon SAMs occurs by concerted chemical reactions, i.e., that neutralization

Wysocki, Vicki H.

163

Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit. Noise dosimetry sampling was performed on a random basis and was representative of the different work activities within the four shops. Twenty three percent of the noise samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 85 decibels for an 8-hour time-weightedaverage. Work activities where noise levels were higher included use of impact wrenches and grinding wheels.

Sweeney, Lynn C.

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ALMA imaging study of methyl formate (HCOOCH$_{3}$) in the torsionally excited states towards Orion KL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We recently reported the first identification of rotational transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH$_{3}$) in the second torsionally excited state toward Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) observed with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In combination with the identified transitions of methyl formate in the ground state and the first torsional excited state, it was found that there is a difference in rotational temperature and vibrational temperature, where the latter is higher. In this study, high spatial resolution analysis by using Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) science verification data was carried out to verify and understand this difference. Toward the Compact Ridge, two different velocity components at 7.3 and 9.1 km s$^{-1}$ were confirmed, while a single component at 7.3 km s$^{-1}$ was identified towards the Hot Core. The intensity maps in the ground, first, and second torsional excited states have quite similar distributions. Using extensive ALMA data, we determined the rotational and vibration...

Sakai, Yusuke; Hirota, Tomoya

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was conducted to determine whether a “size effect” phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm...

Kim, Ick Chan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

CORRELATION OF DNA METHYLATION WITH MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN MARINE ORGANISMS: A CASE STUDY OF NOAA MUSSEL WATCH TISSUE SAMPLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) obtained from the NOAA Mussel Watch program were screened for DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic response to stressors. Oysters were collected from sites in the Gulf of Mexico having high mercury...

Brinkmeyer, Robin; Taylor, Robert; Germ, Kaylyn E.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

169

An assessment of methyl mercury and volatile mercury in land-applied sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations covering the land-application of municipal sewage sludge. These regulations established maximum pollutant concentrations and were based upon a risk assessment of human exposure. Mercury, assumed to be inorganic and non-volatile, was one pollutant evaluated. From April, 1995 through February, 1996, the authors studied the species of mercury contaminating municipal sludge applied to land, and the potential for volatilization of mercury from land-applied sludge. Methyl mercury was found at 0.1% of total mercury concentrations and was emitted from land-applied sludge to the atmosphere. Elemental mercury (Hg) was formed in land-applied sludge via the reduction of oxidized mercury and was also emitted to the atmosphere. Hg emission from land-applied sludge was significantly elevated over background soil emission. Methyl mercury is more toxic and more highly bioaccumulated than inorganic mercury, and warrants assessment considering these special criteria. Additionally, mercury emission from sludge-amended soil may lead to the contamination of other environmental media with significant concentrations of the metal. Although these pathways were not evaluated in the regulatory risk assessment, they are an important consideration for evaluating the risks from mercury in land-applied sludge. This presentation will summarize the results of a re-assessment of US EPA regulations regarding the land-application of municipal sewage sludge using data on methyl mercury toxicity and mercury transport in the atmosphere.

Carpi, A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lindberg, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising hydroxymethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.2, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hangson, Susan Kloek

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

171

Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons. comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising chloromethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.3, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hanson, Susan Kloek

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk in subjects living in arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in southwestern Taiwan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) from drinking water has been shown to be associated with hypertension in a dose-response pattern. This study further explored the association between arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk among residents of arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in Taiwan considering the effect of CAE and other potential confounders. Method: There were 871 subjects (488 women and 383 men) and among them 372 were diagnosed as having hypertension based on a positive history or measured systolic blood pressure {>=} 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure {>=} 90 mm Hg. Urinary arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Primary arsenic methylation index [PMI, defined as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) divided by (As{sup III} + As{sup V})] and secondary arsenic methylation index (SMI, defined as dimethylarsinic acid divided by MMA{sup V}) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capability. Results: The level of urinary arsenic was still significantly correlated with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) calculated from a questionnaire interview (p = 0.02) even after the residents stopped drinking the artesian well water for 2-3 decades. Hypertensive subjects had higher percentages of MMA{sup V} and lower SMI than subjects without hypertension. However, subjects having CAE > 0 mg/L-year had higher hypertension risk than those who had CAE = 0 mg/L-year disregard a high or low methylation index. Conclusion: Inefficient arsenic methylation ability may be related with hypertension risk.

Huang, Y.-K. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C.-H. [National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Development, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Yun-Lin, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.-L. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Yang, M.-H. [Department of Nuclear Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Y.-M. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Effect of temperature on the optical and structural properties of hexadecylamine capped ZnS nanoparticles using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as single source precursor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? HDA-capped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized via thermolysis of a single source precursor. ? Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate was used as the single source precursor. ? The growth temperature was varied to study the optical properties of the nanocrystals. ? Change in growth temperature affects the structural properties of the ZnS nanoparticles. ? Hexagonal wurtzite phase was obtained at lower temperatures while cubic sphalerite phase was obtained at higher growth temperatures. -- Abstract: Reported in this work is the synthesis of HDA (hexadecylamine)-capped ZnS nanoparticles by a single source route using Zinc(II) N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate as a precursor. By varying the growth temperature, the temporal evolution of the optical properties and morphology of the nanocrystals were investigated. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All the particles exhibited quantum confinement in their optical properties with band edge emission at the early stage of the reaction. The XRD showed transition from hexagonal wurtzite phase to cubic sphalerite phase as the growth temperature increases. The TEM image showed that the particles are small and spherical in shape while the HRTEM image confirmed the crystalline nature of the material.

Onwudiwe, Damian C., E-mail: dconwudiwe@webmail.co.za [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Strydom, Christien [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)] [Chemical Resource Beneficiation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S., E-mail: oluwafemi.oluwatobi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag X1, Mthatha (South Africa); Songca, Sandile P. [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Walter Sisulu University, P.O. Box 19712, Tecoma, East London (South Africa)] [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Walter Sisulu University, P.O. Box 19712, Tecoma, East London (South Africa)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Saponification rates of esters in aqueous dioxane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trimethylacetate Ethyl n-'valerate Ethyl isovalerate Ethyl me thylethyla c e tate Ethyl trimethylacetate k in liter/Cmoles min.) 25? 35? 45? 4.56 9.21 13.6 1.73 3.35 5.56 1.10 2.01 3.50 0.469 0.970 1.51 2.27 4.05 6.65 0.793 1.36 2.18 0.360 0.635 0.............................. .......... 9 Methyl and Ethyl Esters of n-Valeric Acid . . . . 9 Methyl and Ethyl Esters of Isovaleric Acid . . . 10 Methyl and Ethyl Esters of Methylethylacetic A c i d ...................................... 11 Methyl and Ethyl Esters...

Christian, John Donald

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The interaction of organic adsorbate vibrations with substrate lattice waves in methyl-Si(111)-(1?×?1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combined helium atom scattering and density functional perturbation theory study has been performed to elucidate the surface phonon dispersion relations for both the CH{sub 3}-Si(111)-(1?×?1) and CD{sub 3}-Si(111)-(1?×?1) surfaces. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods has allowed characterization of the interactions between the low energy vibrations of the adsorbate and the lattice waves of the underlying substrate, as well as characterization of the interactions between neighboring methyl groups, across the entire wavevector resolved vibrational energy spectrum of each system. The Rayleigh wave was found to hybridize with the surface rocking libration near the surface Brillouin zone edge at both the M{sup ¯}-point and K{sup ¯}-point. The calculations indicated that the range of possible energies for the potential barrier to the methyl rotation about the Si-C axis is sufficient to prevent the free rotation of the methyl groups at a room temperature interface. The density functional perturbation theory calculations revealed several other surface phonons that experienced mode-splitting arising from the mutual interaction of adjacent methyl groups. The theory identified a Lucas pair that exists just below the silicon optical bands. For both the CH{sub 3}- and CD{sub 3}-terminated Si(111) surfaces, the deformations of the methyl groups were examined and compared to previous experimental and theoretical work on the nature of the surface vibrations. The calculations indicated a splitting of the asymmetric deformation of the methyl group near the zone edges due to steric interactions of adjacent methyl groups. The observed shifts in vibrational energies of the -CD{sub 3} groups were consistent with the expected effect of isotopic substitution in this system.

Brown, Ryan D.; Hund, Zachary M.; Sibener, S. J., E-mail: s-sibener@uchicago.edu [The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); O’Leary, Leslie E.; Lewis, Nathan S. [Beckman Institute and Kavli Nanoscience Institute, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 210 Noyes Laboratory, 127-72, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Benedek, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Universidad del País Vasco (EHU), 20018 Donostia / San Sebastian (Spain)

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

Electrochemical investigation of the energetics of particulate titanium dioxide photocatalysts. The methyl viologen-acetate system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Addition of methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) enhances the anodic currents observed for TiO/sub 2/ suspensions under illumination by trapping of photogenerated electrons with formation of MV/sup +/. The magnitude of the photocurrent depends upon the relative location of the semiconductor Fermi level and E/sub redox/ of the MV/sup 2 +//MV/sup +/.couple. The location of the Fermi level in the anatase powders was estimated as -0.05 V vs. NHE (pH 0) based on the observed variation of photocurrent with pH. The shift in the quasi-Fermi level with light intensity is also discussed.

Ward, M.D.; White, J.R.; Bard, A.J.

1983-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

177

Measurement of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) in raw drinking water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to assess the pathways for human exposure to methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) and to understand the extent of MTBE contamination in watersheds, a purge and trap gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method to measure part-per-trillion (ppt) concentrations of MTBE in environmental waters was developed. A variety of California's raw drinking waters were analyzed. No detectable MTBE was found in deep groundwater (>1000 feet). However shallow groundwater ({approx}250 feet) contained MTBE concentrations of non-detect to 1300 ppt. MTBE concentrations measured in rivers and lakes ranged from non-detect to 3500 ppt. East (San Francisco) Bay area rain water contained approximately 80 ppt MTBE.

Davisson, M L; Koester, C J; Moran, J E

1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

178

A circadian rhythm in the susceptibility of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman to methyl parathion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and for his assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. Apprecia tion is also extended to Dr. J. C. Gaines, Dr. R. L. Hanna, Mr. N. M. Randolph, and Dr. R. D. Staten for their suggestions and criticisms in the preparation of this manuscript. TABLE...:14, decapitated and then held in LL for 10 days. (D) Held in LD 10:14 for 10 days, decapitated and then held for 10 more days in LD 10:14 LD 50 values obtained from topical appli- cations of methyl parathion to boll weevlls at various times of day'. The LD...

Cole, Charles L

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Thiophanate-methyl, persistence in soybeans and effects on yield, seed quality, emergence and nodulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

containing natural rhizobia populations. Persistence of the fungitoxic TM product, methyl-2-benzimidazole- carbamate (MBC) in/on soybeans was determined spectrophotometrically after once and twice spraying TM (1. 10 kg/ha a. i. ). In once-sprayed tissues... planting. Efficac of TM as a foliar fun icide. Untreated Bragg and Coker 338 soybeans were planted as above. When pods reached 1-2 cm length (Sept. 21), the soybeans were sprayed with TM (Topsin-M 70 WP) at 1. 10 kg/ha a. i. and again 18 days later...

Lyons, Philip Christopher

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

Moens, L.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

182

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments and Identification of Potential Mercury Methylators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at five contaminated sites and one control site near Oak Ridge, TN in order to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over three quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16s rRNA pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85 % of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria by the RDP classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated significant positive correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl mercury concentrations in the contaminated sites. On the contrary, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in the sediments of the site, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known metal reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species.

Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Review of the environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of pertinent equations and current research indicates that when gasoline oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes into contact with water, large amounts of MTBe can dissolve. At 25 C, the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight, whereas for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L. Methyl tert-butyl ether sorbs only weakly to subsurface solids; therefore, sorption does not substantially retard the transport of MTBE by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists biodegradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 d in a regional airshed. In the air, MTBE tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, the washing out of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation will not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation can nevertheless result in concentrations as high as 3 {micro}g/L or more in urban precipitation and can contribute to the presence of MTBE in surface and ground water.

Squillace, P.J.; Zogorski, J.S. [Geological Survey, Rapid City, SD (United States); Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Korte, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Transition to a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy: Exploring UCSD's Role  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for ethyl/methyl esters (biodiesel). The world currentlyfuels such as ethanol and biodiesel hold huge promise forIn another example, biodiesel is extracted from seed oils,

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

New Reactions and Synthetic Strategies toward Indolizidine Alkaloids and Pallavicinia Diterpenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, acrolein, nitroethylene, 2-6.31 by employing acrolein (6.51) as the dienophile.Despite concerns of acrolein polymerizing under the Diels-

Narayan, Alison Rae Hardin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethylene dichloride 1 MTBE 2 Vinylchloride 3 Ethylbenzene 1Methyl- Tertiary-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) or Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Styrene Vinylchloride MTBE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene Acetone

Neelis, Maarten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

EMSL - quadrupolar nuclei  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The organic solvents were propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and a ternary mixture that also includes ethylene carbonate (EC). Results from NMR...

188

quadrupolar nuclei | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The organic solvents were propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and a ternary mixture that also includes ethylene carbonate (EC). Results from NMR...

189

EMSL - nuclei  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The organic solvents were propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and a ternary mixture that also includes ethylene carbonate (EC). Results from NMR...

190

nuclei | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The organic solvents were propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and a ternary mixture that also includes ethylene carbonate (EC). Results from NMR...

191

A Solid-State NMR Study of Tungsten Methyl Group Dynamics in [W(5-C5Me5)Me4][PF6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Solid-State NMR Study of Tungsten Methyl Group Dynamics in [W(5-C5Me5)Me4][PF6] Douglas C. Maus Spinning (MAS) 13C and static 2H NMR studies of the dynamics of the methyl groups coordinated to tungsten

Griffin, Robert G.

192

Long-Range Ferromagnetic Ordering in Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymers Co[N(CN)2]2(L) [L ) Pyrazine Dioxide (pzdo) and 2-Methyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Pyrazine Dioxide (pzdo) and 2-Methyl Pyrazine Dioxide (mpdo)] with Dual µ- and µ3-[N(CN)2] Bridges Hao by the addition of ancillary ligands of pyrazine dioxide (pzdo) and 2-methyl pyrazine dioxide (mpdo) into the Co]- , possesses three coordination nitrogen atoms and several possible coordination modes: terminal, bidentate 1

Gao, Song

193

Confinement and flow dynamics in thin polymer films for nanoimprint lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a soft film resist deposited on the surface, the film material flows into the mask features in methyl-isobutyl- ketone. The residual stresses and residual solvent in the film were minimized

Boyer, Edmond

194

Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

196

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Isomerization of methyl linoleate on ruthenium(III) alkoxide complex; Mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isomerization of methyl linoleate using ruthenium alkoxide complexes is described. With alcohols, such as isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol, isomerization of double bonds to produce a conjugated system is the main reaction, with hydrogenation being the side reaction. The latter is formed via the conjugated product. Based on kinetic and infrared spectroscopic data, it is concluded that the active catalytic species is a ruthenium hydride complex formed by the decomposition of the unstable alkoxide. The reaction is mathematically modeled, and the rate parameters are obtained by fitting the simulation to experimental data. These values are compared with data obtained from reactions carried out with supported ruthenium-nickel heterogeneous catalyst.

Mukesh, D.; Narasimhan, C.S.; Ramnarayan, K.; Deshpande, V.M

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Embedded Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors Functionalized for the Detection of Methyl Salicylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sensors designed to detect the presence of methyl salicylate (MeS) have been tested. These sensors use a sensor platform based on the embedded piezoresistive microcantilever (EPM) design. Sensing materials tested in this study included the polymer poly (ethylene vinyl acetate), or PEVA as well as a composite sensing material consisting of the enzyme SA-binding protein 2, or SABP-2. The SABP-2 was immobilized within a biocompatible Hypol gel matrix. The PEVA-based sensors exhibited slower but reversible responses to MeS vapors, recovering fully to their initial state after the analyte was removed. SABP-2 sensors exhibited faster overall response to the introduction of MeS, responding nearly instantly. These sensors, however, do not recover after exposures have ended. Sensors using the SABP-2 sensing materials act instead as integrating sensors, measuring irreversibly the total MeS dose obtained.

Porter, T. L. [UNLV; Venedam, R. J. [NSTec

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

200

Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary system water + acetic acid + 2-methyl-2-butanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system water + acetic acid + 2-methyl-2-butanol were measured over a temperature range of (288 to 323) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models and between each of the main groups of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 2} (paraffinic CH{sub 2}), OH, and COOH for the UJNIFAC model as a function of temperature. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the three models. The NRTL equation was the most accurate model in correlating the overall equilibrium compositions of the studied system. The UNIFAC model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium compositions.

Fahim, M.A.; Al-Muhtaseb, S.A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Homogeneous Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methyl Formate Utilizing Switchable Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capture of CO2 and subsequent hydrogenation allows for base/alcohol-catalyzed conversion of CO2 to methylformate in one pot. The conversion of CO2 proceeds via alkylcarbonates, to formate salts and then formate esters, which can be catalyzed by base and alcohol with the only byproduct being water. The system operates at mild conditions (300 psi H2, 140 ?C). Reactivity is strongly influenced by temperature and choice of solvent. In the presence of excess of base (DBU) formate is predominant product while in excess of methanol methyl formate is major product. 110 ?C yields formate salts, 140 ?C promotes methylformate. The authors acknowledge internal Laboratory Directed Re-search and Development (LDRD) funding from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Yadav, Mahendra (ORCID:0000000202660382); Linehan, John C.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Van Der Eide, Edwin F.; Heldebrant, David J.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Free Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate in Various Room Temperature Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional free radical polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate was carried out in various room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The RTILs used in this research encompass a wide range of cations and anions. Typical cations include imidazolium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium; typical anions include amide, borate, chloride, imide, phosphate, and phosphinate. Reactions are faster and polymers obtained usually have higher molecular weights when compared to polymerizations carried out in volatile organic solvents under the same conditions. This shows that rapid rates of polymerization and high molecular weights are general features of conventional radical polymerizations in RTILs. Attempts to correlate the polarities and viscosities of the RTILs with the polymerization behavior fail to yield discernible trends.

Zhang, Hongwei [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Transparent Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (PMMA/SWNT) Composite Films with Increased  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transparent Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (PMMA/SWNT) Composite Films to conventional polymer composites due to the stronger interac- tions between polymer and filler phases. Carbon and fast-growing class of materials with nanosized filler domains finely dispersed in a polymer matrix.[1

Harmon, Julie P.

205

MODELING FRETTING-CORROSION WEAR OF 316L SS AGAINST POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) WITH THE POINT DEFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MODELING FRETTING-CORROSION WEAR OF 316L SS AGAINST POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) WITH THE POINT; ddm2@psu.edu c Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion Research Institute King Fahd University at investigating experimentally fretting corrosion, that is, corrosion induced by friction of AISI 316L SS against

Boyer, Edmond

206

270 | VOL.9 NO.3 | MARCH2012 | nature methods Key requirements for methylation analysis of large sample sizes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This method eliminates five steps from Illumina's library- construction protocol such that multiplexed and sequenced all at once in a single Illumina HiSeq flowcell. Additionally we designed barcodes to process 384 an analysis pipeline for read mapping and methylation quantification, called bisReadMapper (Supplementary Fig

Cai, Long

207

Understanding mercury demethylation is the key to decrease the high environmental levels of the neurotoxin methyl-Hg in lakes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dynamics of MeHg is the net result of three major processes: 1) formation by Hg methylation 2) degradation (demethylation) and Hg2+ reduction to Hg0 and evasion to the atmosphere. The major process of MeHg degradation is driven by UV light in surface waters. Although biotic demethylation processes are less well understood

Uppsala Universitet

208

Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and oxidation mechanisms of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP reactor. Rate constants are also derived for three reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE

Dandy, David

209

Mercury Methylation at Mercury Mines In The Humboldt River Basin, Nevada, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total Hg and methylmercury concentrations were measured in mine-waste calcines (retorted ore), sediment, and water samples collected in and around abandoned mercury mines in western Nevada to evaluate Hg methylation at the mines and in the Humboldt River basin. Mine-waste calcines contain total Hg concentrations as high as 14 000?g/g. Stream-sediment samples collected within 1 km of the mercury mines contain total Hg concentrations as high as 170?g/g, whereas stream sediments collected>5 km from the mines, and those collected from the Humboldt River and regional baseline sites, contain total Hg concentrations<0.5?g/g. Similarly, methylmercury concentrations in mine-waste calcines are locally as high as 96 ng/g, but methylmercury contents in stream-sediments collected downstream from the mines and from the Humboldt River are lower, ranging from<0.05 to 0.95 ng/g. Stream-water samples collected below two mines studied contain total Hg concentrations ranging from 6 to 2000 ng/L, whereas total Hg in Humboldt River water was generally lower ranging from 2.1 to 9.0 ng/L. Methylmercury concentrations in the Humboldt River water were the lowest in this study (<0.02-0.27 ng/L). Although total Hg and methylmercury concentrations are locally high in mine-waste calcines, there is significant dilution of Hg and lower Hg methylation down gradient from the mines, especially in the sediments and water collected from the Humboldt River, which is> 8 km from any mercury mines. Our data indicate little transference of Hg and methylmercury from the sediment to the water column due to the lack of mine runoff in this desert climate.

Gray, John E. (U.S. Geological Survey); Crock, James G. (U.S. Geological Survey); Lasorsa, Brenda K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Insights antifibrotic mechanism of methyl palmitate: Impact on nuclear factor kappa B and proinflammatory cytokines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fibrosis accompanies most chronic liver disorders and is a major factor contributing to hepatic failure. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment is evident. The present study was designed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of MP and whether MP can attenuate the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in chronic liver injury. Male albino rats were treated with either CCl{sub 4} (1 ml/kg, twice a week) and/or MP (300 mg/kg, three times a week) for six weeks. CCl{sub 4}-intoxication significantly increased liver weight, serum aminotransferases, total cholesterol and triglycerides while decreased albumin level and these effects were prevented by co-treatment with MP. As indicators of oxidative stress, CCl{sub 4}-intoxication caused significant glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation while MP co-treatment preserved them within normal values. As markers of fibrosis, hydroxyproline content and ?-SMA expression increased markedly in the CCl{sub 4} group and MP prevented these alterations. Histopathological examination by both light and electron microscope further confirmed the protective efficacy of MP. To elucidate the antifibrotic mechanisms of MP, the expression of NF-?B, iNOS and COX-2 and the tissue levels of TNF-? and nitric oxide were assessed; CCl{sub 4} increased the expression of NF-?B and all downstream inflammatory cascade while MP co-treatment inhibited them. Collectively these findings indicate that MP possesses a potent antifibrotic effect which may be partly a consequence of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. -- Highlights: ? Methyl palmitate is free fatty acid methyl ester. ? It possesses a strong antifibrotic effect. ? It inhibits NF-?B and the consequent proinflammatory and oxidative stress response.

Mantawy, Eman M.; Tadros, Mariane G. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Awad, Azza S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faulty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faulty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Hassan, Dina A.A. [Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ? 0.1 ?M. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic ?-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ? Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ? MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ? 0.1 ?M. ? The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ? The inhibition of insulin secretion by arsenite, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} is reversible. ? Thus, pancreatic ?-cells may be primary targets for chronic exposure to arsenic.

Douillet, Christelle [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Currier, Jenna [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Saunders, Jesse [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Bodnar, Wanda M. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431 (United States); Matoušek, Tomᚠ[Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veve?í 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stýblo, Miroslav, E-mail: styblo@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Synthesis and properties of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid)/PbS hybrid composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis of a new hybrid composite based on PbS nanoparticles and poly(methyl methacrylate-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) [P(MMA-AMPSA)] copolymer is reported. The chemical synthesis consists in two steps: (i) a surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization between methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (ii) the generation of PbS particles in the presence of the P(MMA-AMPSA) latex, from the reaction between lead nitrate and thiourea. The composite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructure observed using SEM proves that the PbS nanoparticles are well dispersed in the copolymer matrix. The X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that the PbS nanoparticles have a cubic rock salt structure. It was also found that the inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles improve the thermal stability of the copolymer matrix.

Preda, N., E-mail: nicol@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Rusen, E. [University Politehnica Bucharest, Department of Polymer Science, Calea Victoriei No. 71101, Bucharest (Romania)] [University Politehnica Bucharest, Department of Polymer Science, Calea Victoriei No. 71101, Bucharest (Romania); Musuc, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)] [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, M.; Matei, E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania)] [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Marculescu, B. [University Politehnica Bucharest, Department of Polymer Science, Calea Victoriei No. 71101, Bucharest (Romania)] [University Politehnica Bucharest, Department of Polymer Science, Calea Victoriei No. 71101, Bucharest (Romania); Fruth, V. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)] [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania)] [National Institute of Materials Physics, Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Methyl viologen mediated oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicles involves transmembrane diffusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerous reports have appeared describing oxidation-reduction across bilayer membranes. Mechanisms proposed for specific systems include the following: (i) electron tunneling across the hydrocarbon barrier between interfacially bound redox partners, (ii) molecular diffusion of bound redox components across the barrier, and (iii) formation of barrier-penetrating aggregates, or electron-conducting channels, across the bilayer. Nonetheless, the actual reaction mechanisms remain obscure due to the general unavailability of transverse diffusion rates, possible loss of compartmentation of reactants, particularly in photochemical systems, and the ambiguities inherent in deducing reaction mechanisms from rate data, which form the primary evidence in most systems studied. The reactions of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-bound methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) describes in this report are unique in allowing deduction of molecular details of a transmembrane redox event from the product composition and microphase distribution. Specifically, they have found that MV/sup 2 +/ bound at the outer vesicle interface mediates reduction of inner-localized MV/sup 2 +/ by dithionite ion in bulk solution in a manner that requires comigration of MV/sup +/ with the electron transferred across the membrane barrier.

Patterson, B.C.; Thompson, D.H.; Hurst, J.K.

1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

214

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reaction calorimetry study of the liquid-phase synthesis of tert-butyl methyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-phase addition of methanol to isobutene to give tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 has been studied in a calorimetric reactor. Heat capacity of MTBE and enthalpy of the MTBE synthesis reaction in the temperature range 312--333 K have been determined. MTBE heat capacity in the liquid phase has been found to obey the equation c[sub P] (J/mol[center dot]K) = 472.34 [minus] 2.468(T/K) + 0.005071(T/K)[sup 2]. At 298 K the standard molar reaction enthalpy is [Delta]H[degree] = [minus]33.8 kJ/mol. A method to estimate apparent activation energies from heat flow rate in a given reaction has been developed and proved to be valid for the MTBE synthesis. Using this method, an apparent activation energy of 91.1--95.2 kJ/mol is calculated. A [minus]3.8 kJ/mol value has been found for the adsorption enthalpy of methanol on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 by a combination of reaction calorimetry and thermogravimetry. This allows the calculation of an activation energy on the gel phase of the resin of 91 kJ/mol.

Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Iborra, M. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d'Enginyeria Quimica)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

218

Observation on the biodegradation and bioremediation potential of methyl t-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been few reports documenting evidence for the biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate alkyl ether, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, soils, and biosludges. Partial (or complete) microbial breakdown of MTBE has been observed in an anaerobic subsoil, a river sediment under methanogenic conditions, a cyclohexane-degrading bacterial consortium and a pure culture of the methylotroph, Methylisnus trichosporium OB3b. An aerobic bacterial enrichment (BC-1) isolated from an industrial transient (non-accumulating) metabolic intermediate. The studies suggest that MTBE is cleaved by BC-1 to TBA which is then metabolized via isopropanol and acetone. There is little information on the occurrence of indigenous MTBE-degraders in groundwater, soils and activated sludges. Preliminary evidence has been obtained, however, from a marketing terminal groundwater site that naturally-occurring MTBE-degraders are present in some monitoring wells. Microcosm experiments with groundwater from this aquifer show that MTBE is aerobically degraded (no TBA formed) with a first-order decay rate (0.31/day) similar to BTEX. Also, MTBE did not inhibit the intrinsic biodegradation potential of BTEX in groundwater microcosms. In summary, the data presented indicate that MTBE biodegradation has been observed in some environmental media. Further work is needed to assess the feasibility of using indigenous or derived aerobic and anaerobic MTBE-degrading cultures for treating fuel ethers in groundwaters or wastewater with in-situ or ex-situ bioremediation technologies.

Salanitro, J.; Wisniewski, H.; McAllister, P. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A. [Stonybrook Labs. Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

Gomez-Rubio, Paulina [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora, Ciudad Obregon, Sonora (Mexico); Billheimer, Dean [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lu Zhenqiang [Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hydrogenolysis of methyl formate over copper on silica. I. Study of surface species by in situ infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogenolysis of methyl formate to methanol over silica-supported copper has been studied using in situ infrared spectroscopy coupled with simultaneous determination of rate. Under flow reaction conditions two forms of adsorbed methyl formate exist. One has a carbonyl absorption at 1726 cm/sup -1/ and is bound to the support by the hydrogen bonding with a heat of adsorption of 65 kJ mol/sup -1/. The second absorbs at 1666 cm/sup -1/ and is bound to copper with an approximate heat of adsorption of 140 kJ mol/sup -1/. At 457 K the hydrogenolysis rate is directly proportional to the band intensity of the latter and hence it, or another species in equilibrium with it, is involved in the rate-determining step. Adsorption of CO from CO/H/sub 2/ mixtures gives rise to a single infrared band at 2117 cm/sup -1/, the corresponding heat of adsorption being 60 kJ mol/sup -1/. Competitive measurements under hydrogenolysis conditions show that methyl formate will partially displace adsorbed CO and not vice versa. Nonetheless CO does reversibly inhibit the rate and this is attributed to its adsorption displacing hydrogen from the surface. The lower concentration of surface hydrogen also reduces the rate of hydrogenation of a formaldehyde intermediate leading to its deposition as a polymer as revealed by infrared bands at 1483 and 1375 cm/sup -1/. The same polymer accretes more rapidly during the reverse methanol to methyl formate reaction for which CO is a substantial by-product and hydrogen pressures are much lower than used for hydrogenolysis. Continuous deactivation of the catalyst is then observed.

Monti, D.M.; Cant, N.W.; Trimm, D.L.; Wainwright, M.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the systems methyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + hexane and + heptane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vapor-liquid equilibrium at 94 kPa has been determined for the binary systems of methyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether (MTBE) with hexane and with heptane. Both systems deviate slightly from ideal behavior, can be described as regular solutions, and do not present an azeotrope. The activity coefficients and boiling point of the solutions were correlated with its composition by the Redlich-Kister, Wohl, Wilson, UNIQUAC, NRTL, and Wisniak-Tamir equations.

Wisniak, J.; Magen, E.; Shachar, M.; Zeroni, I.; Segura, H. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reich, R. [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Z .The Science of the Total Environment 261 2000 91 98 Mercury methylation along a lake forest transect in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and acidified controls 1 3 g dry wt. were slurried with local water and incubated in the dark at 25 28 C for y1 those heavily Z . Z y2 .colonized with periphyton 3.4 5.4% . Methylation in surface or near-bottom water: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br J.R. Guimaraes .~ 0048-9697r00r$ - see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All

Long, Bernard

225

Evaluating the Identity and Diiron Core Transformations of a (?-Oxo)diiron(III) Complex Supported by Electron-Rich Tris(pyridyl-2-methyl)amine Ligands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The composition of a (?-oxo)diiron(III) complex coordinated by tris[(3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy)pyridyl-2-methyl]amine (R[subscript 3]TPA) ligands was investigated. Characterization using a variety of spectroscopic methods and ...

Do, Loi H.

226

Oxidation Kinetics of Pure and Blended Methyl Octanoate/n-Nonane/Methylcyclohexane: Measurements and Modeling of OH*/CH* Chemiluminescence, Ignition Delay Times and Laminar Flame Speeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels at 1.5 atm indicated the following ignition delay time order, from shortest to longest: methyl octanoate atm (nominal) the order remained, in general, consistent. Under fuel-lean conditions, ignition...

Rotavera, Brandon Michael

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

227

Structural and biochemical insights into 2?-O-methylation at the 3?-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small RNAs of {approx}20-30 nt have diverse and important biological roles in eukaryotic organisms. After being generated by Dicer or Piwi proteins, all small RNAs in plants and a subset of small RNAs in animals are further modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation, carried out by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (MTase) Hen1. Methylation at the 3' terminus is vital for biological functions of these small RNAs. Here, we report four crystal structures of the MTase domain of a bacterial homolog of Hen1 from Clostridium thermocellum and Anabaena variabilis, which are enzymatically indistinguishable from the eukaryotic Hen1 in their ability to methylate small single-stranded RNAs. The structures reveal that, in addition to the core fold of the MTase domain shared by other RNA and DNA MTases, the MTase domain of Hen1 possesses a motif and a domain that are highly conserved and are unique to Hen1. The unique motif and domain are likely to be involved in RNA substrate recognition and catalysis. The structures allowed us to construct a docking model of an RNA substrate bound to the MTase domain of bacterial Hen1, which is likely similar to that of the eukaryotic counterpart. The model, supported by mutational studies, provides insight into RNA substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of Hen1.

Chan, Chio Mui; Zhou, Chun; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Huang, Raven H.; (UIUC); (NWU)

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

228

Unexpected effects of gene deletion on mercury interactions with the methylation-deficient mutant hgcAB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hgcA and hgcB gene pair is essential for mercury (Hg) methylation by certain anaerobic bacteria,1 but little is known about how deletion of hgcAB affects cell surface interactions and intracellular uptake of Hg. Here, we compare hgcAB mutants with the wild-type (WT) strains of both Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 and observe differences in Hg redox transformations, adsorption, and uptake in laboratory incubation studies. In both strains, deletion of hgcAB increased the reduction of Hg(II) but decreased the oxidation of Hg(0) under anaerobic conditions. The measured cellular thiol content in hgcAB mutants was lower than the WT, accounting for decreased adsorption and uptake of Hg. Despite the lack of methylation activity, Hg uptake by the hgcAB continued, albeit at a slower rate than the WT. These findings demonstrate that deletion of the hgcAB gene not only eliminates Hg methylation but also alters cell physiology, resulting in changes to Hg redox reactions, sorption, and uptake by cells.

Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Nonpremixed ignition, laminar flame propagation, and mechanism reduction of n-butanol, iso-butanol, and methyl butanoate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The non-premixed ignition temperature of n-butanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), iso-butanol ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}OH) and methyl butanoate (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}) was measured in a liquid pool assembly by heated oxidizer in a stagnation flow for system pressures of 1 and 3 atm. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air–n-butanol/iso-butanol/methyl butanoate were determined from the outwardly propagating spherical flame at initial pressures of up to 2 atm, for an extensive range of equivalence ratio. The ignition temperature and laminar flame speeds of n-butanol and methyl butanoate were computationally simulated with three recently developed kinetic mechanisms in the literature. Dominant reaction pathways to ignition and flame propagation were identified and discussed through a chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and sensitivity analysis. The detailed models were further reduced through a series of systematic strategies. The reduced mechanisms provided excellent agreement in both homogeneous and diffusive combustion environments and greatly improved the computation efficiency.

Lu, Wei; Kelley, A. P.; Law, C. K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data at 298. 15 K for binary systems containing methyl acetate or methanol with 2-methoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured at 298.15 K for the systems containing methyl acetate or methanol with 2-methoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol. Mixtures containing methanol show a behavior close to ideal, while those containing methyl acetate exhibit positive deviations from ideality and satisfy the Redlich-Kister thermodynamic consistency test. The liquid-phase activity coefficients were fitted by using the van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and NRTL-m (a modified NRTL equation) equations.

Martin, M.C.; Cocero, M.J.; Mato, F.B. (Univ. de Valladolid (Spain))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Directed metalation of N,N-diethylbenzamides. Silylated benzamides for the synthesis of naturally occurring peri-methylanthraquinones and peri-methyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient methodologies based on directed ortho metalation, fluoride-induced carbodesilylation, and metal-halogen exchange processes (Scheme I) are reported for the synthesis of peri-methyl-substituted anthraquinone natural products 5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 6, 7. Benzamide 8 (Scheme II) is converted in a one-pot sequence into the disilylated derivative 10, which upon metalation, condensation with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, CsF desilylation, and TsOH cyclization leads to the key phthalide 11. Compound 11 is transformed into deoxyerythrolaccin tris(methyl ether) 5c, which has been previously converted into the natural product 5a. For the synthesis of erythrolaccin tetrakis(methyl ether) 5d, the silyl and bromo benzamides 14 and 15 (Scheme III) are condensed with 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by CsF-induced carbodesilylation and metal-halogen exchange expedients, respectively, to give the phthalide 16, which is transformed into the target anthraquinone 55d by methods identical with those used in 5c. Along similar lines, the synthesis of 11-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6a, Scheme IV), 8-methyl-7,12-benz(a)anthraquinone (6b), and 10-methyl-9,14-dibenz(a,c)anthraquinone (7) is described.

Mills, R.J.; Snieckus, V. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a bacterial pure culture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bacterial strain, PM1, which is able to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from a mixed microbial consortium in a compost biofilter capable of degrading MTBE. Initial linear rates of MTBE degradation by 2 x 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1} were 0.07, 1.17, and 3.56 {mu}g ml{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for initial concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 {mu}g MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, respectively. When incubated with 20 {mu}g of uniformly labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, strain PM1 converted 46% to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and 19% to {sup 14}C-labeled cells within 120 h. This yield is consistent with the measurement of protein accumulation at different MTBE concentrations from which was estimated a biomass yield of 0.18 of cells mg MTBE{sup {minus}1}. Strain PM1 was inoculated into sediment core material collected from a contaminated groundwater plume at Port Hueneme, California, in which there was no evidence of MTBE degradation. Strain PM1 readily degraded 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1} added to the core material. The rate of MTBE removal increased with additional inputs of 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}. These results suggest that PM1 has potential for use in the remediation of MTBE-contaminated environments.

Hanson, J.R.; Ackerman, C.E.; Scow, K.M.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

ORIGINAL PAPER Reactivity versus steric effects in fluorinated ketones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quantum mechanical computations, which combine gas phase B3LYP calculations with hydration free energies, the development of new CE inhibitors may lead to drugs with therapeutic and/or agrochemical interest [7, 8

Hammock, Bruce D.

235

Synthesis of a Ketone Analogue of Biotin via the Intramolecular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of interest in living cells is a powerful technique for investigating protein function, interactions cyclohexene in one step in 98% yield according to literature procedure.6 Addition of in situ generated lithium

236

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

that aging modifies substrate utilization and alters insulin sensitivity in mouse heart when provided multiple substrates. In vivo cardiac function was measured with...

238

Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Reductive Coupling of Alkenylazaarenes with Ketones   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic enantioselective methods for the preparation of chiral azaarene-containing compounds are of high value. By combining the utility of copper hydride catalysis with the ability of C?N-containing azaarenes to activate adjacent alkenes toward...

Saxena, Aakarsh; Choi, Bonnie; Hon, Lam Wai

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

239

A highly active manganese precatalyst for the hydrosilylation of ketones  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011A FirstEMSLA golden anniversary fordioxide.

240

Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and Modifies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministratorCFM LEAPAgenda Agenda LargeTransfersCardiac

242

Sandia National Laboratories: fatty acid ethyl esters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia,evaluating wind-turbine/radar impacts Sandiafaster mass

243

Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: • We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. • ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. • Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. • ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. • The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

Kakehashi, Anna, E-mail: anna@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio [DIMS Institute of Medical Science, Inc., 64 Goura, Nishiazai, Azai-cho, Ichinomiya, Aichi 491-0113 (Japan); Nagano, Kasuke [Nagano Toxicologic-Pathology Consulting, Ochiai, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0025 (Japan); Nishimaki, Fukumi [Biofuel Assessment Group, New Fuels Dept., Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC), 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Banton, Marcy [Toxicology and Risk Assessment, LyondellBasell Industries, LyondellBasell Corporate HSE/Product Safety, One Houston Center, Suite 700, 1221 McKinney Street, Houston, TX 770 10 (United States); Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0011 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Vapor-liquid equilibria for copolymer+solvent systems: Effect of intramolecular repulsion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Role of intramolecular interactions in blend miscibility is well documented for polymer+copolymer mixtures. Some copolymer+polymer mixtures are miscible although their corresponding homopolymers are not miscible; for example, over a range of acrylonitrile content, styrene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate) but neither polystyrene nor polyacrylonitrile is miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate). Similarly, over a composition range, butadiene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(vinyl chloride) while none of the binary combinations of the homopolymers [polybutadiene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(vinyl chloride)] are miscible. This behavior has been attributed to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike copolymer segments. We have observed similar behavior in vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of copolymer+solvent systems. We find that acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymers have higher affinity for acetonitrile solvent than do polyacrylonitrile or polybutadiene. We attribute this non-intuitive behavior to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike segments of the copolymer. This repulsive interaction is weakened when acetonitrile molecules are in the vicinity of unlike copolymer segments, favoring copolymer+solvent miscibility. We find similar behavior when acetonitrile is replaced by methyl ethyl ketone. To best knowledge, this effect has not been reported previously for VLE. We have obtained VLE data for mixtures containing a solvent and a copolymer as a function of copolymer composition. It appears that, at a given solvent partial pressure, there may be copolymer composition that yields maximum absorption of the solvent. This highly non-ideal VLE phase behavior may be useful for optimum design of a membrane for a separation process.

Gupta, R.B.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB {number_sign}2 diesel in a DCC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, California ARB No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emissions trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with delays in engine timing and technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transits (except in California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB No. 2 diesel in a DDC 6V92TA MUI engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Detroit Diesel 6V92TA MUI engine was operated on several blends of EPA No. 2 diesel, soya methyl ester (SME) and canola methyl ester (CME). Various fuels and fuel blend characteristics were determined and engine emissions from these fuels and blends were compared. Increasing percentages of SME and CME blended with either ARB or EPA diesels led to increased emissions of NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and soluble particulate matter. Also noted were reductions in total hydrocarbons, CO and insoluble particulate matter. Chassis dynamometer tests conducted on a 20/80 SME/ARB blend showed similar emission trends. The data suggest that certain methyl ester/No. 2 diesel blends in conjunction with technologies that reduce the soluble fraction of particulate emissions merit further exploration as emissions reducing fuel options for North American mass transit sectors (except California, which mandates ARB diesel).

Spataru, A.; Romig, C. [ADEPT Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

Moens, L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

248

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared. Range of Cu dispersion, determined by N{sub 2}O titration, was 19-48% and are among the highest reported in the literature for Cu-based methanol and higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. Kinetics of MeOH and EtOH coupling reactions on Cu/ZnO and K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu promotes alcohol dehydrogenation. Acetaldehyde is a reactive intermediate. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been carried out on K- and Cs-promoted Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. The K promoter is more active than Cs for CO conversion, but the Cs promoter activates the C{sub 1} to C{sub 2} step more effectively. Catalysts with high alkali loading resulted in low conversions. Temperature programmed surface reaction studies of MeOH, EtOH, and acetaldehyde on MgO/CeO{sub 2}-based Cu catalysts show evolution of acetone, crotonaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, H2, carbon oxides. Neither EtOH nor acetaldehyde produces propionaldehyde or 1- propanol, suggesting that these C{sub 3} species can only form via reactions involving C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} oxygenate species.

NONE

1996-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

249

Effect of organic-vapor mixtures on the service life of respirator cartridges. Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We challenged pairs of MSA respirator cartridges with two compounds, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to study the adsorption characteristics of organic vapors on cartridge performance. Each vapor was injected at three concentrations: (1) each at 10 times the respective Threshold Limit Value (TLV), (2) as a mixture at a concentration equal to the sum of the two single concentrations of item (1), and (3) each alone at a concentration equal to the total-mixture challenge concentration of item (2). The experiments were repeated at 20% and 85% relative humidities. One-percent and ten-percent breakthrough times were observed experimentally in every case, and breakthrough times of the mixture agreed with the single, high-concentration challenge. Experimental data were matched to a theoretical model derived from modified Wheeler-Robell equations and showed close correlations between adsorption-rate constants for the mixture and for the individual compounds. Based on these first experiments, we feel that an accurate mathematical model is possible, and further experiments are planned to verify this. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Swearengen, P.M.; Weaver, S.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

VOC recovery using microwave regeneration of adsorbents: Pilot-column studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot-scale column was constructed to evaluate the technical feasibility of microwave (MW) heating as a means of regenerating adsorbents for recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 6 inch diameter moving-bed column, which has a throughput capacity of 200 lb/hr of adsorbent, is representative of a full-scale component of a small-capacity recovery system or a single element of a large-capacity system. Regeneration experiments were conducted to study the effects of key process variables, including adsorbent and stripping gas feed rates, initial adsorbent coverage and microwave power input, on column performance. Two adsorbents with contrasting dielectric loss characteristics were studied, Dowex Optipore L502 (low dielectric loss styrene-based) and Rohm and Haas Ambersorb 600 (moderate dielectric loss carbonaceous). Adsorbates included polar and nonpolar compounds: isopropyl alcohol (iPA), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and toluene. Solvent recovery rates of 20--30 lbs/hr were achieved. The results of the pilot-column experiments demonstrate that axial temperature and desorption profiles are dependent on the dielectric characteristics of the adsorbent/sorbate pair, and that final regeneration coverage can be correlated with a dimensionless stripping gas ratio and final adsorbent temperature. Implications for design of microwave-regenerated VOC recovery systems are discussed.

Salinas, M.J.; Price, D.W.; Schmidt, P.S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 79-034-1440, Intex Plastics, Corinth, Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a request from the president of the United Rubber Workers, Local 759, an investigation was begun into possible hazardous working conditions at the Hatco Plastics Division, Currently known as Intex Plastics, Corinth, Mississippi. The request indicated that several production and maintenance employees at that site had been disabled due to chemical poisoining and related illnesses. A medical survey was begun at the facility in March of 1979. Fifty employees participated by completing a questionnaire. A high prevalence of eye, nose, and throat irritation was found along with shortness of breath, cough, and skin rash among workers assigned to the Calender, Color, and Laminating Departments. Air sampling was performed in several departments. Except for methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK), the levels of substances detected were quite low. The department with the highest exposure to airborne contaminants included the Print Service with 36 to 299 parts per million (ppm) MEK, laminating at 74 to 105ppm MEK, printing at 15 to 113ppm MEK, color at 15 to 24ppm MEK, premix at 0.3 to 6.8mg/cu m total dust, and calender at 0.1 to 0.6mg/cu m total dust.

Salisbury, S.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a wave of global protein hyperacetylation: Implications in cancer cell death  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Protein acetylation modification has been implicated in many cellular processes but the direct evidence for the involvement of protein acetylation in signal transduction is very limited. In the present study, we found that an alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a robust and reversible hyperacetylation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins during the early phase of the cellular response to MMS. Notably, the acetylation level upon MMS treatment was strongly correlated with the susceptibility of cancer cells, and the enhancement of MMS-induced acetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors was shown to increase the cellular susceptibility. These results suggest protein acetylation is important for the cell death signal transduction pathway and indicate that the use of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancer is relevant.

Lee, Min-Young [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung-Ae [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoe-Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo-In [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jong-Young [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jay H. [Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, NHLBI, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yun, Jeanho [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yunj@dau.ac.kr

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

255

(E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol: X-ray and DFT-calculated structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol is determined by using X-ray diffraction and then the molecular structure is investigated with density functional theory (DFT). X-Ray study shows that the title compound has a strong intramolecular O-H-N hydrogen bond and three dimensional crystal structure is primarily determined by C-H-{pi} and weak van der Waals interactions. The strong O-H-N bond is an evidence of the preference for the phenol-imine tautomeric form in the solid state. Optimized molecular geometry is calculated with DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The IR spectra of compound were recorded experimentally and calculated to compare with each other. The results from both experiment and theoretical calculations are compared in this study.

Kosar, B., E-mail: bkosar@omu.edu.tr; Albayrak, C. [Sinop University, Faculty of Education (Turkey); Odabasoglu, M. [Pamukkale University, Chemistry Program (Turkey); Bueyuekguengoer, O. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Kinetics and modeling of mixture effects during complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of a catalytic incinerator depends on the nature of the compounds being oxidized and cannot be predicted simply by knowing the performance of the incinerator with pure-component model compounds. Considering the importance of mixture effects, an attempt was made to develop a combined model to predict the conversion when benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are simultaneously oxidized. Complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and MTBE, singly and in mixtures, was investigated over a platinum catalyst. No inhibition effects were seen with benzene, but MTBE conversion was distinctly inhibited by benzene. A Mars-van Krevelen rate model was used to explain the results. Model parameters were obtained from pure-component experiments and then incorporated into a multicomponent model without any adjustment or additional rate parameters. The multicomponent model was able to predict the conversion of benzene and MTBE oxidation in the binary mixture using the pure-component data without adjustable parameters.

Dangi, S.; Abraham, M.A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Evidence for Thiol-Dependent Production of Oxygen Radicals by 4-Methyl-5-pyrazinyl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a peroxide species that undergoes a trace metal-catalyzed, Fenton-type reaction to generate oxygen radicalsEvidence for Thiol-Dependent Production of Oxygen Radicals by 4-Methyl-5-pyrazinyl-3H-1,2-dithiole the conversion of molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen radicals. Using a plasmid-based assay that monitors DNA

Gates, Kent. S.

258

Electronic Structures and Spin Topologies of -Picoliniumyl Radicals. A Study of the Homolysis of N-Methyl--picolinium and of Benzo-, Dibenzo-, and Naphthoannulated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

topologies in metalloenzymes. Introduction The redox reactions of quaternized nitrogen heterocycles interesting. For example, the herbicide methyl viologen (paraquat) and the promising antitumor agent equivalent of superoxide O2 ·-.1­4 The repeated enzymatic reduction and back-oxidation by O2, i.e., the redox

Glaser, Rainer

259

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

260

Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum ...

Markin, Alexey V.

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261

Electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in irradiated N-methyl pyridinium derivatives with TCNQ studied by optical spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1417 Electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in irradiated N-methyl pyridinium derivatives with TCNQ studied by optical spectroscopy A. Graja and R. Swietlik Institute of Molecular Physics le 13 mars 1985, accepti le ler avril 1985) Résumé. 2014 L'irradiation électronique des

Boyer, Edmond

262

TpPtMe(H)2: Why Is There H/D Scrambling of the Methyl Group but Not Methane Loss?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TpPtMe(H)2: Why Is There H/D Scrambling of the Methyl Group but Not Methane Loss? Mark A. Iron, H ) hydrido-tris(pyrazolyl)borate) was investigated. This complex is remarkably resistant to methane loss; heating it in methanol at 55 °C does not lead to either methane or hydrogen loss. When CD3OD is used

Keinan, Ehud

263

Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 ?g/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ? Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ? Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ? DES increased DNMT3a expression and increased CpG DNA methylation. ? DES impacts fetal heart reducing cardiac reserve on challenge in adulthood. ? Fetal heart can be re-programmed by a non-steroidal estrogen.

Haddad, Rami, E-mail: rami.haddad@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada) [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Kasneci, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.kasneci@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada)] [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Mepham, Kathryn, E-mail: katherine.mepham@mail.mcgill.ca [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada) [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 850 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A2 (Canada); Sebag, Igal A., E-mail: igal.sebag@mcgill.ca [Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 chemin Cote Ste Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); and others

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane at 101.3 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibria were measured at 101.3 kPa for the three binary and one ternary mixtures of cyclohexane, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and octane. The isobaric T-x-y data were reported, including an azeotropic point for the binary mixture cyclohexane + 3-methyl-2-butanone. The virial equation of state truncated after the second coefficient was used to calculate the vapor-phase fugacity coefficients. The Tsonopoulos correlation equation was applied to determine the second virial coefficients. Various activity coefficient models of the Wilson, the NRTL, and the UNIQUAC equations were used to correlate the binary experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium results. Optimally-fitted binary parameters of the activity coefficient models were obtained and those parameters of the NRTL model were employed to predict the ternary vapor-liquid equilibria. Satisfactory results were presented for the correlation and prediction of the vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary and ternary mixtures.

Chen, C.C.; Tang, M.; Chen, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Solution medium control of the photoredox yield in the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen/EDTA system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The observed quantum yield of formation of the methyl viologen radical cation, phi(MV/sup +/-), upon 450-nm irradiation of the Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen dication/EDTA system at pH 11.0 is dependent on the concentrations of all three components. Under the conditions of the experiments, phi(MV/sup +/-)approx. =2eta/sub cr/ where eta/sub cr/ is the efficiency of release of redox products from the solvent cage. The maximum value of eta/sub cr/ is approx. =0.17 at high concentrations of all components where the photosensitizer, electron relay, and sacrificial electron donor exist as ion-paired aggregates within a single solvent-caged unit. 3 figures.

Mandal, K.; Hoffman, M.Z.

1984-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

266

Studies on the binding of 5-N-methylated quindoline derivative to human telomeric G-quadruplex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research highlights: {yields} Hydrophobic interaction provided an important driving force for the interaction between ligand and G-quadruplex. {yields} Constrained water molecules were released from surface of G-tetrad upon the formation of the complex. {yields} The end-stacking mode for quindoline derivative was validated through UV-vis, ITC, steady-state, and time-resolved fluorescence experiment. {yields} The binding of compound 1 to quadruplex was found to be a temperature-dependent and enthalpy-entropy compensation process. -- Abstract: Quindoline derivatives as telomeric quadruplex ligands have shown good biological activity for telomerase inhibition. In the present study, we used spectroscopic and calorimetric methods to investigate the interactions between a quindoline derivative (5-methyl-11-(2-morpholinoethylamino)-10-H-indolo-[3,2-b]quinolin-5-ium iodide, compound 1) and human telomeric G-quadruplex. The thermodynamic studies using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that their binding process was temperature-dependent and enthalpy-entropy co-driven. The significant negative heat capacity was obtained experimentally from the temperature dependence of enthalpy changes, which was consistent with that from theoretical calculation, and all suggesting significant hydrophobic contribution to the molecular recognition process. Based on the results from UV-vis, ITC, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, their binding mode was determined as two ligand molecules stacking on the quartets on both ends of the quadruplex. These results shed light on rational design and development of quindoline derivatives as G-quadruplex binding ligands.

Xu, Wei; Tan, Jia-Heng; Chen, Shuo-Bin; Hou, Jin-Qiang; Li, Ding [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Zhi-Shu, E-mail: ceshzs@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gu, Lian-Quan, E-mail: cesglq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

267

Complete kinetic isotope effect description of transition states for acid-catalyzed hydrolyses of methyl. cap alpha. - and. beta. -glucopyranosides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following kinetic isotope effects (k/sub light//k/sub heavy/) have been measured by the isotopic quasi-racemate method for the hydrolyses of methyl ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-glucopyranosides, respectively in 2.0 M HClO/sub 4/ at 80/sup 0/C (..cap alpha..-D 1.137 +/- 0.007, 1.089 +/- 0.006; ..beta..-D 1.073 +/- 0.003, 1.045 +/- 0.004; ..gamma..-D (C5) 0.987 +/- 0.002, 0.971 +/- 0.003; leaving group d/sub 3/ 1.006 +/- 0.001, 1.015 +/- 0.002; leaving group /sup 18/O 1.026 +/- 0.001, 1.024 +/ +/- 0.002; anomeric /sup 13/C 1.007 +/- 0.001, 1.011 +/- 0.002). In conjunction with studies of the effect of added solutes on the rates of hydrolysis of various aldopyranosyl derivatives, which indicate such reactions are truly unimolecular, and model ring /sup 18/O and ..beta..-deuterium effects, it is possible to locate the dihedral angles about the O5-C1 and C1-C2 bonds at the transition state using these data. If the dihedral angles so derived are used as constraints in calculations using N.L. Allinger's MM2 molecular mechanics program, transition-state structures are obtained. The geometry of these transition states stands in contradiction to the theory of stereoelectronic control.

Bennet, A.J.; Sinnott, M.L.

1986-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

268

Electrogenic and electroneutral pathways for methyl viologen-mediated transmembrane oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicular membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two pathways for transmembrane reduction of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-entrapped Co(bpy)[sub 3][sup 3+] ion by photogenerated methyl viologen radical cation have been identified by quantitative evaluation of the reaction kinetics. One pathway involves electrogenic diffusion of MV[sup +] and the other electroneutral diffusion of MV[sup 0] across the bilayer. The pathways were clearly distinguished by the self-impeding character of the electrogenic reaction, which was progressively retarded as the membrane polarization increased, and by the net stoichiometry of viologen uptake accompanying transmembrane oxidation-reduction. The first-order rate constants for transmembrane diffusion of MV[sup +] and MV[sup 0] were estimated to be 2.7 x 10[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] and 1.1 x 10[sup 3] s[sup [minus]1], respectively, at 23[degree]C. The rate constant for MV[sup +] diffusion is identical to the value previously measured by [sup 14]C-isotopic labeling methods, and other kinetic parameters were consistent with thermodynamic data obtained from measurements of Donnan equilibria. 31 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Lymar, S.V. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States) Inst. of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

269

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

270

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye in water solutions in the presence of MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? MWCNTs/TiO{sub 2} composites were obtained to degrade organic dyes in water. ? MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites were analyzed by photocatalysis and structural characterization. ? The photocatalytic shows efficient method for the degradation of dyes from aqueous effluents. - Abstract: The textile and dyestuff industries are the primary sources of the release of synthetic dyes into the environment and usually there are major pollutants in dye wastewaters. Because of their toxicity and slow degradation, these dyes are categorized as environmentally hazardous materials. In this context, carbon nanotubes/TiO{sub 2} (CNTs/TiO{sub 2}) composites were prepared using multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), titanium (IV) propoxide and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P25{sup ®}) as titanium oxide sources, to degrade the methyl orange dye in solution through photocatalyst activity using UV irradiation. The composites were prepared by solution processing followed by thermal treatment at 400, 500 and 600 °C. The heterojunction between nanotubes and TiO{sub 2} was confirmed by XRD, specific surface area. The coating morphology was observed with SEM and TEM.

Da Dalt, S., E-mail: silvana.da.dalt@ufrgs.br [Department of Material, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99, Laboratory 705C, ZIP 90035-190, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P. [Department of Material, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99, Laboratory 705C, ZIP 90035-190, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (?130?°C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k?=?3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

273

Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. • The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. • Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 2–10 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei@ahut.edu.cn; Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Modulation of DL-. alpha. -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/quisqualate receptors by phospholipase A sub 2 : A necessary step in long-term potentiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of kainate (KA)-induced epileptic seizures on the binding properites of hippocampal glutamate receptors, on the modulation of DL-{alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/quisqualate receptor by phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}), and on the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP) were studied in hippocampal membranes and hippocampal slices. Systemic administration of KA produced specific changes in the binding properties of the AMPA/quisqualate receptors and its regulation. Whereas the binding of various ligands to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors was not modified by KA treatment, there was a singificant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites for ({sup 3}H)AMPA. The loss of LTP was not due to changes in postsynaptic responses elicited by the bursts that trigger the potentiation effect, thus suggesting that KA treatment disrupts processes that follow N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. Systemic administration of KA was associated with calpain activation as the amount of spectrin breakdown products was increased severalfold in hippocampus but not in cerebellum. Pretreatment of telencephalic membranes with calpain greatly reduced the PLA{sub 2}-induced increase in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding. The results provide evidence in favor of an essential role of PLA{sub 2} in the development of LTP and suggest that the order of activation of different calcium-dependent processes is critical for producing the final changes underlying LTP.

Massicotte, G.; Baudry, M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Vanderklish, P.; Lynch, G. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

DNA methylation-dependent regulation of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research highlights: {yields} Expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC is significantly elevated in human hepatocellular carcinoma. {yields} Downregulation of Trks is correlated with their promoter hypermethylation. {yields} Inhibiting DNA methylation restored expression of Trks in normal liver cell lines. {yields} Trks promote the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma. {yields} Trks induce expression of the metastatic regulator, Twist. -- Abstract: The tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of neurotrophin receptors, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, has been implicated in the growth and survival of human cancers. Here we report that Trks are frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from patients and human liver cancer cell lines. To unravel the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for this phenomenon, DNA methylation patterns of CpG islands in TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC genes were examined in normal and cancer cell lines derived from liver. A good correlation was observed between promoter hypermethylation and lower expression of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC genes, which was supported by the data that inhibiting DNA methylation with 5-azacytidine restored expression of those genes in normal liver cell lines. Furthermore, Trks promoted the proliferation of HepG2 and induced expression of the metastatic regulator, Twist. These results suggest that Trks may contribute to growth and metastasis of liver cancer.

Jin, Wook [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Joo [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Soo [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Molecular Disease and Cell Regulation, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Byung Ho [Department of Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 108 Pyung-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 108 Pyung-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Kyun, E-mail: choyk2004@hanmail.net [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 108 Pyung-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-Pyo, E-mail: kimhp@yuhs.ac [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

276

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), CO, NO X , ethyl lactate andHMDS: hexa-methyl disilizane IPA: isopropyl alcohol OMCTS:liquid H 2 SO 4 HCl NH 4 OH IPA oxide CMP slurry, chemicals

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

() Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetate () Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether () Ethylene glycol monomethy ether ()- O-dichlorobenzene ( ) Xylenes(o-,m-,p- isomers) () Cresol - 19 - #12;() Chlorobenzene () Amyl acetate () Isoamyl acetate () Isobutyl acetate () Isopropyl acetate () Ethyl acetate () Propyl acetate () Butyl acetate () Methyl acetate

Huang, Haimei

278

Electrodeposition of nickel-aluminum alloys from the aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room temperature molten salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Al alloys on glassy carbon was investigated in the 66.7--33.3 mole percent (m/o) Al chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing electrogenerated Ni(II) at 40 C. The electrodeposition of Ni on glassy carbon involves 3-D progressive nucleation on a finite number of active sites with hemispherical diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. At potentials slightly more negative than those needed to induce the reduction of Ni(II) to the metal, Al is codeposited with Ni to produce Ni-Al alloys. Controlled-potential and controlled-current experiments revealed that it is possible to produce alloy deposits containing up to approximately 40 atomic percent (a/o) Al under conditions that circumvent the bulk deposition of Al. The Al content of the Ni-Al deposit was found to vary linearly with the deposition potential but nonlinearly with the current density. The electrodeposited Ni-Al alloys are thermodynamically unstable with respect to Ni(II), i.e., immersion of the alloy deposit in melt containing Ni(II) under open-circuit conditions leads to a reduction in the Al content of the alloy. The mechanism of alloy formation appears to involve underpotential deposition of Al on the developing Ni deposit; however, alloy formation must be kinetically hindered because the Al content is always less than predicted from theoretical considerations. Ni-Al alloys produced at 0.30 V in melt containing Ni(II) and 20% (w/w) benzene as a cosolvent contained about 15 a/o Ni and were of high quality with a disordered fcc structure, but alloys produced at more negative potentials had the visual appearance of a loosely adherent, finely divided, black powder and were heavily contaminated with chloride, probably as a result of the occlusion of the molten salt solvent by the dendritic alloy deposit during deposit growth.

Pitner, W.R.; Hussey, C.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stafford, G.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chakicherla, Anu Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Schmidt, Radomir [University of California, Davis; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Legler, Tina C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Scow, Kate M. [University of California, Davis; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hristova, Krassimira R. [University of California, Davis

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Analytical Methodologies for Detection of Gamma-Valerolactone, Delta-Valerolactone, Acephate and Azinphos Methyl and Their Associated Metabolites in Complex Biological Matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-invasive biomonitoring for chemicals of interest in law enforcement and similar monitoring of pesticides, together with their metabolites, can not only save money but can lead to faster medical attention for individuals exposed to these chemicals. This study describes methods developed for the analysis of gamma-valerolactone (GVL), delta-valerolactone (DVL), acephate, and azinphos methyl in saliva and serum. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) operated in the negative and positive ion mode and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to analyze GVL and DVL. Although both analytical techniques worked well, lower detection limits were obtained with GC/MS. The lactones and their corresponding sodium salts were spiked into both saliva and serum. The lactones were isolated from saliva or serum using newly developed extraction techniques and then subsequently analyzed using GC/MS. The sodium salts of the lactones are nonvolatile and require derivatization prior to analysis by this method. N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) was ultimately selected as the reagent for derivatization because the acidic conditions required for reactions with diazomethane caused the salts to undergo intramolecular cyclization to the corresponding lactones. In vitro studies were conducted using rat liver microsomes to determine other metabolites associated with these compounds. Azinphos methyl and acephate are classified as organophosphate pesticides, and are known to be cholinesterase inhibitors in humans and insects, causing neurotoxicity. For this reason they have both exposure and environmental impact implications. These compounds were spiked into serum and saliva and prepared for analysis by GC/MS. Continuation of this research would include analysis by GC/MS under positive ion mode to determine the parent ions of the unknown metabolites. Further research is planned through an in vivo analysis of the lactones and pesticides. These methodologies could be extended for further analysis of other similar compounds.

Zink, E.; Clark, R.; Grant, K.; Campbell, J.; Hoppe, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Controlling DNA Methylation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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283

Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.45–16.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X{sup 2}E of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} is stable, and both A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH{sub 3}{sup +}. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH{sub 3}{sup +} dissociated from specific state-selected CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br({sup 2}P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion along C–Br rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion in A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E states along C–Br rupture are revealed. For CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion, the CH{sub 3}{sup +} + Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X{sup 2}E state followed by rapid dissociation. C–Br bond breaking of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation.

Tang, Xiaofeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhou, Xiaoguo, E-mail: xzhou@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shilin [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, Zhongfa [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: xzhou@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

284

Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: {yields} TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. {yields} The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. {yields} The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. {yields} Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the polymer fibres at low concentration of quantum dots however at higher concentrations some interactions were observed which shows that QDs were present on the surfaces of the fibres.

Mthethwa, T.P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa)] [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: mmoloto@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P. [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)] [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Electronic and optical response of Ru(II) complexes functionalized by methyl, carboxylate groups: joint theoretical and experimental study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge - a carboxyl group - is added to one or two of the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure, indeed, affect electronic and optical properties and consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru-systems. In this study, we apply both theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the Ru(II) bipyridine complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and linear response time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state structures of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase, as well as in acetonitrile solution. In addition, an inelaborate Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states. All theoretical results nicely complement experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes and contribute to their interpretation. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show a high probability of deprotonation of the carbboxyl group in the Ru-complexes resulted in a slight blue shift and decrease of intensities of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotanated complexes demonstrate strong agreement when acetonitrile solvent is used in simulations. A polar solvent is found to play an important role in calculations of optical spectra: it stabilizes the energy of states localized on the carboxyl or carboxylate groups eliminating artificial charge transport states, which typically appear in TDDFT calculations. Thus, it is validated that the excited-state structure of the functionalized Ru-complexes, specifically in the case of the deprotonated functions, can be accurately modeled by TDDFT with the addition of a dielectric continuum in simulations.

Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Murine T cell activation is regulated by surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Surfen is the first inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan function to be studied in murine T cells. •Surfen reduces T cell proliferation stimulated in vitro and in vivo. •Surfen reduces CD25 expression in T cells activated in vivo but not in vitro. •Surfen increases T cell proliferation when T cell receptor activation is bypassed. •Surfen’s effects are blocked by co-administration of heparin sulfate. -- Abstract: Surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide) binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and has been shown to influence their function, and the function of proteoglycans (complexes of GAGs linked to a core protein). T cells synthesize, secrete and express GAGs and proteoglycans which are involved in several aspects of T cell function. However, there are as yet no studies on the effect of GAG-binding agents such as surfen on T cell function. In this study, surfen was found to influence murine T cell activation. Doses between 2.5 and 20 ?M produced a graduated reduction in the proliferation of T cells activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated T cell expander beads. Surfen (20 mg/kg) was also administered to mice treated with anti-CD3 antibody to activate T cells in vivo. Lymphocytes from surfen-treated mice also showed reduced proliferation and lymph node cell counts were reduced. Surfen reduced labeling with a cell viability marker (7-ADD) but to a much lower extent than its effect on proliferation. Surfen also reduced CD25 (the ?-subunit of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor) expression with no effect on CD69 expression in T cells treated in vivo but not in vitro. When receptor activation was bypassed by treating T cells in vitro with phorbyl myristate acetate (10 ng/ml) and ionomycin (100 ng/ml), surfen treatment either increased proliferation (10 ?M) or had no effect (2.5, 5 and 20 ?M). In vitro treatment of T cells with surfen had no effect on IL-2 or interferon-? synthesis and did not alter proliferation of the IL-2 dependent cell line CTLL-2. The effect of surfen was antagonized dose-dependently by co-treatment with heparin sulfate. We conclude that surfen inhibits T cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. When T cell receptor-driven activation is bypassed surfen had a neutral or stimulatory effect on T cell proliferation. The results imply that endogenous GAGs and proteoglycans play a complex role in promoting or inhibiting different aspects of T cell activation.

Warford, Jordan, E-mail: jordan.warford@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)] [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Doucette, Carolyn D., E-mail: carolyn.doucette@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Easton, Alexander S., E-mail: alexander.easton@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

288

Possible modulation of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid induced prolactin release by testicular steroids in the adult male rhesus monkey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), an agonist of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to acutely stimulate the release of prolactin (PRL) in intact rats and monkeys. To further investigate the role of neuroexcitatory amino acids in PRL secretion, the effects of NMA administration were examined on PRL release in long term orchidectomized adult rhesus monkeys, in both the absence and presence of testosterone. Intact and long term castrated adult male monkeys weighing between 8-13 kg, were implanted with a catheter via the saphenous vein for blood withdrawal and drug infusion. Blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals for 50 min before and 70 min after administration of the drug or vehicle. Plasma PRL concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Whereas a single iv injection of NMA induced a prompt discharge of PRL in intact monkeys, an identical dose had surprisingly no effect on PRL secretion in orchidectomized animals. On the other hand, plasma PRL increases in response to a challenge dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone were similar in magnitude in the two groups of monkeys. Testosterone replacement in orchidectomized animals by parenteral administration of testosterone enanthate reinitiated the PRL responsiveness to acute NMA stimulation. These results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) dependent drive to PRL release in the adult male rhesus monkey may be overtly influenced by the sex steroid milieu.

Arslan, M.; Rizvi, S.S.R.; Jahan, S.; Zaidi, P.; Shahab, M. (Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been investigated at an ultrasonic frequency of 205 kHz and power of 200 W L{sup {minus}1}. The observed first-order degradation rate constant for the loss of MTBE increased from 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} to 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} as the concentration of MTBE decreased from 1.0 to 0.01 mM. In the presence of O{sub 3}, the sonolytic rate of destruction of MTBE was accelerated substantially. The rate of MTBE sonolysis with ozone was enhanced by a factor of 1.5--3.9 depending on the initial concentration of MTBE. tert-Butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol, methyl acetate, and acetone were found to be the primary intermediates and byproducts of the degradation reaction with yields of 8, 5, 3, and 12%, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving three parallel pathways that include the direct pyrolytic decomposition of MTBE, the direct reaction of MTBE with ozone, and the reaction of MTBE with hydroxyl radical is proposed.

Kang, J.W. [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health] [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol amended to 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Final technical report, July 25, 1991--January 25, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a draft final technical report on Task 1 of a contract to synthesize 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol, as amended to 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. This report is a compilation of data presented in earlier reports. The first annual report dealt with an attempted synthesis of 4-methoxy-6-methyl-9- propyldibenzothiophene (the original target compound), the successful synthesis and delivery of 200 grams of the sulfide 1,4-diethyl-2- [(2{prime}-methoxyphenyl)-thio]benzene, and initial work on a new synthesis route for the preparation of the new target compound 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. The change to the new target compound and the new synthesis route became necessary when it was learned that the sulfide mixture could not be cyclized to the substituted dibenzothiophene mixture. The second annual report described the successful preparation of 45 g of the new target compound using the new synthesis route. Subsequently funds were provided to synthesize an additional 45 g of the new target using the same reaction scheme. This task was recently completed.

Eisenbraun, E.J.

1992-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

291

An investigation of the burning rates of thin films of some selected composite propellants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammoni a/Perch 1 ori c Aci d Aluminum Atmospheres butyl Acetate Carbon Glass Cyclo tetramethylenetetrani tr amine L ad Azide IicCormick-Selph Methyl Fthyl Ketone IIitrocelIulose Oxidizer/Fue'I x-104, x-164 NcCormick-Selph material 300, 104...

Sawyer, Miles Lee

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Environ. Sci. Techno/. 1995, 29, 1059-1068 Behavior of Biofilters for Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBKI vapors in air during passage through compost-based biofilters served of biofil- tration processes (2-4) than did more conventional ap- proaches. Materials and Methods an equivolume mixture of compost and polystyrene spheres. Acid-neutralizing components (probably limestone) were

293

Kinetic isotope effects, dynamic effects, and mechanistic studies of organic reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Â?-conjugating substituent is distal to the oxazolidinone but decreased steric interaction when the ÏÂ?-conjugating substituent is proximal to the oxazolidinone. Dynamic effects were studied in Diels-Alder reaction between acrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. This reaction...

Wang, Zhihong

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

294

Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and thermal properties of [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl)-A new compound with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster core  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new hexanuclear cluster compound, [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl) (1), with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster entity, was synthesized and characterized by elemental and TG/DTA analyses, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The presence of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} unit was confirmed also by the room-temperature magnetic and EPR measurements. The compound crystallizes in the tetragonal I4{sub 1}/a space group, with a=14.299(5), c=21.241(5) A, Z=4, R{sub 1}(F)/wR{sub 2}(F{sup 2})=0.0296/0.0811. The structure contains discrete [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+} cations with an octahedron of metal atoms edge-bridged by bromine atoms and with water molecules occupying all six terminal positions. The cluster units are positioned in the vertices of the three-dimensional (pseudo)diamond lattice. The structure shows similarities with literature reported structures of cluster compounds crystallizing in the diamond (Fd3-barm) space group. - Graphical abstract: Two interpenetrating (pseudo)diamond nets formed by packing of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 3+} (octahedral) and diamagnetic [Et{sub 4}N]{sup +} (spheres) cations.

Peric, Berislav, E-mail: bperic@irb.h [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Jozic, Drazan [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Planinic, Pavica, E-mail: planinic@irb.h [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Brnicevic, Nevenka [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Giester, Gerald [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Kristallographie, Universitaet Wien-Geozentrum Althanstrasse, 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Synthesis and characterization of redox polymers of (M(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 )(PF sub 6 ) sub 2 (M = Ru, Os)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have prepared polymers of (M(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (M = Ru, Os) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) in solution via free-radical polymerization and fractionated them according to molecular weight using size exclusion chromatography. Different fractions have been characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopic means. The authors find that whereas for the osmium containing polymers the relative polymer size varies in proportion to the number of vinyl groups consumed during the polymerization reaction, the same is not true for the analogous ruthenium polymers. In addition, the emission energy of both the ruthenium and osmium polymers is also related to the concentration of residual vinyl groups in the polymer. Upon polymerization, there is a shift in the emission toward higher energies. Electrochemically determined diffusion coefficients are consistent with the relative size of the various fractions.

Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

296

Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in a biotrickling filters. 2. Analysis of the rate-limiting step and behavior under transient conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed experiments were performed with gas phase biotrickling filters treating vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern. A particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of the rate-limiting step, and it was found that the process was mostly limited by the biological reaction rather than by mass transfer. Further experiments involved the study of the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filters under simulated field conditions. In all cases, the biotrickling filters adapted rapidly to the new conditions, and new steady states were obtained within hours. The relevance of the results and the implications as far as implementation of biotrickling filters for field MTBE treatment are discussed.

Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

Zhang, Shanju [Georgia Institute of Technology; Liu, Zhan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Bucknall, David G. [Georgia Institute of Technology; He, Lihong [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Allen, Mark [Georgia Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Synthesis and characterization of redox copolymers of (Ru(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ and (Os(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ : Unusual energy-transfer dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copolymers of (Ru(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) and (Os(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) have been prepared in solution and by electropolymerization. The ruthenium and osmium monomers were incorporated in the copolymers in different ratios depending on the polymerization method. These results point to fundamental differences between solution polymerization and electropolymerization. In addition, luminescence experiments at liquid-nitrogen temperature and room temperature point to a significant degree of energy transfer from ruthenium to osmium states in the polymer.

Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

299

Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane: A building block for chemicals and fuels from natural gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 01, September 30, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this cooperative agreement are to develop the oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) process for the conversion of methane to methyl chloride. In the first Phase of the project, Dow Corning has developed a stable selective catalyst and demonstrated the technology on a laboratory and a pilot plant scale. Specific tasks to achieve these objectives have been developed as follows: TASK 1 Fundamental Technical and Economic Evaluation TASK 2 Catalyst Selection Optimization and Characterization Studies TASK 3 Pilot Plant Design TASK 4 Pilot Plant Detailed Engineering, Procurement and Construction TASK 5 Pilot Plant Startup and Operation TASK 6 Pilot Plant Process Optimization TASK 7 Pilot Plant Extended Operation TASK 8 Pilot Plant Economic Evaluation/Scale-up Decision Significant progress has been completed in Task 1 with the objective to complete a fundamental technical and economic evaluation of learning gathered the Phase I effort of this project. A decision to proceed with the project will be made after completion of this Task. A computer model of the reactor system has been developed, which includes heat and mass transfer effects as well as reactions. Model validation is in progress. The Absorber/Stripper technology evaluated and implemented on the Phase I PDU to recover chlorocarbons (including methyl chloride) from reaction products has been scaled to evaluate economics for a commercial scale plant. In a parallel exercise, alternate recovery technologies were investigated for economic evaluation, to assure that the minimum capital option is pursued for the Phase II design. Commercial scale plant equipment and total plant costs are being evaluated using information from the Phase I PDU, reactor modeling and recovery system evaluation to estimate capital and operating costs for a commercial scale OHC unit.

Wineland, J.

1997-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

300

(distillation) (Le Chatelier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetate(methyl-, ethyl-, butyl-) , methanol isobutene MTBE , ethanol isobutene ETBE , methanol 2-methyl-1% MTBE 3 DMC . 2% 1990 MTBE 1999 3 2002 MTBE . [ 1-1 ] Phosgene process polycarbonate(PC) 50/ . DMC DMC MTBE / . ( : Amoco, "Review of DMC Manufacture and its

Hong, Deog Ki

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: March 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In March 1994, well point water and near surface water (bucket) samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E would migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from near surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. Results of the March 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near the old F-Area effluent ditch. Six different analytes were detected in the well points at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit: d 1,2-dichloroethylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium. 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium were detected at levels above Primary Drinking Water Standards or Maximum Contaminant Levels list. Four analytes, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride, were detected at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit and least once at concentrations above the PDWS or the MCL. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets were negligible.

Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.; Rogers, V.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

PMo or PW heteropoly acids supported on MCM-41 silica nanoparticles: Characterisation and FT-IR study of the adsorption of 2-butanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mesoporous silica, prepared in basic conditions, has been loaded (20% weight) with 12-molybdophosphoric (PMo) or 12-tungstophosphoric (PW) acid and calcined at different temperatures ranging between 250 and 550 deg. C. The samples have been characterised by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption at -196 deg. C, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The acidity and catalytic activity have been, respectively, examined by monitoring the adsorption of pyridine and 2-butanol by FT-IR spectroscopy. The results indicate that PW and PMo acids are highly dispersed on mesoporous silica MCM-41 spherical nanoparticles. While PMo retains its Keggin structure up to 550 deg. C, PW decomposes at this temperature into crystalline WO{sub 3} and phosphorous oxides. In both cases, the morphology, hexagonal symmetry and long-range order observed for the support are preserved with calcination up to 450 deg. C. The Broensted-type acid sites found in all samples, whose surface concentration decreases as the calcination temperature increases, are responsible for the selective formation of cis-butene detected upon adsorption of 2-butanol. The sample containing PW calcined at 450 deg. C also shows selectivity to methyl ethyl ketone. - Graphical abstract: Samples based in MCM-41 nanoparticles loaded with tungstophosphoric and molybdophosphoric acids have been synthesised. The uncalcined solids and that derived upon their calcination in the temperature range 250-550 deg. C have been characterised and evaluated in the decomposition of 2-butanol monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy.

Carriazo, Daniel [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Domingo, Concepcion [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Serrano, 123, 28006-Madrid (Spain); Martin, Cristina [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Rives, Vicente [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008-Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: vrives@usal.es

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

The feasibility of ethyl iodide as an atmospheric tracer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The CCl? was dissolved in toluene and measured with an electron-capture detector. The differences between the two tracers appeared in the lateral distribution measurements where the CC1, showed higher values than the HTO. The HTO results were described...

Everett, Joe Vincent

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

alcohol ethyl alcohol: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

second, the efficacy of three psychotherapies for alcoholism in treating extreme West, Mike 243 Characterization of Catalysts for the Synthesis of Higher Alcohols using...

305

LIGNIN BIODEGRADATION AND THE PRODUCTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL FROM CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Moore, W. E. , Removing lignin from wood with white-rotof carbohydrates on lignin degradation by the white-rotP. and Eriksson, K. -E. , Lignin degradation and utilization

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

acid ethyl esters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 241 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

307

acid ethyl ester: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 241 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

308

Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Correlation of hetorogeneous blood flow and uptake of a di-methyl-branched IODO fatty acid in the normal and ischemic dog heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Myocardial blood flow (MBF) is heterogeneously distributed in normal and ischemic myocardium (myoc). Methylated iodinated fatty acids, like 15-(p-I-125-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPPA) can be used to study fatty acid metabolism with SPECT. We studied the relationship between DMIPPA uptake and MBF. In 10 open-chest dogs, ischemica was induced in the LAD coronary artery by an extra-corporal bypass system. MBF was measured with Sc-46 labeled microspheres. Fourty min. after DMIPPA iv. (34{plus_minus}4 MBq), hearts were excised and left ventricles were cut into 120 pieces, weighed and radioactivities counted. MBF and DMIPPA uptake were determined by counting in normal and ischemic myoc. Heterogeneity is expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) and agreement as the CV of the DMIPPA uptake to MBF ratio. A control study, normal flow in LAD, in 4 dogs revealed no differences in MBF or DMIPPA uptake between the cannulated versus native perfused myoc. We conclude the DMIPPA detects ischemia, in which it shows a different relation with MBF compared to normal myoc. DMIPPA is less heterogeneously distributed than MBF and agreement between MFB and DMIPPA uptake decreases during ischemia.

Sloof, G.W.; Visser, F.C.; Comans, E.F.I. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Scanning tunneling microscopy of dimeric and polymeric products of electroreduced (Re(CO) sub 3 (4-vinyl,4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine)Cl)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to image adsorbed products resulting from electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (vbpy = 4-vinyl,4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). STM images, in air, of HOPG electrodes following electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (in acetonitrile/0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate) by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}2.0 V vs a sodium saturated colomel electrode (SSCE) show molecular species uniformly distributed on the surface including approximately dumbbell shaped molecules ({approx} 40 {times} 20 {angstrom}). The size and shape of these aggregates is consistent with products derived from vinyl-vinvyl coupling of Re-Re bonded dimers: ((vbpy)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpyH-vbpyH)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)). STM images of electrodes prepared by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}1.45 V vs SSCE (less reducing conditions) show highly nonuniform coating of the surface by polymer. Several polymer morphologies were observed with polymer nucleation preferentially occurring at step sites on HOPG.

Snyder, S.R.; White, H.S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Lopez, S.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1990-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

311

Rotational spectroscopy as a tool to investigate interactions between vibrational polyads in symmetric top molecules: low-lying states v8 <= 2 of methyl cyanide, CH$_3$CN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627 GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2nu8 around 717 cm-1 with assignments covering 684-765 cm-1. Additional spectra in the nu8 region were used to validate the analysis. The large amount and the high accuracy of the rotational data extend to much higher J and K quantum numbers and allowed us to investigate for the first time in depth local interactions between these states which occur at high K values. In particular, we have detected several interactions between v8 = 1 and 2. Notably, there is a strong Delta(v8) = +- 1, Delta(K) = 0, Delta(l) = +-3 Fermi resonance between v8 = 1^-1 and v8 = 2^+2 at K = 14. Pronounced effects in the spectrum are also caused by reso...

Müller, Holger S P; Drouin, Brian J; Pearson, John C; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L; Sung, Keeyoon; Ordu, Matthias H; Lewen, Frank

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Alpha and recoil track detection in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)—Towards a method for in vitro assessment of radiopharmaceuticals internalized in cancer cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for detection and characterization of single MeV ?-particle and recoil tracks in PMMA photoresist by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis has been demonstrated. The energy deposition along the track is shown to lead to a latent pattern in the resist due to contrast reversal. It has been shown that the pattern, consisting of conical spikes, can be developed by conventional processing as a result of the dissolution rate of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) being greater than that for the modified material in the cylindrical volume of the track core. The spikes can be imaged and counted by routine AFM analysis. Investigations by angular-resolved near-grazing incidence reveal additional tracks that correspond to recoil tracks. The observations have been correlated with modelling, and shown to be in qualitative agreement with prevailing descriptions of collision cascades. The results may be relevant to technologies that are based on detection and characterization of single energetic ions. In particular, the direct visualization of the collision cascade may allow more accurate estimates of the actual interaction volume, which in turn will permit more precise assessment of dose distribution of ?-emitting radionuclides used for targeted radiotherapy. The results could also be relevant to other diagnostic or process technologies based on interaction of energetic ions with matter.

Myhra, S., E-mail: sverre.myhra@materials.ox.ac.uk; Chakalova, R. [Oxford University Begbroke Science Park, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Oxford University Begbroke Science Park, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Falzone, N. [MRC/CRUK Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom and Department of Biomedical Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)] [MRC/CRUK Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom and Department of Biomedical Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in biotrickling filters. 1. Reactor startup, steady-state performance, and culture characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste air biotrickling filters after continuous operation for 6 months. After this acclimation phase, the two laboratory-scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could be sustained for at least 4--6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were characterized by their almost full conversion of MTBE to carbon dioxide and the absence of any degradation byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation activity per amount of biomass, and a low rate of biomass accumulation. An observed biomass yield of 0.1 g g{sup {minus}1} and a specific growth rate of 0.025 day{sup {minus}1} were determined for the biotrickling filter process culture. Further data on MTBE mass transfer and on the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filter are presented in part 2 of this paper. Overall, the results demonstrate that MTBE can be effectively biodegraded under carefully controlled environmental conditions.

Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Pump-beam-induced optical damage depended on repetition frequency and pulse width in 4-dimethylamino-N Prime -methyl-4 Prime -stilbazolium tosylate crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the dependence of optical damage to an organic nonlinear optical crystal of 4-dimethylamino-N Prime -methyl-4 Prime -stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) on the repetition frequency and pulse width of the pump beam used to cause the thermal damage. For a pump beam with a pulse width of 15 ns at a wavelength of 1064 nm, the highest damage threshold of 8.0 J/cm{sup 2} was measured for repetition frequencies in the range from 10 to 40 Hz. On the other hand, DAST crystals were easily damaged under the repetition rates from 50 to 100 Hz. For 600-ps pulses, a higher damage threshold that was a factor of 11 to 28 times higher in terms of peak intensity was obtained compared with that of 15-ns pulses. In both the cases of 15-ns pulse duration and 600-ps duration, we demonstrated that the thermal effects in DAST crystals dominated the optical damage, which depended on thermal accumulation and dissipation.

Matsukawa, Takeshi; Nawata, Kouji; Notake, Takashi; Qi Feng; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Minamide, Hiroaki [Tera-photonics Laboratory, RIKEN, 519-1399, Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan)

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

316

Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance study of the photoreduction of anthraquinone with 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol in alcoholic solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using FT-EPR following laser excitation, the primary photochemical process in the photoreduction of anthraquinone with 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol was investigated. High-resolved spin-polarized EPR spectra taken with nanosecond time resolution gave unambiguous evidence for a two-step hydrogen abstraction reaction, consisting of a primary electron transfer followed by proton abstraction with a time delay, which allows for a noticeable escape probability of the initially generated anthrasemiquinone radical anion (AQ{sup {sm_bullet}minus}). The time dependence of the EPR intensities of the neutral 10-hydroxy-anthroxyl radical (AQH{sup {sm_bullet}}) as well as of AQ{sup {sm_bullet}} could be simulated for the full experimentally accessible time interval of 10 ns to 100 {mu}s. The kinetic model used invokes optical spin polarization, spin-lattice relaxation, radical generation, and AQH{sup {sm_bullet}}AQ interconversion. In addition, from an analysis of the highly-resolved FT-EPR spectra a complete set of AQH{sup {sm_bullet}} hyperfine splitting (hfs) constants could be measured in two different alcohols for the first time. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Plueschau, M.; Kroll, G. [Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Dinse, K.P. [TH Darmstadt (Germany)] [and others

1992-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

317

Removal patterns of some alkyl phenyl ketones in a heterogeneous bacterial system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

never lrave been wri t ten, I can only say thank you. TABLE OF CONTENTS pacCe ABSTRACT ACKNONLEDGEMENTS iLIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES SECTION I Introduction and Literature Review SECTION II Apparatus and Materials Reactor Gas Chromatograph... 2 3 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3 0 Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas hyl Alkyl Gas Gas Gas Gas Chemical Nomenclature Inorganic i'Jutrients Test A. Reactor Conditions Test A...

Salitros, James Joseph

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Investigation into the Nazarov Cyclization of Aryl Dienyl Ketones and Synthetic Studies Toward Tetrapetalone A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.145a The Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis involves the acid-perform the Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis with aniline 2.145a

Marcus, Andrew Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic ketones aldehydes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

various chemicals in to 23 Summary: Incompatible Groups 7 Aldehydes Acetaldehyde Acrolein Butyraldehyde Crotonaldehyde Formaldehyde Furfural... Paraformaldehyde...

320

Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of ?- as well as ?-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Electrochemistry and photocurrents of the tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) and methyl viologen cations immobilized in carrageenan hydrogel. [tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A procedure for immobilization of both a photochromophore, tris(2,2{prime}-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}), and a quencher, methyl viologen (MV{sup 2+}), within a carrageenan hydrogel matrix at an electrode surface is described. Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and MV{sup 2+} exhibited diffusion coefficients that ranged from 10{sup {minus} 7} to 10{sup {minus} 6} cm{sup 2}/s in the hydrogel, which represents an improvement over other immobilization matrices. Photolysis of the resulting hydrogel surface modified electrodes gave rise to a significant photocurrent which depended on the concentrations of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, MV{sup 2+}, and triethanolamine and resulted in a maximum value of 12 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} after the hydrogel was cured with a solution containing 5 mM Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and 50 mM MV{sup 2+}. The photocurrent was the result of reoxidation of MV{sup +} at the electrode surface following reduction of MV{sup 2+} by photoexcited Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. The quenching rate constant of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} by MV{sup 2+} in the hydrogel was 4.2 {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The photocurrent action spectrum was consistent with Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} acting as the photochromophore. Offsetting the potential of the hydrogel electrode verified the role of the MV{sup 2+}/{sup +} redox couple as the source of the current.

Rillema, D.P.; Edwards, A.K. (Univ., of North Carolina, Charlotte (United States)); Perine, S.C.; Crumbliss, A.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

1991-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

322

Photochemical generation of alkyl radicals and their reactions with methyl viologen radical cation and with transition-metal complexes in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The irradiation of aqueous solutions of RCo((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} (R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, 1-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}, CH{sub 2}Cl, CH{sub 2}Br, CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}) with visible light, {lambda} {le} 400 nm, results in the homolysis of the cobalt-carbon bond. These complexes are quite unreactive toward a variety of dealkylating and redox reagents and thus represent a convenient source of small unstabilized carbon-centered radicals in the presence of potential substrates. The radicals react rapidly with the methyl viologen radical cation, k{sub MB} = (1-2) {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The kinetics of the formation of RCr{sup 2+} and RCo((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} in the reactions of radicals with Cr{sup 2+} and Co((14)aneN{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively, were studied by using MV{sup +} as a probe. The respective rate constants have values k{sub Cr} = (1.9-2.4) {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} and k{sub Co} = (1-2) {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} for all the radicals examined. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Bakac, A.; Espenson, J.H. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA))

1989-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

323

Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

324

Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

Mechanistic studies of coenzyme B?? model systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

malonate 4. 3. 1 Diethyl (benzyloxymethyl) methyl malonate 4. 3. 2 Diethyl (hydroxymethyl) methyl malonate - ~ ~ ~ ~ 4. 3. 3 Diethyl (t-butoxymethyl) methyl malonate 4. 3. 4 (R)-mono-ethyl (t-butoxymethyl) methyl malonic acid 37 . . 37 38 42 44 44... 73 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. 1 Biosynthesis of Succinyl Co A PAGE 1. 2 Coenzyme Btz 1. 3 Coenzyme Btz Mutase 1. 4 The Tada Model 1. 5 The Schrauzer Model 1. 6 The Halpern Model 1. 7 The Scott-Dowd Model 10 12 14 2. 1 Radical Kinetics...

Robinson, John Walter

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Characterization Of The Local Electrical Environment In An Electrically-guided Protein Patterning System Incorporating Antifouling Self-assembled Monolayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared Spectroscopy GMPCPP Guanosine-5?-[(?,?)-methyleno]triphosphate MIBK Methyl Isobutyl Ketone MPEOPS 2-[methoxypoly-(ethyleneoxy)propyl]-trimethoxysilane MT Microtubule PEG-SAM Poly(ethylene glycol) Self Assembled Monolayer PMMA Poly... in acetone for five minutes, followed by rinsing with acetone and isopropanol and drying with nitrogen gas. After the cleaned silicon wafers were placed on a hot plate at 200 ?C for complete drying, a few drops of electon-beam resist (PMMA (poly...

Park, Jinseon

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

327

Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ?2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - aminoethanesulfonic acid Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

methyl-2- aminoethane-sulfonic acid, 8 trehalose, 10 glucose, 26 NaHCO3, 1 NaH2PO4, 1.5 CaCl2, and 4 Mg... 0 100 150 0 10 20 Benzaldehyde 1-butanol Butyric acid Ethyl acetate...

330

A Practical and Highly Stereoselective Umpolung Alternative to the Alkylation of Chiral Enolates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, acetates, carbonates, and epoxides.9,10 Thus, in principle, the displacement reaction of a chiral allyl reactive electrophiles such as methyl, ethyl, and some primary alkyl iodides and benzyl or allyl halides. s-silyl ketene acetals, and s-alkyl electrophiles are poor electrophiles with this method.7,8 In this paper, we

Spino, Claude

331

Physico-chemical and biological characterization of an aquifer polluted with Yves Benoit (1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to in order to meet specific requirements. Oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tert on groundwater was not estimated prior to their utilization and the actual level of MTBE and ETBE contamination of MTBE- and ETBE-biodegradation is quite poor. Two directives have been adopted in the EU to promote

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)) were considered as possible fuel oxygenates. MTBE and ethanol are the most common oxygenates currently used

Senkan, Selim M.

333

An Examination of the Thermodynamics of Fusion, Vaporization, and Sublimation of Several Parabens by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Examination of the Thermodynamics of Fusion, Vaporization, and Sublimation of Several Parabens, Kasetsart University, Bangkane, Bangkok 10900, Thailand 2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.com). DOI 10.1002/jps.22423 ABSTRACT: The vaporization, fusion, and sublimation enthalpies of methyl, ethyl

Chickos, James S.

334

Preparation and evaluation of 3-methyl isomers of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP): 3R-BMIPP shows greater heart uptake than 3S-BMIPP in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iodine-123 racemic (3-R,S) BMIPP is of widespread interest for evaluation of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effects of the asymmetric C-3 center of BMIPP on heart uptake/clearance we have resolved and characterized 3R- and 3S-BMIPP (H-1 and C-13 NMR, MS, HPLC, [{alpha}], m.p.) and evaluated the radioiodinated isomers in rats. A thiophene {open_quotes}template{close_quotes} approach using ethyl 3R-methylglutarate was used to synthesize the authentic 3R-BMPPA substrate (mp 41-42 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] + 1.45 {degrees}). Reaction of racemic 3-R, S-BNPPA with S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine gave the diastereomeric amides, separated by TLC, column or HPLC. The more polar isomer was identical to the amide prepared from the 3R-isomer. HCI cleavage of the purified diastereomers provided 3R- and 3S-BMPPA (mp 40-41 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] - 3.90 {degrees}). Iodination (TTFAA/KI) gave 3R-BMIPP (mp 51-52 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] + 0.74 {degrees}) and 3S-BMIPP (mp 45-46 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] - 1.67 {degrees}), which formed amides identical with the two amides separated from the 3-R, S-BMIPP amide mixture. A [I-125]-3R-BMIPP and [I-131]-3S-BMIPP mixture was administered to groups of fasted rats (n = 5/group) sacrificed at 5, 15, 60 and 180 minutes. While blood levels and uptake and clearance from liver, lungs and kidney were nearly identical for both isomers, 3R-BMIPP had higher heart uptake at all periods evaluated (%ID/gram, i.e., 15 min: 3R = 5.25 {plus_minus} 0.77, 3S= 4.51 {plus_minus} 0.50; 180 min: 3R = 2.31 {plus_minus} 0.51, 3S = 1.98 {plus_minus} 0.26), suggesting that transport into the myocytes is different for the isomers. Higher heart uptake suggests that the 3R-BMIPP isomer should be further evaluated.

Knapp, F.F.R. Jr.; Lin, Q.; Luo, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Photochemistry of 1 and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene. [4a-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an attempt to synthesize partially saturated phenanthrene derivatives by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction between a photochemically produced o-xylylene (diene) and a tethered dienophile, it was found that 1 and 2 underwent a photochemically allowed (2 + 2) cycloaddition. Irradiation of 1 gave 6-(2-methylphenyl)bicyclo(3.2.0)heptane in 86% yield. Upon irradiation of 2, a benzvalene rearrangement of 2 first took place, producing the meta isomer 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene, followed by a (2 + 2) photocycloaddition giving 1-(3-methylphenyl)bicyclo(3.2.0)heptane in 15% yield. Direct irradiation of 2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene gave the same bicyclo derivative as 2 in 34% yield. Examination of the fluorescence spectra of 1 and 2 in comparison with 1-(2-methylphenyl)propene and 2-(2-methylphenyl)-1-butene, respectively, has shown that 1 may be biased toward (2 + 2) cycloaddition where 2 is not biased toward (2 + 2) photocycloization. Attempts to produce 4a-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of the o-xylylene produced by irradiation of 3 will also be described.

Barrows, R.D.; Hornback, J.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

{gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

2-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-one (HKL-1) induces G2/M arrest and mitotic catastrophe in human leukemia HL-60 cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

2-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4(1H)-one (HKL-1), a 2-phenyl-1,8-naphthyridin-4-one (2-PN) derivative, was synthesized and evaluated as an effective antimitotic agent in our laboratory. However, the molecular mechanisms are uncertain. In this study, HKL-1 was demonstrated to induce multipolar spindles, sustain mitotic arrest and generate multinucleated cells, all of which indicate mitotic catastrophe, in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Western blotting showed that HKL-1 induces mitotic catastrophe in HL-60 cells through regulating mitotic phase-specific kinases (down-regulating CDK1, cyclin B1, CENP-E, and aurora B) and regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating Bax and Bak), followed by caspase-9/-3 cleavage. These findings suggest that HKL-1 appears to exert its cytotoxicity toward HL-60 cells in culture by inducing mitotic catastrophe. Highlights: ? HKL-1 is a potential antimitotic agent against HL-60 cells. ? HKL-1 induces spindle disruption and sustained resulted in mitotic catastrophe. ? CENP-E and aurora B protein expressions significantly reduced. ? Bcl-2 family protein expressions altered and caspase-9/-3 activation. ? HKL-1 is an attractive candidate for possible use as a novel antimitotic agent.

Hsu, Mei-Hua; Liu, Chin-Yu; Lin, Chiao-Min; Chen, Yen-Jung; Chen, Chun-Jen; Lin, Yu-Fu; Huang, Li-Jiau [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Kuo-Hsiung [Natural Products Research Laboratories, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States) [Natural Products Research Laboratories, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Sheng-Chu, E-mail: sckuo@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A novel approach for the characterization of a bilayer of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester and pentacene using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and argon gas cluster ion beam sputtering process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The material arrangement and energy level alignment of an organic bilayer comprising of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PCBM-71) and pentacene were studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and the argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering process. Although there is a small difference in the full width at half maximum of the carbon C 1s core level peaks and differences in the oxygen O 1s core levels of an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy spectra, these differences are insufficient to clearly distinguish between PCBM-71 and pentacene layers and to classify the interface and bulk regions. On the other hand, the valence band structures in the UPS spectra contain completely distinct configurations for the PCBM-71 and pentacene layers, even when they have similar atomic compositions. According to the valence band structures of the PCBM-71/pentacene/electrodes, the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) region of pentacene is at least 0.8 eV closer to the Fermi level than that of PCBM-71 and it does not overlap with any of the chemical states in the valence band structure of PCBM-71. Therefore, by just following the variations in the area of the HOMO region of pentacene, the interface/bulk regions of the PCBM/pentacene layers were distinctly categorized. Besides, the variation of valence band structures as a function of the Ar GCIB sputtering time fully corroborated with the surface morphologies observed in the atomic force microscope images. In summary, we believe that the novel approach, which involves UPS analysis in conjunction with Ar GCIB sputtering, can be one of the best methods to characterize the material distribution and energy level alignments of stacks of organic layers.

Yun, Dong-Jin; Chung, JaeGwan; Jung, Changhoon; Chung, Yeonji; Kim, SeongHeon; Lee, Seunghyup; Kim, Ki-Hong; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Gyeong-Su; Park, SungHoon [Analytical Science Laboratory of Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 14-1, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Analytical Science Laboratory of Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 14-1, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

339

Comparative study of interaction between organophosphorus insecticides and different strains of house flies (Musca domestica L.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, maintained on ice, and used as soon as poss ib le. The incubation mixture contained 2 ml fly homogen- ate, 1 mg bovine serum albumin (BSA) in 0. 9 ml distilled water, 0. 89 mg NADPH in 0. 1 ml phosphate buf f er (0. 2 M, pH 7. 8), 1 n mole C-ethyl... moles/15 min/fly abdomen) 12. 15 9. 11 8. 86 8. 06 6. 41 Inhibition 0. 00 25. 03 27. 07 33. 63 47. 23 None Orthene Monitor 10 10 15. 48 12. 84 12. 38 0. 00 17 07 20. 00 Methyl parathion 10 Ethyl parathion 10 3. 48 3. 21 77...

Suksayretrup, Pin

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

The synthesis of some selected aminohexanols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-hexanol 2 Infrared spectrum of 3-methyl-5-ethyl- isoxazoline 57 10 Infrared spectrum of 5-amino-3-hexanol 57 Infrared spectrum of 1-nitro-3-hexanone 58 12 Infrared spectrutn of 1-amino-3-hexanol 58 CHAPTER IN T ROD U C T IO N Some aminoalcohols... VII 19 Adkins, H. , and Pavlic, A. A. , J. Arn. Chem. Soc. , 69, 3039 (1947) ~ 10 20 and in 39%%ua yield by the reduction of ethyl-2-acetylarninohexanoate with sodium and absolute ethanol. CH (CH ) CH(NHCOCH )CO CH CH H3 HZ CH (CH ) CHNH CH OH...

Stokes, Richard Adams

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

5, 13611378, 2008 Methyl arsenic and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to assure the drinking and industrial water supply to one of the most populated areas to be directly correlated to the winter spate. As the biological activity in the water body is generally low the translocation of soil- and sediment particles to the river by heavy rains and the melting of snow. A second

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

342

Molecular Cell Methylation of a Histone Mimic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,3 Andrew N. Krutchinsky,2 Ingrid Mecklenbra¨ uker,1 Agnes Viale,5 Eugene Rudensky,1 Ming-Ming Zhou,4., 2004; Huang et al., 2006; Kouskouti et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2005). In contrast, little progr

Chait, Brian T.

343

METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.

Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Bieging, J. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

Supeno [Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia and School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli, E-mail: rusli@ukm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); El-Sheikh, Said M. [Nano-Structured Materials Division, Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

346

Rate of isomerization of triethyl phosphite to diethyl ethylphosphonate in the presence of ethyl iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, , j@ioh iQ. owe bo4b M ~b ~bh %be teLe@qk phonate~ 4hto, eo~ 5. y ', : 'gIob, Xf&lg 4o @6' greek~. ceo~. :6 I iodide. , 'The triethyl, phosphite ueeg v&e e, ~Xa4or ~e~~oQ p~aet. &vifkeatioa of this xeageu4 vae aooqmplisheg by zefloxing the CN...

Zerwekh, Ralph Edwin

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

SEC data for polymer 1, 2 (R= 2-ethyl-hexyl) and 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance shown: Solar cells based on copolymers of benzothiadiazole and thiophene Eva Bundgaard a,b and Frederik C. Krebs a a Polymer Solar Cell Initiative, The Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National Laboratory Universitycenter, Universitetsvej 1, PO Box 260, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. IV-curves for the polymer 1 (a) and 3

348

Two Types of Intramolecular Lewis-Base Adducts with the [2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]cyclopentadienyl Ligand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/or carbide-forming metals are involved.3 We were therefore led to investigate some organonickel com- plexes applied. A dead-time delay of 10 µs and a pulse repetition time of 200 Organo Group 13 Transition Metal ring.1 Jutzi et al. have been studying a number of metal complexes bearing this Lewis base

Bluemel, Janet

349

Synthesis of ethyl N-carbobenzoxy-L-valyl-L-valyl-4-amino-3-hydroxyoctanoate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~~I~H2~mH~~~H~I?H CH2~0H Figure 1. Structure of isovaleryl-L-valyl-L-valyl-(3S, 4S)-statyl-L-alanyl-(3S, 4S)-statine (pepstatin). Table I. Biological Activity of Pepstatin and Analogs 1 compounds I050 (ug/ml ) pepsin cathepsin D renin AHMHA IVA...-Val-Val Ac-Ala-AHMHA Ac-Leu-AHMHA Ac-Val-AHMHA IVA-Val-AHMHA-Val-AHMHA IVA-Val-Val-AHMHA-Ala-AHMHA &250 &250 26 9. 3 2. 4 0. 01 0. 01 &250 &250 280 8. 5 4. 4 0. 05 0. 005 &250 &250 &250 &250 &250 &250 4. 5 a ID50...

Chesky, Elizabeth Gourley

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Direct Catalytic Asymmetric Aldol-Type Reaction of Aldehydes with Ethyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high stereocontrol in these processes, considering the requirement of atom efficiency, it would be more of China wangjb@pku.edu.cn Received February 24, 2003 ABSTRACT The direct aldol-type condensation. Because the aldol reaction is generally considered as one of the most powerful and efficient C-C bond

Wang, Jianbo

352

Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110).  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton StanatAccepted

353

Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110).  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton StanatAccepted| EMSL Pacific Northwest

354

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

355

Total Syntheses of Linear Poly-Thiazole/Oxazole Plantazolicin A and its biosynthetic precursor Plantazolicin B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condensed with cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride salt 15, before oxidation of thiazolidine 25 using manganese dioxide to give thiazole 8 in and overall yield of 42%. This yield was comparable to those obtained previously for 8, but avoided the use... , condensation with cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride 13 and MnO2 mediated oxidation to afford thiazole 4b in an acceptable 41% overall yield. This is a marked improvement on the previous synthesis for related fragments. Removal of all nitrogen protection...

Wilson, Zoe E.; Fenner, Sabine; Ley, Steven V.

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

Synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles as potential herbicidal compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of lsatin in 90% Acetic Acid. . aa ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ o ~ ~ b. Prepared by the Method Reported by Buchmsn and Sargent. . . . ~ ~ e ~ o a ~ ~ a ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Infrared Spectrum of 6, 8-Dichloro-2-methylcin- choninic... Acido ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Page 37 3 ~ Infrared Spectrum oi' the Methyl Ester of 6, 8- Dichloro-2-methylcinchoninic Acid. . . , . ???, ?, ,?? Infrared Spectrum of the Ethyl Ester of 6, 8...

Al-Naji, Hassan Ali

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Role of the Ocean in the Atmospheric Budgets of Methyl Bromide, Methyl Chloride and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which was 700 (490 to 920) Gg yr^-1 and -370 (-440 to -280) Gg yr^-1, respectively. The ocean accounts for 10 - 19 % in the global CH3Cl emission and 6 - 9 % in its global sinks. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas, which has a warming potential...

Hu, Lei

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has shown that the recovery of several valuable lactic acid products is both technically feasible and economically viable. One of the original objectives of this project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification have resulted in the production of lactic acid esters. These esters could by hydrolyzed to lactic acid, but only with unacceptable product losses that would be economically prohibitive. The developed process is projected to produce approximately 200,000 lb per day of lactate esters from wastewater at a single factory at costs that compete with conventional solvents. The lactate esters are good solvents for polymers and resins and could replace acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, MIBK, and other polar solvents used in the polymer industry. Because of their low volatility and viscosity-lowering properties, they will be especially useful for inks for jet printers, alkyl resins, and high-solid paints. Owing to their efficiency in dissolving salts and flux as well as oils and sealants, lactate esters can be used in cleaning circuit boards and machine and engine parts. Unlike conventional solvents, lactate esters exhibit low toxicity, are biodegradable, and are not hazardous air pollutants. Another application for lactate esters is in the production of plasticizers. Severe health problems have been attributed to widely used phthalate ester plasticizers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that replacement of these with inexpensive lactate esters is feasible, owing to their superior polymer compatibility properties. A very large market is projected for polymers prepared from lactic acid. These are called polylactides and are a type of polyester. Thermoplastics of this type have a variety of uses, including moldings, fibers, films, and packaging of both manufactured goods and food products. Polylactides form tough, orientable, self-supporting thin films and have, therefore, been used for adhesives, safety glass, and finishes. If the bacterial culture produces the L-lactic acid enanatiomer form exclusively, the L-lactide prepared from this form can be used for making polymers with good fiber-forming properties. We have not currently achieved the exclusive production of L-lactate in our efforts. However, markets in films and structural shapes are available for polymers and copolymers prepared from the mixed D,L-lactide forms that result from processing the D,L-lactic acid obtained from fermentation such as that occurring naturally in sugar beet wastewater. These materials are slowly biodegraded to harmless compounds in the environment, and they burn with a clean blue flame when incinerated. These materials represent excellent opportunities for utilization of the D,L-lactic mixture produced from natural fermentation of the ACS flume water. Esters can be converted into a lactide, and the alcohol released from the ester can be recycled with no net consumption of the alcohol. Lactide intermediates could be produced locally and shipped to polymer producers elsewhere. The polymer and copolymer markets are extremely large, and the role of lactides in these markets is continuously expanding. The overall process can be readily integrated into existing factory wastewater operations. There are several environmental benefits that would be realized at the factories with incorporation of the lactate recovery process. The process reduces the organic loading to the existing wastewater treatment system that should result in enhanced operability with respect to both solids handling and treated-water quality. A higher-quality treated water will also help reduce odor levels from holding ponds. Several water reuse opportunities are probable, depending on the quality of treated water from the FT process.

Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

Not Available

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Batch and Flow Photochemical Benzannulations Based on the Reaction of Ynamides and Diazo Ketones. Application to the Synthesis of Polycyclic Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly substituted polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds are produced via a two-stage tandem benzannulation/cyclization strategy. The initial benzannulation step proceeds via a pericyclic cascade mechanism ...

Willumstad, Thomas P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Supporting Information for Stoltz et al. SI 1 Development of (Trimethylsilyl)Ethyl Ester Protected Enolates and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cm) obtained from Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd. Analytical SFC was performed with a Mettler SFC-H, or OB-H) columns (4.6 mm x 25 cm) obtained from Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd. Analytical chiral GC). TLC was performed using E. Merck silica gel 60 F254 precoated glass plates (0.25 mm) and visualized

Stoltz, Brian M.

362

On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate as a model compound  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide for autothermal operation without external heat input owing to the exothermicity of the oxidative

Walter, M.Todd

363

Displacement of oil by carbon dioxide. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981. [Ethyl benzene, ethylbutyrate, isopropanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress of a comprehensive research program to quantify factors affecting CO/sub 2/ flood displacement efficiency is described. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the interactions of factors such as phase behavior and fluid properties of CO/sub 2/-crude oil mixtures, and heterogeneities in reservoir rocks are discussed. Literature on the interpretation of miscible displacements in one- and two-phase systems is reviewed. Simple displacement experiments to evaluate effects of core heterogeneities and high mobile water saturations are described. Results of miscible displacement experiments with fluids of matched density and viscosity are presented and compared with results of a few displacements in which fluid properties were not matched. Those comparisons clearly indicate that control of viscous fingering is required if short core floods are to be interpreted with reasonable certainty. Detailed results of investigations of the phase behavior of CO/sub 2/-crude oil mixtures are presented. The volumetric behavior of mixtures of CO/sub 2/ with dead oils from the Wasson and Maljamar fields are compared with that of a Maljamar recombined reservoir fluid. The results provide the basis for a qualitative analysis of the effects of the presence of solution gas on CO/sub 2/ flood performance. Modifications to improve the continuous multiple contact experiment, which efficiently measures phase compositions and fluid properties, are described. An analysis of the operation of the apparatus is given for binary systems. The theory is compared with experimental results for CO/sub 2/-decane displacements, with excellent agreement. Extensive results of experiments to measure compositions and densities of phases present for CO/sub 2/-crude oil mixtures are reported.

Orr, F.M. Jr.; Taber, J.J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Method of using polysilane positive photoresist materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

New polysilane copolymers comprise recurring units of --Si(X)(Y)-- and Si(A)(B)--, Si(X)(Y) being different from Si(A)(B), wherein X and Y together have 1-13 carbon atoms, and X and Y each independently is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, phenyl, alkylphenyl, or phenylalkyl, with the proviso that only one of X and Y contains a phenyl moiety, or together X and Y are an alkylene group forming a ring with the adjoining Si atom, and wherein A and B together have 3-13 carbon atoms, and A and B each independently is alkyl or cycloalkyl, with the proviso (a) that when one of A and B is ethyl, the other is not methyl or ethyl, and (b) that when one of A ad B is n-propyl and the other is methyl, X and Y are not both methyl. Corresponding homopolysilanes are also provided. Upon ultraviolet irradiation, they photodepolymerize to form volatile products. As a result, they represent a new class of photoresists which enable direct formation of a positive image eliminating the heretofore required development step.

Harrah, L.A.; Zeigler, J.M.

1986-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

365

Polysilane positive photoresist materials and methods for their use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

New polysilane copolymers comprise recurring units of -Si(X)(Y)- and Si(A)(B)-, Si(X)(Y) being different from Si(A)(B). X and Y together have 1 to 13 carbon atoms, and X and Y each independently is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, phenyl, alkylphenyl, or phenylalkyl, with the proviso that only one of X and Y contains a phenyl moiety, or together X and Y are an alkylene group forming a ring with the adjoining Si atom. A and B together have 3 to 13 carbon atoms, and A and B each independently is alkyl or cycloalkyl, with the proviso that when one of A and B is ethyl, the other is not methyl or ethyl, and that when one of A and B is n-propyl and the other is methyl, X and Y are not both methyl. Corresponding homopolysilanes are also provided. Upon ultraviolet irradiation, they photodepolymerize to form volatile products. As a result, they represent a new class of photoresists which enable direct formation of a positive image eliminating the heretofore required development step.

Harrah, L.A.; Zeigler, J.M.

1984-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

366

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0692; South Coast Air Quality Management District Contractand South Coast Air Quality Management District, Contractthe South Coast Air Quality Management District Contract No.

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. R. Holmes (1977): “Nitrogen Dioxide Photolysis in the LosO3 Ozone NO Nitric Oxide NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide NO3 NitrateNitrogen Pentoxide HONO Nitrous Acid HNO3 Nitric Acid HNO4 Peroxynitric Acid HO2H Hydrogen Peroxide CO Carbon Monoxide SO2 Sulfur Dioxide

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylation Revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis. In: Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols, M.Segal: Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylationpackage and applications to genomics. Bioinformatics and

Segal, Mark R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The alkaloid of Acacia berlandieri, N-methyl-B-phenylethylamine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? HTo -p O ao rH *HPi -p b?| ?H rH CO o lA OJ K\\ O OJ I rH J>> X -p ? t>> rEj rH +> o o w r"i >? ? a c ? >HK a ft d o ?H -P cd CO ^ I?I ?H 3 COo a H cdXi -p A ft o X A? +3 0}o ? s p in t>- r...

Camp, Bennie Joe

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glyphosate, isopropylamine salt Acrolein Glycerine Propylenefrom methacrolein and other acroleins. Steady State Radical

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOF...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...

372

Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-n-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The material covered in this report is divided into two parts: further cyclization experiments on 1,4-diethyl-2-[(2'- methoxyphenyl)thio]benzene and its sulfone both by chemical and photochemical means, and progress toward synthesis of modified target molecule, 9-isopropyl-4-methoxy-6-methyldibenzo-thiophene. 8 refs, figs.

Eisenbraun, E.J.

1991-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

373

aberrant gene methylation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

374

aberrant dna methylation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

375

aberrant promoter methylation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

376

aberrant methylation impairs: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...

377

Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Production and Characterization of Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pollution concern. Utilization of biodiesel produced from Jatropha oil by transesterification process is one

P. Venkateswara Rao; G. Srinivasa Rao

379

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FL Kansas City, MO Lake Charles, LA Los Angeles, CAFL Kansas City, MO Lake Charles, LA Los Angeles, CA

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The contribution of oceanic methyl iodide to stratospheric iodine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

horizontal wind speed and vertical transport efficiency (speed Horizontal wind speed and vertical transport CH 3 Ivertical transport. Note that for these two days high www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/11869/2013/ horizontal wind speeds

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hg L3 XANES Study of Mercury Methylation in Shredded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,indicatingbioaccumulationofmercury.Plantsamples collected at this site were also grown in nutrient solution with 1 ppm HgCl2 under (1) aerobic conditions

382

Classical trajectory simulations of photodissociation of methyl bromide at surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ Cia coefficients for the interaction of CH&Br with LiF. 28 II. Structure and energetics parameters of CH&Br adsorbed on rough surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " " 31 III. Buckingham potential parameters for CHsBr. . . 42... phonon densities for LiF. 21 4. Dipole moment of CH&Br as a function of internuclear distance. . . 26 CH&Br adsorbed on LiF primary zone. 29 6. CHsBr adsorbed on LiF primary zone with step. . . . 33 CH&Br adsorbed on LiF primary zone with Li vacancy...

Watson, Joseph Marion

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fabrication of Poly(methyl Methacrylate) microfluidic chips by  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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384

Temperature-Dependent Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Methyl-Benzoate Anions:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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385

"Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNG IHDR€ÍSolar Energy SystemsFebruary

386

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran - Energy Innovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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387

Separation of Variant Methylated Histone Tails by Differential Ion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) SrEvaluating theDepartmentSensitivityHydrogen-Rich Gases.

388

Global budgets of oceanic and atmospheric methyl iodide: development of methyl iodide as a tracer for marine convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), wetlands (7 Gg yr \\Gamma1 ) and wood fuel (3 Gg yr \\Gamma1 ) are also included in the model. A global

Jacob, Daniel J.

389

Synthesis and structure of methyl 8-allyl-6-bromo-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-4-carboxylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compound C{sub 15}H{sub 18}NO{sub 2}Br was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystals belong to the monoclinic system, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/n, a = 8.913(2) A, b = 23.637(6) A, c = 13.892(3) A, {beta} = 90.31(2){sup o}, Z = 8, V = 2926.8(12) A{sup 3}, {rho}{sub calc} = 1.472 g/cm{sup 3}. The bond lengths and bond angles in two molecules are equal within an experimental error and are typical of this class of compounds. The conformational differences of the saturated heterocyclic and methoxycarbonyl fragments of the molecules result in the presence of two crystallographically independent molecules in the crystal structure.

Zhuravleva, Yu. A., E-mail: orgchem@samgtu.ru; Zimichev, A. V.; Zemtsova, M. N. [Samara State Technical University (Russian Federation); Rybakov, V. B., E-mail: rybakov@struct.chem.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Klimochkin, Yu. N. [Samara State Technical University (Russian Federation)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Kinetic and mechanistic study of methyl transfer from methylcobalamin (methyl vitamin B??) to mercuric ion in aqueous and micellar environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5 0 x 10 8 0 x 10 1. 0 x 10 a All samples run at pH 5. 0 0. 82 x 10 2 27x 10 3. 96 x 10 6. 19 x 10 7. 88 x 10 materials used were the best available grade. Water was doubly distilled from all-glass equipment. Stock solutions... of aquocobalamin is increasrng linearly with the concentration of Hg(OAc)2. This fact, together with the experimentally observed pH dependence (Figure 7) can be explained by the following equation: 17 0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 0. 4 o o 0. 3 A 0. 2 0 1 300 400...

Robinson, Glenn Clarke

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Effect of pH on the uptake and activity of acifluorfen and 2,4-D  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and ammonium chloride (34). Addition of diammonium phosphate and urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution to bentazon (3-(1-methyl- ethyl) ? (1H) -2, 1, 3-benzothiadiazin-4 (3H) -one 2, 2-dioxide) has been shown to increase its uptake and foliar activity... varies with weed species. Common cocklebur degraded 55 percent of the applied acifluorfen compared to 45 percent degradation in common ragweed after seven days. Frear (11) found that 85 to 95 percent of acifluorfen was degraded in 24 h by soybeans...

Simpson, David Michael

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Tracers for monitoring the activity of sodium/glucose cotransporters in health and disease  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiolabeled tracers for sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), their synthesis, and their use are provided. The tracers are methyl or ethyl pyranosides having an equatorial hydroxyl group at carbon-2 and a C 1 preferred conformation, radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124I, or free hexoses radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124. Also provided are in vivo and in vitro techniques for using these and other tracers as analytical and diagnostic tools to study glucose transport, in health and disease, and to evaluate therapeutic interventions.

Wright, Ernest M; Barrio, Jorge R; Hirayama, Bruce A; Kepe, Vladimir

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

INVESTIGATIVE PHOTOCHEMISTRY: ELUCIDATING THE MECHANISM OF THE PHOTO-FAVORSKII REARRANGEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

function of water concentration, in percentage. 81 Figure 9. Philips? proposed structure of unknown, M, as a solvation/contact ion pair complex. 84 Figure 10. Step-scan FTIR of 121 in CD 3 CN (2% D 2 O) at 50 ns (red...) and 1?s (blue) delay. 89 Figure 11. Plot of k obs of 3 114 vs. mole fraction of deuterium in degased, 10% aq. CH 3 CN at 25 o C. 90 xii Figure 12. Novel pHP GABA esters. 94 Figure 13. ?-methyl and ethyl-pHP GABA...

Stensrud, Kenneth Francis

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

395

An assessment of the usefulness of 5 new synthetic pyrethroids in IPM programs for tobacco budworm control in cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Synthetic Pyrethroids in IPM Programs for Tobacco Budworm Control in Cotton. (Mlay 1981) Sinnappu Victor Rajakulendran, B. Sc. (Agri. ) University of Sri Lanka Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. F. W. Plapp, Jr. Toxicity measurements were...-methyl ethyl) benzene acetate) and fluvalinate. Toxicity was de- termined to larvae of the tobacco budworm Heliothis (P. ), t d lt 1 *f 't p 't, ~tl t' sonorensis (Carlson), and to larvae of its predator, C~t * ddt pl ). Al*, ll d' f t t d as a...

Rajakulendran, Sinnappu Victor

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Counterdiffusion of liquid hydrocarbon pairs in ion-exchanged forms of zeolite X  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorptive counterdiffusion rates of liquid benzene, ethyl benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, and 1-methyl naphthalene into Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/ ion exchanged forms of zeolite X saturated with cyclohexane were measured. The diffusivity of the adsorbing hydrocarbon decreases as the effective pore size of the zeolite is decreased by ion exchange. The effective pore size in CaX and CsX was so small as not to allow the adsorptive counterdiffusion of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene and 1-methyl naphthalene. Diffusion took place only after the cations in the pore mouths were displaced to other cation sites in the structure under the influence of the adsorbing hydrocarbon molecules, and thus the rate of counterdiffusion appeared to increase with time.

Culfaz, A.; Erguen, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Pesticide impact on non-target wildlife in irrigated crops: simulated impact of cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides on white-winged doves in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Acephate OP 790,000.0 Methyl parathion OP 55.0-60.0 Azinphos methyl OP 30.0 Phorate OP 50.0 Chlorpyrifos OP 2.0 Phosmet OP 250.0 Diazinon OP 40.0 Terbufos OP 5.0 Dicrotophos OP miscible Dimethoate OP 25,000.0 Aldicarb CA 6,000.0 Disulfoton OP 25.0... Carbaryl CA 40.0 Ethion OP 1.1 Carbofuran CA 320.0 Ethyl parathion OP 12.4 Methomyl CA 57,900.0 Malathion OP 130.0 Oxamyl CA 280,000.0 Methamidofos OP 90,000.0 Ziram CA 65.0 Methidation OP 240.0 22 2.3.4. Quantitative development...

Pisani, Jorge Marcelo

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

398

Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

Wolfe, R.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Phase equilibrium measurements on twelve binary mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on twelve binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following binary systems at two temperatures each: ethanethiol + propylene; nitrobenzene + methanol; pyridine + ethyl acetate; octane + tert-amyl methyl ether; diisopropyl ether + butane; 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol + epichlorohydrin; methanol + hydrogen cyanide. For these systems, equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived from the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson, NRTL, or Redlich-Kister activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. The infinite dilution activity coefficient of methylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-rich half of the binary. Liquid-liquid equilibrium studies were made on the triethylene glycol + 1-pentene system at two temperatures by directly analyzing samples taken from each liquid phase.

Giles, N.F. [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States)] [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Wilson, H.L.; Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Synthesis and crystal structure of ?,?-unsaturated ketone: 3,3?-[1,2-ethanediylbis(oxy-2,1-phenylene)]bis[1-(2-pyridyl) -2-propen-1-one  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The title compound, C{sub 30}H{sub 24}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3,3?-[1,2-ethanediyl-bis(oxy-2,1-phenylene)]bis[1-(2-pyridyl) -2-propen-1-one] was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectra, {sup 1}H NMR, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. In the molecule, the pyridine plane and the adjacent phenyl plane are almost coplanar with the dihedral angle of 3.07°, while the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two asymmetric units is 67.56°. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak intermolecular C-H...N and C-H...O hydrogen bonds, C-H...? and ?...? stacking interactions.

Wang, G.-F., E-mail: wgf1979@126.com; Gong, Q.-J., E-mail: gqjuan@163.com; Sun, H.; Yao, C-Z. [Yuncheng University, Department of Applied Chemistry (China)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Dynamic Quenching of 5-(2 -Ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-Phenylene Vinylene (MEH-PPV) by Charge Transfer to a C60 Derivative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the C60,8 bicontinuous interpenetrating network formation at length scales in the nano- meter regime60 Derivative in Solution JIAN WANG, DELI WANG, DANIEL MOSES, ALAN J. HEEGER Institute for Polymers Polym Sci 82: 2553­2557, 2001 Key words: fluorescence quenching; Stern­Volmer constant; photoinduced

Wang, Deli

402

Detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl (Dursban) and its metabolites in urine samples using immunoassays with confirmation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O"""&(RO)sP-OH + HX S (0) S (0) (RO)tP - X + HtO ""--~ (RO) (HO) P -X + ROH F1GURE 1. Hydrolysis of Organophosphates. Organophosphate Toxicology Pesticide exposures vary widely, especially when considering the different stages of pesticide manufacture and use.... Evaporator needles were cleaned with chloroform between samples. 8. Diluted samples to 5ml with HtO. Sonicated test tubes in rack for 30 seconds to redissolve all potential solids formed during evaporation. Vortexed test tubes to guarantee uniform...

Clewis, Suenda Beth

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Nanofibrillar Networks in Poly(ethyl methacrylate) and Its Silica Nanocomposites Elizabeth A. Wilder, Michael B. Braunfeld, Hiroshi Jinnai,| Carol K. Hall,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan ReceiVed: April 24, 2003; In Final Form particles, for instance, may aggregate as a polymer nanocomposite consisting of PDMS ages,1 leading

Agard, David

404

Investigation of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) as an Intensification Pretreatment for Solvent Lipid Extraction from Microalgae, utilizing Ethyl Acetate as a Greener Substitute to Chloroform-based Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics of this alternative energy source are its CO2 neutrality, high biomass growth, high lipid yield, and noncompetitive stance toward food supply. To date, development of economically feasible lipid solvent extraction processes of industrial scale face...

Antezana Zbinden, Mauricio Daniel R.

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

Viscosities of the Mixtures of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride with Water, Acetonitrile and Glucose: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Experimental Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the world's dependence on fossil fuels and mitigating the net emission of CO2 into the atmosphere.1 dissolution, making it difficult to pump such solutions and causing a reduction in mass transfer rates

Bell, Alexis

406

Synthesis of highly substituted benzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles via tandem benzannulation/cyclization strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benzannulations employing ynamides and vinylketenes (generated in situ from [alpha]-diazo ketones) were investigated. Irradiation of the diazo ketones using a batch or continuous-flow reactor leads to the formation of ...

Willumstad, Thomas P. (Thomas Paul)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Chemical Dynamics Beamline Publications 381. T. Bierkandt, T.Kasper, E. Akyildiz, A. Lucassen, P. Owald, M. Khler, and P. Hemberger "Flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biofuels: resonance-stabilized QOOH in the oxidation of diethyl ketone" Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., DOI: 10 of the combustion chemistry of diisopropyl ketone, a prototype for biofuels produced by endophytic fungi

408

Model Estimates of the Contributions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke to Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vinyl ketone 2,3-Butadione Acrolein Limonene 1,3-Butadieneconcentrations for for acrolein, acetaldehyde and 1,3-

Daisey, J.M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ligand field photofragmentation spectroscopy of [Ag(L){sub N}]{sup 2+} complexes in the gas phase: Experiment and theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments have been undertaken to record photofragmentation spectra from a series of [Ag(L){sub N}]{sup 2+} complexes in the gas phase. Spectra have been obtained for silver(II) complexed with the ligands (L): acetone, 2-pentanone, methyl-vinyl ketone, pyridine, and 4-methyl pyridine (4-picoline) with N in the range of 4-7. A second series of experiments using 1,1,1,3-fluoroacetone, acetonitrile, and CO{sub 2} as ligands failed to show any evidence of photofragmentation. Interpretation of the experimental data has come from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), which very successfully accounts for trends in the spectra in terms of subtle differences in the properties of the ligands. Taking a sample of three ligands, acetone, pyridine, and acetonitrile, the calculations show all the spectral transitions to involve ligand-to-metal charge transfer, and that wavelength differences (or lack of spectra) arise from small changes in the energies of the molecular orbitals concerned. The calculations account for an absence in the spectra of any effects due to Jahn-Teller distortion, and they also reveal structural differences between complexes where the coordinating atom is either oxygen or nitrogen that have implications for the stability of silver(II) compounds. Where possible, comparisons have also been made with the physical properties of condensed phase silver(II) complexes.

Guan, Jingang; Puskar, Ljiljana; Esplugas, Ricardo O.; Cox, Hazel; Stace, Anthony J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

410

Pathways, kinetics, and mechanisms for 2-dodecyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors pyrolyzed 2-dodecyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (DDPh) in batch microreactors. The reaction conditions included neat pyrolyses between 375--450C for times of 15--240 min and also pyrolyses in benzene at 400 C and 90 min but at different initial DDPh concentrations ranging from 0.0095 to 0.238 mol/L. The disappearance of DDPh followed first-order kinetics, and the global first-order rate constant had Arrhenius parameters of log{sub 10} A (s{sup {minus}1}) = 13.6 {+-} 2.8 and E (kcal/mol) = 54.5 {+-} 9.1, where the uncertainties are the 95% confidence intervals. The decomposition of DDPh can be described by a reaction network that possesses four parallel primary pathways. The major primary path, which involves dehydrogenation, leads to 2-dodecylphenanthrene. The other three primary paths involve C{single_bond}C bond cleavage, and they lead to 2-methyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene plus undecene, to 2-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene plus decane, and to numerous minor products. Important secondary and tertiary reactions include the rapid reduction of 2-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene to 2-ethyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and the facile dehydrogenation of 2-methyl- and 2-ethyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene to form 2-methyl- and 2-ethylphenanthrene, respectively. The identities and relative abundances of the major products are consistent with a free-radical chain reaction mechanism for DDPh pyrolysis. Application is to the processing of hydrocarbon resources such as coals and heavy crude oils.

Savage, P.E.; Baxter, K.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Observations of nonmethane hydrocarbons and oxygenated volatile organic compounds at a rural site in the southeastern United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of an extensive range of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) including alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes were conducted for several weeks during the summer of 1995 as part of the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) at a rural experimental site (Youth, Inc.) 32 km southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. These measurements were conducted to (1) determine the absolute magnitude and variability of oxygenated compounds found in a contemporary rural region; (2) assess the importance of the measured ambient levels of OVOCs on a photochemical reactivity basis relative to the more commonly determined NMHCs; and (3) to evaluate our ability to accurately measure oxygenates by the current techniques employed under a field study scenario. Several other physical (temperature, insolation, etc.), meteorological (wind velocity, wind direction, atmospheric structure, and boundary layer height), and chemical (criterion pollutants, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 3}, etc.) parameters were measured concurrently with the NMHC and OVOC measurements. During the study period, OVOCs were consistently the dominant compounds present, and methanol and acetone had the highest mixing ratios. Although OVOCs made up the majority of the volatile organic compound component on a mass basis, a substantial sink for OH was isoprene and its immediate oxidation products, methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. In combination with CO and formaldehyde, these compounds comprised about 85{percent} of the observed OH reactivity at the site. Acetaldehyde and methanol were responsible for an additional 10{percent}, with the NMHCs and remaining OVOCs making up the final 5{percent} of the measured OH reactivity at the site. These observed patterns reinforce recent studies which find OVOCs to be an important component of the rural troposphere. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Riemer, Daniel; Pos, Willer; Milne, Peter; Farmer, Charlesk; Zika, Rod [Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama (United States)] Apel, Eric [Atmospheric Chemistry Group, Mantech Environmental Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)] Olszyna, Ken [National Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)] Kliendienst, Tad [Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan (United States)] Lonneman, William [Departments of Chemistry, and Earth and Atmospheric Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Shepson, Paul; Starn, Tim

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electron-transfer photochemistry of thianthrene. Nucleophile-assisted photooxidation to sulfoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photochemistry of thianthrene (1) in the presence of a variety of electron acceptors in acetonitrile/water has been investigated. Diffusion-limited rates of fluorescence quenching were observed on excitation of 1 (with fumaronitrile and with methyl phthalate). Alternatively, addition of 1 led to quenching of the fluorescence emission of ketones, biacetyl, and fluorenone and to the quenching of the excited triplet states of quinones such as 2,5-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (5) and 9,10-anthraquinone (3). Steady irradiation of 1 with selected acceptors results in photooxidation yielding the sulfoxide (2) and the expected photoreduction products. The electron-transfer mechanisms were further studied by laser flash photolysis. The quenching of ketone triplets by 1 resulted in formation of the radical cation of 1([lambda][sub max]540 nm). The decay of this species and its dependence on the concentration of water present were determined; the bimolecular rate constant for trapping of 1[sup [center dot]+] by water in acetonitrile-water solution is 4.9 x 10[sup 4] M[sup [minus]1]s[sup [minus]1] under conditions in which 5 acts as a sensitizer. The nucleophilic trapping of the 1 radical cation by imidazole ([kappa] = 3.6 x 10[sup 7] M[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1]) was also investigated. The mechanism of photoinduced two-electron oxidation of 1 and the role played by nucleophiles in facilitating the reaction are discussed in detail. 37 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Jones, G. II; Huang, B.; Griffin, S.F. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

1993-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

413

PRMT5/MEP50 Methylates Histones and Nucleoplasmin in Xenopus Protein Arginine Methyltransferase PRMT5/MEP50 Methylates Histones H2A and H4 and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

demonstrate that Nucleoplasmin (Npm), an exceedingly abundant maternally- deposited protein, is a potent substrate for PRMT5/MEP50 and is mono- and symmetri- cally dimethylated at Arg187. Furthermore, Npm modulates PRMT5/MEP50 activity di- rected towards histones, consistent with a regulatory role for Npm

Chait, Brian T.

414

Design, synthesis and application of novel fluorescent nucleosides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anhydrous pyridine and acetonitrile were obtained fromcm -1 Water Methanol Acetonitrile Dichloromethane Ethyl1-Propanol Butanol Acetonitrile DMSO DMF Ethyl Acetate 1,4-

Greco, Nicholas Joseph

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Structural investigation of a new antimicrobial thiazolidine compound  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thiazoles and their derivatives have attracted the interest over the last decades because of their varied biological activities: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, inflammation or in the treatment of allergies. A new synthesized compound 3-[2-(4-Methyl-2-phenyl-thiazol-5-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-thazolidine-2,4-dione was investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopies and also by DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The very good correlation found between the experimental and theoretical data shows that the optimized molecular structure is very close to reality. Also the NMR spectra show a monomeric behaviour of this compound in solutions.

Cozar, I. B.; Pîrn?u, A. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vedeanu, N.; Nastas?, C. [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, RO-400023 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, RO-400023 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

416

Lithium Ethylene Dicarbonate Identified as the Primary Product ofChemical and Electrochemical Reduction of EC in EC:EMC/1.2M LiPF6Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium ethylene dicarbonate (CH2OCO2Li)2 was chemically synthesized and its Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum was obtained and compared with that of surface films formed on Ni after cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1.2M lithium hexafluorophosphate(LiPF6)/ethylene carbonate (EC): ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7, w/w) electrolyte and on metallic lithium cleaved in-situ in the same electrolyte. By comparison of IR experimental spectra with that of the synthesized compound, we established that the title compound is the predominant surface species in both instances. Detailed analysis of the IR spectrum utilizing quantum chemical (Hartree-Fock) calculations indicates that intermolecular association through O...Li...O interactions is very important in this compound. It is likely that the title compound in passivation layer has a highly associated structure, but the exact intermolecular conformation could not be established based on analysis of the IR spectrum.

Zhuang, Guorong V.; Xu, Kang; Yang, Hui; Jow, T. Richard; RossJr., Philip N.

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

417

Stability of aluminum in low-temperature lithium-ion battery electrolytes. Progress report, October 1997--September 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigated the stability of aluminum at the high positive potentials encountered during the charging of lithium-ion cells. The electrolyte in these cells consists of solutions of lithium hexafluorophosphate and lithium methide in binary- and ternary-solvent mixtures of ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, and ethyl methyl carbonate. They performed the investigations with the controlled potential coulometry technique. They found that a protective surface film was formed on aluminum electrodes in these solutions and that this film protected the electrodes from further corrosion. The protective surface film was found to break down in lithium methide solutions at 4.25 V versus a lithium reference electrode, and this resulted in increased corrosion of the aluminum electrodes at higher potentials. In contrast to lithium methide solutions, the protective surface film formed on aluminum electrodes in lithium hexafluorophosphate solutions was found to be quite stable and did not break down at potentials up to [approximately]5 V.

Behl, W.K.; Plichta, E.J.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Liquid-solid phase diagrams of binary carbonates for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present the liquid-solid phase diagrams that they mapped with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) for the following seven binary carbonates: dimethyl carbonate (DMC)-ethylene carbonate (EC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC)-EC, EMC-propylene carbonate (PC), EMC-dimethyl ethylene carbonate (DMEC), EMC-isobutylene carbonate (iBC), PC-EC, and EMC-DMC. Many of these are among the most frequently used solvent systems for making the nonaqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries. The phase diagrams of these carbonate systems are all of the simple eutectic type but with vastly different particular features. Comparison of these phase diagrams shows that to expand the liquid region of a carbonate system toward low temperature, the two components of the system need to have comparable melting temperatures and compatible molecular structures. These results are consistent with thermodynamic considerations and have significant practical implications.

Ding, M.S.; Xu, K.; Jow, T.R.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Biodiesel Production and its Emissions and Performance: A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract—This paper presents a brief review on the current status of biodiesel production and its performance and emission characteristics as compression ignition engine fuel. This study is based on the reports on biodiesel fuel published in the current literature by different researchers. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, waste frying oil, animal tallow and also from algae by a chemical process called transesterification. Biodiesel is also called methyl or ethyl ester of the corresponding feedstocks from which it has been produced. Biodiesel is completely miscible with diesel oil, thus allowing the use of blends of petro-diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. Presently, biodiesel is blended with mineral diesel and used as fuel. Biodiesel fueled CI engines perform more or less in the same way as that fueled with the mineral fuel. Exhaust emissions are significantly improved due the use of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel and mineral diesel.

Ambarish Datta; Bijan Kumar M

420

Acetonitrile Drastically Boosts Conductivity of Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply a new methodology in the force field generation (PCCP 2011, 13, 7910) to study the binary mixtures of five imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with acetonitrile (ACN). The investigated RTILs are composed of tetrafluoroborate (BF4) anion and dialkylimidazolium cations, where one of the alkyl groups is methyl for all RTILs, and the other group is different for each RTILs, being ethyl (EMIM), butyl (BMIM), hexyl (HMIM), octyl (OMIM), and decyl (DMIM). Specific densities, radial distribution functions, ionic cluster distributions, heats of vaporization, diffusion constants, shear viscosities, ionic conductivities, and their correlations are discussed. Upon addition of ACN, the ionic conductivity of RTILs is found to increase by more than 50 times, that significantly exceeds an impact of most known solvents. Remarkably, the sharpest conductivity growth is found for the long-tailed imidazolium-based cations. This new fact motivates to revisit an application of these binary systems as a...

Chaban, Vitaly V; Kalugin, Oleg N; Prezhdo, Oleg V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The Effects of Trans-Esterification of Castor Seed Oil Using Ethanol, Methanol and their Blends on the Properties and Yields of Biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of ethanol, methanol and their blends at different percentage mixtures on the properties and yields of biodiesel at varied trans-esterification times and temperatures using sodium hydroxide as a base catalyst have been investigated. At 70 o C, the optimum yields were: for ethanol 88.4%, 94.2%, 94.8%, and 95.2 % and for methanol, 90.6%, 95.6%, 96.0%, and 96.4% at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and 4 hours respectively. The biodiesel yields increased as time of reaction progressed for both solvents but the yields obtained from methanol were generally higher than those from ethanol. A mixture of both solvents at 50 % each produced the overall highest of biodiesel yield of 98.6 % at 70 o C and in 4 hours compared to either solvent used alone at the same time and temperature. The properties such as densities, viscosities, flash points and pour points of the biodiesels tested were found to conform to ASTM standards. The average values were as follows: densities at 15 o C, were 0.8951, 0.8876 and 0.8832g/cm 3; viscosities (at 40 o C) were 4.7160cSt, 4.7380cSt and 4.5055cSt; flash points were 140.9 o C, 147.4 o C and 161.6 o C while for pour points they were-2.4375 o C,-1.6875 o C and-6 o C for ethyl, methyl and ethyl/methyl biodiesel respectively.

Vincent Enontiemonria; Ayoola Ayodeji; Anawe Paul; Apeye Lucky; Oteri Ogheneofego

424

Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil (Jatropha curcas) in Pilot Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract—In this research, among the chemical properties, free fatty acid value of jatropha oil was determined to be 22.6%, 5.23% and 8.8 % respectively. Total, free and combined glycerol percent of raw jatropha oil were 8.27 %, 0.58 % and 7.69 % respectively. Yield of biodiesel from jatropha oil at optimal sodium hydroxide catalyst concentration 1%, reaction temperature 65°C, reaction time one hour and molar ratio of methanol to oil 6:1 was 92 % from lab scale. Yield of biodiesel from jatropha oil at optimal potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration 1%, reaction temperature – room temperature, reaction time 5 hours and molar ratio of ethanol to oil 8:1 was 90% from the lab scale. Biodiesel was also produced from pilot plant at optimum transesterification process condition as stated above. The yield of biodiesel (methyl ester) and ethyl ester were 92 % and 90% on the basis of refined jatropha oil in the pilot plant scale. The capacity of biodiesel pilot plant is 30 gal / day. The fuel properties of biodiesel, namely cetane index, flash point, pour point, kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, color, copper strip corrosion, acid value, water and sediment and distillation at 90 % recovery, were found to be within the limits of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for biodiesel and diesel fuel. The fuel consumption of the engine which used biodiesel produced from free fatty acid content 5.23 % in raw jatropha oil is more than the fuel consumption of the engine which used biodiesel produced from free fatty acid content 1 % in refined raw jatropha oil. Keywords—renewable energy, biodiesel, transesterification, methyl ester, ethyl ester, pilot plant. I.

Tint Tint Kywe; Mya Mya Oo

425

Use of advanced cluster analysis to characterize seafood consumption patterns and methyle mercury exposures among  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the central nervous system (Alessandri et al., 2004). At the same time, fish consumption is also the primary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

On the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons with detailed numerical modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.e., 40­50% for CI compared to 25­30% for SI). As such, diesel power has the potential for an immediate impact on petroleum consumption, especially when conventional diesel is blended with bio-diesel fuels [3­5]. Blending diesel fuel with a fuel derived from sustainable sources will have an immediate impact

Walter, M.Todd

427

E-Print Network 3.0 - agent tm208 4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbodithioc...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mercy of ill-intending agent platforms. We have devised Source: Roth, Volker - FX Palo Alto Laboratory Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 31 Intelligent...

428

Temperature dependence of the vapour tension of methyl-substituted phenol derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Notable among the coking products of coal are phenol and its derivatives, derived for the coal tar and water layer above ht tar. Given that phenol an its derivatives are mainly extracted from coal tar fractions by rectification, information on how the vapor tension of the individual components depends on the temperature is of great importance. For phenol and various substituted alkylphenols there are tabular data. In the pre-computer era these data were sufficient for the separation of phenol mixtures. However, the development and introduction of information technology in the coal industry and in the design process demands the mathematical description of the physicochemical processes of coking products. The temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure for organic compounds is commonly described by the Antoine equation.

S.G. Gagarin [Institute of Mineral Fuels (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

E-Print Network 3.0 - atropine methyl bromide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

environmental significance. For example, the ability to consume ... Source: Goodwin, Kelly D. - Ocean Chemistry Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory....

430

Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in continental margin sediments off central Chile. Limnologyof microbial iron reduction in sediments of the Baltic-Northreducing bacteria from sediments of an acid stressed lake.

Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Methanol and methyl fuel catalysts. Final technical report, September 1978-August 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalysts were investigated for (1) the role of additives such as alumina, ceria, and lanthana, (2) the effect of carbon dioxide in the H/sub 2//CO synthesis gas, (3) the chemisorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the catalysts, and (4) the chemical poisoning of the catalysts by sulfur- and chlorine-containing compounds. Maximum activity and selectivity were obtained with a binary catalyst having a composition of Cu/ZnO = 30/70 metal atomic percent and with a synthesis gas of H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2/ = 70/28/2 volume percent in the absence of strongly reducing or strongly oxidizing chemical poisons. Both the binary and the ternary catalysts were fully characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction, electron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and surface area-pore distribution measurements. Structural and morphologic information is presented in this report in detail for very active Cu/ZnO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts prepared from acetates and for other catalysts in which the third component caused a loss of activity.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., < 200 ?g/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99–3.67), and 3.26 (1.76–6.04) (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06–3.11), and 2.02 (1.15–3.54) (p-trend < 0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations < 200 ?g/L (median = 60 ?g/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08–5.68) and 2.37 (1.01–5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations. - Highlights: • Urine arsenic metabolites were measured in cancer cases and controls from Chile. • Higher urine %MMA values were associated with increased lung and bladder cancer. • %MMA-cancer associations were seen at drinking water arsenic levels < 200 ?g/L.

Melak, Dawit [Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ferreccio, Catterina [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Kalman, David [School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Parra, Roxana [Hospital Regional de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Cortés, Sandra [Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Steinmaus, Craig, E-mail: craigs@berkeley.edu [Arsenic Health Effects Research Group, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, CA (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

An experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glaudeb , Henry J. Currana a Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway, Ireland speed, ignition delay time, kinetic modelling, biofuel. * address: Combustion Chemistry Centre ethanol by some 40%, rivaling that of gasoline, with its higher boiling point (366 K) and lower aqueous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Water Overcomes Methyl Group Directing Effects in Epoxide-Opening Cascades  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is an effective promoter of the endo-selective opening of trisubstituted epoxides, enabling related cascades leading to a variety of substituted ladder polyether structures. When used in conjunction with a ...

Morten, Christopher J.

435

Global sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global sea-to-air flux climatology Ko, M. K. W. , Poulet,Global sea-to-air flux climatology Vogt, R. , Sander, R. ,sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Methylations of Tryptophan-Modified Naphthoquinone Affect Its Inhibitory Potential toward A Aggregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Aggregation of amyloid beta, physiological and biochemical evidence suggests that the 42-residue amyloidogenic peptide amyloid beta (A) plays amyloid fibrils in vitro that are very similar to those found in the brains of AD patients. Accumulating

Caflisch, Amedeo

437

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of its low cost and blending characteristics. Depending on the season, reformulated gasoline of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could enhancer in gasoline. The use of MTBE increased rapidly after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required

438

Journal of Theoretical Biology 242 (2006) 643651 Competitive signal discrimination, methylation reprogramming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-acting and trans-acting elements. In most cases, these trans-acting elements represent ``genetic factions'' whose

Wilkins, Jon F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

anhydride-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

440

acid-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and alternative-fuel com- bustion, where they are important as intermediates. Therefore reliable prediction with sparsely available group additivity data, and trends in enthalpy and free energy as a function of radical center are discussed for the isomeric radicals. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http

Truhlar, Donald G

442

Probing DNA shape and methylation state on a genomic scale with DNase I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It approximates the size and nuclear dif- fusion properties of a typical human transcription factor (TF) (1 status of genomic DNA. Analyzing millions of DNA backbone hydrolysis events on naked genomic DNA, we show

Rohs, Remo

443

Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Study of 2-and 3-Thiopheneacetic Acid Methyl Esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, biodiagnostics, electronic and optoelectronic devices, and conductive polymers. The present study reports found widespread use in modern drug design,3 biodiagnostics,4 electronic and optoelectronic devices,5

Chickos, James S.

444

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic methylation capability Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in Bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies Source: California at Berkeley, University of - School of Public Health,...

445

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons methyl Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy 2 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

446

The High-Pressure Characterization of Energetic Materials: 2-Methyl-5-Nitramino-2H-Tetrazole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal structural properties, equation of state, and vibrational dynamics of 2MNT were studied under high-pressure using synchrotron XRD and optical Raman and IR microspectroscopy. Analysis of the XRD patterns revealed no indication of a phase transition to near 15 GPa and the pressure-volume isotherm remained smooth to 15 GPa. Near 15 GPa, significant sample damage was observed from the X-ray beam which precluded the acquisition of patterns above this pressure. XRD and Raman spectroscopic measurements showed the monoclinic ambient condition phase of 2MNT remains the dominant phase to near 20 GPa, although a shift of the NO{sub 2} IR active vibrational modes to lower frequencies suggested a subtle geometry modification not reflected in the XRD data.

J Ciezak

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Type II restriction-modification system methylation subunit of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering recombination inside or outside of a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and/or nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

Lee, Brady D; Newby, Deborah T; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Roberto, Francisco F; Reed, David W

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

448

alternative 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate: Topics by E...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 9 Alternating and Empty Alternating...

449

Mechanisms Regulating Mercury Bioavailability for Methylating Microorganisms in the Aquatic Environment: A Critical Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crystalline particles that cannot be adequately represented by conventional chemical equilibrium models for Hg widely in the nature (even in remote areas) through a complex web of trans- formation and transport of thousands of children are born each year with in utero MeHg exposures exceeding health guidelines.5

450

Kinetics of methyl radical-hydroxyl radical collisions and methanol decomposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and the dissociation of methanol are studied theoretically at conditions relevant to combustion chemistry. Kinetics for the CH{sub 3} + OH barrierless association reaction and for the H + CH{sub 2}OH and H + CH{sub 3}O product channels are determined in the high-pressure limit using variable reaction coordinate transition state theory and multireference electronic structure calculations to evaluate the fragment interaction energies. The CH{sub 3} + OH {yields} {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O abstraction reaction and the H{sub 2} + HCOH and H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}CO product channels feature localized dynamical bottlenecks and are treated using variational transition state theory and QCISD(T) energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The {sup 1}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O product channel has two dynamical regimes, featuring both an inner saddle point and an outer barrierless region, and it is shown that a microcanonical two-state model is necessary to properly describe the association rate for this reaction over a broad temperature range. Experimental channel energies for the methanol system are reevaluated using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach. Pressure dependent, phenomenological rate coefficients for the CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and for methanol decomposition are determined via master equation simulations. The predicted results agree well with experimental results, including those from a companion high-temperature shock tube determination for the decomposition of methanol.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid o-methyl transferase Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rose iv) salicylate phenolic glycosides in willow, poplar... and functions (see RoadMap) 1. Simple phenolic acids - structure: benzoic acid derivatives (C6 + COOH) i... )...

452

Thermomechanical properties of chemically modified graphene/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites made  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ray scattering sug- gested an exfoliated morphology of both types of CMG fillers dispersed in the PMMA matrix dispersed in the matrix. Both techniques suggested similar exfoli- ation and dispersion of both types of CMG to facilitate the exfoliation of layered GO particles into single- or few-layer graphene oxide (G-O) platelets

453

Copolymers of 2,5-bis[(4-methoxyphenyl) oxycarbonyl]styrene with Styrene and Methyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

YI, XINGHE FAN, XIAOFANG CHEN, XINHUA WAN, QI-FENG ZHOU Department of Polymer Science and Engineering crystalline poly- mers (MJLCPs) in which the mesogenic units are laterally attached to the polymer main chain;including molecular design of novel types of MJLCPs,5­7 synthesis of new rod-coil diblock copolymers8

Wan, Xin-hua

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - abscisic acid methyl Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tuberosum, abscisic acid, after- ripening, dormancy, fluridone, germination, gibberellin, hydrothermal time... in freshly harvested TPS (Spicer and Dionne, 1961; Bamberg and...

455

4-O-methylation of glucuronic acid in Arabidopsis glucuronoxylan is catalyzed by a domain of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; and d Center for Environmental Research and Technology cell walls was a critical adaptive event in the history of land plants (1). These tissues are required the extensive upright growth needed to compete for sunlight (1). Secondary walls have also had an impact

California at Riverside, University of

456

Beta-Phosphinoethylboranes as Ambiphilic Ligands in Nickel-Methyl Complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

group between the boron and phosphorous (R 2 P- BR' 2 ), andsome interaction between the phosphorous and boron centers.

Fischbach, Andreas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Theoretical Study of Zeolite-Catalyzed Dimethoxymethane Carbonylation to Methyl Methoxyacetate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and as an intermediate in the manufacturing of synthetic fibers, foams, and plastics. At present MEG is made exclusively by the epoxidation of ethene and the subsequent hydration of the resulting ethylene oxide.1 Since the demand

Bell, Alexis

458

Hybrid Energy Cell for Degradation of Methyl Orange by Self-Powered Electrocatalytic Oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

§ Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja, Namgu can simultaneously or individually harvest mechanical and thermal energies. The mechanical energy be used to harvest the mechanical energy from irregular mechanical vibrations.2-5 The pyroelectric effect

Wang, Zhong L.

459

2?-O Methylation of Internal Adenosine by Flavivirus NS[subscript 5] Methyltransferase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RNA modification plays an important role in modulating host-pathogen interaction. Flavivirus NS5 protein encodes N-7 and 2?-O methyltransferase activities that are required for the formation of 5? type I cap (m[superscript ...

Dong, Hongping

460

Inhibition of IFN-[gamma] promoter function by site-specific methylation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When they become activated, naive helper T cells are able to polarize into either THI cells or TH2 cells. Development of naive CD4+ T cells into TH1 cells is characterized by the expression of IFN-y and the silencing of ...

Jones, Brendan T. (Brendan Taber)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

FadE: whole genome methylation analysis for multiple sequencing platforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and disease. Sodium bisulfite treatment (SBT) causes unmethylated cytosines to be sequenced as thymine, which to bases because single sequencing errors effect the down- stream sequence. We describe FadE, an algorithm describing its distribution at every reference cytosine. We sequenced two slides of human fibroblast cell

Chen, Ting

462

Nanoporous poly(methyl methacrylate)-quantum dots nanocomposite fibers toward biomedical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Ashwini Kucknoor c , Lauren James c , Andrew Wang d a Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lamar of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA c Department of Biology, Lamar University

Guo, John Zhanhu

463

Extensive changes in DNA methylation are associated with expression of mutant huntingtin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The earliest stages of Huntington disease are marked by changes in gene expression that are caused in an indirect and poorly understood manner by polyglutamine expansions in the huntingtin (HTT) protein. To explore the ...

Ng, Christopher W.

464

Biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) using a granular activated carbon trickling filter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot scale trickling filter was constructed using granular activated carbon (GAC) as the packing medium and inoculated with a microbial culture known to degrade MTBE. The packing dimensions were 0.076 m in diameter and 0.22 m deep. The unit operated with recycling flow for two months before a biofilm was observed on the GAC. After two additional months the biofilm had visibly spread throughout the packing. A few pieces of GAC were placed in a sealed bottle with MTBE-contaminated water and nutrients. Headspace analysis performed over 14 days confirmed that MTBE degradation was occurring. The trickling filter was converted to continuous flow and operated for one month at a nominal flow rate of 0.1 L/min and a hydraulic loading rate of 32 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-d. Samples were collected for analysis at the spray nozzle and at the bottom of the trickling filter. Fractional removal varied with influent MTBE concentration, temperature and liquid flow rate. Percent MTBE removal was as high as 85%. A mechanical failure resulted in the trickling filter bed drying and percent removal dropping to less than 1 percent. However, the system recovered within five days.

Converse, B.M.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas chromatog- raphy-massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found

Dandy, David

466

Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2003) caution that their bio- fuel emission estimates couldthe Yevich and Logan (2003) bio- fuel emissions to CH 3 Br

Yvon-Lewis, S. A; Saltzman, E. S; Montzka, S. A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

Pezolet, Michel

468

Enhanced photodegradation of methyl orange with TiO nanoparticles using a triboelectric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY% and 27%, respectively. The fabricated TENGs have potential applications in wastewater treatment, water/295401/mmedia (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) 1. Introduction Wastewater

Wang, Zhong L.

469

Essential versus potentially toxic dietary substances: A seasonal comparison of essential fatty acids and methyl mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Asit Mazumder a a Water and Aquatic Sciences Research Program, University of Victoria, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3020, Stn. CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3N5, Canada b Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada Received 21 August 2007; received in revised form 15 November 2007; accepted

Mazumder, Asit

470

abiotic acibenzolar-s-methyl stresses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The macroscopic stress evolution is connected to a length scale of residual liquefaction displayed by microscopic mean-squared displacements. The theory describes this...

471

Methyl halide and biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes from perennial bioenergy crops and annual arable crops   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The depletion of fossil fuel resources, pollution concerns and the challenge of energy security are driving the search for renewable energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an energy source is increasing ...

Morrison, Eilidh Christina

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

472

A Role for Repressive Histone Methylation in Cocaine-Induced Vulnerability to Stress  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Substance abuse increases an individual's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses, which is presumably mediated by drug-induced neural adaptations that alter subsequent responses to stress. Here, we identify repressive ...

Covington, Herbert E.

473

Calibration and Optimization of PTR-MS for Measurement of Methyl Hydroperoxide (CH3OOH)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to optimize and calibrate a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) for the analysis of MHP with the sensitivity to measure this species in air. A promising technique is proton transfer reaction mass by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) grant ATM- 0754990. I would like to thank all

Collins, Gary S.

474

Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300 C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NO{sub x}-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NO{sub x} conversion begins at between 100 and 200 C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250-400 C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NO{sub x} conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400 C. However, when masked with biodiesel, NO{sub x} conversion is observed to begin at temperatures as low as 200 C. Engine test results also show low-temperature recovery from HC storage. Engine tests indicate that, overall, the SCR system has a faster recovery from HC masking with biodiesel. This is at least partially due to a reduction in exhaust HCs, and thus total HC exposure with biodiesel.

Williams, A.; Ratcliff, M.; Pedersen, D.; McCormick, R.; Cavataio, G.; Ura, J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-9h-pyrido: Topics by E-print...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the reactions of amines with aldehydes and with aromatic nitro - compounds in acetonitrile. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Kinetic and equilibrium studies of...

476

Modeling study of the lowtemperature oxidation of large methyl esters from C11 to C19  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in biodiesel fuels has been investigated. Models have been developed for these species and then detailed; Biodiesel fuels; Modeling; Oxidation * Corresponding author: Olivier Herbinet Laboratory of Reaction the differences with the combustion of alkanes induced by the ester function. While biodiesel fuels deriving from

Boyer, Edmond

477

3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interest in producing biofuels from renewable sources hasafter 60 h. Keywords Biofuels . Metabolic engineering .2008; Stephanopoulos 2007). Biofuels produced from renewable

Connor, Michael R.; Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

author. E-mail: jones@chem.rochester.edu. (1) Topsøe, H.; Clausen, B. S.; Massoth, F. E. Hydrotreating

Jones, William D.

479

Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl-Substituted Phenols: Correlations of Kinetic Parameters with Molecular Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction As a result of increasing environmental concerns, catalytic hydrotreating has become an important, oil shale, and tar sands would render the hydrotreating of oxygen-containing com- pounds, mostly

Simons, Jack

480

Absorption Spectra and Photolysis of Methyl Peroxide in Liquid and Frozen Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, United States Department of Physical Chemistry with low temperatures, in the presence of clouds with a high liquid-water content and large solar zenith

Nizkorodov, Sergey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Toward Organic Photohydrides: Excited-State Behavior of 10-Methyl-9-phenyl-9,10-dihydroacridine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, United States § Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 be powered using the photon's energy. Such a photochemical event can, in turn, be used to generate solar

Krylov, Anna I.

482

anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: Topics by E...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

receptor A Abbreviations: Ad, adenovirus; BMDCs, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells; CFDA-SE, 5 Nicchitta, Chris 44 Glycosylation of b1-adrenergic receptors regulates receptor...

483

A global inventory of ecosystem sources of methyl bromide, an ozone destroying gas   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and anthropogenically produced. Biomass burning, salt marsh and agriculture are reported as the largest natural sources. However, there exists a need for a global inventory as current budget estimates are uncertain, based on limited data and show a 45Gg yr-1 discrepancy...

Fenney, Gareth

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

484

SciTech Connect: Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systems controllerAdditiveBetatronAerogel Deep BedDemonstration

485

Photooxidation of Acetone on TiO2(110): Conversion to Acetate via Methyl  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheStevenAdministrationPhotometric Variations4TiO2(110).

486

Catalytic Transformation of C7-C9 Methyl Benzenes over USY-based FCC Zeolite Catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the petrochemical market. Most of the currently working isomerization plants are using zeolite based catalysts. One

Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman