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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

Seaborg, G.T.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ketone synthesis for biofuels Ee-Been Goh†† 1,3 , Edward E.microbes for use as biofuels, such as fatty acid ethylother fatty acid-derived biofuels, such as fatty acid ethyl

Goh, Ee-Been

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

5

DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

6

Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters and reduced exhaust emissions have led to the emergence of new fuels and combustion devices. Over the past ten years, considerable effort has gone into understanding combustion phenomena in relation to emerging fuel

7

Thermal Hazard Analysis of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide Ron-Hsin Chang, Chi-Min Shu and Po-Yin Yeh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Additional requirements for the Qualified Person are set forth in NFPA 70E Article 110.6 (D)(1). A person can and according to the applicable codes (OSHA, NFPA 70E, etc.). DEFINITIONS A Competent Person is an individual and NFPA, has received safety training on the hazards involved with electricity, and by virtue of training

Chen, Shu-Ching

8

Available Technologies: Bacterial Overproduction of Methyl Ketones ...  

u.s. department of energy • office of science • university of california. contact webmaster • comments • policy /privacy/security ...

9

7, 1164711683, 2007 VOC ratios as probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-5 butane] are used to study the extent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Engineering of Bacterial Methyl Ketone Synthesis for Biofuels  

Published Ahead of Print 28 October 2011. €€ 10.1128/AEM.06785-11. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.€2012, 78(1):70. DOI: Harry R. Beller Ee-Been Goh, Edward E. K ...

11

Ethyl Lactate Solvents - Argonne National Laboratory  

Technology Development and Commemrcialization ETHYL LACTATE SOLVENTS: Low-Cost and Environmentally Friendly Argonne National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy

12

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate salts are concentrated by evaporation and thermally decomposed into ketones. The ketones can then be chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. The presence of excess lime in the thermal decomposition step reduced product yield. Mixtures of calcium carboxylate salts were thermally decomposed at 450 degrees C. Low lime-to-salt ratios (g Ca(OH)2/g salt) of 0.00134 and less had a negligible effect on ketone yield. In contrast, salts with higher lime-to-salt ratios of 0.00461, 0.0190, and 0.272 showed 3.5, 4.6, and 9.4% loss in ketone yield, respectively. These losses were caused primarily by increases in tars and heavy oils; however, a three-fold increase in hydrocarbon production occurred as well. To predict ketone product distribution, a random-pairing and a Gibbs free energy minimization model were applied to thermal decompositions of mixed calcium and sodium carboxylate salts. Random pairing appears to better predict ketone product composition. For sodium and calcium acetate, two types of mixed sodium carboxylate salts, and two types of mixed calcium carboxylate salts, activation energy (EA) was determined using three isoconversional methods. For each salt type, EA varied significantly with conversion. The average EA for sodium and calcium acetate was 226.65 and 556.75 kJ/mol, respectively. The average EA for the two mixed sodium carboxylate salts were 195.61, and 218.18 kJ/mol. The average EA for the two mixed calcium carboxylate salts were 232.78, and 176.55 kJ/mol. In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak-Berggren model was the best overall. Possible reactor designs and configurations that address the challenges associated with the continuous thermal decomposition of carboxylate salts are also presented and discussed. Methods of fermentation broth clarification were tested. Flocculation showed little improvement in broth purity. Coagulation yielded broth of 93.23% purity. Filtration using pore sizes from 1 micrometer to 240 Daltons increased broth purity (90.79 to 98.33%) with decreasing pore size.

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

The EMC Specimen Preparation Laboratory The Electron Microscopy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RCRA waste: F003, U159, ignitable. Methyl ethyl ketone RCRA waste: F005, U159, D035 (TCLP > 200 mgl), ignitable. MICRO cleaning solution Mineral oil 5 mgm 3 (mist) 5 mgm 3...

16

Catalytic ionic hydrogenation of ketones using tungsten or molybdenum organometallic species  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention is a process for the catalytic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes to alcohols at low temperatures and pressures using organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes. The functional group is selected from groups represented by the formulas R(C.dbd.O)R' and R(C.dbd.O)H, wherein R and R' are selected from hydrogen or any alkyl or aryl group. The active catalyst for the process has the form: [CpM(CO).sub.2 (PR*.sub.3) L].sup.+ A.sup.-, where Cp=.eta..sup.5 -R.sup..tangle-solidup..sub.m C.sub.5 H.sub.5-m and R.sup..tangle-solidup. represents an alkyl group or a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) or R.sup..tangle-solidup. =OR' (where R'=H, an alkyl group or an aryl group) or R.sup..tangle-solidup. =CO.sub.2 R' (where R'=H, an alkyl group or an aryl group) and m=0 to 5; M represents a molybdenum atom or a tungsten atom; R*.sub.3 represents three hydrocarbon groups selected from a cyclohexyl group (C.sub.6 H.sub.11), a methyl group (CH.sub.3), and a phenyl group (C.sub.6 H.sub.5) and all three R* groups can be the same or different or two of the three groups can be the same; L represents a ligand; and A.sup.- represents an anion. In another embodiment, one, two or three of the R* groups can be an OR*.

Voges, Mark (Leverkusen, DE); Bullock, R. Morris (Wading River, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Methyl Ester Sulfonates Supplement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl Ester Sulfonates Supplement 18509 September 2006 Supplement September 2006.pdf Chemithon 3179

18

Ultrasonic Relaxation in Ethanol?Ethyl Halide Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrasonic studies in mixtures of ethanol and various ethyl halides show that maxima exist in the plots of the absorption coefficient versus concentration. These maxima are located at relatively small ethanol concentrations. The measurements made include a detailed investigation of the temperature and frequency dependence of the absorption in the ethanol?ethyl chloride system and somewhat less complete studies of the ethanol?ethyl bromide and ethanol?ethyl iodide systems. In each of the systems the measurements were made as a function of concentration. The results in the ethanol?ethyl chloride mixtures indicate the presence of a single relaxation process occurring in the range of measurement (15?165 MHz). The mechanism for this relaxation process is considered both in terms of a quasichemical association theory and in terms of a fluctuating concentration theory. The suggestion is made that the relaxational behavior may be connected with the existence azeotropic concentrations in these mixtures.

V. A. Solovyev; C. J. Montrose; M. H. Watkins; T. A. Litovitz

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Atmospheric Methyl Chloride  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

steel flasks and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The...

20

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

Collum, David B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

22

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

AKR1B10 induces cell resistance to daunorubicin and idarubicin by reducing C13 ketonic group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daunorubicin, idarubicin, doxorubicin and epirubicin are anthracyclines widely used for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, and breast, lung, and liver cancers, but tumor resistance limits their clinical success. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10 (AKR1B10) is an NADPH-dependent enzyme overexpressed in liver and lung carcinomas. This study was aimed to determine the role of AKR1B10 in tumor resistance to anthracyclines. AKR1B10 activity toward anthracyclines was measured using recombinant protein. Cell resistance to anthracycline was determined by ectopic expression of AKR1B10 or inhibition by epalrestat. Results showed that AKR1B10 reduces C13-ketonic group on side chain of daunorubicin and idarubicin to hydroxyl forms. In vitro, AKR1B10 converted daunorubicin to daunorubicinol at V{sub max} of 837.42 {+-} 81.39 nmol/mg/min, K{sub m} of 9.317 {+-} 2.25 mM and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} of 3.24. AKR1B10 showed better catalytic efficiency toward idarubicin with V{sub max} at 460.23 {+-} 28.12 nmol/mg/min, K{sub m} at 0.461 {+-} 0.09 mM and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} at 35.94. AKR1B10 was less active toward doxorubicin and epirubicin with a C14-hydroxyl group. In living cells, AKR1B10 efficiently catalyzed reduction of daunorubicin (50 nM) and idarubicin (30 nM) to corresponding alcohols. Within 24 h, approximately 20 {+-} 2.7% of daunorubicin (1 {mu}M) or 23 {+-} 2.3% of idarubicin (1 {mu}M) was converted to daunorubicinol or idarubicinol in AKR1B10 expression cells compared to 7 {+-} 0.9% and 5 {+-} 1.5% in vector control. AKR1B10 expression led to cell resistance to daunorubicin and idarubicin, but inhibitor epalrestat showed a synergistic role with these agents. Together our data suggest that AKR1B10 participates in cellular metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, resulting in drug resistance. These data are informative for the clinical use of idarubicin and daunorubicin. - Highlights: > This study defines enzyme activity of AKR1B10 protein towards daunorubicin, idarubicin, doxorubicin, and epirubicin. > This study pinpoints the chemical group-C13 ketone that AKR1B10 acts on. > This study identifies that the C14 group (methyl or hydroxyl) affects the substrate specificity towards AKR1B10. > This study defines the role of AKR1B10 in cellular metabolism and pharmacokinetics of anthracyclines. > This study demonstrates the role of AKR1B10 in cell resistance to anthracyclines in an in vitro cell culture model.

Zhong Linlin [Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, Simmons Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 913 N. Rutledge Street, Springfield, IL 62794-9626 (United States); Shen Honglin [Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Shenzhen Nanshan Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, 89 Taoyuan Road, Nanshan District, Shenzhen 518052 (China); Huang Chenfei [Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, Simmons Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 913 N. Rutledge Street, Springfield, IL 62794-9626 (United States); Jing, Hongwu [670 Wiese Road, Cheshire, CT 06410 (United States); Cao Deliang, E-mail: dcao@siumed.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, Simmons Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 913 N. Rutledge Street, Springfield, IL 62794-9626 (United States)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Experimental study of the oxidation of methyl oleate in a jet-stirred reactor  

SciTech Connect

The experimental study of the oxidation of a blend containing n-decane and a large unsaturated ester, methyl oleate, was performed in a jet-stirred reactor over a wide range of temperature covering both low and high temperature regions (550-1100 K), at a residence time of 1.5 s, at quasi atmospheric pressure with high dilution in helium (n-decane and methyl oleate inlet mole fractions of 1.48 x 10{sup -3} and 5.2 x 10{sup -4}) and under stoichiometric conditions. The formation of numerous reaction products was observed. At low and intermediate temperatures, the oxidation of the blend led to the formation of species containing oxygen atoms like cyclic ethers, aldehydes and ketones deriving from n-decane and methyl oleate. At higher temperature, these species were not formed anymore and the presence of unsaturated species was observed. Because of the presence of the double bond in the middle of the alkyl chain of methyl oleate, the formation of some specific products was observed. These species are dienes and esters with two double bonds produced from the decomposition paths of methyl oleate and some species obtained from the addition of H-atoms, OH and HO{sub 2} radicals to the double bond. Experimental results were compared with former results of the oxidation of a blend of n-decane and methyl palmitate performed under similar conditions. This comparison allowed highlighting the similarities and the differences in the reactivity and in the distribution of the reaction products for the oxidation of large saturated and unsaturated esters. (author)

Bax, Sarah; Hakka, Mohammed Hichem; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, Nancy Universite, CNRS, ENSIC, BP 20451, 1 rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy (France)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures and Relative Reactivities of Mixed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Ephedrate-Mediated Addition of a Lithium Acetylide to a Ketone: Solution Structures-1301 ReceiVed April 30, 1997. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 26, 1997 Abstract: Addition of lithiumLi and 13C NMR spectroscopies reveal lithium cyclopropylacetylide in THF to be a dimer

Collum, David B.

26

EXTRACTION OF HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS WITH ETHYL SULFIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting Pu>s6/sup > /om an aqueous ammonium nitrate-containing nitric acid solution with ethyl sulfide.

Seaborg, G.T.

1961-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

List of Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins Acrylonitr ile Aniline Arsenic and its compounds Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Beryllium Boric acid (Boron) Cadmium and its compounds Carbon monoxide Chlordecone (Kepone) Chloroform Chloroprene Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Dioxane Epichlorohydrin Ethylene Dibromide Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Oxide Fluorocarbons Formaldehyde Formamides Lead (Organic) Manganese and its compounds Mercury and its compounds (Inorganic) Methyl n-butyl ketone Methyl chloroform Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone Platinum and its compounds Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) Polychlorinated bipenyls (PCB) Selenium and its compounds Styrene Tellurium and its compounds Tetr achloroethylene

28

Controlling DNA Methylation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. In the bacteria there are distinct enzymes while one is capable of cleaving DNA, the other protects DNA by modification. The complementary function provided by the set of enzymes offers a defense mechanism against the phage infection and DNA invasion. The incoming DNA is cleaved sequence specifically by the class of enzymes called restriction endonuclease (REase). The host DNA is protected by the sequence specific action of matching set of enzymes called the DNA methyltransferase (MTase). The control of the relative activities of the REase and MTase is critical because a reduced ratio of MTase/REase activity would lead to cell death via autorestriction. However too high a ratio would fail to provide protection against invading viral DNA. In addition a separate group of proteins capable of controlling R-M proteins have been identified in various restriction-modification (R-M) systems which are called C proteins (Roberts et al., 2003).

29

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran. Battelle ...

30

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Contact PNNL About This Technology ...

31

Dispersion Morphology of Poly(methyl acrylate)/Silica Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

Nearly monodisperse poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) and spherical SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP, d = 14 {+-} 4 nm) were co-cast from 2-butanone, a mutually good solvent and a displacer of adsorbed PMA from silica. The effects of NP content and post-casting sample history on the dispersion morphology were found by small-angle X-ray scattering supplemented by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the X-ray results show that cast and thermally annealed samples exhibited a nearly random particle dispersion. That the same samples, prior to annealing, were not well-dispersed is indicative of thermodynamic miscibility during thermal annealing over the range of NP loadings studied. A simple mean-field thermodynamic model suggests that miscibility results primarily from favorable polymer segment/NP surface interactions. The model also indicates, and experiments confirm, that subsequent exposure of the composites to the likely displacer ethyl acetate results in entropic destabilization and demixing into NP-rich and NP-lean phases.

D Janes; J Moll; S Harton; C Durning

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Andreeff, Michael [Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, John, E-mail: john.digiovanni@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

35

A new antifouling hybrid CDP formulation with ethyl heptanoate: evaluation of AF performance at Ayajin harbor, east coast of Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antifouling (AF) efficiency of a nontoxic aliphatic ester, ethyl heptanoate was evaluated against spores of a fouling alga Ulva pertusa and a ship fouling diatom Amphora coffeaeformis. Based on the nontoxic AF activity exhibited in the laboratory bioassays, ... Keywords: antifouling, ethyl heptanoate, fouling resistance, hybrid controlled depletion paint (CDP), zinc pyrithione

M. Sidharthan; Sang Mok Jung; Haridatta Bhatta Rai; Ji Hyun Lee; Chi Young Lim; Young-Kyu Kang; N. S. Park; H. W. Shin

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via...

37

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

38

Martian Methyl Chloride. A lesson in uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MSL Lander Curiosity has recently detected methyl halides coming from heated samples of Martian soil. This is reminiscent of similar findings in the Viking Lander spacecraft. In the 1970s a consensus developed quickly explaining the methyl halides as contamination originating from the spacecraft, and ignoring lines of evidence that the two compounds originated from Mars, and that they could not have originated from the proposed spacecraft chemistry. I discuss why this consensus developed from the understanding of biochemistry and geochemistry of 1976, despite its implausibility. Subsequent explanations for the Viking methyl halides are more plausible but still not proven. The Curiosity rover results are also being explained as a result of on-spacecraft chemistry. I urge caution in this interpretation, in light of the historical Viking example: it is better to leave unexplained data unexplained than to lock in an explanation that precludes future developments.

Bains, William

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

COOLANT STABILIZED WITH KETONE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

sion). U. S. Patent 3,009.88l. Nov. 2l, l06l. A method is given for inhibiting radiolytic damage to a polyphenyl composition undergoing nuclear irradiation, the polyphenyl composition initially consisting essentially of polyphenyls having 2 to 4 phenyl rings. The method comprises adding approximately 5 mole% anthraquinone to the polyphenyl composition. (AEC)

Burr, J.G.; Strong, J.D.

1961-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

40

Association Behavior of Poly (methyl methacrylate-b-methacrylic acid-b-methyl methacrylate) in Aqueous Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABA type tri-block amphiphilic polyelectrolyte consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate-block-methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-b-MAA-b-MMA)) was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization technique ...

Yao, Jia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents opposed-flow diffusion flame data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and uses the experiments to validate an improved skeletal mechanism consisting of 648 species and 2998 reactions. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

42

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Structural Basis for Methyl Transfer by a Radical SAM Enzyme  

SciTech Connect

The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes RlmN and Cfr methylate 23S ribosomal RNA, modifying the C2 or C8 position of adenosine 2503. The methyl groups are installed by a two-step sequence involving initial methylation of a conserved Cys residue (RlmN Cys{sup 355}) by SAM. Methyl transfer to the substrate requires reductive cleavage of a second equivalent of SAM. Crystal structures of RlmN and RlmN with SAM show that a single molecule of SAM coordinates the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Residue Cys{sup 355} is S-methylated and located proximal to the SAM methyl group, suggesting the SAM that is involved in the initial methyl transfer binds at the same site. Thus, RlmN accomplishes its complex reaction with structural economy, harnessing the two most important reactivities of SAM within a single site.

Boal, Amie K.; Grove, Tyler L.; McLaughlin, Monica I.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Booker, Squire J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU); (Penn)

2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

46

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Structural Analysis of a Ni-Methyl Species in Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase from Methanothermobacter marburgensis  

SciTech Connect

We present the 1.2 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Ni-methyl species that is a proposed catalytic intermediate in methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the enzyme that catalyzes the biological formation of methane. The methyl group is situated 2.1 {angstrom} proximal of the Ni atom of the MCR coenzyme F{sub 430}. A rearrangement of the substrate channel has been posited to bring together substrate species, but Ni(III)-methyl formation alone does not lead to any observable structural changes in the channel.

Cedervall, Peder E.; Dey, Mishtu; Li, Xianghui; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Hedman, Britt; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (Michigan); (SLAC); (UMM)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A 57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to advance Oxyhydrochlorination technology to an integrated engineering-scale process. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Finding of No Significant Impact Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for

49

A project to improve the capabilities of minorities in energy fields and a cost benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project being reported in this document had three components: (1) a research project to carry out cost-benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant at Tuskegee University, (2) seminars to improve the high-technology capabilities of minority persons, and (3) a class in energy management. The report provides a background on the three components listed above. The results from the research on the ethyl alcohol plant, are discussed, along with the seminars, and details of the energy management class.

Sara, T.S.; Jones, M. Jr.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithium and Dimethyl Carbonate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of chemically synthesized lithium methylcarbonate (CH 3 OCOmolecular structures of lithium methyl carbonate (CH 3 OCO 2FTIR study also suggests that lithium methyl carbonate has

Zhuang, Guorong V.; Yang, Hui; Ross Jr., Philip N.; Xu, Kang; Jow, T. Richard

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

High-throughput sequencing of cytosine methylation in plant DNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to that in flowering plants around repeat regions [15]. The green algae Chlorella sp. NC64A and Volvox carteri show very little methylation in non-CpG contexts in genes, and greatly reduced or absent non-CpG methylation at repetitive regions, with Volvox carteri... showing greatly reduced methylation in all contexts compared to other plant species [15]. Similarly, the distributions of methyla- tion in the green algae Chlamydomonas, while not wholly divergent from those in flowering plants [49], show much lower levels...

Hardcastle, Thomas J

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96 % of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65 % across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

Joseph A. Bedell; Muhammad A. Budiman; Andrew Nunberg; Robert W. Citek; Dan Robbins; Joshua Jones; Elizabeth Flick; Theresa Rohlfing; Jason Fries; Kourtney Bradford; Jennifer Mcmenamy; Michael Smith; Heather Holeman; Bruce A. Roe; Graham Wiley; Ian F. Korf; Pablo D. Rabinowicz; Nathan Lakey; W. Richard Mccombie; Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh; Robert A. Martienssen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The comparison of sulfide CoMo/?-Al2O3 and NiMo/?-Al2O3 catalysts in methyl palmitate and methyl heptanoate hydrodeoxygenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrodeoxygenation of methyl palmitate and methyl heptanoate as the model compounds of bio-oil in the presence of sulfided CoMo/?-Al2O3 and NiMo/?-Al2O3 catalysts was studied at the temperature ... Keywords: CoMoS/?-Al2O3, NiMoS/?-Al2O3, biofuels, hydrodeoxygenation, methyl heptanoate, methyl palmitate

Irina V. Deliy; Evgenia N. Vlasova; Alexey L. Nuzhdin; Galina A. Bukhtiyarova

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

57

Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

59

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

60

Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND R. P. MASON. 2006. Mercury methylation by dissimilatoryPRUCHA, AND G. MIERLE. 1991. Mercury methylation by sulfate-AND J. M. SIEBURTH. 1993. Mercury biogeochemical cycling in

Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

finding alternatives to Outlook Specialty crops and methylNumber 3 Steve Fennimore Outlook Non-fumigant approaches to

Browne, Greg T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Network-based classification of recurrent endometrial cancers using high-throughput DNA methylation data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DNA methylation, a well-studied mechanism of epigenetic regulation, plays important roles in cancer. Increased levels of global DNA methylation is observed in primary solid tumors including endometrial carcinomas and is generally associated with silencing ... Keywords: DNA methylation, Steiner tree, cancer recurrence, classification, protein-protein interaction network, random walk

Jianhua Ruan; Md. Jamiul Jahid; Fei Gu; Chengwei Lei; Yi-Wen Huang; Ya-Ting Hsu; David G. Mutch; Chun-Liang Chen; Nameer B. Kirma; Tim H. Huang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

The Influence of Linker Geometry on Uranyl Complexation by Rigidly-Linked Bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one) ligands was synthesized, and their respective uranyl complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. These structures were inspected for high-energy conformations and evaluated using a series of metrics to measure co-planarity of chelating moieties with each other and the uranyl coordination plane, as well as to measure coordinative crowding about the uranyl dication. Both very short (ethyl, 3,4-thiophene and o-phenylene) and very long ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}-m-xylene and 1,8-fluorene) linkers provide optimal ligand geometries about the uranyl cation, resulting in planar, unstrained molecular arrangements. The planarity of the rigid linkers also suggests there is a degree of pre-organization for a planar coordination mode that is ideal for uranyl-selective ligand design. Comparison of intramolecular N{sub amide}-O{sub phenolate} distances and {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts of amide protons supports earlier results that short linkers provide the optimal geometry for intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

Szigethy, Geza; Raymond, Kenneth

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

65

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

66

The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m{sup 2}/gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation both as feed. The operation condition is 150 deg. C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

Widayat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia); Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

67

"Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). figure 1 Figure 1. Mercury health risks Health advisory from the CALFED Science Program to limit consumption of fish, in order to avoid excessive accumulation of Hg. Methylated Hg is biomagnified up the food chain, attaining high levels in some types of sportfish. http://science.calwater.ca.gov/images/scinews_hg_da_lg.jpg

68

Nonradiometric and radiometric testing of radioiodine sorbents using methyl iodide  

SciTech Connect

A nonradiometric test of adsorbents and adsorbers with normal methyl iodide (CH/sub 3//sup 127/I) is desirable. Use of methyl radioiodide (CH/sub 3//sup 131/I) requires special precautions and facilities and results in bed contamination. However, first it must be established to what extent the removal of CH/sub 3//sup 127/I by adsorbents is indicative of the removal of CH/sub 3//sup 131/I. An experimental apparatus was built and used to simultaneously measure the penetrations of CH/sub 3/I molecules and the radioisotope in CH/sub 3//sup 131/I through charcoal absorbent beds. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used to measure CH/sub 3/I. Radioiodine was measured using charcoal traps within NaI scintillation well crystals. Real time (5-min interval) radioiodine measurement provided immediate penetration results directly comparable to the real time penetrations of methyl iodide. These penetrations were compared for typical charcoal adsorbents with these impregnants: (a) 5% KI/sub 3/, (b) 5% KI/sub 3/ + 2% TEDA, (c) 5% TEDA, and (d) metal salts (Whetlerite). Differences between CH/sub 3/I and CH/sub 3//sup 131/I penetrations observed for the two iodized charcoals were attributed to isotope exchange reactions. Equivalent penetrations were observed for non-iodized adsorbents and for iodized ones at initial time. First order rates were confirmed for reactions with TEDA and for isotope exchange. This was one more confirmation of the lack of a challenge concentration effect on efficiencies at low test bed loadings. In addition to other removal mechanisms, reversible physical adsorption was observed with all charcoals.

Wood, G.O.; Valdez, F.O.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

70

OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Outlook Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives:Research Plant Pathologist, Crops Pathology and GeneticsS Jack Kelly Clark pecialty crop farms and nurseries in

Browne, Greg T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Chemotactic antifouling properties of methyl caproate: its implication for ship hull coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antifouling (AF) activity of methyl caproate was evaluated by using both laboratory assays and field investigations. It showed strong repellent activity against common fouling organisms (marine bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis, Roseobacter gallaeciensis ... Keywords: Ulva pertusa, antifouling, chemotaxis, fouling resistance, hybrid CDP, marine bacteria, methyl caproate, zinc pyrithione

Haridatta Bhatta Rai; Sang Mok Jung; M. Sidharthan; Ji Hyun Lee; Chi Young Lim; Young-Kyu Kang; Chang Yeon; N. S. Park; H. W. Shin

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

US Food and Drug Administration survey of methyl mercury in canned tuna  

SciTech Connect

Methyl mercury was determined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 220 samples of canned tuna collected in 1991. Samples were chosen to represent different styles, colors, and packs as available. Emphasis was placed on water-packed tuna, small can size, and the highest-volume brand names. The average methyl mercury (expressed as Hg) found for the 220 samples was 0.17 ppm; the range was <0.10-0.75 ppm. Statistically, a significantly higher level of methyl mercury was found in solid white and chunk tuna. Methyl mercury level was not related to can size. None of the 220 samples had methyl mercury levels that exceeded the 1 ppm FDA action level. 11 refs., 1 tab.

Yess, J. [Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Choi, G.N. [Bechtel, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Tam, S.S. [Bechtel, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tischer, R.E. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Srivastava, R.D. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

A High-Volume Cryosampler and Sample Purification System for Bromine Isotope Studies of Methyl Bromide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system was developed for collecting from the ambient atmosphere the methyl halides CH3Cl and CH3Br in quantities sufficient for chlorine and bromine isotope analysis. The construction and operation of the novel cryogenic collection system (...

Brett F. Thornton; Axel Horst; Daniel Carrizo; Henry Holmstrand; Per Andersson; Patrick M. Crill; Örjan Gustafsson

78

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

Pangallo, Kristin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Thermomechanical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane- poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA) containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles (d [approx.] 1.5 nm) were subjected to heological, mechanical, and morphological tests to determine the effects that ...

Kopesky, Edward Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Dissolution and swelling of bituminous coal in n-methyl-pyrrolidone.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research detailed herein examined the extraction and swelling of a bituminous coal in the super solvent n-methyl-pyrrolidone. Correlations were developed to describe the extraction and… (more)

Stoffa, Joseph M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methylcytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum ...

Chan, Michelle M.

82

A High-Volume Cryosampler and Sample Purification System for Bromine Isotope Studies of Methyl Bromide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system was developed for collecting from the ambient atmosphere the methyl halides CH3Cl and CH3Br in quantities sufficient for chlorine and bromine isotope analysis. The construction and operation of the novel cryogenic collection system (...

Brett F. Thornton; Axel Horst; Daniel Carrizo; Henry Holmstrand; Per Andersson; Patrick M. Crill; Örjan Gustafsson

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Extinction and Ignition of Methyl Decanoate in Laminar Nonpremixed Flows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl decanoate is a large methyl ester that can be used as a surrogate for biodiesel. In this experimental and computational study, the combustion of methyl decanoate is investigated in nonpremixed, nonuniform flows. Experiments are performed employing the counterflow configuration with a fuel stream made up of vaporized methyl decanoate and nitrogen, and an oxidizer stream of air. The mass fraction of fuel in the fuel stream is measured as a function of the strain rate at extinction, and critical conditions of ignition are measured in terms of the temperature of the oxidizer stream as a function of the strain rate. It is not possible to use a fully detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate to simulate the counterflow flames because the number of species and reactions is too large to employ with current flame codes and computer resources. Therefore a skeletal mechanism was deduced from a detailed mechanism of 8555 elementary reactions and 3036 species using 'directed relation graph' method. This skeletal mechanism has only 713 elementary reactions and 125 species. Critical conditions of ignition were calculated using this skeletal mechanism and are found to agree well with experimental data. The predicted strain rate at extinction is found to be lower than the measurements. In general, the methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Seshadri, K; Lu, T; Herbinet, O; Humer, S; Niemann, U; Pitz, W J; Law, C K

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

84

unknown title  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and modeling – Advances and future refinements

Lucie Coniglio; Hayet Bennadji; Pierre Alex; Re Glaude; Olivier Herbinet; Francis Billaud

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300°C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400°C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

86

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The results indicate that both temperature and PA/HCHO ratio are important parameters to optimize the economic of the condensation between propionic acid and formaldehyde.

BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III) Intermediates of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the terminal step in biological methane synthesis. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to form methane and the heterodisulfide product, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox active nickel tetrapyrrolic cofactor called coenzyme F430 at its active site, which is active in the reduced Ni(I) state (MCRred1). All of the biologically generated methane, amounting to 1 billion tons per annum globally, is formed by MCR. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that anaerobic methane oxidation is also catalyzed by MCR and occurs by a reversal of the methane synthesis reaction. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, trapping 20 times more heat than CO2. In addition, methane is also an important and clean fuel as it produced the least amount of CO2 per unit of heat released. Thus, it is critically important to understand the mechanism of formation of the smallest hydrocarbon in nature.

88

Role of Morphological Growth State and Gene Expression in Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay Mercury Methylation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biogeochemical transformations of mercury are a complex process, with the production of methylmercury, a potent human neurotoxin, repeatedly demonstrated in sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing as well as methanogenic bacteria. However, little is known regarding the morphology, genes or proteins involved in methylmercury generation. Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is a Hg-methylating -proteobacterium with a sequenced genome and has unusual pleomorphic forms. In this study, a relationship between the pleomorphism and Hg methylation was investigated. Proportional increases in the sigmoidal (regular) cell form corresponded with increased net MeHg production, but decreased when the pinched cocci (persister) form became the major morphotype. D. africanus microarrays indicated that the ferrous iron transport genes (feoAB), as well as ribosomal genes and several genes whose products are predicted to have metal binding domains (CxxC), were up-regulated during exposure to Hg in the exponential phase. While no specific methylation pathways were identified, the finding that Hg may interfere with iron transport and the correlation of growth-phase dependent morphology with MeHg production are notable. The identification of these relationships between differential gene expression, morphology, and the growth phase dependence of Hg transformations suggests that actively growing cells are primarily responsible for methylation, and so areas with ample carbon and electron-acceptor concentrations may also generate a higher proportion of methylmercury than more oligotrophic environments. The observation of increased iron transporter expression also suggests that Hg methylation may interfere with iron biogeochemical cycles.

Moberly, James G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

57 57 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER CUM ~~~~~~~~ DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLORINATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Image are produced from the best available original document. &E/,Etq --,/s7 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE PROPOSED METHYL CHLORIDE V

91

Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns Nan Zhao a , Ju Guan a , Farhad Forouhar b , Timothy J. Tschaplinski c , Zong-Ming Cheng a , Liang Tong b , Feng Chen a, * a Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, 252 Ellington Plant Science Bldg., 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA b Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 3 June 2008 Received in revised form 27 October 2008 Available online 10 January 2009 Keywords: Black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Methyl esterase SABP2 Methyl salicylate Salicylic acid Gene family Molecular modeling a b s t r a c t Two genes encoding proteins

92

Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells.

Roy, Kanaklata [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang, Lilin [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Price, Brendan D. [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: brendan_price@dfci.harvard.edu

2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

93

FLAME-SAMPLING PHOTOIONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY - FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Research focused on detailed studies of the complex combustion chemistry of oxygenated, bio-derived fuels. In particular, studies were done of the flame chemistry of simple methyl and ethyl esters chosen as surrogates for the long-chain esters that are primary constituents of biodiesel fuels. The principal goals of these studies were: (1) show how fuel-specific structural differences including degree of unsaturation, linear vs. branched chain structures, and methoxy vs. ethoxy functions affect fueldestruction pathways, (2) understand the chemistry leading to potential increases in the emissions of hazardous air pollutants including aldehydes and ketones inherent in the use of biodiesel fuels, and (3) define the key chemical reaction mechanisms responsible for observed reductions in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter when oxygenated fuels are used as replacements for conventional fuels.

Hansen, Nils

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

94

The methylation of benzoic and n-butyric acids by chloromethane in Phellinus pomaceus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetics of carboxylic acid methylation by chloromethane (CH3Cl) in myceliaaf the fungus Phellinus pomaceus were examined. Substantial incorporation of C2H3- into ester was observed within 5 min of addition of C2H3Cl to washed mycelia in the presence of the non-physiological acceptor butyric acid, rendering it unlikely that CH3Cl was converted to a diffusible intermediate before acting as methyl donor. The rate of methyl butyrate biosynthesis attained a maximum of 0.14 pmol g-l h-l at 1-5 mM-butyric acid, with higher concentrations causing increasing inhibition. Exogenous CH3Cl did not affect methyl butyrate production implying that the rate of CH3Cl biosynthesis did not limit methylation. However, C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into methyl butyrate rose sharply from 20 to 60 % between 1.5 and 4 mM-butyric acid, suggesting inhibition of CH3Cl biosynthesis by the acid, an interpretation supported by the rapid decline in gaseous CH3Cl release by mycelia between 1.5 and 2 mM-butyric acid. With the natural acceptor benzoic acid as substrate a significant increase in the rate of ester biosynthesis was obtained in the presence of exogenous CH3Cl. Ester biosynthesis was maximal (0.18 pmol g-l h-l) at 0.5 mM-benZOiC acid but fell extremely rapidly with increasing concentration. As with butyric acid supraoptimal concentrations halted CH3Cl release and increased C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl. Studies on C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into ester revealed a linear relationship between the logarithm of the percentage C2H3-incorporation and the logarithm of C2H3Cl

Kieran J. Mcnally; David B. Harper. *t

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lo g 2 (F ol d hy pe rm et hy la tio n) in tu m or -n or m al p ai rs 0 35 -0.25 2.0 -0.25 2.0 0 1.0 LNCaP PrEC CpG density Phast Cons A B Tumor-Normal pairs sorted by extent of hypermethylation Additional #31;le 9. ... mammalian and vertebrate species (indicated by high phastCons scores > 0.8; [27]) compared with what would be expected by ran- dom chance (Figure 5A). Additionally, we found that the methylated and differentially methylated regions had a highly significant...

Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wu, Zhijin; Haffner, Michael C; Esopi, David; Aryee, Martin J; Badrinath, Raghav; He, Tony L; Morgan, James D; Carvalho, Benilton S; Zheng, Qizhi; De Marzo, Angelo M; Irizarry, Rafael A; Nelson, William G

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

96

Stepwise DNA Methylation Changes Are Linked to Escape from Defined Proliferation Barriers and Mammary Epithelial Cell Immortalization  

SciTech Connect

The timing and progression of DNA methylation changes during carcinogenesis are not completely understood. To develop a timeline of aberrant DNA methylation events during malignant transformation, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model of transformation. To acquire immortality and malignancy, the cultured finite lifespan HMEC must overcome two distinct proliferation barriers. The first barrier, stasis, is mediated by the retinoblastoma protein and can be overcome by loss of p16(INK4A) expression. HMEC that escape stasis and continue to proliferate become genomically unstable before encountering a second more stringent proliferation barrier, telomere dysfunction due to telomere attrition. Rare cells that acquire telomerase expression may escape this barrier, become immortal, and develop further malignant properties. Our analysis of HMEC transitioning from finite lifespan to malignantly transformed showed that aberrant DNA methylation changes occur in a stepwise fashion early in the transformation process. The first aberrant DNA methylation step coincides with overcoming stasis, and results in few to hundreds of changes, depending on how stasis was overcome. A second step coincides with immortalization and results in hundreds of additional DNA methylation changes regardless of the immortalization pathway. A majority of these DNA methylation changes are also found in malignant breast cancer cells. These results show that large-scale epigenetic remodeling occurs in the earliest steps of mammary carcinogenesis, temporally links DNA methylation changes and overcoming cellular proliferation barriers, and provides a bank of potential epigenetic biomarkers that mayprove useful in breast cancer risk assessment.

Novak, Petr; Jensen, Taylor J.; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

97

Oxygen scavenger/metal passivator reduces corrosion, toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Haverhill Paper board, a Haverhill, MA manufacturer of recycled paperboard, generates about 120,000 lb/hr of 650 psi, 650/sup 0/F (superheated) steam. Boiler deposition and condensate return corrosion problems were always high on the list of things to avoid. A water treatment firm provided the solution with a recently developed oxygen scavenger. The new scavenger, a Chemical Processing Vaaler Award winner (Mid-November, 1986, p. 130), is a patented formulation containing methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO). The formulation is designed to provide protection comparable to hydrazine but without the toxicity concerns. Used in conjunction with the mechanical deaerator, MEKO scavenges the remaining 5-7 ppb of oxygen from the feed water, producing methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), N/sub 2/O, and water. High volatility gives it the ability to leave the boiler with the steam, protecting the entire generating system. MEKO also acts as a metal surface passivator, protecting iron surfaces from corrosion by forming passivated oxide films. In use since December, 1985, the MEKO-based oxygen scavenger has coupled with the other chemical and mechanical water treatment methods to maintain the boiler in operating condition. The MEKO is performing as well or better than the hydrazine at about the same cost - while avoiding the toxicity problem.

Barry, J.; Toy, D.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Study of 2-and 3-Thiopheneacetic Acid Methyl Esters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, biodiagnostics, electronic and optoelectronic devices, and conductive polymers. The present study reports acid methyl esters. The enthalpies of combustion and vaporization were measured by a rotating-bomb of the compounds studied was carried out. Calculated enthalpies of formation, using atomization and isodesmic

Chickos, James S.

99

Methyl Bromide o Bromomethane, monobromomethane, isobrome, Brom-o-Gas, Bromomethane, Celume,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bromide produced in the U.S. goes into pesticidal formulations (as of 1996) Total use of 711,175 lb in 2009, 78% on imported and 22% on exported material under Plant Protection and Quarantine oversight of exports requiring MB fumigation in 2005-2009 $2.2 billion/year o Methylating solvent, low-boiling solvent

Toohey, Darin W.

100

Headspace gas chromatographic method for determination of methyl bromide in food ingredients  

SciTech Connect

A headspace gas chromatographic (GC) method, which can be automated, has been developed for determination of methyl bromide. This method has been applied to wheat, flour, cocoa, and peanuts. Samples to be analyzed are placed in headspace sample vials, water is added, and the vials are sealed with Teflon-lined septa. After an appropriate equilibration time at 32 degrees C, the samples are analyzed within 10 h. A sample of the headspace is withdrawn and analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Methyl bromide levels were quantitated by comparison of peak area with a standard. The standard was generated by adding a known amount of methyl bromide to a portion of the matrix being analyzed and which was known to be methyl bromide free. The detection limit of the method was 0.4 ppb. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 6.5% for wheat, 8.3% for flour, 3.3% for cocoa, and 11.6% for peanuts.

DeVries, J.W.; Broge, J.M.; Schroeder, J.P.; Bowers, R.H.; Larson, P.A.; Burns, N.M.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Double chromodomains cooperate to recognize the methylated histone H3 tail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chromodomains are modules implicated in the recognition of lysine-methylated histone tails and nucleic acids. CHD (for chromo-ATPase/helicase-DNA-binding) proteins regulate ATP-dependent nucleosome assembly and mobilization through their conserved double chromodomains and SWI2/SNF2 helicase/ATPase domain. The Drosophila CHD1 localizes to the interbands and puffs of the polytene chromosomes, which are classic sites of transcriptional activity. Other CHD isoforms (CHD3/4 or Mi-2) are important for nucleosome remodelling in histone deacetylase complexes. Deletion of chromodomains impairs nucleosome binding and remodelling by CHD proteins. Here we describe the structure of the tandem arrangement of the human CHD1 chromodomains, and its interactions with histone tails. Unlike HP1 and Polycomb proteins that use single chromodomains to bind to their respective methylated histone H3 tails, the two chromodomains of CHD1 cooperate to interact with one methylated H3 tail. We show that the human CHD1 double chromodomains target the lysine 4-methylated histone H3 tail (H3K4me), a hallmark of active chromatin. Methylammonium recognition involves two aromatic residues, not the three-residue aromatic cage used by chromodomains of HP1 and Polycomb proteins. Furthermore, unique inserts within chromodomain 1 of CHD1 block the expected site of H3 tail binding seen in HP1 and Polycomb, instead directing H3 binding to a groove at the inter-chromodomain junction.

Flanagan, John F.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Cymborowski, Marcin; Clines, Katrina L.; Kim, Youngchang; Minor, Wladek; Rastinejad, Fraydoon; Khorasanizadeh, Sepideh (ANL/SBC); (UV)

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

Dandy, David

103

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu, and Donald G. Truhlar Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 137, 104314 abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu- propanol, and butanal. Electronic structure calculations for all conformers of the radicals were car- ried

Truhlar, Donald G

105

Scaling properties of diffusive electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons functionalized with methyl-groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a systematic study of the electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons functionalized with methyl-groups. Our numerical simulations are based on the Green's function approach and the tight-binding description of graphene. In the ... Keywords: Electronic transport, Functionalization, Graphene nanoribbons

Alessandro Cresti

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A{sub 4} (LTA{sub 4}) hydrolase and leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops  

SciTech Connect

An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit. Noise dosimetry sampling was performed on a random basis and was representative of the different work activities within the four shops. Twenty three percent of the noise samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 85 decibels for an 8-hour time-weightedaverage. Work activities where noise levels were higher included use of impact wrenches and grinding wheels.

Sweeney, Lynn C.

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

108

Structure-Based Mechanistic Insights into DNMT1-Mediated Maintenance DNA Methylation  

SciTech Connect

DNMT1, the major maintenance DNA methyltransferase in animals, helps to regulate gene expression, genome imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. We report on the crystal structure of a productive covalent mouse DNMT1(731-1602)-DNA complex containing a central hemimethylated CpG site. The methyl group of methylcytosine is positioned within a shallow hydrophobic concave surface, whereas the cytosine on the target strand is looped out and covalently anchored within the catalytic pocket. The DNA is distorted at the hemimethylated CpG step, with side chains from catalytic and recognition loops inserting through both grooves to fill an intercalation-type cavity associated with a dual base flip-out on partner strands. Structural and biochemical data establish how a combination of active and autoinhibitory mechanisms ensures the high fidelity of DNMT1-mediated maintenance DNA methylation.

Song, Jikui; Teplova, Marianna; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC)

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

Filby, Evan E. (Rigby, ID)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

CORRELATION OF DNA METHYLATION WITH MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN MARINE ORGANISMS: A CASE STUDY OF NOAA MUSSEL WATCH TISSUE SAMPLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) obtained from the NOAA Mussel Watch program were screened for DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic response to stressors. Oysters were collected from sites in the Gulf of Mexico having high mercury contamination (measured by NOAA) and from sites with little to no measurable mercury. Assessment of anthropogenic stressors such as mercury in the coastal environment has traditionally relied upon species diversity indices or assays to determine lethal doses. However, these indices fail to examine sub-lethal impacts such as gene expression. A ‘global’ DNA methylation kit, recently introduced by Sigma-Aldrich, was used to spectrophotometrically compare the degree of methylation in DNA extracted from contaminated oysters and non-contaminated oysters. DNA methylation was higher in oysters from pristine sites than in oysters from contaminated sites.

Brinkmeyer, Robin; Taylor, Robert; Germ, Kaylyn E.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

112

Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of methyl chloride using a 3-D global chemical transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) [CH subscript 3 Cl] is a chlorine-containing trace gas in the atmosphere contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion. Large uncertainties in estimates of its source and sink magnitudes ...

Xiao, Xue

113

Methylation status and transcriptional expression of the MHC class I loci in human trophoblast cells from term placenta  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Of the various molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be used by human trophoblast cells to down-regulate expression of HLA class I genes, we chose to investigate the methylation of DNA, generally associated with inhibition of transcription. We analyzed the methylation status of different HLA class I loci in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and in vitro-differentiated syncytiotrophoblast, purified from human term placenta, as well as in the human trophoblast-derived JAR and JEG-3 cell lines. We then compared methylation status and transcriptional activity. An inverse relationship was established between JAR and JEG-3: HLA-A, -B, and -G are methylated and repressed in JAR, whereas in JEG-3, HLA-A is methylated and repressed but HLA-B and -G are partially methylated and transcribed. HLA-E is unmethylated and transcribed in both cell lines. Apart from HLA-E, which is always unmethylated and transcribed, no such relationship exists for the other class I loci in trophoblast cells. Whereas nonclassical HLA-G and classical HLA-A and -B class I genes are undermethylated in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, they are clearly transcribed in the former but minimally transcribed in the latter subpopulation. Thus, the down-regulation of class I gene expression in the in vitro-differentiated synctiotrophoblast is unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation. Furthermore, there is no detectable expression of any class I molecule at the cell surface of either trophoblast cell subpopulation, suggesting a negative control on translation and/or on the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. 50 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Guillaudeux, T.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Girr, M. [University Hospital Center Purpan, Toulouse (France)] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Autoignition measurements and a validated kinetic model for the biodiesel surrogate, methyl butanoate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The autoignition of methyl butanoate has been studied at 1 and 4 atm in a shock tube over the temperature range 1250-1760 K at equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 at fuel concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. These measurements are complemented by autoignition data from a rapid compression machine over the temperature range 640-949 K at compressed gas pressures of 10, 20, and 40 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.33 using fuel concentrations of 1.59 and 3.13%. The autoignition of methyl butanoate is observed to follow Arrhenius-like temperature dependence over all conditions studied. These data, together with speciation data reported in the literature in a flow reactor, a jet-stirred reactor, and an opposed-flow diffusion flame, were used to produce a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio, fuel fraction, and pressure for shock tube ignition delays. The agreement with rapid compression machine ignition delays is less accurate, although the qualitative agreement is reasonable. The model reproduces most speciation data with good accuracy. In addition, the important reaction pathways over each regime have been elucidated by both sensitivity and flux analyses. (author)

Dooley, S.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

Moens, L.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

117

Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH).sub.2 is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH).sub.2 is added in an excess amount needed.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments and Identification of Potential Mercury Methylators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at five contaminated sites and one control site near Oak Ridge, TN in order to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over three quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16s rRNA pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85 % of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria by the RDP classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated significant positive correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl mercury concentrations in the contaminated sites. On the contrary, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in the sediments of the site, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known metal reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species.

Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

INNOVATIVE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR THE PARALLEL OPERATION OF MULTIPLE BENCH SCALE BIOTRICKLING FILTERS FOR WASTE AIR TREATMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBKI vapors in air during passage through compost-based biofilters served an equivolume mixture of compost and polystyrene spheres. Acid-neutralizing components (probably limestone) were

120

Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer for the in situ measurement of methyl hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for measuring gas-phase methyl hydrogen peroxide [(MHP) CH{sub 3}OOH] utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Tandem mass spectrometry is used to avoid mass interferences that hindered previous attempts to measure atmospheric CH{sub 3}OOH with CF{sub 3}O{sup -} clustering chemistry. CH{sub 3}OOH has been successfully measured in situ using this technique during both airborne and ground-based campaigns. The accuracy and precision for the MHP measurement are a function of water vapor mixing ratio. Typical precision at 500 pptv MHP and 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is {+-}80 pptv (2 sigma) for a 1 s integration period. The accuracy at 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is estimated to be better than {+-}40%. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry shows considerable promise for the determination of in situ atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios where isobaric compounds or mass interferences impede accurate measurements.

St Clair, Jason M.; McCabe, David C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Crounse, John D. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Steiner, Urs [Varian, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95051 (United States); Wennberg, Paul O. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Generation kinetics of color centers in irradiated poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)  

SciTech Connect

The transient absorbance of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) irradiated with gamma rays at elevated temperatures has been investigated. The absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range increases with gamma ray dose. A bathochromic shift in transmission spectra emerges significantly upon irradiation. A first-order generation model is proposed to analyze the kinetics of color centers during annealing. The activation energy of the color center increases with increasing gamma ray dose. The equilibrium behavior of color centers in PMP is similar to that of vacancies in metals, and the formation energy of color centers in PMP decreases with increasing gamma ray dose. However, annealable color centers are not observed in this study.

Peng, J. S.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chou, K. F. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

126

Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film  

SciTech Connect

The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

Xia Minggang [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Center on Experimental Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Methyl quantum tunneling and nitrogen-14 NQR NMR studies using a SQUID magnetic resonance spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques have been very successful in obtaining molecular conformation and dynamics information. Unfortunately, standard NMR and NQR spectrometers are unable to adequately detect resonances below a few megahertz due to the frequency dependent sensitivity of their Faraday coil detectors. For this reason a new spectrometer with a dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) detector, which has no such frequency dependence, has been developed. Previously, this spectrometer was used to observe {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al NQR resonances. The scope of this study was increased to include {sup 23}Na, {sup 51}V, and {sup 55}Mn NQR transitions. Also, a technique was presented to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances through cross relaxation of the nitrogen polarization to adjacent proton spins. When the proton Zeeman splitting matches one nitrogen quadrupoler transition the remaining two {sup 14}N transitions can be detected by sweeping a saturating rf field through resonance. Additionally, simultaneous excitation of two nitrogen resonances provides signal enhancement which helps to connect transitions from the same site. In this way, nitrogen-14 resonances were observed in several amino acids and polypeptides. This spectrometer has also been useful in the direct detection of methyl quantum tunneling splittings at 4.2 K. Tunneling, frequencies of a homologous series of carboxylic acids were measured and for solids with equivalent crystal structures, an exponential correlation between the tunneling frequency and the enthalpy of fusion is observed. This correlation provides information about the contribution of intermolecular interactions to the energy barrier for methyl rotation.

Black, B.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Structural basis of SETD6-mediated regulation of the NF-kB network via methyl-lysine signaling  

SciTech Connect

SET domain containing 6 (SETD6) monomethylates the RelA subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The ankyrin repeats of G9a-like protein (GLP) recognizes RelA monomethylated at Lys310. Adjacent to Lys310 is Ser311, a known phosphorylation site of RelA. Ser311 phosphorylation inhibits Lys310 methylation by SETD6 as well as binding of Lys310me1 by GLP. The structure of SETD6 in complex with RelA peptide containing the methylation site, in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, reveals a V-like protein structure and suggests a model for NF-{kappa}B binding to SETD6. In addition, structural modeling of the GLP ankyrin repeats bound to Lys310me1 peptide provides insight into the molecular basis for inhibition of Lys310me1 binding by Ser311 phosphorylation. Together, these findings provide a structural explanation for a key cellular signaling pathway centered on RelA Lys310 methylation, which is generated by SETD6 and recognized by GLP, and incorporate a methylation-phosphorylation switch of adjacent lysine and serine residues. Finally, SETD6 is structurally similar to the Rubisco large subunit methyltransferase. Given the restriction of Rubisco to plant species, this particular appearance of the protein lysine methyltransferase has been evolutionarily well conserved.

Chang, Yanqi; Levy, Dan; Horton, John R.; Peng, Junmin; Zhang, Xing; Gozani, Or; Cheng, Xiaodong (Emory-MED); (Stanford)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

129

[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report details of the coordination environment about Cu(II) in a pure ionic liquid, 1- ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) and in mixtures containing varying amounts of water from 0-100% of the [EMIM]Cl. There are many stages in the ion pairing of the divalent cation, Cu(II) including the contact ion pairing of Cu2+ with multiple Cl- to form various CuCln (2-n) polyanions. Thereis also the subsequent solvation and ion pairing of the polychlorometallate anion with the EMIM+ cation. Using a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations (TDDFT) we are able to follow the detailed structural changes about Cu(II). Ion pair formation is strongly promoted in [EMIM]Cl by the low dielectric constant and by the extensive breakdown of the water hydrogen bond network in [EMIM]Cl/water mixtures. In the [EMIM]Cl solvent the CuCl4 2- species dominates and it’s geometry is quite similar to gas-phase structure. These results are important in understanding catalysis and separation processes involving transition metals in ionic liquid systems.

Li, Guosheng; Camaioni, Donald M.; Amonette, James E.; Zhang, Z. Conrad; Johnson, Timothy J.; Fulton, John L.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

133

Laboratory and tentative interstellar detection of trans-methyl formate using the publicly available Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rotational spectrum of the higher-energy trans conformational isomer of methyl formate has been assigned for the first time using several pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometers in the 6-60 GHz frequency range. This species has also been sought toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. We detect seven absorption features in the survey that coincide with laboratory transitions of trans-methyl formate, from which we derive a column density of 3.1 (+2.6, -1.2) \\times 10^13 cm-2 and a rotational temperature of 7.6 \\pm 1.5 K. This excitation temperature is significantly lower than that of the more stable cis conformer in the same source but is consistent with that of other complex molecular species recently detected in Sgr B2(N). The difference in the rotational temperatures of the two conformers suggests that they have different spatial distributions in this source. As the abundance of trans-methyl formate is far higher ...

Neill, Justin L; Zaleski, Daniel P; Steber, Amanda L; Pate, Brooks H; Lattanzi, Valerio; Spezzano, Silvia; McCarthy, Michael C; Remijan, Anthony J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Association Behavior of Poly(methacrylic acid)-block-Poly(methyl methacrylate) in Aqueous Medium: Potentiometric and Laser Light Scattering Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) technique was used to synthesize poly(methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MAA???-b-MMA??)) copolymer in order to study the aggregation behavior in aqueous solution ...

Palaniswamy, R.

135

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application-Ch 6Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent Adduct Chemical Ionization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application-Ch 6 Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent Adduct Chemical Ionization Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Book

136

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 6 Structural Characterization of CLA Methyl Esters with Acetonitrile Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 6 Structural Characterization of CLA Methyl Esters with Acetonitrile Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition

137

Photochemistry of Methyl Bromide on the ?-Cr2O3(0001) Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photochemical properties of the Cr-terminated ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface were explored using methyl bromide (CH3Br) as a probe molecule. CH3Br adsorbed and desorbed molecularly from the Cr-terminated ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface without detectable thermal decomposition. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) revealed a CH3Br desorption state at 240 K for coverages up to 0.5 ML, followed by more weakly bound molecules desorbing at 175 K for coverages up to 1 ML. Multilayer exposures led to desorption at ~130 K. The CH3Br sticking coefficient was unity at 105 K for coverages up to monolayer saturation, but decreased as the multilayer formed. In contrast, pre-oxidation of the surface (using an oxygen plasma source) led to capping of surface Cr3+ sites and near complete removal of CH3Br TPD states above 150 K. The photochemistry of chemisorbed CH3Br was explored on the Cr-terminated surface using post-irradiation TPD and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). Irradiation of adsorbed CH3Br with broad band light from a Hg arc lamp resulted in both photodesorption and photodecomposition of the parent molecule at a combined cross section of ~10-22 cm2. Parent PSD was indicative of molecular photodesorption, but CH3 was also detected in PSD and Br atoms were left on the surface, both reflective of photo-induced CH3-Br bond dissociation. Use of a 385 nm cut-off filter effectively shut down the photodissociation pathway but not the parent molecule photodesorption process. From these observations it is inferred that d-to-d transitions in ?-Cr2O3, occurring at photon energies <3 eV, are not responsible for photodecomposition of 2 adsorbed CH3Br. It is unclear to what extent band-to-band versus direct CH3Br photolysis play in CH3-Br bond dissociation initiated by more energetic photons.

Henderson, Michael A.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Microhydration Effects on the Intermediates of the SN2 Reacation of Iodide Anion with Methyl Iodine  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of halide anions with methyl halides (X- + CH3Y ? XCH3 + Y-) are bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions that have been well investigated in the last few decades.[1] Figure 1 shows typical potential energy surfaces (PESs) proposed for symmetric (X- + CH3X ? XCH3 + X-) SN2 reactions along the reaction coordinate. In the gas phase, the PES has two minima corresponding to the stable X-(CH3X) complexes.[2] The PES is substantially distorted by the solvation. Since the negative charge is delocalized over the [X•••CH3•••X]- moiety at the transition state the stabilization energy gained by the solvation is smaller for the transition state than that for the (X- + CH3X) reactants or the X- (CH3X) complexes. In solution, a large potential barrier exists between the reactants and products. The rate constants of these reactions in protic solvents were reported to be a few orders of magnitude smaller than those in aprotic solvents; this trend was explained by the formation of solvation shells of protic molecules around the halide anions.[1,3] Morokuma has previously reported a theoretical study on the PES of the (Cl- + CH3Cl ? ClCH3 + Cl-) SN2 reaction with a few H2O molecules. The attachment of H2O molecules to the Cl-(CH3Cl) reactive system produces metastable isomers, which affect the reaction mechanism.[4] Johnson and coworkers extensively investigated the structure and reactions of halide anion complexes in the gas phase using photodissociation spectroscopy.

Doi, Keisuke; Togano, Eijiro; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki; Inokuchi, Yoshiya

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Photodissociation of methyl iodide adsorbed on low-temperature amorphous ice surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Photodissociation dynamics of methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) adsorbed on both amorphous solid water (ASW) and porous amorphous solid water (PASW) has been investigated. The ejected ground-state I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and excited-state I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) photofragments produced by 260- and 290-nm photons were detected using laser resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. In contrast to gas-phase photodissociation, (i) the I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) photofragment is favored compared to I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) at both wavelengths, (ii) I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) have velocity distributions that depend upon ice morphology, and (iii) I{sub 2} is produced on ASW. The total iodine [I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2})+I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})+I{sub 2}] yield varies with substrate morphology, with greater yield from ASW than PASW using both 260- and 290-nm photons. Temperature-programmed desorption studies demonstrate that ice porosity enhances the trapping of adsorbed CH{sub 3}I, while pore-free ice likely allows monomer adsorption and the formation of two-dimensional CH{sub 3}I clusters. Reactions or collisions involving these clusters, I atomic fragments, or I-containing molecular fragments at the vacuum-surface interface can result in I{sub 2} formation.

DeSimone, Alice J.; Olanrewaju, Babajide O.; Grieves, Gregory A. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); Orlando, Thomas M. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States)

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

2009-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Weak maser emission of methyl formate toward Sagittarius B2(N) in the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A non-LTE radiative transfer treatment of cis-methyl formate (HCOOCH3) rotational lines is presented for the first time using a set of theoretical collisional rate coefficients. These coefficients have been computed in the temperature range 5-30 K by combining coupled-channel scattering calculations with a high accuracy potential energy surface for HCOOCH3-He. The results are compared to observations toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. A total of 49 low-lying transitions of methyl formate, with upper levels below 25 K, are identified. These lines are found to probe a presumably cold (~30 K), moderately dense (~1e4 cm-3) and extended region surrounding Sgr B2(N). The derived column density of ~4e14 cm-2 is only a factor of ~10 larger than the column density of the trans conformer in the same source. Provided that the two conformers have the same spatial distribution, this result suggests that strongly non-equilibrium processes m...

Faure, Alexandre; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Wiesenfeld, Laurent

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

Moens, L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

145

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER STUDIES OF OZONE IMPACTS OF COATINGS VOCs Final Report to the California Air Resources Board Contract No. 07-339 By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An environmental chamber and modeling study was conducted to reduce uncertainties in atmospheric ozone impacts for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from coatings. Some coatings VOCs (Texanol ® and low-aromatic petroleum distillates) have near-zero or negative incremental ozone reactivities in chamber experiments, but calculations show positive ozone impacts in the atmosphere. Modeling indicated that experiments with increased light intensity and added H2O2 should give reactivities that better correlate with those in the atmosphere. After upgrading our chamber’s light source, experiments to test the new method performed as expected, and gave good correlations between experimental and atmospheric MIR values for the VOCs tested. These experiments also appear to be more sensitive to effects of VOCs on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation than previous experiments. Such experiments should be included in future environmental chamber reactivity studies, though other types of experiments are also needed for adequate mechanism evaluation. Experiments were also conducted to assess ozone impacts of ethyl methyl ketone oxime (EMKO), and soy ester solvents. The EMKO results indicated it has both radical sinks and NOx sources in its mechanism, and has no measurable impact on SOA formation. The EMKO mechanism that simulated the data gave a negative MIR of-1.27 gm O3 /gm VOC, but positive MOIR and EBIR values of

William P. L. Carter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine whether a “size effect” phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm to 2 ?m. This was done by using a non-contact, non-invasive, in-situ Transient Thermo-Reflectance (TTR) laser based technique. The results demonstrated that the intrinsic thermal conductivity of a 40 nm PMMA film deposited on native oxide of silicon increases by a factor of three over bulk PMMA values, and a distinct increase in the thermal conductivity of PMMA film was observed in ultra-thin (sub 100 nm) films. This confirmed the importance of film thickness for the through-plane thermal conductivity value of PMMA film on native oxide of silicon.

Kim, Ick Chan

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Copper(II) bis [2-((E)-2-(pyrid-2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenolate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new complex CuL{sub 2} [HL = 2-((E)-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenol] was synthesized, and its structure (C{sub 28}H{sub 22}Br{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}CuN{sub 4}O{sub 2}, Mr = 740.76) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal belongs to the triclinic system, space group P1{sup -}, with a = 5.157(6), b = 12.090(1), c =12.310(1) A, {alpha} = 113.962(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 96.7910(10) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 90.0300(10) Degree-Sign , V = 695.4(8) A{sup 3}, Z = 1, R = 0.0481. The complex molecules are linked via the weak C-H...N hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of one dimension (1D) chains along the a axis.

Zhang, X. L., E-mail: zhangxinli6008@163.com [Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

(E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol: X-ray and DFT-calculated structures  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol is determined by using X-ray diffraction and then the molecular structure is investigated with density functional theory (DFT). X-Ray study shows that the title compound has a strong intramolecular O-H-N hydrogen bond and three dimensional crystal structure is primarily determined by C-H-{pi} and weak van der Waals interactions. The strong O-H-N bond is an evidence of the preference for the phenol-imine tautomeric form in the solid state. Optimized molecular geometry is calculated with DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The IR spectra of compound were recorded experimentally and calculated to compare with each other. The results from both experiment and theoretical calculations are compared in this study.

Kosar, B., E-mail: bkosar@omu.edu.tr; Albayrak, C. [Sinop University, Faculty of Education (Turkey); Odabasoglu, M. [Pamukkale University, Chemistry Program (Turkey); Bueyuekguengoer, O. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

In situ synthesis of poly (methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites via "Grafting Onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 (PMMA/SiO2) hybrid composites were prepared via "grafting onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution. Two steps were used to graft polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ...

Hong Zhang; Chao Li; Jinshan Guo; Limin Zang; Jiahe Luo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa-body decomposition of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene J. Chem. Phys. 136, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlara) Department of Chemistry

Truhlar, Donald G

154

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

155

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensed Toxicity Summary for METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE Condensed Toxicity Summary for METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. July 1995 Prepared by Rosmarie A. Faust, Ph.D., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Program, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health Sciences Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for OAK RIDGE RESERVATION ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PROGRAM. *Managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) (CAS Reg. No. 108-10-1), a clear liquid with

156

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

157

Structural and chemical properties of the nitrogen-rich energetic material triaminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate under pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The structural and chemical properties of the bi-molecular, hydrogen-bonded, nitrogen-rich energetic material triaminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate C{sub 3}H{sub 12}N{sub 12}O{sub 2} (TAG-MNT) have been investigated at room pressure and under high pressure isothermal compression using powder x-ray diffraction and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. A stiffening of the equation of state and concomitant structural relaxation between 6 and 14 GPa are found to correlate with Raman mode disappearances, frequency discontinuities, and changes in the pressure dependence of modes. These observations manifest the occurrence of a reversible martensitic structural transformation to a new crystalline phase. The onset and vanishing of Fermi resonance in the nitrimine group correlate with the stiffening of the equation of state and phase transition, suggesting a possible connection between these phenomena. Beyond 15 GPa, pressure induces irreversible chemical reactions, culminating in the formation of a polymeric phase by 60 GPa.

McWilliams, R. Stewart; Kadry, Yasmin; Mahmood, Mohammad F.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Ciezak-Jenkins, Jennifer (Howard); (CIW); (USARL)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

158

Dose-response analysis of infants prenatally exposed to methyl mercury: An application of a single compartment model to single-strand hair analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of estimating fetal exposure is used in a dose-response analysis of data from the 1971 outbreak of methyl mercury poisoning in rural Iraq. An X-ray fluorescence instrument for the measurement of single strands of human hair was employed to obtain longitudinal profiles recapitulating fetal exposure. Logit and hockey-stick models as well as nonparametric smoothing are used to describe data on delayed development and central nervous system abnormality.

Cox, C.; Clarkson, T.W.; Marsh, D.O.; Amin-Zaki, L.; Tikriti, S.; Myers, G.G. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Formation of methyl ester of 2-methylglyceric acid from thymine glycol residues: a convenient new method for determining radiation damage to DNA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thymine glycol residues in DNA or thymidine were converted to methyl 2-methylglycerate by reaction with alkaline borohydride followed by methanolic HCl. The product was labeled either from (/sup 3/H)DNA or from (/sup 3/H)borohydride and was followed by cochromatography with authentic /sup 14/C-labeled material. Following acid hydrolysis, the identity of 2-methylglyceric acid was confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry, NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. Treatment of DNA or thymidine with X-irradiation, with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and Fe/sup 2 +/, with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Cu/sup 2 +/, and ascorbate, and with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and ultraviolet light, permanganate, or sonication all produced methyl 2-methylglycerate in varying amounts after alkaline borohydride and methanolic HCl, whereas untreated DNA did not. The data indicate that certain oxidants including hydroxyl radicals generated by chemical means or from radiolysis of water convert thymine residues to thymine glycols in DNA, which can be determined as methyl 2-methylglycerate.

Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

160

Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Acid-base properties, deactivation, and in situ regeneration of condensation catalysts for synthesis of methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect

Condensation reaction of a propionate with formaldehyde is a novel route for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The reaction mechanism involves a proton abstraction from the propionate on the basic sites and activation of the aliphatic aldehyde on the acidic sites of the catalyst. The acid-base properties of ternary V-Si-P oxide catalysts and their relation to the NWA yield in the vapor phase condensation of formaldehyde with propionic anhydride has been studied for the first time. Five different V-Si-P catalysts with different atomic ratios of vanadium, silicon, and phosphorous were synthesized, characterized, and tested in a fixed-bed microreactor system. A V-Si-P 1:10:2.8 catalyst gave the maximum condensation yield of 56% based on HCHO fed at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h. A parameter called the ``q-ratio`` has been defined to correlate the condensation yields to the acid-base properties. The correlation of q-ratio with the condensation yield shows that higher q-ratios are more desirable. The long-term deactivation studies on the V-Si-P 1: 10:2.8 catalyst at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h show that the catalyst activity drops by a factor of nearly 20 over a 180 h period. The activity can be restored to about 78% of the initial activity by a mild oxidative regeneration at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm. The performance of V-Si-P catalyst has been compared to a Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. The Ta- catalyst is more stable and has a higher on-stream catalyst life.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Reseach Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Energy Basics: Biofuels  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The biomass-derived ethyl or methyl esters can be blended with conventional diesel fuel or used as a neat fuel (100% biodiesel). Learn more about biodiesel basics. Biofuel...

163

Method for the Collection and HPLC Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide and Cl and C2 Hydroperoxides in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) method was developed to quantify hydrogen peroxide, methyl hydroperoxide. Hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, ethyl hydroperoxide, and peroxyaectic acid in the atmosphere. Gas-phase hydroperoxides are ...

Meehye Lee; Birgitta C. Noone; Daniel O'sullivan; Brian G. Heikes

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

INSIGHTS INTO SURFACE HYDROGENATION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: OBSERVATIONS OF METHANIMINE AND METHYL AMINE IN Sgr B2(N)  

SciTech Connect

Multiple observations of methanimine (CH{sub 2}NH) and methyl amine (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}) have been performed toward Sgr B2(N) at 1, 2, and 3 mm using the Submillimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory. In the frequency range 68-280 GHz, 23 transitions of CH{sub 2}NH and 170 lines of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} have been observed as individual, distinguishable features, although some are partially blended with other lines. For CH{sub 2}NH, the line profiles indicate V{sub LSR} = 64.2 {+-} 1.4 km s{sup -1} and {Delta}V{sub 1/2} = 13.8 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1}, while V{sub LSR} = 63.7 {+-} 1.6 km s{sup -1} and {Delta}V{sub 1/2} = 15.1 {+-} 3.0 km s{sup -1} for CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, parameters that are very similar to those of other organic species in Sgr B2(N). From these data, rotational diagrams were constructed for both species. In the case of CH{sub 2}NH, a rotational temperature of T{sub rot} = 44 {+-} 13 K and a column density of N{sub tot} = (9.1 {+-} 4.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} were determined from the analysis. For CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, T{sub rot} = 159 {+-} 30 K and N{sub tot} = (5.0 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, indicating that this species is present in much warmer gas than CH{sub 2}NH. The fractional abundances for CH{sub 2}NH and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} were established to be f (H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} and f (H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, respectively. It has been proposed that CH{sub 2}NH is formed on grains via hydrogenation of HCN; further hydrogenation of CH{sub 2}NH on surfaces leads to CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}. However, given the dissimilarity between the rotational temperatures and distributions of CH{sub 2}NH and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} in Sgr B2, it is improbable that these species are closely related synthetically, at least in this source. Both CH{sub 2}NH and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} are more likely created by neutral-neutral processes in the gas phase.

Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ilyushin, V. V., E-mail: halfendt@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: lziurys@as.arizona.edu [Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences Ukraine, Chervonopraporna 4, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Discovery of 5-[[4-[(2,3-Dimethyl-2H-indazol-6-yl)methylamino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-2-methyl-benzenesulfonamide (Pazopanib), a Novel and Potent Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway has emerged as one of the most promising new approaches for cancer therapy. We describe herein the key steps starting from an initial screening hit leading to the discovery of pazopanib, N{sup 4}-(2,3-dimethyl-2H-indazol-6-yl)-N{sup 4}-methyl-N{sup 2}-(4-methyl-3-sulfonamidophenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, a potent pan-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor under clinical development for renal-cell cancer and other solid tumors.

Harris, Philip A.; Boloor, Amogh; Cheung, Mui; Kumar, Rakesh; Crosby, Renae M.; Davis-Ward, Ronda G.; Epperly, Andrea H.; Hinkle, Kevin W.; Hunter, III, Robert N.; Johnson, Jennifer H.; Knick, Victoria B.; Laudeman, Christopher P.; Luttrell, Deirdre K.; Mook, Robert A.; Nolte, Robert T.; Rudolph, Sharon K.; Szewczyk, Jerzy R.; Truesdale, Anne T.; Veal, James M.; Wang, Liping; Stafford, Jeffrey A. (GSKNC)

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

166

URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium from an aqueous solution containing a water soluble uranyl salt is described. The process involves adding an alkali thiocyanate to the aqueous solution, contacting the resulting solution with methyl isobutyl ketons and separating the resulting aqueous and organic phase. The uranium is extracted in the organic phase as UO/sub 2/(SCN)/sub/.

McVey, W.H.; Reas, W.H.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

The Influence of the Linker Geometry in Bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one) Ligands on Solution-Phase Uranyl Affinity  

SciTech Connect

Seven water-soluble, tetradentate bis(3-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyridin-2-one) (bis-Me-3,2-HOPO) ligands were synthesized that vary only in linker geometry and rigidity. Solution phase thermodynamic measurements were conducted between pH 1.6 and pH 9.0 to determine the effects of these variations on proton and uranyl cation affinity. Proton affinity decreases by introduction of the solubilizing triethylene glycol group as compared to un-substituted reference ligands. Uranyl affinity was found to follow no discernable trends with incremental geometric modification. The butyl-linked 4Li-Me-3,2-HOPO ligand exhibited the highest uranyl affinity, consistent with prior in vivo decorporation results. Of the rigidly-linked ligands, the o-phenylene linker imparted the best uranyl affinity to the bis-Me-3,2-HOPO ligand platform.

Szigethy, Geza; Raymond, Kenneth

2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

Mathematical simulation and X-ray diffraction investigation of the crystal structure of 1-phenyl-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm for using a priori generation of crystal structures by the discrete modeling method for the interpretation of data obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments is considered. The crystal structure of 1-phenyl-1-tert-butyl-3-methyl-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran is mathematically simulated using the discrete modeling of molecular packings and studied by X-ray diffraction. The simulation is performed for two isomers of the initial chemical compound that are possible from the viewpoint of the mechanism of the chemical reaction used in the synthesis of this compound. Appropriate models that can serve as starting models for solving and refining the crystal structure with the use of X-ray diffraction data are chosen from a complete set of calculated structural models in accordance with specific criteria. The structure is solved using a starting model calculated using the discrete modeling method and refined by the full-matrix least-squares procedure.

Maleev, A. V., E-mail: andr_mal@mail.ru; Zhitkov, I. K.; Potekhin, K. A. [Vladimir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death  

SciTech Connect

Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC{sub 50} (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC{sub 50} (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 {mu}M and 0.4 {mu}M, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 {mu}M) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

Hemendinger, Richelle A., E-mail: richelle.hemendinger@carolinashealthcare.org; Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Integrating Chemical Hazard Assessment into the Design of Inherently Safer Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive hazard associated with chemicals is a major safety issue in process industries. This kind of hazard has caused the occurrence of many accidents, leading to fatalities, injuries, property damage and environment pollution. Reactive hazards can be eliminated or minimized by applying Inherently Safer Design (ISD) principles such as "substitute" or "moderate" strategies. However, ISD would not be a feasible option for industry without an efficient methodology for chemical hazard assessment, which provides the technical basis for applying ISD during process design. In this research, a systematic chemical hazard assessment methodology was developed for assisting the implementation of ISD in the design of inherently safer process. This methodology incorporates the selection of safer chemicals and determination of safer process conditions, which correspond to "substitute" and "moderate" strategies in ISD. The application of this methodology in conjunction with ISD technique can effectively save the time and investment spent on the process design. As part of selecting safer chemicals, prediction models were developed for predicting hazardous properties of reactive chemicals. Also, a hazard index was adopted to rate chemicals according to reactive hazards. By combining the prediction models with the hazard index, this research can provide important information on how to select safer chemicals for the processes, which makes the process chemistry inherently safer. As part of determining safer process conditions, the incompatibility of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKPO) with iron oxide was investigated. It was found that iron oxide at low levels has no impact on the reactive hazards of MEKPO as well as the operational safety. However, when iron oxide is beyond 0.3 wt%, it starts to change the kinetics of MEKPO runaway reaction and even the reaction mechanism. As a result, with the presence of a certain level of iron oxide (> 0.3 wt%), iron oxide can intensify the reactive hazards of MEKPO and impose higher risk to process operations. The investigation results can help to determine appropriate materials for fabricating process equipment and safer process conditions.

Lu, Yuan

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a plantation about 15-year-old in the Les Cedres area, near Montreal (45820H N, 73854H W). Trees in open

Bandettini, Peter A.

172

Comparative aromatic hydroxylation and N-demethylation of MPTP neurotoxin and its analogs, N-methylated {beta}-carboline and isoquinoline alkaloids, by human cytochrome P450 2D6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin is a chemical inducer of Parkinson's disease (PD) whereas N-methylated {beta}-carbolines and isoquinolines are naturally occurring analogues of MPTP involved in PD. This research has studied the oxidation of MPTP by human CYP2D6 (CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 allelic variants) as well as by a mixture of cytochrome P450s-resembling HLM, and the products generated compared with those afforded by human monoamine oxidase (MAO-B). MPTP was efficiently oxidized by CYP2D6 to two main products: MPTP-OH (p-hydroxylation) and PTP (N-demethylation), with turnover numbers of 10.09 min{sup -1} and K {sub m} of 79.36 {+-} 3 {mu}M (formation of MPTP-OH) and 18.95 min{sup -1} and K {sub m} 69.6 {+-} 2.2 {mu}M (PTP). Small amounts of dehydrogenated toxins MPDP{sup +} and MPP{sup +} were also detected. CYP2D6 competed with MAO-B for the oxidation of MPTP. MPTP oxidation by MAO-B to MPDP{sup +} and MPP{sup +} toxins (bioactivation) was up to 3-fold higher than CYP2D6 detoxification to PTP and MPTP-OH. Several N-methylated {beta}-carbolines and isoquinolines were screened for N-demethylation (detoxification) that was not significantly catalyzed by CYP2D6 or the P450s mixture. In contrast, various {beta}-carbolines were efficiently hydroxylated to hydroxy-{beta}-carbolines by CYP2D6. Thus, N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-{beta}-carboline (a close MPTP analog) was highly hydroxylated to 6-hydroxy-N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-{beta}-carboline and a corresponding 7-hydroxy-derivative. Thus, CYP2D6 could participate in the bioactivation and/or detoxification of these neuroactive compounds by an active hydroxylation pathway. The CYP2D6*1 enzymatic variant exhibited much higher metabolism of both MPTP and N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-{beta}-carboline than the CYP2D6*10 variant, highlighting the importance of CYP2D6 polymorphism in the oxidation of these toxins. Altogether, these results suggest that CYP2D6 can play an important role in the metabolic outcome of both MPTP and {beta}-carbolines.

Herraiz, Tomas [Spanish Council for Scientific Research. CSIC. Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: therraiz@ifi.csic.es; Guillen, Hugo [Spanish Council for Scientific Research. CSIC. Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Aran, Vicente J. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research. CSIC. Instituto de Quimica Medica. Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006. Madrid (Spain); Idle, Jeffrey R. [Institute of Pharmacology, 1st Faculty of Medicine Charles University. Albertov 4, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Gonzalez, Frank J. [Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Investigation into the Nazarov Cyclization of Aryl Dienyl Ketones and Synthetic Studies Toward Tetrapetalone A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pH were obtained by Color pHast® Indi- cator Strips pH = 0 –pH were obtained by Color pHast ® Indicator Strips pH = 0 –pH were obtained by Color pHast® Indicator Strips pH = 0 –

Marcus, Andrew Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Lithium Enolates of Simple Ketones: Structure Determination Using the Method of Continuous Variation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chem. 1985, 30, 586. (h) Ball, S. C.; Cragg-Hine, I.; Davidson, M. G.; Davies, R. P.; Lopez-Solera, M

Collum, David B.

175

Pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the dopamine receptor agonist 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-di-n-propylaminotetralin (DK-118) in the cat  

SciTech Connect

The dopamine receptor agonist 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-di-n-propylaminotetralin (DK-118) lowers blood pressure, heart rat and inhibits tachycardia induced in cats by electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves innervating the heart. DK-118, unlike most of its chemically related dopaminergic analogs, exhibits a slow onset of activity suggesting that one or more metabolites of the drug may be responsible for its pharmacologic effects. The purpose of the work described in this thesis was to gain information regarding the possible bioactivation of DK-118 in cats. In one series of experiments, cats were pretreated with inhibitors of drug metabolism, metyrapone or SKF 525-A, and alterations of the pharmacologic effects of DK-118 determined. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay-using electrochemical detection was developed to quantify urine and plasma concentrations of DK-118 in control, metyrapone pretreated and SKF 525-A pretreated cats. Urinary metabolites of (/sup 14/C)DK-118 were identified employing HPLC, GC/MS and FAB/MS. Pharmacologic activity and receptor binding of selected metabolites were determined. Data presented in this thesis are consistent with the hypothesis that metabolites contribute to some of the pharmacologic effects of DK-118.

Koons, J.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Synthesis and Coordination Properties of Trifluoromethyl Decorated Derivatives of 2,6-Bis[(diphenylphosphinoyl)methyl]pyridine N-Oxide Ligands with Lanthanide Ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phosphinoyl Grignard-based substitutions on 2,6-bis(chloromethyl)pyridine followed by N-oxidation of the intermediate 2,6-bis(phosphinoyl)methyl pyridine compounds with mCPBA give the target trifunctional ligands 2,6-bis[bis-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2a) and 2,6-bis[bis-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2b) in high yields. The ligands have been spectroscopically characterized, the molecular structures confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods and the coordination chemistry surveyed with lanthanide nitrates. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses are described for the coordination complexes Nd(2a)(NO3)3, Nd(2a)(NO3)3 (CH3CN)0.5, Eu(2a)(NO3)3 and Nd(2b)(NO3)3 (H2O)1.25; in each case the ligand binds in a tridentate mode to the Ln(III) cation. These structures are compared with the structures found for lanthanide coordination complexes of the parent NOPOPO ligand, [Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3NO.

Pailloux, Sylvie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Shirima, Cornel Edicome [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Ray, Alicia D. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Duesler, Eileen N. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Paine, Robert T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Klaehn, John D. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); McIlwain, Michael E [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Bioreactor Landfill Research and Demonstration Project Northern Oaks Landfill, Harrison, MI  

SciTech Connect

A bioreactor landfill cell with 1.2-acre footprint was constructed, filled, operated, and monitored at Northern Oaks Recycling and Disposal Facility (NORDF) at Harrison, MI. With a filled volume of 74,239 cubic yards, the cell contained approximately 35,317 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 20,777 tons of cover soil. It was laid on the slope of an existing cell but separated by a geosynthetic membrane liner. After the cell reached a design height of 60 feet, it was covered with a geosynthetic membrane cap. A three-dimensional monitoring system to collect data at 48 different locations was designed and installed during the construction phase of the bioreactor cell. Each location had a cluster of monitoring devices consisting of a probe to monitor moisture and temperature, a leachate collection basin, and a gas sampling port. An increase in moisture content of the MSW in the bioreactor cell was achieved by pumping leachate collected on-site from various other cells, as well as recirculation of leachate from the bioreactor landfill cell itself. Three types of leachate injection systems were evaluated in this bioreactor cell for their efficacy to distribute pumped leachate uniformly: a leachate injection pipe buried in a 6-ft wide horizontal stone mound, a 15-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer, and a 60-ft wide geocomposite drainage layer. All leachate injection systems were installed on top of the compacted waste surface. The distribution of water and resulting MSW moisture content throughout the bioreactor cell was found to be similar for the three designs. Water coming into and leaving the cell (leachate pumped in, precipitation, snow, evaporation, and collected leachate) was monitored in order to carry out a water balance. Using a leachate injection rate of 26 – 30 gal/yard3, the average moisture content increased from 25% to 35% (wet based) over the period of this study. One of the key aspects of this bioreactor landfill study was to evaluate bioreactor start up and performance in locations with colder climate. For lifts filled during the summer months, methane generation started within three months after completion of the lift. For lifts filled in winter months, very little methane production occurred even eight months after filling. The temperature data indicated that subzero or slightly above zero (oC) temperatures persisted for unusually long periods (more than six months) in the lifts filled during winter months. This was likely due to the high thermal insulation capability of the MSW and the low level of biological activity during start up. This observation indicates that bioreactor landfills located in cold climate and filled during winter months may require mechanisms to increase temperature and initiate biodegradation. Thus, besides moisture, temperature may be the next important factor controlling the biological decomposition in anaerobic bioreactor landfills. Spatial and temporal characterization of leachate samples indicated the presence of low levels of commonly used volatile organic compounds (including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and toluene) and metals (including arsenic, chromium, and zinc). Changes and leachate and gaseous sample characteristics correlated with enhanced biological activity and increase in temperature. Continued monitoring of this bioreactor landfill cell is expected to yield critical data needed for start up, design, and operation of this emerging process.

Zhao, Xiando; Voice, Thomas; and Hashsham, Syed A.

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formal Toxicity Summary for METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE Formal Toxicity Summary for METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION 2.1 ABSORPTION 2.2 DISTRIBUTION 2.3 METABOLISM 2.4 EXCRETION 3. NONCARCINOGENIC HEALTH EFFECTS 3.1 ORAL EXPOSURES 3.2 INHALATION EXPOSURES 3.3 OTHER ROUTES OF EXPOSURE 3.4 TARGET ORGANS/CRITICAL EFFECTS 4. CARCINOGENICITY 4.1 ORAL EXPOSURES 4.2 INHALATION EXPOSURES 4.3 OTHER ROUTES OF EXPOSURE 4.4 EPA WEIGHT-OF-EVIDENCE 4.5 CARCINOGENICITY SLOPE FACTORS 5. REFERENCES July 1995 Prepared by Rosmarie A. Faust, Ph.D., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and

179

Single and double stereoselective fluorination of (E)-allylsilanes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solution of ethyl-(E)-2-methyl-3-trimethylsilylhex-4-enoate (2.052g, 9.0mmol) in THF (4.5ml) was added via a syringe. The temperature was gradually raised to -40°C over a period of 2hrs. After which time iodomethane (0.735ml, 11.8mmol, 1.3 eq) was added... was added n-BuLi (2.5M, 2.9ml, 7.2mmol, 1.2eq.), the reaction was allowed to stir for 30 min. The solution was cooled to -78°C and a solution of ethyl-(E)-3-trimethylsilylhex-4-enoate (1.28g, 6.0mmol) in THF (5ml) was added via a syringe. The light yellow...

Sawicki, Marcin; Kwok, Angela; Tredwell, Matthew; Gouverneur, Veronique

2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

180

The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured by current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

Fauzia, Vivi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Identifiable mercury methylation genes and enzymes ...  

be limited or unavailable. Patent applications directed towards this invention may not have been filed with any patent ... Disclosure Number 201202869 ...

183

Inter- and intracellular dynamics of DNA methylation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Spadola, E. Yuan, J. Kosek, L. Jiang, E. Hod, K. Li, V.A. Spadola, E. Yuan, J. Kosek, L. Jiang, E. Hod, K. Li, V.

Shoemaker, Robert Field

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

DNA methylation in early mammalian development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All the cells in the body contain the same genome yet showcase drastically different phenotypes. This is the result of different transcriptional programs, which are partly controlled by epigenetic modifications, including ...

Chan, Michelle M. (Michelle Mei Wah)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate  

passing room air through a series of three high-purity hydro-carbon traps (Restek Inc., Bellefonte, PA, USA). ... Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy

186

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

CASTING SLIPS FOR FABRICATION OF REFRACTORY METAL WARE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition is given for slip casting tungsten metal. The composition consists essentially of tungsten metal with an average particle size of 0.9 micron, an organic vehicle such as methyl chloroform, o-xylene, n-butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, and 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachlorethane, and a suspending agent such as ethyl cellulose, with the approximate ratio of said vehicle to the tungsten metal being 12 cc of a solution containing from 5 to about 20 grams of said ethyl cellulose in 400 cc of said organic vehicle per 100 grams of metal. (AEC)

Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bourne, MA, USA). Carbon dioxide concentration was measuredOrangeburg, NY, USA). Carbon dioxide and ?ow data wereReddy et al. 2009). Carbon dioxide evolution rates (CER)

Singer, S.W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A theoretical analysis of the reaction between ethyl and molecular oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Using a combination of electronic-structure theory, variational transition-state theory, and solutions to the time-dependent master equation, the authors have studied the kinetics of the title reaction theoretically over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The agreement between theory and experiment is quite good. By comparing the theoretical and experimental results describing the kinetic behavior, they have been able to deduce a value for the C{sub 2}H{sub 5}-O{sub 2} bond energy of {approximately}34 kcal/mole and a value for the exit-channel transition-state energy of {minus}4.3 kcal/mole (measured from reactants). These numbers compare favorably with the electronic-structure theory predictions of 33.9 kcal/mole and {minus}3.0 kcal/mole, respectively. The master-equation solutions show three distinct temperature regimes for the reaction, discussed extensively in the paper. Above T {approx} 700 K, the reaction can be written as an elementary step, C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2}, with the rate coefficient, k(T) = 3.19 x 10{sup {minus}17} T{sup 1.02} exp(2035/RT) cm{sup 3}/molec.-sec., independent of pressure even though the intermediate collision complex may suffer a large number of collisions.

James A. Miller; Stephen J. Klippenstein; Stuart H. Robertson

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Oxidation of Four Small Alkyl Esters in Laminar Premixed Flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism has been developed for a group of four small alkyl ester fuels, consisting of methyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate. This mechanism is validated by comparisons between computed results and recently measured intermediate species mole fractions in fuel-rich, low pressure, premixed laminar flames. The model development employs a principle of similarity of functional groups in constraining the H atom abstraction and unimolecular decomposition reactions in each of these fuels. As a result, the reaction mechanism and formalism for mechanism development are suitable for extension to larger oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, together with an improved kinetic understanding of the structure and chemical kinetics of alkyl ester fuels that can be extended to biodiesel fuels. Variations in concentrations of intermediate species levels in these flames are traced to differences in the molecular structure of the fuel molecules.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Westmoreland, P R; Dryer, F L; Chaos, M; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K; Cool, T A; Wang, J; Yang, B; Hansen, N; Kasper, T

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

191

Measuring Total Dissolved Methylmercury: Comparison of a Novel Method With a Standard Method for Extracting and Quantitating Methylmercury in Stream Water Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In most environmental systems, mercury (Hg) occurs in one or more of the following distinct chemical forms: elemental (Hg0), divalent (Hg2+), monomethyl (MMHg), methyl (MeHg), and dimethyl (DMHg). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard method of measuring dissolved MMHg uses distillation to extract MeHg from freshwater samples in preparation for Hg speciation analysis by aqueous ethylation and gas chromatography. Recently, a novel method of Hg ...

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

192

Low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes which comprises intermixing the erythrocytes with an effective anti-sickling amount of a water-soluble imidoester of the formula RC(=NH)OR' wherein R is an alkyl group of 1 - 8 carbon atoms, particularly 1 - 4 carbon atoms, and R' is an alkyl group of 1 - 4 carbon atoms, specifically methyl or ethyl acetimidate.

Packer, Lester (Orinda, CA); Bymun, Edwin N. (Oakland, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Poly(2-oxazolines) in Biological and Biomedical Application Contexts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

theoretically be accessed, as the synthesis of 2-substituted monomers can be conveniently accomplished via condensation of a primary nitrile and 2-aminoethanol.[9, 12] Commercially, however, only 2-methyl, 2-ethyl, 2-isopropyl and 2-phenyl oxazoline... are currently available. Although the use of poly(2-oxazolines) in adhesive and coating formulations,[13-15] as pigment dispersants in inks,[16] and drug delivery applications[17] has been documented, the polymers have not found widespread commercial application...

Adams, Nico; Schubert, Ulrich

2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

194

from Tucum Oil via an Alkaline Route  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A simple, fast, and complete route for the production of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from tucum oil is described. Aliquots of the oil obtained directly from pressed tucum (pulp and almonds) were treated with potassium methoxide or ethoxide at 40 ? Cfor 40 min. The biodiesel form was removed from the reactor and washed with 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution. A simple distillation at 100 ? C was carried out in order to remove water and alcohol species from the biodiesel. The oxidative stability index was obtained for the tucum oil as well as the methylic and ethylic biodiesel at 6.13, 2.90, and 2.80 h, for storage times higher than 8 days. Quality control of the original oil and of the methylic and ethylic biodiesels, such as the amount of glycerin produced during the transesterification process, was accomplished by the TLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate a potential biofuel production by simple treatment of tucum, an important Amazonian fruit. 1.

Characterization Of Methylic; Ethylic Biodiesels; Marcelo Firmino De Oliveira; Andressa Tironi Vieira; Antônio Carlos Ferreira Batista; Hugo De Souza Rodrigues; Nelson Ramos Stradiotto

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

PULSE COLUMN DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

A stagewise approach was used in a theoretical analysis of pulse columns. In the analysis the column was arbitrarily divided into discrete stages comprising that part of the column between two adjacent perforated plates. The operation of the pulse column was described mathematically using material balance equations, and a design method was derived which used two stage lines and two operating lines, one set for the pulse generator upstroke and one set for the downstroke. Assuming equilibrium contact, the effect of recycle in a pulse column was shown to cause a large decrease in the separation obtained as the pulse frequency was increased. Hold-up studies were made using isoamyl alcohol- water, and methyl isobutyl ketone water. The hold-up per cycle of the dispersed phase for both systems was found to be equal to the interstage flow per cycle of the dispersed phase. Hold-up behavior at high frequencies was different for the two systems. Extraction runs were also made using the system methyl isobutyl ketone - acetic acid-water. The effects of recycle were found to result in a drop in column separation efficiency with increased pulse frequency. It was found to be theoretically possible for a column to operate in a pinched-in region even though this is not apparert from an examination of the superficial flow ratio of the two streams being fed to the column Techniques for sampling interstage flow streams in a colurm operating in the mixer-settler region are described. (J.R.D.)

Burkhart, L.E.; Fahien, R.W.

1958-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Metal-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions for the Synthesis of Significant Chiral Building Blocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Morita Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction a carbon-carbon bond forming reaction between an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl and aldehydes or activated ketones in the presence of a nucleophilic catalyst. The MBH reaction is an atom-economical method of rapid increase of molecular complexity. The development of this process has received considerable attention in recent years. This dissertation presents the development of a new catalytic system for the symmetric and asymmetric MBH reaction. The new system for the racemic version of this reaction was accomplished employing a 1:1:1 ratio of catalytic amounts (10 mol%) of MgI2, TMEDA and DMAP and proved to be highly effective. For the asymmetric version was developed a highly enantio-selective system based on Fu’s planar chiral DMAP derivative (II) with ee´s up to 98%. Abnormal MBH adducts are obtained employing either ethyl 2,3-butadienoate or ethyl propiolate in good yields, in the presence if MgI2 and either a tertiary amine or phosphine as the nucleophile. The ?,?-unsaturated carbonyls where prepared by a modified direct ?- methylenation using paraformaldehyde, diisopropylammonium trifluoroacetate, and catalytic acid or base with excellent yields for several carbonyls compounds. The Negishi cross-coupling reaction is the Pd or Ni-catalyzed stereoselective cross-coupling or organozincs and aryl-, alkenyl-, or alkynyl halides. Enantioselective Negishi cross-coupling of aryl zincs and ?-bromo ketones was accomplished employing a NCN Pincer complex as the catalyst with ee´s up 99%. The required pincer complexes have been prepared by the oxidative addition of pincer ligands with palladium or nickel. Additionally, It has been developed a direct and highly active, (NCN)-Pd catalytic system for the ?-arylation of ketones with a variety of aryl bromides using the air and moisture stable [t-BuPheBox-Me2]PdBr (XVI) as the catalyst. The adducts are obtained in excellent yields (92% average for 20 examples) in only 1 hour using 1 mol% of catalyst loading. Perhaps more importantly, the work described here shows that XVI is highly reactive, highly selective, even on substrates bearing challenging functional groups such alkenes.

Bugarin Cervantes, Alejandro

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Interstellar Isomers: The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present strong detections of methyl cyanide, vinyl cyanide, ethyl cyanide and cyanodiacetylene molecules with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the Sgr B2(N) molecular cloud. Attempts to detect the corresponding isocyanide isomers were only successful in the case of methyl isocyanide for its J(K)=1(0)-0(0) transition, which is the first interstellar report of this line. To determine the spatial distribution of methyl isocyanide, we used archival Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array data for the J(K)=4(K)-3(K) (K=0-3) transitions but no emission was detected. From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is >8500 cm^-1 (>12,000 K). That we detect methyl isocyanide emission with a single antenna (Gaussian beamsize(Omega_B)=1723 arcsec^2) but not with an interferometer (Omega_B=192 arcsec^2), strongly suggests that methyl isocyanide has a widespread spatial distribution toward the Sgr B2(N) region. Thus, large-scale, non-thermal processes in the surrounding medium may account for the conversion of methyl cyanide to methyl isocyanide while the LMH hot core, which is dominated by thermal processes, does not produce a significant amount of methyl isocyanide. Ice analog experiments by other investigators have shown that radiation bombardment of methyl cyanide can produce methyl isocyanide, thus supporting our observations. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can be independently shown that these species are co-spatial.

Anthony J. Remijan; J. M. Hollis; F. J. Lovas; D. F. Plusquellic; P. R. Jewell

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

198

Operational safety report for the cleaning of non-radioactive, sodium-wetted reactor components with ethyl alcohol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safety aspects of the removal of sodium from nonradioactive reactor components by the alcohol process are described in detail. Pertinent properties of alcohol and hydrogen are presented. Relevant excerpts from the Occupational Safety and Health Act safety codes are presented, and a conceptual system is shown illustrating the application of these safety measures.

Humphrey, L.; Felton, L.; Goodman, L.; Pilicy, G.; Welch, F.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species CDIAC's data collection includes measurements of the following climate-relevant chemical species. A summary of recent greenhouse gas concentrations is also available. To determine how compounds are named, see the CDIAC "Name that compound" page. Butane (C4H10) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform (CHCl3) Deuterium (2H) Ethane (C2H6) Ethyl Nitrate (C2H5ONO2) Ethyne (C2H2) Fluoroform (CHF3) Halogenated Compounds (modern records) Halons (fluorocarbons) Hydrogen (H2) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) i-Propyl Nitrate (C3H7ONO2) Methane (CH4) Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCl3)

200

DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adipose) tissue from [72]. Data set 61 consists of humanheart tissue from [27]. Data set 62 consists of kidney (tissue from TCGA (KIRC). Data set 63 consists of liver (

Horvath, Steve

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

comprises a very large proportion of the mouse and human genomes. Using bisulphite modification and quantitative real-time PCR, the method can be used to analyse a very large pool...

202

Study of methyl group rotations and primary relaxation in poly ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... experiment, we will start with a fixed window scan (FWS), covering the entire ... 4 K. The measurements performed here will cover a temperature ...

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

203

Small RNAs, DNA methylation and transposable elements in wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reinhardtii by a DEAH-Box RNA helicase. Science 2000, 290:homolog of Werner syndrome helicase and RNaseD. Cell 1999,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

A-61: Poly Methyl Methacrylate-Halloysite Composite Nanofibers ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... as Shielding Materials for Electromagnetic Interference and Radiation Shielding ... for Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators during Cold-Working Process.

205

Ultrastructural changes in rat hepatocytes following acute methyl mercury intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Male rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight for 4 days. The earliest ultrastructural changes consisted of dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, wavy transformation of the mitochondrial membranes and occasional accumulation of liposomes. Focal areas of cytoplasmic degradation were observed 1 day after the initial administration of mercury. An increased number of lysosomes as well as swelling and floccular degeneration of the mitochondria were frequently observed at 2 days. Sequestration of cytoplasmic organelles within the hepatocytes, extrusion of degenerated hepatic organelles and cytoplasmic debris into the sinusoid could be observed 24 hours after the initial mercury administration and became a frequent finding after 4 days of intoxication. (auth)

Desnoyers, P.A.; Chang, L.W.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

207

RESEARCH Open Access Kinetics of DNA methylation inheritance by the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/G1 phase was superior to that seen in S phase, but not the observation that the number of the Dnmt1/ PPARg dots seen in S phase was superior to that seen in G2/M phase. Without explaining all variations-treated cells was due to an accumulation of p53. Acknowledgements We thank to Philippe Hulin for its technical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

The Esterification of Naphthenic Acids for Methyl Ester Production .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The remediation of tailings water, a by-product of bitumen extraction, is of utmost importance to the Athabasca oil sands industry due to its toxicity to… (more)

Dastjerdi, Zahra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene werepropane, propylene, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, n-octaneas ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene and 30 m

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylation Revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis. In: Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols, M.Segal: Validation in Genomics: CpG Island Methylationpackage and applications to genomics. Bioinformatics and

Segal, Mark R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

An experimental design algorithm applied to study of methyl ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels proceeds by means of the ... to simulate these experiments, in this case the Jet Surrogate Fuel model. ...

212

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Methanol and Methanol Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol and Methanol Tax Ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol motor fuels are taxed at a rate of $0.08 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. Ethyl alcohol is defined as a motor

213

Gas chromatographic determination of microamounts of glycols and their esters in aqueous medium using adsorption on activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Rapid growth of production of glycols and their derivatives, especially methyl and ethyl esters, and wide use of these substances in various branches of the national economy (1) inevitably necessitate analytical monitoring of their content in waste waters and various water bodies. The authors studied the scope of gas-chromatographic determination of microamounts of glycols and their esters in aqueous media at the sanitary standards level (10/sup -5/%) using activated charcoal for their adsorption concentration from aqueous solutions, desorption from the charcoal by ethanol, and evaporationconcentration of the alcoholic solutions. The quantitative concentration characteristics were studied with reference to ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, triethyleneglycol, tripropylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, ethylcellosolve, ethyl carbitol, and monoethyl ester of triethylene glycol.

Begunov, G.A.; Titovskaya, V.N.; Galenko, A.V.

1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

214

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Large scale total synthesis of apoptolidinone and progress towards the total synthesis of ammocidin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apoptolidin 1.1 was isolated in 1997 by Hayakawa and co-workers from a soil bacterium Nocardiopsis sp. during screening for specific apoptosis inducers. The primary biological test revealed that this polyketide macrolide induced apoptosis in cells transformed with the adenovirus type E1A oncognene, but not normal cells. This dissertation describes the latest studies in understanding of apoptolidin’s biological activity mechanism and previous contributions towards its total synthesis. Synthesizing apoptolidinone 1.26 by an intra-molecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons approach featuring a Suzuki coupling, cross metathesis and two diastereoselective aldol reactions is discussed. 15 mg apoptolidinone is prepared via our previously developed intramolecular Suzuking coupling approach. Ammocidin 3.1, which was found to induce apoptosis in Ba/F3-v12 cells in an IL- 3 free medium, is a specific apoptosis inducer discovered by Hayakawa and co-workers in 2001 from Saccharothrix sp. AJ9571. A strategy featuring Suzuki coupling, cross metathesis, Yamaguchi macrolactonization and three asymmetric aldol reactions was applied to the total synthesis of ammocidinone 3.6, the aglycone of ammocidin. The preparation of the key building blocks was discussed in the following chapter: aldehyde 3.8 (C14-C19) was synthesized via Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation; ethyl ketone 3.9’ (C20-C28) was prepared via Kobayashi and Crimmins’s asymmetric aldol methodologies; aldehyde 3.14 (C7-C13) was generated by Brown crotylation and cross metathesis.

Liu, Qingsong

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A novel meta-cleavage product hydrolase from Flavobacterium sp. ATCC27551  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organophosphate degrading (opd) gene cluster of plasmid pPDL2 of Flavobacterium sp. ATCC27551 contains a novel open-reading frame, orf243. This was predicted to encode an {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase distantly related to the meta-fission product (MFP) hydrolases such as XylF, PhnD, and CumD. By homology modeling Orf243 has most of the structural features of MFP hydrolases including the characteristic active site catalytic triad. The purified protein (designated MfhA) is a homotetramer and shows similar affinity for 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate (HOHD), 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (HMSA), and 2-hydroxy-5-methylmuconic semialdehyde (HMMSA), the meta-fission products of 3-methyl catechol, catechol, and 4-methyl catechol. The unique catalytic properties of MfhA and the presence near its structural gene of cis-elements required for transposition suggest that mfhA has evolved towards encoding a common hydrolase that can act on meta-fission products containing either aldehyde or ketone groups.

Khajamohiddin, Syed [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Babu, Pakala Suresh [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Chakka, Deviprasanna [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Merrick, Mike [Department of Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, NR4 7UH Norwich (United Kingdom); Bhaduri, Anirban [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560065 (India); Sowdhamini, Ramanathan [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560065 (India); Siddavattam, Dayananda [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)]. E-mail: sdsl@uohyd.ernet.in

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

223

Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, January 1944--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

In work related to the design and construction of the Process Development Unit (PDU) this quarter involved further detail design and a real start to the construction activities. Status updates are given below for each discipline in the Task 2.0 and 3.0 headings. This work is progressing well. with the caveat of several small slips in the scheduling. On the catalyst development front this quarter was extremely productive. Many catalyst screening experiments were completed and they showed that control of the reaction exotherm is going to be quite challenging under PDU conditions. The presence of much more efficient reactor design and the ability to maintain closer to isothermal conditions is expected to give a significant advantage in actual PDU operation. A major concern at the moment is the cost of La in the catalyst being used. An action plan to remedy this is being put together.

NONE

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

glutamate-activated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channels have recently been de-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nA 2 -30 nA E DEPOL PULSE IOlnV I +2.0 nA ' 1 0.5 s Figure 7. Intracellular current injection during

Alford, Simon

225

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/L. For the city's Char- nock well field, an initial review of known and sus- pected petroleum spill sites identified about 10 potential sources that lay within 1 km of the well field, lay above the hydrologic unit (LUFTs) and leaking pipelines, other sources of MTBE in groundwater include tank overfilling and faulty

226

3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioethanol production is an attractive option because of the high productivity and yield during fermentation.

Connor, Michael R.; Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

207_06 Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2006 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

228

A comparative analysis of DNA methylation across human embryonic stem cell lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA (to SEJ and MP), and by the Department of Energy

Chen, Pao-Yang; Feng, Suhua; Joo, Jong; Jacobsen, Steve E; Pellegrini, Matteo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Outbreak of Minamata Disease (methyl mercury poisoning) in cats on northwestern Ontario Reserves  

SciTech Connect

Pathological, histochemical, and analytical studies have confirmed the presence of Minamata Disease in at least one of two cats that lived on or near Indian Reserves in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. These symptoms parallel the Japanese experience in the 1950s and raise ominous health considerations for the Indians who share their diet of fish. After being fed a diet that primarily consisted of fish from the English River, one cat developed such acute neurological symptoms as an ataxic gait, other abnormal movements, uncontrolled howling, and seizures. The total mercury analyses showed high levels in all tissues with 16.4 mg/kg in the brain comparable with symptomatic cats in Japan. A second cat that appeared normal had 6.9 mg/kg in its brain tissues, and pathological studies confirmed the presence of latent Minamata Disease.

Takeuchi, T. (Kumamoto Univ., Japan); D' Itri, F.M.; Fischer, P.V.; Annett, C.S.; Okabe, M.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Outbreak of minamata disease (methyl mercury poisoning) in cats on Northwestern Ontario reserves  

SciTech Connect

Pathological, histochemical, and analytical studies have confirmed the presence of Minamata Disease in at least one of two cats that lived on or near Indian Reserves in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. These symptoms parallel the Japanese experience in the 1950s and raise ominous health considerations for the Indians who share their diet of fish. After being fed a diet that primarily consisted of fish from the English River, one cat developed such acute neurological symptoms as an ataxic gait, other abnormal movements, uncontrolled howling, and seizures. The total mercury analyses showed high levels in all tissues with 16.4 mg/kg in the brain comparable with symptomatic cats in Japan. A second cat that appeared normal had 6.9 mg/kg in its brain tissues, and pathological studies confirmed the presence of latent Minamata Disease.

Takeuchi, T. (Kumamoto Univ., Japan); D' Itri, F.M.; Fischer, P.V.; Annett, C.S.; Okabe, M.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will controlled by diffusion in the biofilm near the outlet of the reactor. A fundamental parameter and control in bioreactors equipped with some degree of instrumentation, fundamental knowledge for the proper handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, Volume III. Volatile

232

Thermal Decomposition of Methyl Butanoate: Ab Initio Study of a Biodiesel Fuel Surrogate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. (1989a,b) from a molecular dynamics simulation of the measured structure factor results of Susman et al., and BOLLER,A.,1994, Thermochim. Acta, 238, 227. ZHANG,M., and BOOLCHAND,P.,1994, Science, 266, 1355. 1772

Violi, Angel

233

Aging effects on DNA methylation modules in human brain and blood tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes in chromosomes cause aging? Cell 1996, 86:9-12. 2.M: Cross-Talk between Aging and Cancer. Annals of the NewMF, Esteller M: Epigenetics and aging: the targets and the

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Type II restriction-modification system methylation subunit of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius  

SciTech Connect

Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering recombination inside or outside of a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and/or nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

Lee, Brady D; Newby, Deborah T; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Roberto, Francisco F; Reed, David W

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

235

Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions from combustion of algae based methyl ester biodiesel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The advantages to using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel are also accompanied by disadvantages. Biodiesel is usually made from crops that are also used… (more)

Fisher, Bethany Cheryl

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, weed-eater, shovel, and a rake. A chipper, compost bin, or a large rented trash dumpster may be useful

237

Forest nurseries face critical choices with the loss of methyl bromide fumigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

seedlings over mature composts in USDA Forest Serviceseedlings planted into compost-amended soil that had eitherbio- solid and bark-based composts had the highest average

Weiland, Jerry E; Littke, Will R; Haase, Diane L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Polyol-mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZnO nanorods (length 30-150 nm) were synthesized in di(ethylene glycol) using Zn(CH3COO)2 as a precursor and para-toluene sulphonic acid, p-TSA, as an end-capping agent. Increasing the concentration of p-TSA above 0.1M causes the ...

Alojz Anžlovar; Zorica Crnjak Orel; Ksenija Kogej; Majda Žigon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Inhibition of IFN-[gamma] promoter function by site-specific methylation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When they become activated, naive helper T cells are able to polarize into either THI cells or TH2 cells. Development of naive CD4+ T cells into TH1 cells is characterized by the expression of IFN-y and the silencing of ...

Jones, Brendan T. (Brendan Taber)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Characterization and research investigation of methanol and methyl fuels. Final progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work on several aspects of using pure methanol as an alternate fuel are reported. A stock (OEM) Pinto engine mounted on a dynamometer was used to compare methanol with Indolene in terms of power, efficiency, and emissions for a variety of speeds and loads. Although the engine was designed for use with gasoline, it was found that methanol was generally superior in power, thermal efficiency and reduced emissions with the exception of aldehydes. Three different fuel metering systems were tested for a variety of speeds and loads using the dynamometer mounted engine. They were all found to provide superior steady state performance on methanol when compared with the OEM carburetor system with enlarged fuel jets for methanol. Mileage and emissions from a Pinto vehicle equipped with the various fuel metering systems were computer predicted for the Federal emissions test procedure using laboratory engine measurements. A computer was used to simulate the test engine's thermokinetic combustion events. The computer model predicts power, fuel economy and emissions with air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, spark advance and speed as parameters. A small (60 hp) gas turbine was converted to run on methanol. The conversion was easily accomplished, but atomization of the fuel was found to be important in obtaining a reduction in CO and NO/sub x/ for methanol in comparison with jet engine fuel. Environmental factors of marine and aquatic methanol spills and photochemical smog are under study. Preliminary experimentation relative to marine spills indicates that methanol is naturally present in that environment. It appears at this early stage of investigation that damage to the ecosystem from a major coastal spill may be localized and of short duration.

Pefley, R.K.; Browning, L.H.; Hornberger, M.L.; Likos, W.E.; McCormack, M.C.; Pullman, B.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

3-Methyl-1-butanol production in Escherichia coli: random mutagenesis and two-phase fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in producing biofuels from renewable sources hasafter 60 h. Keywords Biofuels . Metabolic engineering .2008; Stephanopoulos 2007). Biofuels produced from renewable

Connor, Michael R.; Cann, Anthony F.; Liao, James C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl-Substituted Phenols: Correlations of Kinetic Parameters with Molecular Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-of-the-art of using alternative, renewable, and/or novel feedstocks (such coal; biomass; oil shale; tar sands reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated compounds into smaller molecules. Oil shale in Colorado has the potential to be a large scale domestic

Simons, Jack

243

ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome  

SciTech Connect

ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang (Harvard-Med); (Ottawa Hosp.); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (CH-Boston); (Tsinghua); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

244

ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Evaluation of neural networks-based controllers in batch polymerisation of methyl methacrylate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of batch reactors in today's process industries cannot be overstated. Thus said, it is important to optimise their operation in order to consistently achieve products of high quality while minimising the production of undesirables. In ... Keywords: Batch polymerisation, Batch reactor control, Batch reactor optimisation

E. E. Ekpo; I. M. Mujtaba

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

247

Lithium Ethylene Dicarbonate Identified as the Primary Product ofChemical and Electrochemical Reduction of EC in EC:EMC/1.2M LiPF6Electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium ethylene dicarbonate (CH2OCO2Li)2 was chemically synthesized and its Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum was obtained and compared with that of surface films formed on Ni after cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1.2M lithium hexafluorophosphate(LiPF6)/ethylene carbonate (EC): ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7, w/w) electrolyte and on metallic lithium cleaved in-situ in the same electrolyte. By comparison of IR experimental spectra with that of the synthesized compound, we established that the title compound is the predominant surface species in both instances. Detailed analysis of the IR spectrum utilizing quantum chemical (Hartree-Fock) calculations indicates that intermolecular association through O...Li...O interactions is very important in this compound. It is likely that the title compound in passivation layer has a highly associated structure, but the exact intermolecular conformation could not be established based on analysis of the IR spectrum.

Zhuang, Guorong V.; Xu, Kang; Yang, Hui; Jow, T. Richard; RossJr., Philip N.

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

248

Synthesis and reactivity of molybdenum and tungsten bis(dinitrogen) complexes supported by diphosphine chelates containing pendant amines  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes supported by two PNP diphosphine ligands, Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(PNP){sub 2}; PNP = [(R{sub 2}PCH{sub 2}){sub 2}N(R'), R = Et (ethyl), Ph (phenyl); R'= Me (methyl), Bn (benzyl)], and a series of tungsten bis(dinitrogen) complexes containing one or two PNP ligands, W(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(dppe)(PNP) and W(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(PNP){sub 2}, respectively, and the analogues complexes without pendant amines for comparison. These Mo- and W-N{sub 2} complexes were characterized by NMR, IR, spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In addition, reactivity of the complexes with CO is described.

Weiss, Charles J.; Groves, Amy N.; Mock, Michael T.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Helm, Monte L.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Advanced membrane separation technology for biosolvents. Final CRADA report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argonne and Vertec Biosolvents investigated the stability and perfonnance for a number of membrane systems to drive the 'direct process' for pervaporation-assisted esterification to produce lactate esters. As outlined in Figure 1, the target is to produce ammonium lactate by fennentation. After purification and concentration, ammonium lactate is reacted with ethanol to produce the ester. Esterification is a reversible reaction so to drive the reaction forward, the produced ammonia and water must be rapidly separated from the product. The project focused on selecting pervaporation membranes with (1) acid functionality to facilitate ammonia separation and (2) temperature stability to be able to perform that reaction at as high a temperature as possible (Figure 2). Several classes of commercial membrane materials and functionalized membrane materials were surveyed. The most promising materials were evaluated for scale-up to a pre-commercial application. Over 4 million metric tons per year of solvents are consumed in the U.S. for a wide variety of applications. Worldwide the usage exceeds 10 million metric tons per year. Many of these, such as the chlorinated solvents, are environmentally unfriendly; others, such as the ethylene glycol ethers and N Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP), are toxic or teratogenic, and many other petroleum-derived solvents are coming under increasing regulatory restrictions. High performance, environmentally friendly solvents derived from renewable biological resources have the potential to replace many of the chlorinated and petrochemical derived solvents. Some of these solvents, such as ethyl lactate; d-limonene, soy methyl esters, and blends ofthese, can give excellent price/perfonnance in addition to the environmental and regulatory compliance benefits. Advancement of membrane technologies, particularly those based on pervaporation and electrodialysis, will lead to very efficient, non-waste producing, and economical manufacturing technologies for production of ethyl lactate and other esters.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

252

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Sulfone-based electrolytes for high voltage li-ion batteries.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfone-based electrolytes have been investigated as electrolytes for lithium-ion cells using high-voltage positive electrodes, such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} spinels, and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinel as negative electrode. In the presence of imide salt (LiTFSI) and ethyl methyl sulfone or tetramethyl sulfone (TMS) electrolytes, the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell exhibited a specific capacity of 80 mAh g{sup -1} with an excellent capacity retention after 100 cycles. In a cell with high-voltage LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} positive electrode and 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in TMS as electrolyte, the capacity reached 110 mAh g{sup -1} at the C/12 rate. When TMS was blended with ethyl methyl carbonate, the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cell delivered an initial capacity of 80 mAh g{sup -1} and cycled fairly well for 1000 cycles under 2C rate. The exceptional electrochemical stability of the sulfone electrolytes and their compatibility with the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} safer and stable anode were the main reason behind the outstanding electrochemical performance observed with high-potential spinel cathode materials. These electrolytes could be promising alternative electrolytes for high-energy density battery applications such as plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles that require a long cycle life.

Abouimrane, A.; Belharouak, I.; Amine, K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Use of the electrically-driven emulsion phase contactor in chemical and biochemical processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrically driven liquid-liquid contactor has been developed to enhance the efficiency of chemical and biochemical processes. A uniform electric field is utilized to induce a drop dispersion- coalescence cycle, producing high surface area for interfacial mass transfer under continuous-countercurrent-flow conditions. The mass- transport capability of this system has been analyzed by observing the extraction of acetic acid from water (dispersed phase) into methyl isobutyl ketone. Results showed that, due to increased efficiency of mass transfer, the electrically-driven device could be an order of magnitude smaller than a conventional contactor accomplishing the same level of separation. In the case of biochemical processes within non-aqueous environments, a biocatalyst (enzymes or bacteria) is introduced in the aqueous (dispersed) phase. The biocatalyst uses nutrients and other reactants to selectively transform species transferred from the continuous (organic) phase to the interior of the drops. An example of such system that has been investigated is the oxidation of p-cresol dissolved in toluene by aqueous-phase horseradish peroxidase.

Tsouris, C; DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C/sub 2/ through C/sub 5/) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

Lico, M.S.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Wright, V.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex  

SciTech Connect

The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ``Aging`` processes.

Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(poly (ether ether ketone)) Products ranging from membrane separation filters to heat transfer devices Not-for-profit research company, providing energy and natural gas...

258

Selective Oxidation of Organic Substrates to Partially Oxidized Products  

controlled rate of catalysis, utilizing ozone for oxidation of alcohols to ketones or aldehydes, is made possible with this environmentally friendly and versatile technology.

259

JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 0021-9193/01/$04.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/JB.183.16.47184726.2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, catechol, ,2,5,6- dibenz(a)anthracene, ethyl benzene, furan, furfural, hydrogen peroxide, hydroquinone

Sheridan, Jennifer

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261

Structure of the Antiviral Assembly Inhibitor CAP-1 Complex with the HIV-1 CA Protein  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CA domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein plays critical roles in both the early and late phases of viral replication and is therefore an attractive antiviral target. Compounds with antiviral activity were recently identified that bind to the N-terminal domain of CA (CA{sup N}) and inhibit capsid assembly during viral maturation. We have determined the structure of the complex between CA{sup N} and the antiviral assembly inhibitor N-(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-N'-{l_brace}2-[({l_brace}5-[(dimethylamino)-methyl]-2-furyl{r_brace}-methyl)-sulfanyl]ethyl{r_brace}-urea (CAP-1) using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The protein undergoes a remarkable conformational change upon CAP-1 binding, in which Phe32 is displaced from its buried position in the protein core to open a deep hydrophobic cavity that serves as the ligand binding site. The aromatic ring of CAP-1 inserts into the cavity, with the urea NH groups forming hydrogen bonds with the backbone oxygen of Val59 and the dimethylamonium group interacting with the side-chains of Glu28 and Glu29. Elements that could be exploited to improve binding affinity are apparent in the structure. The displacement of Phe32 by CAP-1 appears to be facilitated by a strained main-chain conformation, which suggests a potential role for a Phe32 conformational switch during normal capsid assembly.

Kelly,B.; Kyere, S.; Kinde, I.; Tang, C.; Howard, B.; Robinson, H.; Sundquist, W.; Summers, M.; Hill, C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

264

Direct observation of surface ethyl to ethane interconversion upon C2H4 hydrogenation over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst by time-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-Situ Spectroscopy of Catalysts; Weckhuysen, B.M. , Ed. ;Hydrogenation over Pt/Al 2 O 3 Catalyst by Time-Resolved FT-over alumina-supported Pt catalyst were recorded at 25 ms

Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nickel-Catalyzed Enantioselective Negishi Cross-Couplings of Racemic Secondary alpha-Bromo Amides with Alkylzinc Reagents: (S)-N-Benzyl-7-cyano-2-ethyl-N-phenylheptanamide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Procedure: A. (5-Cyanopentyl)zinc(II) bromide (1). An oven-dried, 200-mL pear-shaped Schlenk flask equipped with a magnetic stirbar (egg shaped, 25.4 × 12.7 mm) and an argon line connected to the standard taper outer joint ...

Lou, Sha

266

Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-1-dopa  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is revealed for forming a 6-fluoro derivative of compounds in the L-Dopa family comprising the steps of protecting the groups attached to the benzene ring in the compound followed by serially reacting the protected compound with (a) iodine and silver trifluoroacetic acid; (b) Bb{sub 3}; (c) dit-butyldicarbonate; (d) hexamethyltin; (e) a fluoro compound; (f) hydrobromic acid; and (g) raising the pH to {<=}7. 1 fig.

Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J.R.; Bishop, A.J.; Namavari, M.; Bida, G.T.

1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

267

Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6-(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6- .sup.18 F!fluoro-1-dopa  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming a 6-fluoro derivative of compounds in the L-Dopa family comprising the steps of protecting the groups attached to the benzene ring in the compound followed by serially reacting the protected compound with (a) iodine and silver trifluoroacetic acid; (b) Bb.sub.3 ; (c) dit-butyldicarbonate; (d) hexamethyltin; (e) a fluoro compound; (f) hydrobromic acid; and (g) raising the pH to .ltoreq.7.

Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar (Los Angeles, CA); Barrio, Jorge R. (Agoura Hills, CA); Bishop, Allyson J. (Wahnemuhle, DE); Namavari, Mohammad (Los Angeles, CA); Bida, Gerald T. (Shreveport, LA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Atmospheric variability of methyl chloride during the last 300 years from an Antarctic ice core and firn air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a low-pass filter, smoothing variations in the atmospheric composition of a gas over decadal time scales core measurements from Siple Dome provide evidence for a cyclic natural variability on the order of 10 increase measured in firn air may largely be a result of natural processes, which may continue to affect

Saltzman, Eric

270

Structure of trans-methyl 2-phenylhexahydro-2H-isoxazolo (2,3-a)-pyridine-3-carboxylate  

SciTech Connect

The title compound, a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition product, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2[sub 1]/c, with a = 8.199(3), b = 16.908(1), c = 10.248(2) [angstrom],[beta] = 93.58(2)[degrees] and Z = 4. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full matrix least squares methods to R = 0.038 for 1687 observed reflections. The stereochemistry of this compound was found to have the [open quotes]ee[close quotes] conformation in the solid state as well as in solution. The piperidine ring in the molecule is in the chair form and the isoxazolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation.

Ul-Haque, M.; Horne, W.; Ali, S.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The role of mismatch repair in mediating cellular sensitivity to cisplatin : the Escherichia coli methyl-directed repair paradigm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The anticancer drug cisplatin is in widespread use but its mechanism of action is only poorly understood. Moreover, human cancers acquire resistance to the drug, which limits its clinical utility. A paradox in the field ...

Robbins, Jennifer L

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Transcriptional response of O?-methylguanine methyltransferase deficient yeast to methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) of transcription factors and subsequently, induction of RNA processing (35% of genes incrementally induced) and kinases involved in protein phosphorylation. In the WT, the response was restricted to a transient ...

Rao, Anoop, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzeneof benzene to phenol (and catechol), and toluene toa multi-component PH, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and the meta-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Selective, On-Resin N-Methylation of Cyclic Peptides and Implications for the Discovery of Membrane Permeable Scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

permission from Nat. Chem. Bio. 2011, 7, 810- 817. Copyrightpermission from Nat. Chem. Bio. 2011, 7, 810- 817. Copyright

White, Tina Renea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Diamond and Related Materials 7 (1998) 14911502 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Sorensen, Model DCS bottom of the burner. No thermocouple was placed in 33-33). The substrate and heater-red optical pyrometer (Williamson, Model 8200), water and a microprocessor thermometer (Model HH23 in a flat copper, and water cooled via a 0.25-inch copper tubing soft-soldered to the burner body

Dandy, David

276

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U interested in fuel comparisons Thousands each year Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) National gasoline survey Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 23 cities throughout the U.S. Summer of 1988

277

Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation at all human imprinted regions reveals preservation of epigenetic stability in adult somatic tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRAS3 (1) 60 80 100 at io n DIRAS3 (2) 60 80 100 at io n Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te Bl 0 20 40 % M et hy la Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te Bl 0 20 40 % M et hy la Tissue Tissue DIRAS3 (3) 100 ZDBF2 80 100 20 40 60 80 % M et hy la tio n 20 40 60 % M et hy... at io n SLC22A1 60 80 100 yl at io n Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te 0 20 40 Ti % M et hy Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te 0 20 40 Ti % M et hy ssue ssue SLC22A3 80 100 MEST (s) 80 100 20 40 60 % M et hy la tio n 20 40 60 % M et hy la tio n Bn Bt Co He Ki Li Pl Te 0...

Woodfine, Kathryn; Huddleston, Joanna E; Murrell, Adele

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by pure cultures of butane-degrading bacteria. Appl.of K s values for MTBE by butane- degrading bacteria (52).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Complexation of NpO2+ with N-methyl-iminodiacetic Acid: in Comparison with Iminodiacetic and Dipicolinic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

element in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing because it couldthe development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles, there is an

Rao, Linfeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Evaluation of pyrethrin aerosol insecticide as an alternative to methyl bromide for pest control in flour mills.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of direct and indirect exposure scenarios, different degrees of residual flour, open and obstructed positions, and seasonal temperature… (more)

Kharel, Kabita

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

The Friction and Wear Behaviors of (quinazolin-4-ones)-3-methyl-butyl Borate as Additive in Liquid Paraffin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been growing concern for the use of mineral oils because of the worldwide interest in environmental issues. This has promoted the use of ash less additives as environmental friendly lubricants. A potential ash less additive containing N, B, ... Keywords: Synthesis, Quinazolin-4-ones, Borate, Additive, Friction and wear behaviors

Ouyang Ping; Zhang Xianming

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The dynamics of conformational isomerization in flexible biomolecules. I. Hole-filling spectroscopy of N-acetyl tryptophan methyl amide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

macrophytes. Assemblages with intermediate sized barbel and nase (100­200 mm TL), the larger size classes Cyprinidae of intermediate size classes (100­200 mm TL) as well as common carp and mosquitofish charac and intermediate sizes ( 200 mm TL) of the two benthic

Zwier, Timothy S.

284

Instrumental methods of analysis of sulfur compounds in synfuel process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

Task 1. Methods development for the speciation of the polysulfides. The contributions of this project to the electrochemical analysis of sulfides and polysulfides are reviewed and summarized. Electrochemical reduction at the dropping mercury electrode (DME) is the method of choice for the determination of polysulfidic sulfur. Total sulfidic sulfur can conveniently be quantitated in mixtures of sulfides and polysulfides, by measuring diffusion currents engendered by the anodic depolarization of the DME in the presence of the moieties HS/sup -/ and S/sub x//sup 2 -/. Task 2. Methods development for the speciation of dithionite and polythionates. In a solvent consisting of 40% ethanol-60% water, electrocapillary curves substantiated the adsorption of ethanol at the dropping mercury electrode. The potentials where adsorption occurred paralleled a shift of 1 volt in the polarographic half potential of the reaction: S/sub 4/O/sub 6//sup 2 -/ + 2e = 2S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/. Task 3. Total accounting of the sulfur balance in representative samples of synfuel process streams. Two H-Coal liquefaction sour water samples were analyzed representing different stages in the PETC clean-up procedures. One specimen was a sample stripped of H/sub 2/S and ammonia; the other, resulting from a different batch, was stripped and subsequently extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone. The stripped effluent contained less than 0.001 M concentrations of sulfide, polysulfide, thiosulfate, and sulfate. On the other hand, sulfate accounted for 90% of the total sulfur present in the stripped and extracted sample; the remainder consisted of sulfidic and polysulfidic sulfur as well as thiosulfate. 13 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Jordan, J.; Sexton, E.; Talbott, J.; Yakupkovic, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mechanism of formation of oil by the hot aqueous alkaline digestion of cellulose  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall mechanism of cellulose converson in hot aqueous alkali appears to be one of degradation through glucose to low molecular weight saccharinic acids, dihydroxybutyric acid, glycolic acid, and carbonyl products such as acetone, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and similar compounds. Although the products identified in the present report were fairly complex furans, carbocyclic ketones, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and aromatic compounds, nevertheless, in most cases, they could have been formed from simple carbonyl compounds through a series of condensations involving carbanion intermediates. It is conceivable that residual alkali in the oil during acetone extraction could have given rise to diacetone alcohol as an artifact. This is refuted by examination of an aqueous residue which was extracted with diethyl ether and which was never exposed to any acetone: Compounds derived from diacetone alcohol (such as mesityl oxide or 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one) were also identified in the diethyl ether extract of the aqueous phase. Other compounds were identified in the oil acetone extract which could not have been derived from acetone or diacetone alcohol, but which could have been formed from other carbonyl compounds by the same mechanism. Hence, diacetone alcohol is a genuine product of cellulose conversion although apparently not an intermediate in further synthesis of other products. The further reaction of the postulated cyclic intermediates, and the route to formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons of high molecular weight is intended to be the next subject of investigation in the current work. The fundamental difference in the mechanism of cellulose conversion to oil by pyrolysis and by aqueous alkaline digestion predicted by theory is therefore confirmed. Pyrolysis products may be explained generally by carbonium ion and free radical reactions (in fact, cellulose decomposition is acid-catalyzed), while in aqueous alkali, nucleophilic carbanion reactions are favored.

Molten, P.M.; Miller, R.K.; Donovan, J.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

ReaxFF User Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ethyl_radical Iter. ... Example 3.4: fort.58-output file generated from the same MM-run as used for Example 3.3. Ethyl_radical Iter. ...

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

“BEST VALUES” OF CUP-BURNER EXTINGUISHING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... diesel no. 2 diethyl ether ethanol ethyl acetate ethylene glycol Exxon Turbo Oil gasoline (unleaded) heptane (commercial ...

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

288

Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of Armatol A through a polyepoxide cyclization cascade : revision of the proposed structures of Armatols A-F  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cyclization Cascades Leading to the Tricyclic Fragment of Armatol A The synthesis of the fused 6,7,7-tricycle of armatol A was investigated. Fragments containing both a ketone and an aldehyde for subsequent fragment coupling ...

Underwood, Brian Saxton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Design and synthesis of probes for detection of protein-protein interaction and RNA localization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of the ketone biotin - benzophenone-biotin hydrazide system for detecting the formation of cyan fluorescent protein and NF-kappaB p50 dimers was assessed. A series of benzophenone-based probes were synthesized and ...

Ryan, Jeremy Adam

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Synthesis of indoles via a tandem benzannulation-cyclization strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vinylketenes (generated in situ from cyclobutenones or a-diazo ketones) react with ynamides via a pericyclic cascade process to produce highly-substituted aniline derivatives. Cyclization of the benzannulation products can ...

Lam, Tin Yiu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Studies directed towards the total synthesis of (+)-sieboldine A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Progress towards the total synthesis of sieboldine A is described. This synthetic approach uses a nickel-catalyzed alkyne-ketone reductive cyclization to form the hydrindane core of the natural product in good yield and ...

Gehling, Victor S. (Victor Scott)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Amphetamine effects on startle gating in normal women and female rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nucleus accumbens (NAC) catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT)low activity to the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase (

Talledo, Jo A.; Sutherland Owens, Ashley N.; Schortinghuis, Tijmen; Swerdlow, Neal R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fused ring and linking groups effect on overcharge protection for lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The derivatives of 1,3-benzodioxan (DBBD1) and 1,4-benzodioxan (DBBD2) bearing two tert-butyl groups have been synthesized as new redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. Both compounds exhibit a reversible redox wave over 4 V vs Li/Li{sup +} with better solubility in a commercial electrolyte (1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (EC/EMC 3/7) than the di-tert-butyl-substituted 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The electrochemical stability of DBBD1 and DBBD2 was tested under charge/discharge cycles with 100% overcharge at each cycle in MCMB/LiFePO{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. DBBD2 shows significantly better performance than DBBD1 for both cell chemistries. The structural difference and reaction energies for decomposition have been studied by density functional calculations.

Weng, W.; Zhang, Z.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

In-situ raman microscopy of individual LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles in the Li-ion battery composite cathode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kinetic characteristics of Li{sup +} intercalation/deintercalation into/from individual LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} particles in a composite cathode were studied in-situ using Raman microscopy during electrochemical charge-discharge in 1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}, ethylene carbonate (EC): ethyl-methyl carbonate (EMC), 3:7 by volume. Spectroscopic analysis of a cathode that was removed from a tested high-power Li-ion cell, which suffered substantial power and capacity loss, showed that the state of charge (SOC) of oxide particles on the cathode surface was highly non-uniform despite deep discharge of the Li-ion cell at the end of the test. In-situ monitoring of the SOC of selected oxide particles in the composite cathode in a sealed spectro-electrochemical cell revealed that the rate at which particles charge and discharge varied with time and location. The inconsistent kinetic behavior of individual oxide particles was attributed to degradation of the electronically conducting matrix in the composite cathode upon testing. These local micro-phenomena are responsible for the overall impedance rise of the cathode and contribute to the mechanism of lithium-ion cell failure.

Lei, Jinglei; McLarnon, Frank; Kostecki, Robert

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalates or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalate or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalates or templates may be introduced. The intercalates or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays. 22 figures.

Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

296

Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and LiF for 2 days with an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by US patent No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, June 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have water-solubility, positive charge, and thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

Gregar, Kathleen C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Winans, Randall E. (Downers Grove, IL); Botto, Robert E. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fluoro-Carbonate Solvents for Li-Ion Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of fluoro-carbonate solvents were evaluated as electrolytes for Li-ion cells. These solvents are fluorine analogs of the conventional electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate in Li-ion cells. Conductivity of single and mixed fluoro carbonate electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} was measured at different temperatures. These electrolytes did not freeze at -40 C. We are evaluating currently, the irreversible 1st cycle capacity loss in carbon anode in these electrolytes and the capacity loss will be compared to that in the conventional electrolytes. Voltage stability windows of the electrolytes were measured at room temperature and compared with that of the conventional electrolytes. The fluoro-carbon electrolytes appear to be more stable than the conventional electrolytes near Li voltage. Few preliminary electrochemical data of the fluoro-carbonate solvents in full cells are reported in the literature. For example, some of the fluorocarbonate solvents appear to have a wider voltage window than the conventional electrolyte solvents. For example, methyl 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl carbonate containing 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte has a decomposition voltage exceeding 6 V vs. Li compared to <5 V for conventional electrolytes. The solvent also appears to be stable in contact with lithium at room temperature.

NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

Jackson, D.

1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

302

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION USE FUEL TAX REGULATIONS Regulation 1301.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel includes any combustible gas or liquid, by whatever name the gas or liquid may be known or sold, of a kind used in an internal combustion engine for the generation of power to propel a motor vehicle on the highways, except fuel that is subject to the tax imposed by the Motor Vehicle Fuel License Tax Law and the Diesel Fuel Tax Law. For example, fuel includes, but is not limited to, liquefied petroleum gases, kerosene, distillate, stove oil, natural gas in liquid or gaseous form, and alcohol fuels. “Alcohol fuel ” includes: ethanol (ethyl alcohol), methanol, (methyl alcohol), or blends of gasoline and alcohol (including any denaturant) containing 15 percent, or less, gasoline by volume measured at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. “Natural gas ” means naturally occurring mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors consisting principally of methane whether in gaseous or liquid form. The taxable unit for compressed natural gas (gaseous form) is 100 cubic feet of gas measured at 14.73 pounds of pressure per square inch at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The taxable unit for liquid natural gas and other liquid fuels is the United States gallon, which is 231 cubic inches. To convert liters to gallons, the quantity of liters shall be multiplied by.26417 to determine the equivalent quantity in gallons. The resulting figure should be rounded to the nearest tenth of a gallon.

unknown authors

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

RUTHENIUM DECONTAMINATION METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method of separating uranium from fission products is given. A small amount of a low molecular weight ketone is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing neutron-irradiated uranium and its associated fission products. The resulting solution is digested and then contacted with an organic liquid that extracts uranium values. The purpose of the step of digesting the aqueous solution in the presence of the ketone is to suppress the extractability of ruthenium.

Gresky, A.T.

1960-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

304

The versatile E. coli adaptive response protein AlkB mitigates toxicity and mutagenicity of etheno-, ethano-, and methyl-modified bases in vivo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Escherichia coli AlkB protein is an exceptionally versatile DNA repair enzyme. Its expression is induced upon exposure to alkylating agents as part of the Ada-mediated adaptive response. This member of the ac-ketoglu ...

Frick, Lauren Elizabeth

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

(Butan-2-ol-jO)[2-({(ethylsulfanyl)- [2-(2-oxidobenzylidene-jO)hydrazinylidene-jN 2]methyl}iminomethyl)phenolato-jO]dioxidouranium(VI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disorder in main residue; R factor = 0.038; wR factor = 0.078; data-to-parameter ratio = 17.4. The U atom in the title complex, [U(C17H15N3O2S)O2-(C4H10O)], exists within a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry where the oxide O atoms occupy axial positions [O—U—O = 179.61 (18) ] and the pentagonal plane is defined by the N2O2 atoms of the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and the O atom of the butan-2-ol molecule. In the crystal, centrosymmetric aggregates are formed via pairs of hydroxy–phenoxide O—H O hydrogen bonds. The azomethine C N atoms, the ethylthiolyl group and the butyl group of the butan-2-ol molecule are disordered over two positions in a 0.668 (3):0.332 (3) ratio. Related literature For background to uranyl Schiff base complexes, see: S ¸ ahin et al. (2010); Özdemir et al. (2011). For a related structure, see: Takjoo et al. (2012).

Reza Takjoo; A Atefeh Najafi; A Seik Weng Ng B; Edward R. T. Tiekink B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Photoluminescence spectral study of single CdSe/ZnS Colloidal Nanocrystals in Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Quantum Dots molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals . . . . . . . .D. CdSe/ZnS NCs in negative photon resist SU-line shapes of single CdSe VI Optical characterization of

Shen, Yaoming

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615  

SciTech Connect

Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

Wayland, B.B.

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors evaluated several calorimetric assays for ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that all were flawed. They evaluated atomic absorption spectroscopy as a technique to determine sub-millimolar concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that it is not sensitive enough for their use. However, they discovered that ICP-AES can be used to determine concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} down to 0.25 ppm. They next determined that ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can be quickly extracted (10 minutes or less) from aqueous HNO{sub 3} using the commercial extractant Aliquat-336 nitrate diluted with 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Higher concentrations of extractant led to higher values of K{sub d} (the distribution ratio). K{sub d} was lower as the nitrate concentration of the medium increased, and was also lowered by increasing the acidity at constant nitrate ion concentration. The authors performed parallel studies with TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, determining that K{sub d}(ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) and K{sub d}(TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) track similarly as the conditions are changed. An effort was made to prepare substituted pyridium nitrate salts that are soluble in organic solvents to be used as alternate extractants. However, in all cases but one, the salts were also soluble to some extent in the aqueous phase, significantly limiting their usefulness as extractants for these purposes. Many of the new extractant salts would partition between the organic solvent and water so that 10% of the extractant salt was in the aqueous phase. Only 1-methyl-3,5-didodecylpyridium nitrate did not show any measurable solubility in water. However, this compound was not as good an extractant as Aliquat-336. A considerable effort was also made to find suitable alternative solvents to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Several ketone solvents with flash points above 60 C were tested, and two of these, 2-nonanone and 3-nonanone, were superior to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene as a diluent.

Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty Acid Composition in South Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canola is a cool-season, oilseed crop grown throughout Europe, Canada, and the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. The expansion of canola production into new growing regions, such as the Southern Plains region, has resulted in new production challenges. The Southern Plains region cultivates canola as a winter annual compared to a spring annual for the Northern Great Plains and Canada. Given the difference in climate and weed spectrum, region-specific weed management systems need to be developed. Agronomic practices can affect seed oil content, protein content, and fatty acid composition, however the effect of herbicides on these and other characteristic of canola are unknown. Therefore, experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate a broad spectrum of herbicides for potential use in South Texas canola production with respect to crop injury, effects on canola seed oil content, fatty acid composition, weed control, biomass yield, and forage quality. Visual crop injury at 42 DAE was unacceptable for saflufenacil at both 0.12 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1 and ethalfluralin at 1.05 kg ai ha-1. Trifluralin at 1.12 and 0.56 kg ai ha-1, S-metolachlor at 2.14 and 1.07 kg ai ha-1, pyroxasulfone at 0.24 and 0.12 kg ai ha-1, and pendimethalin at 0.8 kg ai ha-1 had lowest visual injury of all treatments. Fluroxypyr applied EPOST caused severe injury at both 0.21 and 0.11 kg ae ha-1. All other EPOST treatments did not cause any visible injury. Seed oil content was not affected by the herbicides evaluated. Fatty acid composition, specifically stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic to linolenic acid ratio, was affected by herbicide treatments. This research found that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPG oxidase) inhibitor herbicides, such as carfentrazone-ethyl and saflufenacil, negatively affect canola oil quality. Biomass yield was improved for all herbicide treatments except pendimethalin PRE when compared to the untreated plots. Crude protein content of canola forage was not affected by herbicide treatment. Digestible dry matter appeared to be reduced by treatments that included an EPOST application of sethoxydim. The research shows that pendimethalin and S-metolachlor may be suitable for canola production in South Texas based on low crop injury and effective weed control. Neither pendimethalin nor S-metolachlor is currently labeled for use in canola. The herbicides trifluralin, ethalfluralin, quizalofop P-ethyl, ethametsulfuron-methyl, sethoxydim, glyphosate, clethodim, and clopyralid are currently labeled for use in canola and were confirmed suitable for canola production in South Texas. Carfentrazone-ethyl is currently labeled for use in canola but the effects on oil quality should be considered.

Cogdill, Todd Joseph

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Corporate Productivity and I/S Investment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethyl Corp. EW Scripps Co. Exxon Corp. Farmland IndustriesRichfield Co. Chevron Corp. Exxon Corp. Kerr-McGee Corp.

Kraemer, Kenneth L.; Dunkle, Debbie

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

ThermoML Data for TCA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Title: Thermodynamic properties of ternary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium ... XML File: ThermoML Data (To download: right-click on ...

312

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: Physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies  

SciTech Connect

The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 {mu}g/kg/day, 0.05 LD{sub 50}) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition ({approx} 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction ({approx} 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures.

Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel)], E-mail: eugenias@iibr.gov.il; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Raveh, Lily; Allon, Nahum; Grauer, Ettie; Gilat, Eran; Weissman, Ben Avi [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solvent Sensitivity of Protein Unfolding: Study of Chicken Villin Headpiece Subdomain in Water-Ethanol and Water-DMSO Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work we study and compare unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in two different aqueous binary mixtures, namely water-ethanol (EtOH) and water-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In both the binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold (fully or partially, depending on the mixture) under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ~600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. In all the cases, first step of unfolding is found to be similar, i.e. separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely Phe-7, Phe-11 and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. Subsequent unfolding steps follow different paths in different chemical environments. As both water-DMSO and water-ethanol show composition dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase of co-solvent concentration different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed in both the cases. This is reflected in a remarkable non-monotonic composition dependence of several order parameters, including fraction of native contacts and protein-solvent interaction energy. The emergence of such partially unfolded states is particularly attributed to the preferential solvation of the hydrophobic residues by the ethyl groups of ethanol and methyl groups of DMSO. While in DMSO the protein gradually attains a completely unfolded state at xDMSO=0.30, unfolding in water-ethanol appears to be more complex and sensitive to solvent composition.

Rikhia Ghosh; Susmita Roy; Biman Bagchi

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

Reinvestigation on the state-of-the-art nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes for 5 V Li-ion battery applications  

SciTech Connect

The charging voltage limits of mixed carbonate solvents for Li-ion batteries have been systematically investigated from 4.9 to 5.3 V in half cells using Cr-doped spinel cathode material LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. We found that the stability of conventional carbonate electrolytes is strongly related to the stability and properties of the cathode materials at both lithiated and de-lithiated states. It is the first time to report that the conventional electrolytes based on mixtures of ethylene carbonate (EC) and linear carbonate (dimethyl carbonate - DMC, ethyl methyl carbonate - EMC, and diethyl carbonate - DEC) have shown very similar long-term cycling performance when cycled up to 5.2 V on LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. The discharge capacity increases with the charge cutoff voltage and reaches the highest discharge capacity at 5.2 V. The capacity retention is about 87% after 500 cycles at 1C rate for all three carbonate mixtures when cycled between 3.0 V and 5.2V. The first-cycle efficiency has a maximum value at 5.1 V, with an average from 83% to 85% at C/10 rate. When cycled to 5.3 V, EC-DMC still shows good cycling performance but EC-EMC and EC-DEC show faster capacity fading. EC-DMC and EC-EMC have much better rate capability than EC-DEC. In addition, the first-cycle irreversible capacity loss increases with the cutoff voltage and the 'inactive' conductive carbon has also been found to be partly associated with the low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency at high voltages due to electrolyte decomposition and probably the PF6- anion irreversible intercalation.

Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Pan, Anqiang; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaohong S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Investigations of the Biological Roles of Substituted Cyclohexadienes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years there have been two cycloterpenals, molecules consisting of a cyclohexadienal core, isolated from nature. Cyclocitral, the condensation product of citral, has been isolated from the North Sea bryozoans Flustra foliacea. In the human eyes, cycloretinal has been isolated and is a toxic by product of the vision cycle. This retinal dimer is believed to contribute to age related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. In 1992, it was discovered that if [beta]-ionylideneacetaldehyde was incubated with beta-lactoglobulin ([beta]-LG), the principal whey protein in dairy milk, that it would mediate the formation of cyclo-[beta]-ional. No follow up studies were performed on this protein mediated reaction or what biological activities these cycloterpenals may possess. This dissertation investigates the biological roles of substituted cyclohexadienes including cycloterpenals and cyclohexadiene enaminonitriles. To mimic the protein mediated reaction, we developed a synthetic procedure to produce a wide array of cycloterpenal by utilizing L-proline. Over 100 cycloterpenals were synthesized and screened for their biological activities against an array of cell based screens. The phenotypic effects of these cycloterpenals were screened against a PC12 assay where dramatic effects were observed on neurite outgrowth. During the synthesis of starting materials for the production of our cycloterpenal library, it was discovered that if excess base was added to the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction between a methyl-ketone and diethyl-(cyanomethyl)-phosphonate, conversion of the [alpha]-[beta]-unsaturated nitrile into an enaminonitrile was observed. This new synthetic procedure was optimized to generate a library of enaminonitriles as well as their quinazoline derivatives. The work within also includes the investigation of the [beta]-LG mediated reaction formation of cycloterpenals with natural and unnatural [beta]-methyl aldehydes. We were able to demonstrate that [beta]-LG could mediate the conversion of [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated aldehydes into their corresponding cycloterpenal. In vitro analysis was also performed with store bought milks and the [beta]-LG present was able to mediate the formation of cyclocitral. An in vivo experiment was also performed by utilizing New Zealand White rabbits to demonstrate the formation of cycloretinal within the blood stream by feeding a source of [beta]-LG with retinal. Interestingly, in human blood, [beta]-LG is present at concentrations of 0.7-1.2 g/dL. The protein has been identified within drusen pigments and lipofuscin granules that accumulate in the retina of macular degeneration patients. As humans do not produce beta-lactoglobulin, the source of this protein is from milk and milk products. With these experiments, we clearly demonstrate that under the appropriate conditions, cycloretinal can be produced with [beta]-LG. We have clearly established a direct link between [beta]-LG chemistry and age-related macular degeneration.

Bench, Bennie John

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Assessing gene effects on the brain and risk for disease using machine learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harrison PJ, Weinberger DR. Catechol-o-methyltransferase,R, Delespaul P, van Os J. The catechol-O-methyl transferasein press), neuregulin, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT),

Kohannim, Omid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical feedstock for production of a range of important industrial chemicals, primarily acetic acid, formaldehyde, methyl methacrylate and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)....

327

Molecular water oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Improvement of TEOS-chemical mechanical polishing performance by control of slurry temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of slurry temperature on the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performance of tetra-ethyl ortho-silicate (TEOS) film with silica and ceria slurries were investigated. The change of slurry properties as a function of different slurry temperatures ... Keywords: Chemical mechanical polishing, Planarity, Removal rate, Slurry temperature, Tetra-ethyl ortho-silicate

Nam-Hoon Kim; Pil-Ju Ko; Yong-Jin Seo; Woo-Sun Lee

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

1452 J. Am. Chem. SOC. np K R Z -2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

values of AG*, AG1,and AG2,I4 there may be con- structed the averaged cartoon of Figure 2. Inspection, 79075-88-0; 0 2 , 7782-44-7. (19) Bunting, J. W. Adu. Heterocycl. Chem 1979, 25, 1. (20) (a) 5-Ethyl-l0

Boxer, Steven G.

330

Epigenetic Mechanisms and Gene Networks in the Nervous System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Miltenberger et al., 1997), and extensive variation in phenotype is produced by differential methylation

Champagne, Frances A.

331

Beryllium-Copper Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12   Room-temperature corrosion properties of beryllium-copper...not recommended Atmosphere Industrial Marine Rural Water Fresh Softened Brine Sewage Gas (dry) Chlorine Oxygen/ozone Carbon dioxide Sulfur dioxide Ammonia Fuel gases Acetylene Organic compounds Most organic acids Alcohols Ketones Chlorinated solvents Fuels Lubricating/hydraulic oils Pyridine...

332

Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

Casey, Charles P. (Madison, WI); Guan, Hairong (Cincinnati, OH)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

333

New mass spectrometry techniques for studying physical chemistry of atmospheric heterogeneous processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ion mode DESI and nano-DESI result in the formation of protonated molecules [M + H]+ and molecules cationised on metals, such as sodium [M + Na]+ adducts, while deprotonated [M Ă? H]Ă? molecules are observed+ ) reacts selectively with molecules (M) containing carbonyl groups, such as aldehydes and ketones [79

Nizkorodov, Sergey

334
335

Density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been employed to determine the structures and energies of the isomers of the OH-toluene adduct, the methyl hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical, and their corresponding transitio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Investigation of Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons (DOE Award No. DE-FG02-02ER63098) Prepared by Luisa T. Molina, Renyi Zhang and Mario J. Molina Our work for this DOE funded project includes: (1) measurements of the kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase oxidation reactions of the aromatic hydrocarbons initiated by OH; (2) measurements of aerosol formation from the aromatic hydrocarbons; and (3) theoretical studies to elucidate the OH-toluene reaction mechanism using quantum-chemical and rate theories. (1) Measurements of Gas-Phase Kinetics and Mechanism Work has been accomplished to develop laboratory instrumentation to conduct kinetic and mechanistic measurements of the aromatic hydrocarbon reactions initiated by OH, using

336
337

Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence and Fluorescence Lifetime Spatial Heterogeneity of Poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene) in Presence of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we studied the luminescence property and fluorescence lifetime mapping of MEH-PPV/PCBM system by using electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) and time-correlated single photo counting (TC-SPC) technologies. The ECL results showed that the oxidation peak of MEH-PPV near 0.7 V (vs. SCE) and ECL response of films shifted positively towards 1.2 V when in the presence of PCBM. At the same time, the oxidation peak current density of MEH-PPV increases while the ECL response decreased with the loading of PCBM in the composite films. The fluorescence lifetime images clearly show that the lifetime fluctuation is effected by different substrates and MEH-PPV/PCBM ratios. Meanwhile, the lifetime of MEH-PPV decreases with the increasing of film thickness. The lifetimes of MEH-PPV films on TiO2 substrate are lower than them of films on cover slips.

Geng, Hongwei; Pan, Shanlin; Hu, Dehong

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies  

SciTech Connect

Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials.

Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

340

Modelling and optimisation of batch distillation involving esterification and hydrolysis reaction systems. Modelling and optimisation of conventional and unconventional batch distillation process: Application to esterification of methanol and ethanol using acetic acid and hydrolysis of methyl lactate system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Batch distillation with chemical reaction when takes place in the same unit is referred to as batch reactive distillation process. The combination reduces the capital… (more)

Edreder, Elmahboub A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Annotated bibliography of research carried out from 1993 to 1999 under DoE Award No. DE-IA02-94ER14411: Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers work carried out during a six year period under a DoE interagency grant. Because all results have been published as full papers in appropriate refereed journals that are openly available in most scientific libraries, the report takes the form of an annotated bibliography. In the interests of scientific continuity and bibliographic usefulness, however, work carried out on this same project from 1990-1992 under an earlier DoE award, as well as related work currently (2000-2002) in progress, will also be discussed. It should be stressed, however, that only work directly connected to the grantee is cited explicitly in this final grant report. The many important papers by other workers in the field during the last decade must be obtained from reference citations in the 21 publications mentioned.

Hougen, Jon T.

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

343

A Universal Model for Nanoporous Carbon Supercapacitors Applicable to Diverse Pore Regimes, Carbons, and Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications requiring high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbons and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (< 2 nm), solvated/desolvated counterions line up along the pore axis to form an electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (> 50 nm) where pores are large enough so that the pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, showing the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbons. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal to carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials including activated carbons, template carbons, and novel carbide-derived carbons, and with diverse electrolytes including organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4), tetraethylammonium methyl-sulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H2SO4 and KOH electrolytes, and even ionic liquid electrolyte such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium bis(trifluromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size, and may lend a support for the systematic optimization of the properties of carbon supercapacitors via experiments. On the basis of the insight obtained from the new model, we also discuss the effects of the kinetic solvation/desolvation process, multimodal (versus unimodal) pore size distribution, and exohedral (versus endohedral) capacitors on the electrochemical properties of supercapacitors.

Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incorporating consideration for safety issues while designing solvent processes has become crucial in light of the chemical process incidents involving solvents that have taken place in recent years. The implementation of inherently safer design concepts is considered beneficial to avoid hazards during early stages of design. The application of existing process design and modeling techniques that aid the concepts of ‘substitution’, ‘intensification’ and ‘attenuation’ has been shown in this work. For ‘substitution’, computer aided molecular design (CAMD) technique has been applied to select inherently safer solvents for a solvent operation. For ‘intensification’ and ‘attenuation’, consequence models and regulatory guidance from EPA RMP have been integrated into process simulation. Combining existing techniques provides a design team with a higher level of information to make decisions based on process safety. CAMD is a methodology used for designing compounds with desired target properties. An important aspect of this methodology concerns the prediction of properties given the structure of the molecule. This work also investigates the applicability of Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) and topological indices to CAMD. The evaluation was based on models developed to predict flash point properties of different classes of solvents. Multiple linear regression and neural network analysis were used to develop QSPR models, but there are certain limitations associated with using QSPR in CAMD which have been discussed and need further work. Practical application of molecular design and process design techniques have been demonstrated in a case study on liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid-water mixture. Suitable inherently safer solvents were identified using ICAS-ProCAMD, and consequence models were integrated into Aspen Plus simulator using a calculator sheet. Upon integrating flammable and toxic hazard modeling, solvents such as 5-nonanone, 2-nonanone and 5-methyl-2-hexanone provide inherently safer options, while conventionally-used solvent, ethyl acetate, provides higher degree of separation capability. A conclusive decision regarding feasible solvents and operating conditions would depend on design requirements, regulatory guidance, and safety criteria specified for the process. Inherent safety has always been an important consideration to be implemented during early design steps, and this research presents a methodology to incorporate the principles and obtain inherently safer alternatives.

Patel, Suhani Jitendra

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Synthesis and structural characterization of three copper coordination polymers with pyridine derivatives from hydro(solvo)thermal in situ decarboxylation reactions of 2,5-dicarboxylpyridine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydro(solvo)thermal self-assembles of CuI, KI and 2,5-dicarboxylpyridine [2,5-(COOH){sub 2}py] in different molar ratios in H{sub 2}O/alcohol solutions produced three Cu coordination polymers as 2-D [N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py][Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D [N-CH{sub 3}py][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 3}] 2 as well as 1-D [Cu(2-COOpy){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O 3 (N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py=N-ethylpyridine, N-CH{sub 3}py=N-methylpyridine, 2-COOpy=2-carboxylpyridine). N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py in 1 and N-CH{sub 3}py in 2 derived from the solvothermal in situ simultaneous decarboxylation and N-alkylation reactions of 2,5-(COOH){sub 2}py. The semi-decarboxylation reaction of 2,5-(COOH){sub 2}py into 2-COOpy occurred in the preparation of 3. X-ray single-crystal analysis revealed that CuI is transformed into a 2-D [Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}]{sup -} layer in compound 1 and a 1-D chain in compound 2, templated by [N-C{sub 2}H{sub 5}py]{sup +} and [N-CH{sub 3}py]{sup +}, respectively. Compound 3 is a divalent Cu compound. The Cu(II) centers with a 4+2 geometry are coordinated by {mu}{sub 3}-mode 2-COOpy ligands. All of the title compounds were characterized by CHN analysis, IR spectrum analysis and TG analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit fluorescence properties with the maximum emissions at 581 nm for 1 and 537 nm for 2. - Graphical abstract: Three compounds were obtained via in situ metal-ligand hydro(solvo)thermal reactions of 2,5-(cooh){sub 2}py with cui. Three types of in situ reactions occurred for 2,5-(cooh){sub 2}py: decarboxylation n-ethylated in 1, n-methylated in 2 and semi-decarboxylation in 3.

Hou Qin; Xu Jianing [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Yu Jiehui, E-mail: jiehuiyu@yahoo.com.c [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Wang Tiegang; Yang Qingfeng [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu Jiqing, E-mail: xjq@mail.jlu.edu.c [College of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Phase selectively soluble polymer supports to facilitate homogeneous catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soluble polymers that have phase selective solubility are useful in synthesis because they simplify purification and separation. Such selectively soluble polymers simplify catalyst, reagent, and product recovery and enable the use of Green chemistry principles in homogeneous catalysis. However, while homopolymers have been reported that have excellent thermal and phase-dependent solubility, less is known about copolymers. Also, less is known about the phase selective solubility of polar aprotic N,N-dialkyl polyacrylamides. This work describes a library synthesis of dye-labeled poly(N-n-octadecylacrylamide-co-N-n-butylacrylamide) copolymers and study of the effects of polymer composition in phase selective solubility of these copolymers. To study the relative importance of n-octadecyl versus n-butyl groups, copolymers with different ratios of n-octadecylacrylamide and n-butylacrylamide but with similar degrees of polymerization and polydispersity were prepared by a split-pool synthesis using a highly soluble poly(N-acryloxy-2-dodecylsuccinimide) as the precursor. Polymer sequestrants were used to remove excess amines and the byproduct N-hydroxyl-2- dodecylsuccinimide without fractionation of the polyacrylamides. Results demonstrated that poly(N-n-octadecylacrylamide-co-N-n-butylacrylamide) copolymers’ phase selective solubility is equally dependant of the polar n-butyl and nonpolar n-octadecyl groups on the copolymers. Dye-labeled poly(N,N-dialkylacrylamide)s prepared by the polymerization of N,N-dialkylacrylamides monomers with methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl, and dodecyl N-alkyl groups in a variety of thermomorphic or latent biphasic polar/nonpolar solvent mixtures were also prepared. Studies showed that poly(N,N-dialkylacrylamide)s have phase selective solubility that is highly dependent of the size of the N-alkyl group. Soluble polymers are known to be useful supports for catalysts. This thesis also describes approaches to immobilization of a variety of catalysts on polyisobutylene (PIB). The most effective of these catalysts were analogs of pyridyl N-oxides that have been used as organocatalysts for the catalytic allylation of a variety of aromatic aldehydes. PIB-supported N-oxide promoted the allylation of aldehydes in up to 99% isolated yield. The products were isolated in the polar phase of a thermomorphic system and the catalyst was recycled through five cycles.

Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Switching Catalysis from Hydrolysis to Perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase  

SciTech Connect

Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k{sub cat}, but K{sub m} also increased so the specificity constant, k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds {var_epsilon}-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones.

Yin, D.; Bernhardt, P; Morley, K; Jiang, Y; Cheeseman, J; Purpero, V; Schrag, J; Kazlauskas, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Corporate Productivity and Diffusion of Enduser Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lauder 3 Ethyl 3 Exide 5 Exxon 12 Family Dollar 22 FamilyLyondell Petrochemical • Exxon • Mobil • Texaco • TesoroCentral Petroleum Diamond Shamrock Exxon Kerr McGee Lyondell

Kraemer, Kenneth L.; Gurbaxani, Viijay

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

HFC-161 (ethyl fluoride) HFC-227ea (heptafluoropropane) HFC-236cb (1,1,1,2,2,3-hexafluoropropane) HFC-236ea (1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane)

350

ThermoML Data for IJT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Title: Saturated Liquid Viscosity of Ethyl Fluoride (HFC161) from 233 K to 373 K. Pages: 2243-2250. DOI: 10.1007/s10765-012-1309-7. ...

351

UCRL-ID-124563 LLNL Small-scale Friction Sensitivity (BAM) Test  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Salicylate Lead-2-ethyl hexaoate ' (56.431.77.71 .01 .61.6) Ammonium nitrate-Fuel oil 3-Amino-5-nitro-l,2,4-triazole Potassium Nitrate Sulfur charcoal (751015)...

352

Preparation of 1-C14-Propene-1 and the Mechanism of Permanganate Oxidation of Propene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

propene, 9% butenes, 9% butanes and pentanes and 1% pentenes0.5/0 propane and 0.5% n-butane. The yield of propene waspropene, 16% butenes f 3% i-butane, 3% ethyl propy:i. ether

Fries, B.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Highly efficient blue polyfluorene-based polymer light-emitting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Physics Volume 42 Pagination 5 Abstract A highly efficient blue polymer light-emitting diode based on poly(9,9-di(2-(2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)...

354

Genome-wide phenotype analysis in ES cells by regulated disruption of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the tetracycline analogue doxycycline. Indeed, a com- bination of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis and transient expression was examined by using the tetra- cycline analogue, doxycycline (dox). Addition of dox resulted

Cai, Long

355

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

Haward, Simon J.

356

Novel pH Responsive Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Reversible Micellization Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Di-block copolymer of poly[methacrylic acid-block-2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] [P(MAA-b-DEA)] with narrow molecular weight distribution was synthesized using the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique. ...

Palaniswamy, R.

357

Hydrophobic Polycationic Coatings Disinfect Poliovirus and Rotavirus Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coating surfaces with N-alkylated polyethylenimines (PEIs), namely branched N,N-hexyl,methyl-PEI via covalent attachment to glass or linear N,N-dodecyl,methyl-PEI by physical deposition (“painting”) onto polyethylene, ...

Larson, Alyssa Maxine

358

Fast and sensitive mapping of bisulfite-treated sequencing data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivation: Cytosine DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications and influences gene expression, developmental processes, X-chromosome inactivation, and genomic imprinting. Aberrant methylation is furthermore known to be associated ...

Christian Otto; Peter F. Stadler; Steve Hoffmann

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

NIST: Freq. Interstellar Molec. Micro. Trans. - Table 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... C 2 H 4 O 2, Methyl ester formic acid (methyl formate), CH 3 OCHO, [107-31-3], Bro75. C 2 H 4 O 2, Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, [64-19-7], Meh97. ...

360

The role of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in the nervous system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNA methylation is an important mechanism of gene regulation. Evidence is mounting that epigenetic mechanisms including that of DNA methylation operate in the nervous system. Genetic disruption of the de novo DNA ...

Nguyen, Suzanne Pham

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Sorbent Assisted Catalyst for the One-Pot Sequestration and Conversion of Renewable Feedstocks into Fuels  

algae oils, by not utilizing current methods of fatty acid conversion to methyl ester, makes this technology economically attractive.

363

AMukhopadhyay_SIM2008_final.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of mercury - Methyl mercury formation. * Biocorrosion * Biofouling of crude oil 2 Stored legacy waste Radioactive and heavy metal waste management...

364

Pramipexole effects on startle gating in rats and normal men  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brain regional activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase (reflex depends on the catechol O-methyltransferase Val158Met

Swerdlow, Neal R.; Lelham, Sophia A.; Sutherland Owens, Ashley N.; Chang, Wei-Li; Sassen, Sebastiaan D.; Talledo, Jo A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Method for mercury refinement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Apparatus for mercury refinement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Apparatus for mercury refinement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

368

Method for mercury refinement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

369

Purifying contaminated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

371

MOUSE ORGAN HARVEST PROTOCOL 10/01 TO FREEZE TISSUES FOR FROZEN SECTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bits of dry ice and 2 methyl butane. This will be the freezing mixture which will freeze the organs OCT turns white 9. Remove plastic molds with frozen organs from dry ice/ 2 methyl butane and let them No 15160-215 3. Frozen sample write-on bags: VWR Cat. No: 01-002-37 4. 2 methyl butane: Fisher Cat. No

Abagyan, Ruben

372

Mechanistic Studies at the Interface Between Organometallic Chemistry and Homogeneous Catalysis  

SciTech Connect

Mechanistic Studies at the Interface Between Organometallic Chemistry and Homogeneous Catalysis Charles P. Casey, Principal Investigator Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Phone 608-262-0584 FAX: 608-262-7144 Email: casey@chem.wisc.edu http://www.chem.wisc.edu/main/people/faculty/casey.html Executive Summary. Our goal was to learn the intimate mechanistic details of reactions involved in homogeneous catalysis and to use the insight we gain to develop new and improved catalysts. Our work centered on the hydrogenation of polar functional groups such as aldehydes and ketones and on hydroformylation. Specifically, we concentrated on catalysts capable of simultaneously transferring hydride from a metal center and a proton from an acidic oxygen or nitrogen center to an aldehyde or ketone. An economical iron based catalyst was developed and patented. Better understanding of fundamental organometallic reactions and catalytic processes enabled design of energy and material efficient chemical processes. Our work contributed to the development of catalysts for the selective and mild hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes; this will provide a modern green alternative to reductions by LiAlH4 and NaBH4, which require extensive work-up procedures and produce waste streams. (C5R4OH)Ru(CO)2H Hydrogenation Catalysts. Youval Shvo described a remarkable catalytic system in which the key intermediate (C5R4OH)Ru(CO)2H (1) has an electronically coupled acidic OH unit and a hydridic RuH unit. Our efforts centered on understanding and improving upon this important catalyst for reduction of aldehydes and ketones. Our mechanistic studies established that the reduction of aldehydes by 1 to produce alcohols and a diruthenium bridging hydride species occurs much more rapidly than regeneration of the ruthenium hydride from the diruthenium bridging hydride species. Our mechanistic studies require simultaneous transfer of hydride from ruthenium to the aldehyde carbon and of a proton from the CpOH unit to the aldehyde oxygen and support reduction of the aldehyde without its prior coordination to ruthenium. Another important step in the catalysis is the regeneration of 1 from reaction of H2 with the stable diruthenium bridging hydride complex 2. Studies of the microscopic reverse of this process (hydrogen evolution from 1 which occurs at 80 �������°C) in the presence of alcohol (the product of aldehyde hydrogenation) have shown that a dihydrogen complex is formed reversibly at a rate much faster than hydrogen evolution. Kinetic and theoretical studies in collaboration with Professor Qiang Cui of Wisconsin indicated an important role for alcohol in mediating transfer of hydrogen to ruthenium. One key to developing more active catalysts was to destabilize the bridging hydride intermediate 2 to prevent its formation or to speed its conversion to a reactive monohydride 1 by reaction with H2. We found several successful ways to destabilize the bridging hydride and to obtain more active catalysts. Most recently, we discovered related iron catalysts for hydrogenation that do not form dimers; the cost advantage of iron catalysts is spectacular. Iron Catalysts. In an exciting development, we found that a related iron complex is also a very active ketone hydrogenation catalyst. This hydrogenation catalyst shows high chemoselectivity for aldehydes, ketones, and imines and isolated C=C, C���¯�������ºC, C-X, -NO2, epoxides, and ester functions are unaffected by the hydrogenation conditions. Mechanistic studies have established a reversible hydrogen transfer step followed by rapid dihydrogen activation. The same iron complex also catalyzes transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

Charles P. Casey

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

374

.sup.18 F-4-Fluoroantipyrine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The novel radioactive compound .sup.18 F-4-fluoroantipyrine having high specific activity which can be used in nuclear medicine in diagnostic applications, prepared by the direct fluorination of antipyrine in acetic acid with radioactive fluorine at room temperature and purifying said radioactive compound by means of gel chromatography with ethyl acetate as eluent is disclosed. The non-radioactive 4-fluoroantipyrine can also be prepared by the direct fluorination of antipyrine in acetic acid with molecular fluorine at room temperature and purified by means of gel chromotography with ethyl acetate eluent.

Shiue, Chyng-Yann (Wading River, NY); Wolf, Alfred P. (Setauket, NY)

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

375

The synthesis and lanthanide coordination chemistry of 2,6-bis[(dicyclohexyl)phosphino-methyl]pyridine N,P,P'-trioxide. The crystal structure of 2,6-bis[(dicyclohexyl)phosphinomethyl] pyridine N,P,P'-trioxide erbium(III) nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The title ligand is obtained in two steps with high overall yield, and is soluble in aromatic solvents, making its liquid-liquid extraction performance of potential interest. The ligand forms a stable 1:1 coordination complex with Er(NO3)3 and the molecular structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction methods. The Er(III) ion is chelated by one tridentate ligand and three bidentate nitrate groups. The structural results are discussed in the context of complexes formed by related ligands.

Gan, Xinmin; Rapko, Brian M.; Duesler, E N.; Binyamin, Iris; Paine, Robert T.; Hay, Benjamin P.

2005-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

376

Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations was initiated in 2009. Computational investigations were performed first to elucidate understanding of the nature of the catalytically active site. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that Mn likely exists as a metallic alloy with Rh in Rh-rich environments under reducing conditions at the temperatures of interest. After determining that reduced Rh-Mn alloy metal clusters were in a reduced state, the activation energy barriers of numerous transition state species on the catalytically active metal particles were calculated to compute the activation barriers of several reaction pathways that are possible on the catalyst surface. Comparison of calculations with a Rh nanoparticle versus a Rh-Mn nanoparticle revealed that the presence of Mn enabled the reaction pathway of CH with CO to form an adsorbed CHCO species, which was a precursor to C2+ oxygenates. The presence of Mn did not have a significant effect on the rate of CH4 production. Ir was observed during empirical catalyst screening experiments to improve the activity and selectivity of Rh-Mn catalysts. Thus, the addition of Ir to the Rh-Mn nanoparticles also was probed computationally. Simulations of Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles revealed that, with sufficient Ir concentrations, the Rh, Mn and Ir presumably would be well mixed within a nanoparticle. Activation barriers were calculated for Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles for several C-, H-, and O-containing transitional species on the nanoparticle surface. It was found that the presence of Ir opened yet another reactive pathway whereby HCO is formed and may undergo insertion with CHx surface moieties. The reaction pathway opened by the presence of Ir is in addition to the CO + CH pathway opened by the presence of Mn. Similar to Mn, the presence of Ir was not found to not affect the rate of CH4 production.

Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

A proposed sensor deployment to investigate biogeochemical controls on mercury cycling in Mugu Lagoon, California (CON 5)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biogeochemical controls on mercury cycling in Mugu Lagoon,of UCLA, is impaired for mercury, a potent neurotoxin, whichhealth and wildlife t o •Mercury methylation is the process

Sarah Rothenberg; Jenny Jay

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

PNNL: Available Technologies: Agriculture & Mining Industry  

Bio-based. Bio-based. Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran; Building Efficiency. DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and ...

379

Novel Functionalized Nanomaterials for Organic Decontamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... oxide (TiO2)-graphene-rhamnolipid for decontamination of organics (methyl orange, phenol and diesel) from water. The results show the advantage of organic ...

380

Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethene and its methyl- and chlorine-substituted derivativesand the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parentowing to the presence of chlorine atoms adjacent to the

Coleman, Beverly Kaye

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

DIRECT ANALYSIS OF UNDILUTED PHOTORESIST WITH ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in-valve with syringe-driven diluent and internal standard streams before ... six potential contaminant elements in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidon were auto- ...

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

382

Mercury uptake and dynamics in sea ice algae, phytoplankton and grazing copepods from a Beaufort Sea Arctic marine food web.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mercury (Hg) is one of the primary contaminants of concern in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Methyl Hg (MeHg) is known to biomagnify in food webs.… (more)

Burt, Alexis Emelia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Chemical, biochemical and molecular genetic interrogation of biosynthetically robust marine cyanobacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transmethylation catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase."transfer catalyzed by catechol-O-methyl-transferase." J Amtransmethylation catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase."

Grindberg, Rashel Vina

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methyl ester soybean oil/diesel fuel blends. Bioresour.T. , Hydrotreated vegetable oil as fuel for heavy dutywith residual fuel oils. Journal of Aerosol Science, 2002.

Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

NIST Tech Beat - March 1, 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Computer modeling rendition of the proposed carbon-fluorine bond-breaking macrocycle after reaction with a molecule of methyl fluoride (CH3F). ...

386

NIST Image Gallery: Image Details  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Computer modeling rendition of the proposed carbon-fluorine bond-breaking macrocycle after reaction with a molecule of methyl fluoride (CH3F). ...

387

Building and Fire Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Degraded by External Thermal Radiation. ... 24-25, 1992, Arlington, VA, 155-177 ... Structural Analysis of the Response of the ...

388

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methyl esters (DME) and Fischer-Tropsch liquids, as well astransport fuels using Fischer-Tropsch or other conversionconcluded that biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic kerosene

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas This EA evaluates the...

390

Instrument Schedule for dcs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Mon Mar 12 2007, 1, 7902, Rotational dynamics of methane in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF8 and methane-methyl coupling (preliminary ...

391

Supercontiunuum FTIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Near-IR FT spectra of methane, shown in Figure 1, and methyl salicylate were acquired with both sources to demonstrate the reasonable spectral ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

392

Instrument Schedule for dcs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Thu May 10 2007, 4, 7902, Rotational dynamics of methane in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF8 and methane-methyl coupling, Zhou*, Wu ...

393

Gas Metrology Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and the neurotoxic risk associated with trophic transfer of methyl mercury to humans, the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired electric … ...

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in the panel of breast cancer cell lines. Subnetwork enrichment of these genes has identifed 35 common regulators with 6 or more predicted markers. In addition to identifying epigenetically regulated genes, we show evidence of differentially expressed methylation patterns between the basal and luminal subtypes. Our results indicate that the proposed computational protocol is a viable platform for identifying epigenetically regulated genes. Our protocol has generated a list of predictors including COL1A2, TOP2A, TFF1, and VAV3, genes whose key roles in epigenetic regulation is documented in the literature. Subnetwork enrichment of these predicted markers further suggests that epigenetic regulation of individual genes occurs in a coordinated fashion and through common regulators.

Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria EH; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

395

Site Navigation - Brookhaven National Laboratory — a passion for ...  

BSA 10-13: Direct determination of methylation of CpG dinucleotides. BNL Reference Number: BSA 10-13. Patent Status: Application Number 20120219942 was published on ...

396

Biogeochemistry of Isoprenoid Production and Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodgeradation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation is an exploration of microbial isoprenoid production and destruction by anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation. Isoprenoids are methyl-branched hydrocarbons, and include biomarkers from all three… (more)

Dawson, Katherine

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

GAMMA-RAY DETECTION WITH PbO GLASS CONVERTERS IN MWPC: ELECTRON CONVERSION EFFICIENCY AND TIME RESOLUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10X CF and 30% iso- butane, respectively. The effects of gas+ 67% Ar 3% methylal+30% Iso­ butane + 67% Ar Comparing the

Lum, G.K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

BS-Seeker2: a versatile aligning pipeline for bisulfite sequencing data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RL: MethylCoder: software pipeline for bisulfite-treateda versatile aligning pipeline for bisulfite sequencing dataof BS Seeker, as a full pipeline for mapping bisulfite

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

NIST MS Data Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Spectra that produce top matches with NIST 98 Acetic acid, 1-methylethyl ester Acetic acid, butyl ester Butanoic acid, 3-oxo-, methyl ester 1-Butanol ...

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

ThermoML Data for JCED  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Title: Liquid Liquid Equilibria of Water + Acetic Acid + Cyclopentyl Methyl Ether ... Title: Effects of Different Organic Acids on Solubility and Metastable ...

405

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

Information Center

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S.1766  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

SR/OIAF/2002-06 Release date: March 2002 This report analyzes the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766.

407

SEPARATION OF INORGANIC SALTS FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering the nitrates of uranium and plutonium from solution in oxygen-containing organic solvents such as ketones or ethers. The solution of such salts dissolved in an oxygen-containing organic compound is contacted with an ion exchange resin whereby sorption of the entire salt on the resin takes place and then the salt-depleted liquid and the resin are separated from each other. The reaction seems to be based on an anion formation of the entire salt by complexing with the anion of the resin. Strong base or quaternary ammonium type resins can be used successfully in this process.

Katzin, L.I.; Sullivan, J.C.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

408

CHEMISTRY DIVISION ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR PERIOD ENDING JUNE 20, 1959  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The H-F conductance and susceptance were determined for coil-type vessels over a range of frequencies from 2 to 30 mc. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of organic compounds in the vapor phase were determined, and a maximum was assigned to each compound. The dielectric constant values for five alpha substituted ketones at 25 deg C are reponted. A series of acids in dimethylformamide was titrated with the alkali methoxides by the high-frequency and conductance methods. The titration curves by these two methods were very similar in shape and also very similar to the curves for the corresponding type of acid in aqueous solution (W.L.H.)

None

1959-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

409

Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

PRODUCTION OF FLUOROCARBONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent pertains to a process for recovering fluorocarbons from a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons with partially and completely fluorinated products thereof. It consists of contacting the mxture in the cold with a liquid which is a solvent for the hydrocarbons and which is a nonsolvent for the fluorocarbons, extracting the hydrocarbons, separating the fluorocarbon-containing layer from the solvent-containing layer, and submitting the fluorocarbon layer to fractlonal distillation, to isolate the desired fluorocarbon fraction. Suitable solvents wnich may be used in the process include the lower aliphatic alcohols, and the lower aliphatic ketones.

Sarsfield, N.F.

1949-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

413

Self-Assembly of Stimuli-Responsive Water-Soluble [60]Fullerene End-Capped Ampholytic Block Copolymer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well-defined, water-soluble, pH and temperature stimuli-responsive [60]fullerene (C??) containing ampholytic block copolymer of poly((methacrylic acid)-block-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate))-block–C?? (P(MAA-b-DMAEMA)-b-C??) ...

Ravi, P.

414

PRODUCTION OF METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zirconium nitrate can be separated from hafnium nitrate by mixing the nitrates with ethyl cellulose pulp, eluting the mass with diethyl ether containing nitric acid, and passing the eluent through a column of cellulose pulp the outflow of which is substantially free of hafnium.

Arden, T.V.; Burstall, F.H.; Davies, G.R.; Linstead, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

1958-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

415

JournalJoint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth SamplingJoint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling Vol. 25 No. 1-1999  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) ­ Ayanna Bernard 17. Complex decision making in machine maintenance ­ Todd Spencer 35. Membranes for Olefin Paraffin Separations ­ Mita Das 36. High Aspect Ratio Mixed Matrix Membranes ­ JR Johnson 37. Cross-linkable Hollow Fiber Membranes for Natural Gas Purification

416

ORNL/TM-2000/191 ULTRA-CLEAN DIESEL FUEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coke 2.8 Electricity 39.0 Charcoal 1.8 Ethyl Alcohol 3.1 Petroleum Derivatives 35.2 Other Secondaries 0 to respond to the needs with reasonable costs and environmental impact. Among the options for the expansion will be the least-cost solution for this expansion and the net change in CO2 emissions? The answer

417

UNITED STATES Calendar Year 2004  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coke 2.8 Electricity 39.0 Charcoal 1.8 Ethyl Alcohol 3.1 Petroleum Derivatives 35.2 Other Secondaries 0 to respond to the needs with reasonable costs and environmental impact. Among the options for the expansion will be the least-cost solution for this expansion and the net change in CO2 emissions? The answer

US Army Corps of Engineers

418

Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Enhanced photovoltaic characteristics of solar cells based on n-type triphenodioxazine derivative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymer solar cells based on poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV):1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61(PCBM):3, 10-di(trifluoromethane) triphenodioxazine (TFTD) was fabricated using spin coating technology. ... Keywords: Absorption spectra, Photoluminescence, Photovoltaics, Polymer

Fen Qiao; Aimin Liu; Yi Xiao; Yang Ping Ou; Ji quan Zhang; Yong chang Sang

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Deshusses, Johnson, and Leson Volume 49 August 1999 Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 973  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- able medium and a mixture of wood chips and compost. Both were exposed to varying mixtures of ethyl (medium B) mixed from compost and polystyrene spheres (Bioton). Calcium carbonate (lime- stone) for p , comparable to values reported for other, compost-based, biofilter systems.7 Consistent with previously

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Anisotropic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7--25 C and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10--30 C. 2 figs.

Gollan, A.Z.

1987-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

422

Quantitative Infrared Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Benzene, 2.1 %, Boxcar, 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125. Triangular, 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125. ... Ethyl benzene, 2.1 %, Boxcar, 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.125. ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Udfordringer og muligheder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a natural gas component, hence a non-renewable energy. Ethanol, and particularly bioethanol from sugar cane. This trans- esterification leads to high conversion of triglycerides (TG) into ethyl esters (Marjanovic´ et, which involves a faster conversion of triglycerides and thus an increase of their transfer rate

Mosegaard, Klaus

424

WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's product requirements are met by blending feedstocks on hand at midnight. The volumes vary daily, depending, an NLP, an ILP, or a MILP, and is it single or multi-objective? Explain. Question 2 ­ LP Case Analysis ­ will be shipped that day. Both products are blended from 90-octane unleaded gasoline. Ethyl alcohol, the only

Chinnam, Ratna Babu

425

Introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Designations and general electrical applications for elastomers...used for potting of electrical connectors EPR R Ethylene-propylene Good general-purpose electrical properties EPT R Ethyl-propylene terpolymer Good general-purpose electrical properties Hypalon (HYP) CSM Chlorosulfonated polyethylene Not outstanding electrically Silicone SIL Polysiloxane Among the best...

426

Alkali compounds catalyzed low temperature methanol synthesis over Cu-based catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel mixed catalyst system containing alkali compounds over Cu/MgO-Na catalyst was developed to synthesize methanol from syngas via ethyl formate in a slurry reactor. The results exhibited that among the used alkali formates (HCOOM, M=Li, Na, Cs, ... Keywords: CuMgO-Na/HCOONa/catalysis system, low temperature methanol synthesis, slurry phase

Baoshan Hu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

BRANCHED ALKANES FROM BLUE-GREEN ALGAE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Branched alkanes from blue-green algae were separated on a 750 feet high resolution capillary gas chromatographic column. The mixture was found to be 90% of 1:1 ratio 7-methyl, and 8-methyl-heptadecane, and 10% of 6-methylheptadecane. An optical rotation of +2.5 {+-} 0.5 was obtained on a 5 mg of mixture.

Han, Jerry; Calvin, Melvin.

1970-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Cell Stem Cell, Volume 12 Supplemental Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Jacobsen, Matteo Pellegrini and Amander T. Clark #12;Figure S1. DNA Methylation in PGCs and iPGCs somatic cells from e10.5 embryos (D) and iPGCs (E). The xaxis denotes individual CpG dinucleotides of differentiation, showing gating strategy for SSEA1+/cKitbright iPGCs (green). G: Metaplot of methylation

Jacobsen, Steve

429

Ultrafine PMMA(QDs)/PVDF core-shell fibers for nanophotonic applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrafine fibers of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with unique core-shell structure were fabricated via facile electrospinning method, and were adopted as waveguide materials. PMMA, into which CdSe/ZnS quantum dots ... Keywords: CdSe/ZnS, Core-shell fiber, Electrospinning, Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), Quantum dots

Shi-Li Quan; Hyun-Sik Lee; El-Hang Lee; Kyoung-Duck Park; Seung Gol Lee; In-Joo Chin

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

MPP8 mediates the interactions between DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a and H3K9 methyltransferase GLP/G9a  

SciTech Connect

DNA CpG methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation are two major repressive epigenetic modifications, and these methylations are positively correlated with one another in chromatin. Here we show that G9a or G9a-like protein (GLP) dimethylate the amino-terminal lysine 44 (K44) of mouse Dnmt3a (equivalent to K47 of human DNMT3A) in vitro and in cells overexpressing G9a or GLP. The chromodomain of MPP8 recognizes the dimethylated Dnmt3aK44me2. MPP8 also interacts with self-methylated GLP in a methylation-dependent manner. The MPP8 chromodomain forms a dimer in solution and in crystals, suggesting that a dimeric MPP8 molecule could bridge the methylated Dnmt3a and GLP, resulting in a silencing complex of Dnmt3a-MPP8-GLP/G9a on chromatin templates. Together, these findings provide a molecular explanation, at least in part, for the co-occurrence of DNA methylation and H3K9 methylation in chromatin.

Chang, Yanqi; Sun, Lidong; Kokura, Kenji; Horton, John R.; Fukuda, Mikiko; Espejo, Alexsandra; Izumi, Victoria; Koomen, John M.; Bedford, Mark T.; Zhang, Xing; Shinkai, Yoichi; Fang, Jia; Cheng, Xiaodong (Moffitt); (Emory-MED); (Kyoto); (Texas)

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

431

Bacterial Genetics and Molecular Biology -a Genomics Perspective (Ch. 1) Trudy M. Wassenaar, David W. Ussery Chapter 1. What is DNA?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

more complex atoms to be stable. Eventually, atoms began to clump and condense due to gravity, causing in E. coli are called Dam (for DNA adenine methylase) and Dcm (DNA cytosine methylase). Not every group is sequence-dependent. Dam methylates the A in the sequence GATC and Dcm methylates the first C

Ussery, David W.

432

The Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as a Model for Understanding Bacterial Mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bacterial Mercury Methylation Contact: Cynthia Gilmour (gilmourc@si.edu, 443-482-2498) DOE/Office of Science Contact: Cynthia Gilmour (gilmourc@si.edu, 443-482-2498) DOE/Office of Science/Biological & Environmental/Biological & Environmental Research ·The ORNL Mercury Science Focus Area is developing the Hg-methylating bacterium

433

Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles.

Blom, Alex Jason

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Separation of gas mixtures by supported complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system was investigated that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of alcohols and the hydrogenation of ketones. Such a catalyst, if used in a membrane containing an alcohol solvent, might be of use in selective H/sub 2/ separation from gas mixtures. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol and 2-octanol were studied using a RhCl/sub 3//SnCl/sub 2//LiCl catalyst system. These alcohols are dehydrogenated at rates that are initially rapid, but which gradually slow to a stop. The decrease in rate of H/sub 2/ evolution is a result of the establishment of an equilibrium between the alcohol and the liberated hydrogen and ketone. At 150/sup 0/C, cyclohexanol has the fastest rate of dehydrogenation. Several dehydrogenation/hydrogenation cycles have been carried out using this alcohol over a period of one week without serious catalyst deactivation or side reactions. Initial tests of the catalyst dissolved in cyclohexanol within two membranes were inconclusive. An anion exchange membrane was not suitably wetted by the catalyst solution and Celgard/sup TM/, which was wetted, could not be kept wet at 150/sup 0/C under flow conditions in the membrane cell. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Nelson, D.A.; Lilga, M.A.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Expanding the scope of the nucleophile catalyzed aldol lactonization (NCALl) process and transformations of the resulting beta-lactones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expanding the uses of the NCAL and finding the spectrum of substrates best suited for such a transformation has been the main effort of my research. Previous studies had focused on aldedydes as the requisite functionality that would provide the needed electrophilicity in order to complete the aldol; however, recent advancements have introduced ketones as a viable carbonyl. With an established protocol in hand, I set out to explore various substrates that could yield Beta-lactones in good to moderate yields such as amino acid derivatives, diones, and large cyclic formations as well as simple, straight chain acids with varying groups Alpha to the ketone. In general, I was able to establish a basic framework of substrates that are highly and/or moderately susceptible towards the NCAL and current studies continue to further expand the scope. In addition to making Beta-lactones, I investigated alkyl cuprates as soft nucleophiles to afford addition at the Beta carbon yielding a variety of acids. Substrates for cuprate additions have been expanded to bulkier and multi-cyclic Beta-lactones and applied to the synthesis of a Merck IND intermediate. Additions to bi- and tri-chloro Beta-lactones due to the presence of the resulting moity in natural products are currently being studied.

Matla, Andrea Slava

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Fractionation of phenolic compounds from a purple corn extract and evaluation of antioxidant and antimutagenic activities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds from a purple corn extract was performed. The purple corn extract had cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and its respective acylated anthocyanin-glucosides. Cyadinin-3glucoside was the main constituent (44.4 ?? 4.7%) followed by the acylated cyanidin-3-glucoside (26.9 ?? 8.0%). Other phenolic compounds present in the purple corn corresponded to protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid. In addition, quercetin derivatives, a hesperitin derivative and pcoumaric and ferulic acid derivatives were found. Fractionation of phenolic compounds yielded two main fractions, an anthocyanin-rich water fraction (WF) and an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). Evaluation of antimutagenic activity in both fractions revealed higher antimutagenic activity in the ethyl acetate fraction compared to the anthocyanin-rich fraction. On the other hand, antioxidant activity of the anthocyanin-rich fraction was higher compared to the ethyl acetate fraction. Further fractionation of the anthocyanin-rich fraction in a Toyopearl HW40 gel permeation column yielded five sub-fractions which showed no difference in antimutagenic activity except for the water sub-fraction WF-V. All the sub-fractions were active as antimutagens and antioxidants. Further fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded four sub-fractions that showed to be active as antimutagens and antioxidants. Ethyl acetate sub-fraction EAF-IV was the most active as an antimutagen. HPLC-DAD characterization of that sub-fraction revealed mainly the presence of a quercetin derivative with UV-visible spectral characteristics similar to rutin but with a little longer retention time. The mechanism of antimutagenic action by the phenolic compounds present either in the anthocyanin-rich fraction or the ethyl acetate fraction and sub-fraction EAFIV seems to be a contribution of a direct action on the enzymes involved in the activation of the mutagen and to the scavenging activity of the mutagen nucleophiles, as demonstrated by our assays.

Pedreschi, Romina Paola

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Send Orders of Reprints at reprints@benthamscience.net 226 Current Computer-Aided Drug Design, 2013, 9, 226-232  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Consider the molecular graph of 2-methyl butane, with the vertex labelling as shown in Fig. (1). Fig. (1). The molecular graph of 2-methyl butane (CAS 78-78-4). The adjacency matrix A(G) and the distance matrix D(G) of 2-methyl butane are: A(G) D(G) 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 3 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0

Gini, Giuseppina

438

APS Protocols for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Untreated Foreign Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APS Protocols for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Untreated Foreign Soil APS Protocols for Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Untreated Foreign Soil and Regulated Domestic Soil Arrival of New Samples: Unpack shipping containers. Treat any ice/melted water immediately. Decontaminate any "blue ice" packets with 70% ethyl alcohol. Collect any loose soil from container and heat-treat immediately. Immediately decontaminate shipping containers. Heat-treat wooden, metal, or cardboard shipping containers (using lowest heat). Treat plastic containers and coolers with 70% ethyl alcohol. Storage of Samples: Store dry samples in the locked storage cabinet in Room 431Z021 until they can be delivered to the appropriate beamline for analysis. Label containers with origin and arrival date. Log samples into the APS Soil Inventory book maintained in 431Z021.

439

ET Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Mitchell W. Mutz, James F. Wishart and George L. McLendon Adv. Chem Ser. 254, Ch. 10, pp. 145-159 Abstract: We prepared three bifunctional redox protein maquettes based on 12-, 16-, and 20-mer three-helix bundles. In each case, the helix was capped with a Co(III) tris-bipyridyl electron acceptor and also functionalized with a C-terminal viologen (1-ethyl-1'-ethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) donor. Electron transfer (ET) was initiated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis and followed spectrometrically to determined average, concentration-independent, first-order rates for the 16-mer and 20-mer maquettes. For the 16-mer bundle, the alpha-helical content was adjusted by the addition of urea or trifluoroethanol to solutions containing the metalloprotein. This

440

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 94-0253-2451, Pan American Health Organization, Bogota, Colombia, South America  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the Pan American Health Organization, an investigation was begun into possible hazardous working conditions at the ECOPETROL Oil Refinery in Barrancabermeja, Colombia. The study was to evaluate employee exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl-benzene, and cyclohexane in various areas of the refinery. ECOPETROL was an integrated oil refinery with a refining capacity of 200,000 barrels per day. In the aromatics facility benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl-benzene, and cyclohexane were refined from napththa. The author concludes that a hazard existed for some workers from exposure to benzene. The author recommends that benzene exposure be controlled through the use of personal protective equipment and environmental monitoring programs.

Kelly, J.; Echt, A.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. Semiannual progress report, September 1, 1995--February 29, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants onto coal. The application of surfactants to coal beneficiation and coal-water slurry preparation is well known. However, the effects of surfactants on catalyst loading and dispersion prior to coal liquefaction have not been investigated. The current work is focused on the influence of the cationic surfactant dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, anionic) on the surface properties of a bituminous coal and its molybdenum uptake from solution. The results show that DDAB created positively charged sites on the coal and increased molybdenum loading compared to the original coal. In contrast, SDS rendered the coal surface negative and reduced molybdenum uptake. The results show that efficient loading of molybdenum catalyst onto coal can be achieved by pretreatment of the coal with dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide.

Abotsi, G.M.K.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Binding of stereognostically designed ligands to trivalent, pentavalent, and hexavalent f-block elements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stability constants were determined for the complexes formed from two stereognostically designed ligands and the f-block elements Nd(III), Np(V), and Pu(VI). The ligands investigated were tris[3-(2-carboxyphenoxy)propyl]amine (NPB) and tris-N,N',N''-[2-(2-carboxy-4-ethyl-phenoxy)ethyl]-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (EETAC). A stereognostically blind ligand, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), was also investigated for comparison. The results suggest that there is no significant stereognostic effect for complexation of NPB or EETAC to Np(V). On the other hand, a modest stereognostic effect is seen for the NPB ligand when complexed to Pu(VI), leading to an approximately 8-fold increase in the binding strength. A more significant effect is observed for the EETAC system in which a 250-fold increase in binding is observed for Pu(VI) versus Nd(III).

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

443

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

444

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

445

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

446

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Effects of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate on Diesel-Spray Processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel fuel ignition-enhancing additives, such as 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, are known to reduce emissions from diesel engines; however, the mechanisms by which the emissions reduction occur are not understood. This report covers the first phase of a research project supported by Ethyl Corporation that is aimed at developing a detailed understanding of how 2-ethylhexyl nitrate alters in-cylinder injection, ignition, and combustion processes to reduce diesel engine emissions.

Higgins, B.; Mueller, C.; Siebers, D.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Tape Formulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Typical nonaqueous formulations of tape systems...g oz Oxidizing sintering atmospheres Menhaden fish oil (dispersant) 1.8 0.06 Xylene (solvent) 21.0 0.74 Anhydrous ethyl alcohol (solvent) 13.7 0.48 Aluminum oxide (ceramic powder) 100.0 3.5 Mixed phthalates (plasticizer) 3.6 0.13 Polyalkylene glycol (plasticizer) 4.3 0.15 Polyvinyl butyral (binder)...

451

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

452

Simplified distillation column controls  

SciTech Connect

A simple, energy efficient method of controlling single or double distillation columns for the production of ethyl alcohol is described. The control system is based on a material balance scheme centered around a thermostat actuated control valve to regulate reflux rate and product purity. Column bottom's levels are automatically regulated by vented suction lines on the pump inlets. Methods of minimizing control input variations are used including column insulation, stillage-to-beer heat exchanger, and a steam pressure regulator.

Badger, P.; Pile, R.; Lightsey, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

454

Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Transition metal ion-assisted photochemical generation of alkyl halides and hydrocarbons from carboxylic acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-UV photolysis of aqueous solutions of propionic acid and aqueous Fe3+ in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. The reaction becomes mildly catalytic (about five turnovers) in the presence of oxygen which converts a portion of alkyl radicals to oxidizing intermediates that reoxidize Fe2+. The photochemistry in the presence of halide ions (X? = Cl?, Br?) generates ethyl halides via halogen atom abstraction from FeXn3?n by ethyl radicals. Near-quantitative yields of C2H5X are obtained at ?0.05 M X?. Competition experiments with Co(NH3)5Br2+ provided kinetic data for the reaction of ethyl radicals with FeCl2+ (k = (4.0 ± 0.5) × 106 M?1 s?1) and with FeBr2+ (k = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 107 M?1 s?1). Photochemical decarboxylation of propionic acid in the presence of Cu2+ generates ethylene and Cu+. Longer-chain acids also yield alpha olefins as exclusive products. These reactions become catalytic under constant purge with oxygen which plays a dual role. It reoxidizes Cu+ to Cu2+, and removes gaseous olefins to prevent accumulation of Cu+(olefin) complexes and depletion of Cu2+. The results underscore the profound effect that the choice of metal ions, the medium, and reaction conditions exert on the photochemistry of carboxylic acids.

Carraher, Jack; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

456

Infrared absorption measurements of the kinetics of Cl atom reactions with C{sub 3}H{sub n} (n=4,6) unsaturated hydrocarbons between 300-850 K  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reaction of chlorine (Cl) atoms with the unsaturated C{sub 3}H{sub n} where n=4,6, hydrocarbons propylene, allene, and methyl acetylene have been uninvestigated as a function of temperature and pressure.

Farrell, J.T.; Pilgrim, J.S.; Taatjes, C.A.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Mercury, Cadmium and Lead Biogeochemistry in the Soil–Plant–Insect System in Huludao City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

YE, Ketris MP (2005a) Mercury in coal: a review part 1of total and methyl mercury by arthropods. Bull Environ259 DOI 10.1007/s00128-009-9688-6 Mercury, Cadmium and Lead

Zhang, Zhong-Sheng; Lu, Xian-Guo; Wang, Qi-Chao; Zheng, Dong-Mei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

AOCS Official Method Ce 2-66  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preparation of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids AOCS Official Method Ce 2-66 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method provides a means for prepari

459

AOCS Official Method Ch 1-91  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preparation of Methyl Esters of Long-Chain Fatty Acids AOCS Official Method Ch 1-91 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method provides a means

460

Biodiesel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

fatty acid methyl esters, or long-chain mono alkyl esters. It is produced from renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methyl ethyl ketone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Period-Unit: Download Series History ... 51: 64: 59: 70: 70: 62: 2009-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 41: 44: 49: 61: 49: 50: 2004-2013: Other ...

462

U.S. Oxygenate Production - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History; Fuel Ethanol: 855: 877: 891: 868: 849: 852: 1981-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 48: 55: 54: 51 ...

463

Different Roles for Tet1 and Tet2 Proteins in Reprogramming-Mediated Erasure of Imprints Induced by EGC Fusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Genomic imprinting directs the allele-specific marking and expression of loci according to their parental origin. Differential DNA methylation at imprinted control regions (ICRs) is established in gametes and, although ...

Piccolo, Francesco M.

464

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensed Toxicity Summary for METHYL MERCURY Condensed Toxicity Summary for METHYL MERCURY NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. FEBRUARY, 1992 Prepared by: Robert A. Young, Ph.D., D.A.B.T., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. Methyl mercury is formed by biotic and abiotic methylation of mercury

465

/sup 29/Si NMR study of the surface of pyrogenic silica modified by methylchlorosilanes  

SciTech Connect

Cross-polarization /sup 29/Si NMR spectra have been used for aerosil modified by methyl-chlorosilanes to identify surface organosilicon compounds and their reactions during hydrolysis and methanolysis.

Brie, V.V.; Gorlov, Yu.I.; Chuiko, A.A.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Thermodynamics of the Densification Process for Polymer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... According to Price [7], very little change in the enthalpy of poly(methyl methacrylate) is ob- served up to about 800 ... Pv/t = [i - 2-1/6r(rV0"1/3]~1 . . (9) ...

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

467

Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of chloromethanes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The four chloromethanes - methyl chloride (CH3Cl), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), chloroform (CHCl3), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), are chlorine-containing gases contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion ...

Xiao, Xue, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Presentation and accessibility of surface bound ligands on amphiphilic graft copolymer films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amphiphilic comb-type graft copolymers comprising a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) backbone and short, polyethylene oxide (PEO) side chains, PMMA-g-PEO, are proposed to self-organize at the polymer/water interface, ...

Kuhlman, William A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The applications of comb polymer to the study of liver cell adhesion and signaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comb polymer, which consists of a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) backbone with hydrophilic hydroxy-poly(ethylene oxide) (HPOEM) side chains, is a tool that has many possible applications for the study of liver ...

Yin, David, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant, Part C: Public Comments and ARB/OEHHA Staff Responses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1B1, sulfotransferase 1A1, catechol-o-methyltransferase andphenol, the cresols, 2,4-dimethyl phenol, catechol, andthe methyl catechols, all of which have some carcinogenic

California Environmental Protection Agency: Air Resources Board

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Comparison of etch characteristics of KOH, TMAH and EDP for bulk micromachining of silicon (110)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk micromachining in Si (110) wafer is an essential process for fabricating vertical microstructures by wet chemical etching. We compared the anisotropic etching properties of potassium hydroxide (KOH), tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and ethylene ...

Shankar Dutta; Md Imran; P. Kumar; R. Pal; P. Datta; R. Chatterjee

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

AOCS Official Method Ae 4-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Free Fatty Acids AOCS Official Method Ae 4-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the free fatty acids in oil removed from the seed by methyl alc

473

Chemical Resistance Chart  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 0. 53. Ethylene Oxide, 21, 4, 17, 5, 1, 5, 1, 5, 189, 2, 48, 4. 54. Hydrogen Fluoride, 210, 2, 1, 5, 142, 1, 1, 5, ND, 0, 6, 3. 55. Methyl Chloride, ...

474

Index of /ftp/ale_gage_Agage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

began in 1978 using Hewlett-Packard (HP) 5840 gas chromatographs (gc) with an electron-capture detector (ECD) to measure five species (CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), methyl...

475

AOCS Official Method Ca 14b-96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantification of Free Glycerin in Selected Glycerides and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by HPLC with Laser Light-Scattering Detection AOCS Official Method Ca 14b-96 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads ...

476

Radiation Chemistry of MTBE in Aqueous Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Aqueous Solution Stephen P. Mezyk, Jace Jones, William J. Cooper, Thomas Tobien, Michael G. Nickelsen, J. Wesley Adams, Kevin E. O'Shea, David M....

477

Microsoft Word - Transportation pdf.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Finnish homes 0.23 to 0.86 Christensen and Mustonen, 1987 Various radioisotopes Danish home 0.1 to 0.5 Roed and Cannell, 1987 Noble gGases, methyl iodide, elemental iodine,...

478

Cationic Ir(III) alkyl and hydride complexes: stoichiometric ...  

80 S.R. Klei et al./Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 189 (2002) 79–94 platinum(II) catalyst capable of converting methane to methyl bisulfate, which could ...

479

Engineering Project Solar-Boosted  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of CTL · Coal & the Department of Defense · Fischer-Tropsch Fuel & EngineTesting · Coal & Biomass Methanol Methyl Acetate Acetic Anhydride Naphtha Waxes Fischer Tropsch Liquids Diesel/Jet/Gas Fuels

480

Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. Progress report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985. [EDTA-radicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Excited-state inter- and intramolecular electron-transfer reactions lie at the heart of most photochemical solar energy conversion schemes. Our research, which utilizes the techniques of continuous and pulsed photolysis and radiolysis, has focused on three general aspects of these reactions involving transition metal coordination complexes and electron donor-acceptor complexes: (1) the effect of solution medium on the properties and quenching of the excited states; (2) the control of the quantum yield of formation of redox products; and (3) the mechanisms by which reduced species interact with water to yield H/sub 2/ homogeneously and heterogeneously. Research activities are summarized for the following: (1) reaction of methyl viologen with EDTA-radicals; (2) solution medium control of photoredox yields; (3) photochemistry of methyl viologen charge-transfer complexes; (4) thermal reduction of methyl viologen in alkaline solution; (5) formation of dihydrogen from reduced methyl viologen; and (6) photophysics of Cr(III)-polypyridyl complexes.

Hoffman, M.Z.

1985-03-31T23:59:59.000Z