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1

Table 5.4 Petroleum Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 5.4 Petroleum Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011: Year: Persian Gulf 2: Selected OPEC 1 Countries: Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries: Total Imports

2

Estimation, Economic methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper I analyse the main strengths and weaknesses of agent-based computational models. I first describe how agent-based simulations can complement more traditional modelling techniques. Then, I rationalise the main theoretical critiques against the use of simulation, which point to the following problematic areas: (i) interpretation of the simulation dynamics, (ii) estimation of the simulation model, and (iii) generalisation of the results. I show that there exist solutions for all these issues. Along the way, I clarify some confounding differences in terminology between the computer science and the economic literature.

Matteo Richiardi; Laboratorio Riccardo; Revelli Centre; Employment Studies; I’m Indebted Francesco Devicienti; Roberto Leombruni; Bruno Contini For Their

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

EPA Revises Emissions Estimation Methodology  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The changes to the historical emission estimates are the result of revisions to the data and estimation ... b K.D . Smythe, RAND ... RAND Environmental Science and ...

4

New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

Information Center

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

5

Table CT1. Energy Consumption Estimates for Major Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration State Energy Data 2011: Consumption 365 Table CT2. Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, Selected Years, 1960-2011, North ...

6

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory, Resource assessment Resource Type: Publications Website: wbcarbonfinance.org/docs/REDD_Mosaic_Methodology.pdf Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Screenshot References: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation[1] Overview "This methodology is for project activities that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from mosaic deforestation and, where relevant and

7

Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China's Cement Production: Methodolog...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the need to understand the uncertainty of current estimates of cement emissions in China. This paper compares several methodologies for calculating CO2 emissions from cement...

8

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Michigan ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Michigan, 1960 - 2011 1960 0 20,790 15,899 NA 1961 0 27,697 18,901 NA 1962 0 28,987 17,114 NA

9

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, New ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, New Mexico, 1960 - 2011 1960 295 798,928 107,380 NA 1961 412 789,662 112,553 NA ... Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy

10

EIA - Appendix B: Estimation Methodologies of Household Vehicles Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you have trouble viewing this page, contact the National Energy Informaiton Center at (202) 586-8800. Return to Energy Information Administration Home Page If you have trouble viewing this page, contact the National Energy Informaiton Center at (202) 586-8800. Return to Energy Information Administration Home Page EIA Home > Transportation Home Page > Appendix B Estimation MethodologiesIntroduction Appendix B Estimation Methodologies Introduction Statistics concerning vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel efficiency (given in terms of miles per gallon (MPG)), vehicle fuel consumption, and vehicle fuel expenditures are presented in this report. The methodology used to estimate these statistics relied on data from the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel efficiency test results, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) retail pump price series, and the Lundberg Survey, Inc., price series for 1994.

11

Methodology for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates  

Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

Methodology for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates Methodology for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates Latest Update: November 25, 2008 This report consists of the following sections: Survey and Survey Processing - a description of the survey and an overview of the program Sampling - a description of the selection process used to identify companies in the survey Estimation - how the regional estimates are prepared from the collected data Computing the 5-year Averages, Maxima, Minima, and Year-Ago Values for the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report - the method used to prepare weekly data to compute the 5-year averages, maxima, minima, and year-ago values for the weekly report Derivation of the Weekly Historical Estimates Database - a description of the process used to generate the historical database for the

12

New Methodology for Estimating Fuel Economy by Vehicle Class  

SciTech Connect

Office of Highway Policy Information to develop a new methodology to generate annual estimates of average fuel efficiency and number of motor vehicles registered by vehicle class for Table VM-1 of the Highway Statistics annual publication. This paper describes the new methodology developed under this effort and compares the results of the existing manual method and the new systematic approach. The methodology developed under this study takes a two-step approach. First, the preliminary fuel efficiency rates are estimated based on vehicle stock models for different classes of vehicles. Then, a reconciliation model is used to adjust the initial fuel consumption rates from the vehicle stock models and match the VMT information for each vehicle class and the reported total fuel consumption. This reconciliation model utilizes a systematic approach that produces documentable and reproducible results. The basic framework utilizes a mathematical programming formulation to minimize the deviations between the fuel economy estimates published in the previous year s Highway Statistics and the results from the vehicle stock models, subject to the constraint that fuel consumptions for different vehicle classes must sum to the total fuel consumption estimate published in Table MF-21 of the current year Highway Statistics. The results generated from this new approach provide a smoother time series for the fuel economies by vehicle class. It also utilizes the most up-to-date and best available data with sound econometric models to generate MPG estimates by vehicle class.

Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Dabbs, Kathryn [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Q Q Q U U A A L L I I T T Y Y G G U U I I D D E E L L I I N N E E S S F F O O R R E E N N E E R R G G Y Y S S Y Y S S T T E E M M S S T T U U D D I I E E S S C C o o s s t t E E s s t t i i m m a a t t i i o o n n M M e e t t h h o o d d o o l l o o g g y y f f o o r r N N E E T T L L A A s s s s e e s s s s m m e e n n t t s s o o f f P P o o w w e e r r P P l l a a n n t t P P e e r r f f o o r r m m a a n n c c e e March 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/???? April 2011 DOE/NETL-2011/1455 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Program Planning and Analysis 2 Power Plant Cost Estimation Methodology Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies April 2011 Quality Guidelines for Energy Systems Studies Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments of Power Plant Performance Introduction This paper summarizes the costing methodology employed by NETL in its costing models and baseline reports. Further, it defines the specific levels of capital cost as well as outlines the costing metrics by which

14

Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods.

Carter, W. L.; Rainey, R. H.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Methodology and Estimation of the Welfare Impact of Energy Reforms on Households in Azerbaijan.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: METHODOLOGY AND ESTIMATION OF THE WELFARE IMPACT OF ENERGY REFORMS ON HOUSEHOLDS IN AZERBAIJAN Irina Klytchnikova, Doctor of Philosophy, 2006 Dissertation… (more)

Klytchnikova, Irina

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

A Platform-Independent Methodology for Performance Estimation of Multimedia Signal Processing Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodological framework for performance estimation of multimedia signal processing applications on different implementation platforms is presented. The methodology derives a complexity profile which is characteristic for an application, but completely ... Keywords: MPEG-4, bitstream analysis, complexity, digital signal processor, multimedia signal processing, performance estimation

Hans-Joachim Stolberg; Mladen Berekovi?; Peter Pirsch

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Nuclear fuel fabrication and refabrication cost estimation methodology  

SciTech Connect

The costs for construction and operation of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities for several reactor types and fuels were estimated, and the unit costs (prices) of the fuels were determined from these estimates. The techniques used in estimating the costs of building and operating these nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are described in this report. Basically, the estimation techniques involve detailed comparisons of alternative and reference fuel fabrication plants. Increases or decreases in requirements for fabricating the alternative fuels are identified and assessed for their impact on the capital and operating costs. The impact on costs due to facility size or capacity was also assessed, and scaling factors for the various captial and operating cost categories are presented. The method and rationale by which these scaling factors were obtained are also discussed. By use of the techniques described herein, consistent cost information for a wide variety of fuel types can be obtained in a relatively short period of time. In this study, estimates for 52 fuel fabrication plants were obtained in approximately two months. These cost estimates were extensively reviewed by experts in the fabrication of the various fuels, and, in the opinion of the reviewers, the estimates were very consistent and sufficiently accurate for use in overall cycle assessments.

Judkins, R.R.; Olsen, A.R.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Estimating evolution of freshness in Internet cache directories under the capture-recapture methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe a new web sampling scheme for measuring the evolution of freshness in search engines. The methodology used is the capture-recapture, which is mainly applied for estimating evolution rates in wildlife biological studies. After ... Keywords: Capture-recapture methodology, Freshness, Internet search services, Web caching, Web evolution

Ioannis Anagnostopoulos; Christos Anagnostopoulos; Dimitrios D. Vergados

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A Scalable Methodology for Cost Estimation in a Transformational High-Level Design Space Exploration Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective of the methodology presented in this paper is to perform design space exploration on a high level of abstraction by applying high-level transformations. To realize a design loop which is close and settled on upper design levels, a high-level estimation step is integrated. In this paper, several estimation methodologies fixed on different states of the high-level synthesis process are examined with respect to their aptitude on controlling the transformational design space exploration process.

Gerlach

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Methodology for Estimating Solar Potential on Multiple Building Rooftops for Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a methodology for estimating solar potential on multiple building rooftops is presented. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the daily or monthly solar radiation potential on individual buildings in a city/region using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and a geographic information system (GIS) approach. Conceptually, the methodology is based on the upward-looking hemispherical viewshed algorithm, but applied using an area-based modeling approach. The methodology considers input parameters, such as surface orientation, shadowing effect, elevation, and atmospheric conditions, that influence solar intensity on the earth s surface. The methodology has been implemented for some 212,000 buildings in Knox County, Tennessee, USA. Based on the results obtained, the methodology seems to be adequate for estimating solar radiation on multiple building rooftops. The use of LiDAR data improves the radiation potential estimates in terms of the model predictive error and the spatial pattern of the model outputs. This methodology could help cities/regions interested in sustainable projects to quickly identify buildings with higher potentials for roof-mounted photovoltaic systems.

Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Neish, Bradley S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Methodology for estimating volumes of flared and vented natural gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The common perception in the United States that natural gas produced with oil is a valuable commodity probably dates from the 1940's. Before that time, most operators regarded natural gas associated with or dissolved in oil as a nuisance. Indeed, most associated/dissolved natural gas produced in the United States before World War II probably was flared or vented to the atmosphere. This situation has changed in the United States, where flaring and venting have decreased dramatically in recent years, in part because of environmental concerns, but also because of the changing view of the value of natural gas. The idea that gas is a nuisance is beginning to change almost everywhere, as markets for gas have developed in Europe, Japan, and elsewhere, and as operators have increasingly utilized or reinjected associated-dissolved gas in their oil-production activities. Nevertheless, in some areas natural gas continues to be flared or vented to the atmosphere. Gas flares in Russia, the Niger Delta, and the Middle East are some of the brightest lights on the nighttime Earth. As we increasingly consider the global availability and utility of natural gas, and the environmental impacts of the consumption of carbon-based fuels, it is important to know how much gas has been flared or vented, how much gas is currently being flared or vented, and the distribution of flaring or venting through time. Unfortunately, estimates of the volumes of flared and vented gas are generally not available. Despite the inconsistency and inavailability of data, the extrapolation method outlined provides a reliable technique for estimating amounts of natural gas flared and vented through time. 36 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ohio ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Ohio, 1960 - 2011 1960 33,957 36,074 5,405 NA 1961 32,226 36,423 5,639 NA 1962 34,125 36,747 5,835 NA

23

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oklahoma ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oklahoma, 1960 - 2011 1960 33.9 902.0 1,118.9 0.0 NA 17.8 17.8 2,072.6 1961 26.1 976.9 1,119.9 0.0 NA 20.2 20 ...

24

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, California ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, California, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.0 589.7 1,771.0 (s) NA 270.2 270.2 2,630.9 1961 0.0 633.8 1,737.7 0.1 NA 248.2 ...

25

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Delaware ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Delaware, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 5.0 5.0 5.0 1961 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 5.1 5.1 5.1

26

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Texas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Texas, 1960 - 2011 1960 26.4 6,610.7 5,379.4 0.0 NA 50.2 50.2 12,066.6 1961 26.5 6,690.2 5,447.3 0.0 NA 52.0 ...

27

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Indiana ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Indiana, 1960 - 2011 1960 346.3 0.3 69.9 0.0 NA 24.6 24.6 441.1 1961 336.7 0.4 66.7 0.0 NA 24.2 24.2 428.0

28

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oregon ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Oregon, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 190.5 190.5 190.5 1961 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NA 188.9 188.9 188.9

29

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Arizona ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Arizona, 1960 - 2011 1960 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 NA 36.2 36.2 36.7 1961 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 NA 35.1 35.1 35.5

30

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Texas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, Texas, 1960 - 2011 1960 2,098 5,892,704 927,479 NA 1961 2,108 5,963,605 939,191 NA 1962 2,054 6,080,210 ...

31

Regional Parameter Estimation of the VIC Land Surface Model: Methodology and Application to River Basins in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a methodology for regional parameter estimation of the three-layer Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC-3L) land surface model with the goal of improving the streamflow simulation for river basins in China. This methodology is ...

Zhenghui Xie; Fei Yuan; Qingyun Duan; Jing Zheng; Miaoling Liang; Feng Chen

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Quantitative Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation Methodology for a Small Scada Control System  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new methodology for obtaining a quick quantitative measurement of the risk reduction achieved when a control system is modified with the intent to improve cyber security defense against external attackers. The proposed methodology employs a directed graph called a compromise graph, where the nodes represent stages of a potential attack and the edges represent the expected time-to-compromise for differing attacker skill levels. Time-to-compromise is modeled as a function of known vulnerabilities and attacker skill level. The methodology was used to calculate risk reduction estimates for a specific SCADA system and for a specific set of control system security remedial actions. Despite an 86% reduction in the total number of vulnerabilities, the estimated time-to-compromise was increased only by about 3 to 30% depending on target and attacker skill level.

Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Ohio, 1960 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table PT2. Energy Production Estimates in Trillion Btu, Ohio, 1960 - 2011 1960 796.6 36.9 31.3 0.0 NA 37.0 37.0 901.9 1961 756.0 37.3 32.7 0.0 NA 36.4 36.4 862.4

35

Estimation Methodology for Total and Elemental Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a tool for estimating total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The mercury emissions methodology is based on EPRI's analyses of the results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mercury Information Collection Request (ICR). The Mercury ICR required owner/operators of coal-fired electric utility steam generating units to report for calendar year 1999 the quantity of fuel consumed and the mercury content of that fuel. In addition, 84 power plant...

2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

36

Development of an energy-use estimation methodology for the revised Navy Manual MO-303  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Navy commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to revise and/or update the Navy Utilities Targets Manual, NAVFAC MO-303 (U.S. Navy 1972b). The purpose of the project was to produce a current, applicable, and easy-to-use version of the manual for use by energy and facility engineers and staff at all Navy Public Works Centers (PWCs), Public Works Departments (PWDs), Engineering Field Divisions (EFDs), and other related organizations. The revision of the MO-303 manual involved developing a methodology for estimating energy consumption in buildings and ships. This methodology can account for, and equitably allocate, energy consumption within Navy installations. The analyses used to develop this methodology included developing end-use intensities (EUIs) from a vast collection of Navy base metering and billing data. A statistical analysis of the metering data, weather data, and building energy-use characteristics was used to develop appropriate EUI values for use at all Navy bases. A complete Navy base energy reconciliation process was also created for use in allocating all known energy consumption. Initial attempts to use total Navy base consumption values did not produce usable results. A parallel effort using individual building consumption data provided an estimating method that incorporated weather effects. This method produced a set of building EUI values and weather adjustments for use in estimating building energy use. A method of reconciling total site energy consumption was developed based on a {open_quotes}zero-sum{close_quotes} principle. This method provides a way to account for all energy use and apportion part or all of it to buildings and other energy uses when actual consumption is not known. The entire text of the manual was also revised to present a more easily read understood and usable document.

Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Wood, A.G.; Dittmer, A.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response MarketPotential  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR) is increasingly recognized as an essential ingredient to well-functioning electricity markets. DR market potential studies can answer questions about the amount of DR available in a given area and from which market segments. Several recent DR market potential studies have been conducted, most adapting techniques used to estimate energy-efficiency (EE) potential. In this scoping study, we: reviewed and categorized seven recent DR market potential studies; recommended a methodology for estimating DR market potential for large, non-residential utility customers that uses price elasticities to account for behavior and prices; compiled participation rates and elasticity values from six DR options offered to large customers in recent years, and demonstrated our recommended methodology with large customer market potential scenarios at an illustrative Northeastern utility. We observe that EE and DR have several important differences that argue for an elasticity approach for large-customer DR options that rely on customer-initiated response to prices, rather than the engineering approaches typical of EE potential studies. Base-case estimates suggest that offering DR options to large, non-residential customers results in 1-3% reductions in their class peak demand in response to prices or incentive payments of $500/MWh. Participation rates (i.e., enrollment in voluntary DR programs or acceptance of default hourly pricing) have the greatest influence on DR impacts of all factors studied, yet are the least well understood. Elasticity refinements to reflect the impact of enabling technologies and response at high prices provide more accurate market potential estimates, particularly when arc elasticities (rather than substitution elasticities) are estimated.

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers,Peter

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Methodological Approaches for Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a comprehensive framework for estimating the benefits and costs of Smart Grid projects and a step-by-step approach for making these estimates. The framework identifies the basic categories of benefits, the beneficiaries of these benefits, and the Smart Grid functionalities that lead to different benefits and proposes ways to estimate these benefits, including their monetization. The report covers cost-effectiveness evaluation, uncertainty, and issues in estimating baseline conditions against which a project would be compared. The report also suggests metrics suitable for describing principal characteristics of a modern Smart Grid to which a project can contribute. This first section of the report presents background information on the motivation for the report and its purpose. Section 2 introduces the methodological framework, focusing on the definition of benefits and a sequential, logical process for estimating them. Beginning with the Smart Grid technologies and functions of a project, it maps these functions to the benefits they produce. Section 3 provides a hypothetical example to illustrate the approach. Section 4 describes each of the 10 steps in the approach. Section 5 covers issues related to estimating benefits of the Smart Grid. Section 6 summarizes the next steps. The methods developed in this study will help improve future estimates - both retrospective and prospective - of the benefits of Smart Grid investments. These benefits, including those to consumers, society in general, and utilities, can then be weighed against the investments. Such methods would be useful in total resource cost tests and in societal versions of such tests. As such, the report will be of interest not only to electric utilities, but also to a broad constituency of stakeholders. Significant aspects of the methodology were used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop its methods for estimating the benefits and costs of its renewable and distributed systems integration demonstration projects as well as its Smart Grid Investment Grant projects and demonstration projects funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The goal of this report, which was cofunded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and DOE, is to present a comprehensive set of methods for estimating the benefits and costs of Smart Grid projects. By publishing this report, EPRI seeks to contribute to the development of methods that will establish the benefits associated with investments in Smart Grid technologies. EPRI does not endorse the contents of this report or make any representations as to the accuracy and appropriateness of its contents. The purpose of this report is to present a methodological framework that will provide a standardized approach for estimating the benefits and costs of Smart Grid demonstration projects. The framework also has broader application to larger projects, such as those funded under the ARRA. Moreover, with additional development, it will provide the means for extrapolating the results of pilots and trials to at-scale investments in Smart Grid technologies. The framework was developed by a panel whose members provided a broad range of expertise.

Lee, Russell [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Open Access Development of a Methodology to Estimate Biomass from Tree Height Using Airborne Digital Image  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2012 J. Jenitha Ferdinent and Raj Chandar Padmanaban. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Globally biomass is becoming imperative for function such as climate change, combined heat and power generation. The biomass energy is gaining significance as a source of clean heat for domestic heating and community heating applications. Regarding climatic change and global warming, the biomass is being estimated in various ways. By including three dimensions (i.e.) height of a tree or stand height of trees in forest will greatly help in estimation biomass more accurately. Traditionally close range Photogrammetry is used to determine volume and biomass of the tree. However, this method of volume/height of a tree is not feasible in large scale applications and time consuming. Globally researchers are working to estimate this by using either airborne/space borne data. In this project, a methodology to measure tree height in case of single tree or stand height (mean tree height) of an area is developed using airborne digital camera. The height of the tree was first estimated from the airborne digital camera image data. The image taken from Airborne UltraCamD has been used. This image is 23cm X 15cm image size and 20cm resolution. Aerial

J. Jenitha Ferdinent; Raj Ch; Ar Padmanaban

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

In Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, Vol 1 No. 1 (1999) Estimating the Heavy Tail Index from Scaling Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, Vol 1 No. 1 (1999) Estimating the Heavy Tail with the estimation of the tail index ff for empirical heavy­tailed distributions, such as have been encountered of sums of heavy­tailed random variables. It has the advantages of being nonparametric, of being easy

Crovella, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

In Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, Vol 1 No. 1 (1999) Estimating the Heavy Tail Index from Scaling Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, Vol 1 No. 1 (1999) Estimating the Heavy Tail with the estimation of the tail index for empirical heavy-tailed distributions, such as have been encountered of sums of heavy-tailed random variables. It has the advantages of being nonparametric, of being easy

Crovella, Mark

42

Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document.

Bergenback, B. [Midwest Technical, Inc. (United States); Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Methodological Approach for Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a comprehensive framework for estimating the benefits and costs of Smart Grid projects and a step-by-step approach for making these estimates. The framework identifies the basic categories of benefits, the beneficiaries of these benefits, and the Smart Grid functionalities that lead to different benefits and proposes ways to estimate these benefits, including their monetization. The report covers cost-effectiveness evaluation, uncertainty, and issues in estimating baseline conditions...

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

44

Pulse superimposition calculational methodology for estimating the subcritcality level of nuclear fuel assemblies.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the subcriticality level of a nuclear fuel assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology simulating the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the experimental and analytical reaction rates and the obtained subcriticality levels. In this methodology, the reaction rate is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the delayed fission neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction rate is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is then superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The analytical results of this new calculation methodology have shown an excellent agreement with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. This methodology can be used to calculate Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor.

Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Rabiti, C.; Aliberti, G.; Kondev, F.; Smith, D.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.; Serafimovich, I. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (INL); (Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries - Volume 1: Concepts and Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner to allow evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key nonmanufacturing sectors. This volume lays out the general concepts and methods used to develop the emergency operating estimates. The historical analysis of capacity extends from 1974 through 1986. Some nonmanufacturing industries are included. In addition to mining and utilities, key industries in transportation, communication, and services were analyzed. Physical capacity and efficiency of production were measured. 3 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

Belzer, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Serot, D.E. (D/E/S Research, Richland, WA (USA)); Kellogg, M.A. (ERCE, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Estimating Central Equatorial Pacific SST Variability over the Past Millennium. Part I: Methodology and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constraining the low-frequency (LF) behavior of general circulation models (GCMs) requires reliable observational estimates of LF variability. This two-part paper presents multiproxy reconstructions of Niño-3.4 sea surface temperature over the ...

Julien Emile-Geay; Kimberly M. Cobb; Michael E. Mann; Andrew T. Wittenberg

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Methodology for Estimating ton-Miles of Goods Movements for U.S. Freight Mulitimodal Network System  

SciTech Connect

Ton-miles is a commonly used measure of freight transportation output. Estimation of ton-miles in the U.S. transportation system requires freight flow data at disaggregated level (either by link flow, path flows or origin-destination flows between small geographic areas). However, the sheer magnitude of the freight data system as well as industrial confidentiality concerns in Census survey, limit the freight data which is made available to the public. Through the years, the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working in the development of comprehensive national and regional freight databases and network flow models. One of the main products of this effort is the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), a public database released by the ORNL. FAF provides to the general public a multidimensional matrix of freight flows (weight and dollar value) on the U.S. transportation system between states, major metropolitan areas, and remainder of states. Recently, the CTA research team has developed a methodology to estimate ton-miles by mode of transportation between the 2007 FAF regions. This paper describes the data disaggregation methodology. The method relies on the estimation of disaggregation factors that are related to measures of production, attractiveness and average shipments distances by mode service. Production and attractiveness of counties are captured by the total employment payroll. Likely mileages for shipments between counties are calculated by using a geographic database, i.e. the CTA multimodal network system. Results of validation experiments demonstrate the validity of the method. Moreover, 2007 FAF ton-miles estimates are consistent with the major freight data programs for rail and water movements.

Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Data Processing Procedures and Methodology for Estimating Trip Distances for the 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS)  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS) collected information from approximately 80,000 U.S. households about their long distance travel (one-way trips of 100 miles or more) during the year of 1995. It is the most comprehensive survey of where, why, and how U.S. residents travel since 1977. ATS is a joint effort by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Census (Census); BTS provided the funding and supervision of the project, and Census selected the samples, conducted interviews, and processed the data. This report documents the technical support for the ATS provided by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which included the estimation of trip distances as well as data quality editing and checking of variables required for the distance calculations.

Hwang, H.-L.; Rollow, J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.

Glatzmaier, G.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Batteries on the battlefield developing a methodology to estimate the fully burdened cost of batteries in the Department of Defense .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??L), have developed methodologies to calculate the fully burdened cost of fuel as delivered energy in defense systems. Whereas these previous studies did not consider… (more)

Hughley, Anthony E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A Simplified Methodology for Estimating the Pressure Buildup and Hydrogen Concentration Within a 2R/6M Container  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simplified and bounding methodology for analyzing the pressure buildup and hydrogen concentration within an unvented 2R container was developed (the 2R is a sealed container within a 6M package). The specific case studied was the gas buildup due to alpha radiolysis of water moisture sorbed on small quantities (less than 20 Ci per package) of plutonium oxide. Analytical solutions for gas pressure buildup and hydrogen concentration within the unvented 2R container were developed. Key results indicated that internal pressure buildup would not be significant for a wide range of conditions. Hydrogen concentrations should also be minimal but are difficult to quantify due to a large variation/uncertainty in model parameters. Additional assurance of non-flammability can be obtained by the use of an inert backfill gas in the 2R container.

SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; OTTINGER,CATHY A.; POLANSKY,GARY F.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Using Decline Curve Analysis, Volumetric Analysis, and Bayesian Methodology to Quantify Uncertainty in Shale Gas Reserve Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probabilistic decline curve analysis (PDCA) methods have been developed to quantify uncertainty in production forecasts and reserves estimates. However, the application of PDCA in shale gas reservoirs is relatively new. Limited work has been done on the performance of PDCA methods when the available production data are limited. In addition, PDCA methods have often been coupled with Arp’s equations, which might not be the optimum decline curve analysis model (DCA) to use, as new DCA models for shale reservoirs have been developed. Also, decline curve methods are based on production data only and do not by themselves incorporate other types of information, such as volumetric data. My research objective was to integrate volumetric information with PDCA methods and DCA models to reliably quantify the uncertainty in production forecasts from hydraulically fractured horizontal shale gas wells, regardless of the stage of depletion. In this work, hindcasts of multiple DCA models coupled to different probabilistic methods were performed to determine the reliability of the probabilistic DCA methods. In a hindcast, only a portion of the historical data is matched; predictions are made for the remainder of the historical period and compared to the actual historical production. Most of the DCA models were well calibrated visually when used with an appropriate probabilistic method, regardless of the amount of production data available to match. Volumetric assessments, used as prior information, were incorporated to further enhance the calibration of production forecasts and reserves estimates when using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) as the PDCA method and the logistic growth DCA model. The proposed combination of the MCMC PDCA method, the logistic growth DCA model, and use of volumetric data provides an integrated procedure to reliably quantify the uncertainty in production forecasts and reserves estimates in shale gas reservoirs. Reliable quantification of uncertainty should yield more reliable expected values of reserves estimates, as well as more reliable assessment of upside and downside potential. This can be particularly valuable early in the development of a play, because decisions regarding continued development are based to a large degree on production forecasts and reserves estimates for early wells in the play.

Gonzalez Jimenez, Raul 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A Methodology for Estimating the Parameters of a Gamma Raindrop Size Distribution Model from Polarimetric Radar Data: Application to a Squall-Line Event from the TRMM/Brazil Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology is proposed for estimating the parameters of a gamma raindrop size distribution model from radar measurements of Zh, Zdr, and Kdp at S band. Previously developed algorithms by Gorgucci et al. are extended to cover low rain-rate ...

V. N. Bringi; Gwo-Jong Huang; V. Chandrasekar; E. Gorgucci

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Table 8.10 Average Retail Prices of Electricity, 1960-2011 (Cents ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Commercial sector. For 1960–2002, prices exclude public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities.

57

Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes: - The country of origin for refined petroleum products may not be the country of origin for the crude oil from which the refined products were produced.

58

Table 5.6 Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook › Annual Energy Outlook › Energy Disruptions › International Energy Outlook ... 1984: 21: 1: 83: 18: 39: 92: 35: 37: 17: 29: 14: 152 ...

59

Development of an automated methodology for calibration of simplified air-side HVAC system models and estimation of potential savings from retrofit/commissioning measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation provides one methodology to determine potential energy savings of buildings with limited information. This methodology is based upon the simplified energy analysis procedure of HVAC systems and the control of the comfort conditions. Numerically, the algorithm is a tailored exhaustive search over all the independent variables that are commonly controlled for a specific type of HVAC system. The potential energy savings methodology has been applied in several buildings that have been retrofitted and/or commissioned previously. Results from the determined savings for the Zachry building at Texas A&M after being commissioned show a close agreement to the calculated potential energy savings (about 85%). Differences are mainly attributed to the use of simplified models. Due to the restriction of limited information about the building characteristics and operational control, the potential energy savings method requires the determination of parameters that characterize its thermal performance. Thus, a calibrated building is needed. A general procedure has been developed to carry out automated calibration of building energy use simulations. The methodology has been tested successfully on building simulations based on the simplified energy analysis procedure. The automated calibration is the minimization of the RMSE of the energy use over daily conditions. The minimization procedure is fulfilled with a non-canonical optimization algorithm, the Simulated Annealing, which mimics the Statistical Thermodynamic performance of the annealing process. That is to say, starting at a specified temperature the algorithm searches variable-space states that are steadier, while heuristically, by the Boltzmann distribution, the local minima is avoided. The process is repeated at a new lower temperature that is determined by a specific schedule until the global minimum is found. This methodology was applied to the most common air-handler units producing excellent results for ideal cases or for samples modified with a 1% white noise.

Baltazar Cervantes, Juan Carlos

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Comparison of the Bioavailability of Waste Laden Soils Using ''In Vivo'' ''In Vitro'' Analytical Methodology and Bioaccessibility of Radionuclides for Refinement of Exposure/Dose Estimates  

SciTech Connect

The bioavailability of soil contaminants can be measured using in vitro or in vivo techniques. Since there was no standard method for intercomparison among laboratories, we compared two techniques for bioavailability estimation: in vitro dissolution and in vivo rat feeding model for a NIST-traceable soil material. Bioaccessibility was measured using a sequential soil extraction in synthetic analogues of human saliva, gastric and intestinal fluids. Bioavailability was measured in Sprague Dawley rats by determining metal levels in the major organs and urine, feces, and blood. Bioaccessibility was found to be a good indicator of relative metal bioavailability. Results are presented from bioaccessible experiments with Cesium in contaminated DOE soils, and total alpha and beta bioaccessibility. The results indicate that the modified methodology for bioaccessibility can be used for specific radionuclide analysis.

P. J. Lioy; M. Gallo; P. Georgopoulos; R. Tate; B. Buckley

1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Derived Annual Estimates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1988-1998 Total Energy *** Electricity ***...

62

Derived Annual Estimates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1974-1988 Total Energy *** Electricity ***...

63

District of Columbia - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CT2. Primary Energy Consumption Estimates, Selected Years, 1960-2011, District of Columbia (Trillion Btu) ... Washington, DC 20585 About EIA Press Room Careers ...

64

Estimation Methodology for Natural Gas Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

ProdDate=200103 Frequency Count COUNT Frequency Percent Test Percent 4429 4429 67.64 67.70 701 701 10.71 10.61 472 472 7.21 7.24 329 329 5.02 4.94 213 213 3 .25 3.37 ...

65

NFI Forecasts Methodology NFI Forecasts Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NFI Forecasts Methodology NFI Forecasts Methodology Overview Issued by: National Forest Inventory.brewer@forestry.gsi.gov.uk Website: www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory 1 NFI Softwood Forecasts Methodology Overview #12;NFI Forecasts ........................................................................................................4 Rationale behind the new approach to the GB Private sector production forecast ........4 Volume

66

Offshore software maintenance methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: maintenance methodology, offshore maintenance, remote maintenance, software economics, software maintenance

M. Pavan Kumar; V. Sita Rama Das; N. Netaji

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Burnup Credit Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a practical methodology for actinide-only and fission product burnup credit in concert with a methodology to validate the isotopic and reactivity calculations. The methodology supports initial enrichments up to 5.0 wt 235U and burnup beyond 50 gigawatt-days per metric ton of uranium (GWd/MTU). The validation methodologies are all based upon standard methodologies, including extensions beyond traditional radiochemistry assays (RCAs) for isotopic concentrations and critical experiment...

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

68

Methodology and Analysis Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methodology and Analysis Methodology and Analysis Methodology and Analysis 1 Methodology: Description of the sampling and estimating methodologies implemented in April 2010 PDF 2 Review Results: Description of the problem and the alternative methodologies tested PDF 3 2009 Revisions: A comparison of the current methodology estimates to the previous estimates PDF 4 ICF International Review: ICF International's review paper given to the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics PDF 5 Other Sources: EIA-914 Estimates Compared with Other sources PDF 6 Issues: EIA-914 Sample and Model Issues PDF 7 Data Analysis: EIA-914 Final Clearance Package October 2006 PDF 8 Revision Policy: EIA-914 and Natural Gas Monthly Revision Policy March 2007 PDF 9 Commercial Data Sources:

69

DOE Challenge Home Label Methodology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

October 2012 1 October 2012 1 Label Methodology DOE Challenge Home Label Methodology October 2012 DOE Challenge Home October 2012 2 Label Methodology Contents Background ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................. 5 Comfort/Quiet .......................................................................................................................................... 5 Healthy Living ........................................................................................................................................... 7

70

Resource assessment methodologies and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Resource assessment refers to the estimation and evaluation of mineral materials in the ground, both discovered and undiscovered. In such as an assessment, attention is centered on materials in such form, concentration, and location that they might be extractable under foreseeable economic and technological conditions. In practical terms, there is no such thing as an all-purpose resource assessment. Diverse groups of people interested in such assessments, be they mineral exploration planners, economic analysts, land use planners, or policymakers, will look for aspects that are most pertinent to their own field and time frame of interest. For example, exploration analysts would be most interested in the geological potential for discovering certain types of deposits in a region; mining engineers in the physical and chemical characteristics of deposits already discovered; and economists in the possible mineral-supply stream that might be generated in the future. No single assessment can throw light on all aspects of conceivable interest, and every type of assessment will have its conceptual and analytical limitations. Six major resource assessment methodologies are presented: areal value, crustal abundance, volumetric, deposit modeling, Delphi, and intergrated synthesis. Each methodology has certain strengths and weaknesses and type of resource estimate, factos which must be considered before application of any one technique. Each of these methods is discussed.

Dorian, J.P.; Zwartendyk, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

FCT Systems Analysis: Analysis Methodologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Methodologies to Analysis Methodologies to someone by E-mail Share FCT Systems Analysis: Analysis Methodologies on Facebook Tweet about FCT Systems Analysis: Analysis Methodologies on Twitter Bookmark FCT Systems Analysis: Analysis Methodologies on Google Bookmark FCT Systems Analysis: Analysis Methodologies on Delicious Rank FCT Systems Analysis: Analysis Methodologies on Digg Find More places to share FCT Systems Analysis: Analysis Methodologies on AddThis.com... Home Analysis Methodologies Resource Analysis Technological Feasibility & Cost Analysis Environmental Analysis Delivery Analysis Infrastructure Development & Financial Analysis Energy Market Analysis DOE H2A Analysis Scenario Analysis Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation

72

Estimating IPv6 & DNSSEC Deployment Status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimating IPv6 & DNSSEC External Service Deployment Status Background and Methodology. ... gov.two. Agency Two, (errors & islands). gov.three. ...

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

73

Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indicators Methodology Booklet Title Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3702E Year of Publication 2010 Authors...

74

methodology | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

methodology methodology Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): The main object of the SUNY task for SWERA is to prepare high resolution global irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.Much of our initial effort focused on building up the satellite data tx_metadatatool, and in strengthening and validating the models capable of converting that data into ground surface irradiances. Three research articles, acknowledging all or partial funding from UNEP & SWERA have been published on this subject. Source SUNY Albany Date Released July 31st, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated August 29th, 2003 (11 years ago) Keywords Cuba methodology solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 2.6 MiB)

75

A methodology to assess cost implications of automotive customization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on determining the cost of customization for different components or groups of components of a car. It offers a methodology to estimate the manufacturing cost of a complex system such as a car. This ...

Fournier, Laëtitia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Comparative analysis of energy costing methodologies  

SciTech Connect

The methodologies used for computing levelized busbar costs of electricity from geothermal (hydrothermal) resources used by 16 organizations active in the geothermal area are discussed. The methodologies are compared by (a) comparing the results obtained by using two standard data sets, (b) a theoretical analysis of the mathematical formulation of the embedded models, and (c) an examination of differences in data and assumptions. The objective is to attempt to resolve differences in estimates of geothermal (and conventional) electric power costs, upon which policies may be formulated and research, development and demonstration activities designed and implemented.

El-Sawy, A.H.; Leigh, J.G.; Trehan, R.K.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

DOE Systems Engineering Methodology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM) In-Stage Assessment Process Guide Version 3 September 2002 U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Chief Information Officer In-Stage Assessment Process Date: September 2002 Page i Rev Date: Table of Contents Section Page 1.0 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 1 Purpose .............................................................................................................................. 1 Who Conducts ...................................................................................................................

78

Empirical Methodologies for Improving HVAC Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Empirical Methodologies for Improving HVAC Efficiency Empirical Methodologies for Improving HVAC Efficiency Speaker(s): Anil Aswani Date: September 21, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter This talk describes the use of empirical methodologies that we have developed for the purpose of improving heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) efficiency through better control algorithms and configuration. We show that semiparametric regression can both identify simplified models of thermal HVAC dynamics while also estimating time-varying heating loads using only real-time temperature measurements from thermostats. These models can be used with our learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC) method in order to improve the energy-efficiency of HVAC. Experiments on testbeds with different types of HVAC show the

79

Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Safeguards Envelope Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear safeguards are intrinsic and extrinsic features of a facility which reduce probability of the successful acquisition of special nuclear material (SNM) by hostile actors. Future bulk handling facilities in the United States will include both domestic and international safeguards as part of a voluntary agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency. A new framework for safeguards, the Safeguards Envelope Methodology, is presented. A safeguards envelope is a set of operational and safeguards parameters that define a range, or “envelope,” of operating conditions that increases confidence as to the location and assay of nuclear material without increasing costs from security or safety. Facilities operating within safeguards envelopes developed by this methodology will operate with a higher confidence, a lower false alarm rate, and reduced safeguards impact on the operator. Creating a safeguards envelope requires bringing together security, safety, and safeguards best practices. This methodology is applied to an example facility, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. An example diversion scenario in the front-end of this nuclear reprocessing facility, using actual operating data, shows that the diversion could have been detected more easily by changing operational parameters, and these changed operational parameters would not sacrifice the operational efficiency of the facility, introduce security vulnerabilities, or create a safety hazard.

Metcalf, Richard

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

RHIC DATA CORRELATION METHODOLOGY.  

SciTech Connect

A requirement for RHIC data plotting software and physics analysis is the correlation of data from all accelerator data gathering systems. Data correlation provides the capability for a user to request a plot of multiple data channels vs. time, and to make meaningful time-correlated data comparisons. The task of data correlation for RHIC requires careful consideration because data acquisition triggers are generated from various asynchronous sources including events from the RHIC Event Link, events from the two Beam Sync Links, and other unrelated clocks. In order to correlate data from asynchronous acquisition systems a common time reference is required. The RHIC data correlation methodology will allow all RHIC data to be converted to a common wall clock time, while still preserving native acquisition trigger information. A data correlation task force team, composed of the authors of this paper, has been formed to develop data correlation design details and provide guidelines for software developers. The overall data correlation methodology will be presented in this paper.

MICHNOFF,R.; D' OTTAVIO,T.; HOFF,L.; MACKAY,W.; SATOGATA,T.

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

82

Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.

Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of "forest". The project activity can include logging activities leading to carbon stock increase in long-lived wood products. However, such activities are excluded or are not...

84

Sample design-based methodology for estimating delta smelt abundance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the gear from a cov- ered cod-end experiment, stratifiedcollect- ed during a covered cod-end experiment (Sweetnamcover was attached to the cod-end of a midwater trawl which

Newman, Ken B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Data processing Procedures and methodology for Estimating Trip...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

For example, special attention was paid to travel made between Hawaii islands, between Hawaii and the U.S. mainland, and between Alaska and the U.S. mainland. The main mode of...

86

End-Use Estimation Methodology - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

were assigned small but positive values for their electricity air ... small kitchen appliances (such as toasters, mixers, and can openers), home entertainment ...

87

Diechmann U: Methodologies to Improve Global Population Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses some of the technical issues involved in the development of a georeferenced population database, including urban extents, currently being developed by CIESIN and partner organizations, using ArcGIS. The database will be made available as three separate data products: i) human settlements database (points), ii) urban extents (polygons) derived from satellite imagery and additional geographic data sources (such as DCW), and iii) urban-rural surface (grid). To produce the urban-rural surfaces, we developed a mass-conserving algorithm that reallocates people into urban areas, within each administrative unit, providing a more accurate representation of the distribution of human population. 1.

Francesca Pozzi; Deborah Balk; Gregory Yetman; Andy Nelson; Uwe Deichmann

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 22, Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

89

Kentucky Transmission Line Siting Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI, in conjunction with Georgia Transmission Corporation (GTC) and Photo Science, Inc. (PSI), developed a standardized methodology for siting overhead electric transmission lines. EPRI report 1013080, EPRI-GTC Overhead Electric Transmission Line Siting Methodology, published February 2006, provides additional information. This methodology has been applied in Georgia and currently is being applied to projects in Kentucky by East Kentucky Power Cooperative and E.ON U.S. on behalf of Louisville Gas and El...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

90

Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methodological issues. Energy Policy 24, 377–390. Phylipsen,the preferred method? ”, Energy Policy 32 (2004), pp. 1131–efficiency index”, Energy Policy (2006), Volume: 34, Issue:

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Systems Integration Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of VISION 21. The myriad of fuels, fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies are narrowed down to selected scenarios by a screening analysis to identify those combinations that have the potential to achieve the VISION 21 goals consisting of 60% efficiency (HHV) for coal based systems and 75% efficiency (LHV) for gas-based systems. The selected promising cycle scenarios are then analyzed in detail to develop the performance and costs for each. The methodology used in arriving at these promising cases and the preliminary results of the cycle analyses are presented. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research such as the Clean Coal Program, Combustion 2000 (LEBS and HIPPS), Advanced Turbine Systems program, Low-Cost Advanced Fuel Cell programs, and the Flexible Gas Turbine Systems program. Examples of systems included in these advanced cycles are solid oxide and molten carbonate fuel cells, advanced gas turbines, ion transport membrane separation and hydrogen-oxygen combustion.

Samuelsen, Scott; Rao, Ashok

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

92

Methodology for characterizing modeling and discretization uncertainties in computational simulation  

SciTech Connect

This research effort focuses on methodology for quantifying the effects of model uncertainty and discretization error on computational modeling and simulation. The work is directed towards developing methodologies which treat model form assumptions within an overall framework for uncertainty quantification, for the purpose of developing estimates of total prediction uncertainty. The present effort consists of work in three areas: framework development for sources of uncertainty and error in the modeling and simulation process which impact model structure; model uncertainty assessment and propagation through Bayesian inference methods; and discretization error estimation within the context of non-deterministic analysis.

ALVIN,KENNETH F.; OBERKAMPF,WILLIAM L.; RUTHERFORD,BRIAN M.; DIEGERT,KATHLEEN V.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Cogeneration Assessment Methodology for Utilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology is presented that enables electric utilities to assess the cogeneration potential among industrial, commercial, and institutional customers within the utility's service area. The methodology includes a survey design, analytic assessment model, and a data base to track customers over time. A case study is presented describing the background, procedures, and results of a cogeneration investigation for Northeast Utilities.

Sedlik, B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Methodology  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary Prices Exploration & Reserves Production Imports/Exports Pipelines Storage Consumption All Natural Gas Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption Exploration & Reserves Imports/Exports & Pipelines Prices Production Projections Storage All Reports ‹ See All Natural Gas Reports Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity With Data for November 2012 | Release Date: July 24, 2013 | Next Release Date: Spring 2014 Previous Issues Year: 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Go Methodology Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity Estimates: Estimates are based on aggregation of the noncoincident peak levels of working gas inventories at individual storage fields as reported monthly over a 60-month period ending in November 2012 on Form EIA-191, "Monthly Natural Gas Underground Storage

95

Estimating Ammonia Emissions from Stationary Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a methodology that can be used to estimate ammonia releases from fossil fuel-fired, electrical power generation facilities for the purpose of reporting under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) program.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use  

SciTech Connect

The document provides a methodology to estimate unmetered industrial water use for evaporative cooling systems, steam generating boiler systems, batch process applications, and wash systems. For each category standard mathematical relationships are summarized and provided in a single resource to assist Federal agencies in developing an initial estimate of their industrial water use. The approach incorporates industry norms, general rules of thumb, and industry survey information to provide methodologies for each section.

Boyd, Brian K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Enhancing the Benefit of the Chemical Mixture Methodology: A Report on Methodology Testing and Potential Approaches for Improving Performance  

SciTech Connect

Extensive testing shows that the current version of the Chemical Mixture Methodology (CMM) is meeting its intended mission to provide conservative estimates of the health effects from exposure to airborne chemical mixtures. However, the current version of the CMM could benefit from several enhancements that are designed to improve its application of Health Code Numbers (HCNs) and employ weighting factors to reduce over conservatism.

Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yao, Juan; He, Hua; Glantz, Clifford S.; Booth, Alexander E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

ONTOCOM: A Cost Estimation Model for Ontology Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper introduces ONTOCOM, a parametric cost estimation model for Semantic Web ontologies. After analyzing established, general-purpose cost estimation methodologies we propose a methodology, which can be applied to develop cost models for ontology engineering. We examine the particularities of this engineering field on the basis of the proposed methodology, in order to identify cost factors which influence the effort invested in ontology building, reuse and maintenance. 1

Elena Paslaru Bontas; Malgorzata Mochol; Freie Universität

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

U.S. Scientific Team Draws on New Data, Multiple Scientific Methodolog...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Team Draws on New Data, Multiple Scientific Methodologies to Reach Updated Estimate of Oil Flows from BP's Well U.S. Scientific Team Draws on New Data, Multiple Scientific...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

PNNL-21294 Methodology for Evaluating Cost- Effectiveness of Residential Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1294 1294 Methodology for Evaluating Cost- Effectiveness of Residential Energy Code Changes ZT Taylor N Fernandez RG Lucas April 2012 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Contents 1.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1.1 2.0 Estimating Energy Savings of Code Changes .............................................................................. 2.1 2.1 Building Energy Use Simulation Assumptions and Methodology ....................................... 2.1 2.1.1 Energy Simulation Tool ............................................................................................ 2.1

102

Methodology for Fleet Deployment Decisions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities can apply a rigorous, optimized methodology for creating deployment plans for their fossil power plants. These deployment plans maximize corporate-wide value under various business environments. Case studies at Consolidated Edison of New York and Central Illinois Public Service Company (CIPS) refined the approach and confirmed its merit for evaluating fleet deployment decisions.

1995-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

M&S methodological challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

M&S provides a formal way to generate or test existing knowledge. Like mathematics, M&S provides an apparatus for deduction while generating data that can be used for statistical inference. However, unlike mathematics, M&S's formal approach varies from ... Keywords: epistemology, methodology, philosophy

Jose J. Padilla, Andreas Tolk, Saikou Y. Diallo

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Summary of metal stamping codes by integration algorithm...explicit LS-DYNA, PAM-STAMP, OPTRIS, RADIOSS, LLNL-DYNA, ABAQUS/Explicit,

105

Home Energy Score Calculation Methodology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Energy Score Calculation Methodology Home Energy Score Calculation Methodology Home Energy Score Calculation Methodology A Qualified Assessor calculates the Home Energy Score by first conducting a brief walk-through of the home and collecting approximately 40 data points. Next, the Qualified Assessor uses the Home Energy Scoring Tool to estimate the home's energy use. The Scoring Tool converts it into a Score and develops recommendations for energy improvements. All the data required to calculate the Home Energy Score is listed in the Data Collection Sheet. The calculation method holds a number of variables constant. For example, it assumes, that the thermostat is set at specific levels at various points of the year, and that homeowners use appliances in a standard way. By holding these other variables constant, the Home Energy Score allows

106

Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet  

SciTech Connect

This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Determining the Cost of Cycling and Varied Load Operations: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many reasons—heightened wholesale electricity competition under deregulation, new market rules, growing capacity due to additions of new gas-fired capacity, environmental pressures on coal units—the power industry must operate power plants differently. In particular, many generating units that formerly ran around the clock must adjust operations to cycle or to follow load (demand). This report describes a new methodology for estimating the long-term wear and tear costs that inevitably acc...

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

108

Probabilistic fatigue methodology and wind turbine reliability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind turbines subjected to highly irregular loadings due to wind, gravity, and gyroscopic effects are especially vulnerable to fatigue damage. The objective of this study is to develop and illustrate methods for the probabilistic analysis and design of fatigue-sensitive wind turbine components. A computer program (CYCLES) that estimates fatigue reliability of structural and mechanical components has been developed. A FORM/SORM analysis is used to compute failure probabilities and importance factors of the random variables. The limit state equation includes uncertainty in environmental loading, gross structural response, and local fatigue properties. Several techniques are shown to better study fatigue loads data. Common one-parameter models, such as the Rayleigh and exponential models are shown to produce dramatically different estimates of load distributions and fatigue damage. Improved fits may be achieved with the two-parameter Weibull model. High b values require better modeling of relatively large stress ranges; this is effectively done by matching at least two moments (Weibull) and better by matching still higher moments. For this purpose, a new, four-moment {open_quotes}generalized Weibull{close_quotes} model is introduced. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methodology for design against fatigue is proposed and demonstrated using data from two horizontal-axis wind turbines. To estimate fatigue damage, wind turbine blade loads have been represented by their first three statistical moments across a range of wind conditions. Based on the moments {mu}{sub 1}{hor_ellipsis}{mu}{sub 3}, new {open_quotes}quadratic Weibull{close_quotes} load distribution models are introduced. The fatigue reliability is found to be notably affected by the choice of load distribution model.

Lange, C.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robust methodology for estimating the value of service reliability improvements is presented. Although econometric models for estimating value of service (interruption costs) have been established and widely accepted, analysts often resort to applying relatively crude interruption cost estimation techniques in assessing the economic impacts of transmission and distribution investments. This paper first shows how the use of these techniques can substantially impact the estimated value of service improvements. A simple yet robust methodology that does not rely heavily on simplifying assumptions is presented. When a smart grid investment is proposed, reliability improvement is one of the most frequently cited benefits. Using the best methodology for estimating the value of this benefit is imperative. By providing directions on how to implement this methodology, this paper sends a practical, usable message to the industry.

Sullivan, Michael J.; Mercurio, Matthew G.; Schellenberg, Josh A.; Eto, Joseph H.

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

110

EIA-914 Monthly Gas Production Report Methodology  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Gas Production Report Methodology Current as of April 2010 1 Much of the methodology described below was implemented in April 2010, and it was applied historically to all...

111

Application of the LEPRICON Methodology to the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1 Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applying the new LEPRICON dosimetry methodology to irradiation data from the ANO-1 reactor greatly reduced uncertainties in pressure vessel fluence estimates. Accurate estimates will enable safety engineers to better predict reactor lifetimes and will eliminate the need for overly conservative safety margins.

1986-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

A BIO-INSPIRED METHODOLOGY FOR ARTIFICIAL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A BIO-INSPIRED METHODOLOGY FOR ARTIFICIAL OLFACTION. Joshua L. Hertz, Baranidharan Raman, Kurt D. Benkstein and Steve Semancik. ...

113

Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

Lester M. Waganer

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

114

How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing States and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The States and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

Information Center

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Methodology for flammable gas evaluations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

116

Estimating Winter Design Temperatures from Daily Minimum Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology has been developed to estimate winter design temperatures (temperatures exceeded a specific number of hours during the December through February winter season-an important design parameter in building construction) from synthetic ...

Nolan J. Doesken; Thomas B. McKee

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Integration of remote sensing and ecosystem modelling techniques to estimate forest net carbon uptake  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of forest gross primary production (GPP) can be obtained using a parametric model (C-Fix) that combines ground and remotely sensed data. A methodology is presented to convert these GPP estimates into values of net ecosystem exchange (NEE). ...

F. Maselli; M. Chiesi; L. Fibbi; M. Moriondo

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Cloud-Resolving Satellite Data Assimilation: Information Content of IR Window Observations and Uncertainties in Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the problem of four-dimensional (4D) estimation of a cloudy atmosphere on cloud-resolving scales using satellite remote sensing measurements. The motivation is to develop a methodology for accurate estimation of cloud ...

T. Vukicevic; M. Sengupta; A. S. Jones; T. Vonder Haar

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Socioeconomic impact assessment: a methodology applied to synthetic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Report is a supporting document for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Alternative Fuels Demonstration Program, which was filed with the Council on Environmental Quality in November, 1977. It describes the methodology developed for the socioeconomic impact assessments contained in the Environmental Impact Statement, and highlights the findings. Part I of this Report explains clearly how the numbers are derived, and presents the salient planning issues. Starting with the labor force of a synthetic fuels facility, a public official, decision-maker, or student of socioeconomic impacts can use this Report to derive a reasonable set of estimates which reflect the resultant population, income, employment, land use, public facility costs, and local public revenues. Part II of this Report is the application of this methodology to synthetic fuels. Numerical estimates are given for the social and economic effects resulting from such energy technologies as coal gasification and liquefaction, oil shale, and the conversion of solid wastes and agricultural products to energy. Although the methodology is not site specific, illustrative sites, chosen from the major coal-bearing counties in the United States, have been included. This allows a user to compare the relative impacts of a given energy facility in various geographical locations and types of communities. The section on mitigating measures may be of special interest because of its treatment of problem areas and its broad range of suggested solutions. One advantage of the methodology is that it derives from a broad data base that is readily accessible: the United States Census. Another advantage is that impacts can be calculated by hand. Finally, it is applicable to a wide variety of energy technologies and not restricted to synthetic fuels.

Not Available

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Methodology for Calculating Spectral Surface Albedo Using ARM MFSR and MFR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Calculating Spectral Surface Albedo Using ARM MFSR and MFR Methodology for Calculating Spectral Surface Albedo Using ARM MFSR and MFR Data Gaustad, Krista Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Long, Chuck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Radiation This poster will describe a methodology for identifying the best estimate downwelling and upwelling irradiance measurements for use in calculating a global and spectral albedo for the area located near the SGP ARM's central facility 10m tower. The best estimate MFRSR downwelling global measurement is identified through comparisons between mfrsrE13, mfrsrC1, sirsE13, and sirsC1 downwelling global measurements. The poster will examine whether the best estimate of the individual six downwelling spectral measurements that correspond to the mfr operating wavelengths can

122

Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements  

SciTech Connect

A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Natural Gas Data Collection and Estimation  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This presentation to the Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association gives an overview of the EIA natural gas data collection system, Oklahoma natural gas statistics, recent changes in monthly natural gas production statistics, and the May 2010 short-term natural gas forecast. The presentation focuses on the EIA-914, the "Monthly Natural Gas Production Report," and recent changes to this survey's estimation methodology.

Information Center

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

125

Discriminant Random Forest (DRF) Classification Methodology  

Jupiter Laser Facility. ... State-of-the-art methodologies that perform this type of classification include Support Vector Machines, Neural Networks, and Random Forest.

126

Waste Package Design Methodology Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

D.A. Brownson

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

127

Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input Data, and Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input Data, and Infrastructure Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input Data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site Title Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input Data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-51938 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Pinckard, Margaret J., Richard E. Brown, Evan Mills, James D. Lutz, Mithra M. Moezzi, Celina S. Atkinson, Christopher A. Bolduc, Gregory K. Homan, and Katie Coughlin Document Number LBNL-51938 Pagination 108 Date Published July 13 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract The Home Energy Saver (HES, http://HomeEnergySaver.lbl.gov) is an interactive web site designed to help residential consumers make decisions about energy use in their homes. This report describes the underlying methods and data for estimating energy consumption. Using engineering models, the site estimates energy consumption for six major categories (end uses); heating, cooling, water heating, major appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous equipment. The approach taken by the Home Energy Saver is to provide users with initial results based on a minimum of user input, allowing progressively greater control in specifying the characteristics of the house and energy consuming appliances. Outputs include energy consumption (by fuel and end use), energy-related emissions (carbon dioxide), energy bills (total and by fuel and end use), and energy saving recommendations. Real-world electricity tariffs are used for many locations, making the bill estimates even more accurate. Where information about the house is not available from the user, default values are used based on end-use surveys and engineering studies. An extensive body of qualitative decision-support information augments the analytical results.

128

Adaptable methodology for automation application development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adaptable methodology for automation application development (AMAAD) is introduced. This development methodology is based on the key concept that design automation (DA) applications are a subset of higher level knowledge-based engineering (KBE) applications, ... Keywords: CommonKADS, Design automation, Knowledge-based engineering, MOKA, Productivity enhancement

Christian van der Velden; Cees Bil; Xinghuo Xu

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Uncertainty Quantification and Calibration in Well Construction Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The feasibility and success of petroleum development projects depend to a large degree on well construction costs. Well construction cost estimates often contain high levels of uncertainty. In many cases, these costs have been estimated using deterministic methods that do not reliably account for uncertainty, leading to biased estimates. The primary objective of this work was to improve the reliability of deterministic well construction cost estimates by incorporating probabilistic methods into the estimation process. The method uses historical well cost estimates and actual well costs to develop probabilistic correction factors that can be applied to future well cost estimates. These factors can be applied to the entire well cost or to individual cost components. Application of the methodology to estimation of well construction costs for horizontal wells in a shale gas play resulted in well cost estimates that were well calibrated probabilistically. Overall, average estimated well cost using this methodology was significantly more accurate than average estimated well cost using deterministic methods. Systematic use of this methodology can provide for more accurate and efficient allocation of capital for drilling campaigns, which should have significant impacts on reservoir development and profitability.

Valdes Machado, Alejandro

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

An evaluation of market penetration forecasting methodologies for new residential and commercial energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

Forecasting market penetration is an essential step in the development and assessment of new technologies. This report reviews several methodologies that are available for market penetration forecasting. The primary objective of this report is to help entrepreneurs understand these methodologies and aid in the selection of one or more of them for application to a particular new technology. This report also illustrates the application of these methodologies, using examples of new technologies, such as the heat pump, drawn from the residential and commercial sector. The report concludes with a brief discussion of some considerations in selecting a forecasting methodology for a particular situation. It must be emphasized that the objective of this report is not to construct a specific market penetration model for new technologies but only to provide a comparative evaluation of methodologies that would be useful to an entrepreneur who is unfamiliar with the range of techniques available. The specific methodologies considered in this report are as follows: subjective estimation methods, market surveys, historical analogy models, time series models, econometric models, diffusion models, economic cost models, and discrete choice models. In addition to these individual methodologies, which range from the very simple to the very complex, two combination approaches are also briefly discussed: (1) the economic cost model combined with the diffusion model and (2) the discrete choice model combined with the diffusion model. This discussion of combination methodologies is not meant to be exhaustive. Rather, it is intended merely to show that many methodologies often can complement each other. A combination of two or more different approaches may be better than a single methodology alone.

Raju, P.S.; Teotia, A.P.S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

A new classification pattern recognition methodology for power system typical load profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a new pattern recognition methodology is described for the classification of the daily chronological load curves of power systems, in order to estimate their respective representative daily load profiles, which can be mainly used for load ... Keywords: adaptive vector quantization, adequacy measures, clustering algorithms, fuzzy k-means, hierarchical clustering, k-means, load profiles, pattern recognition, self-organized maps

G. J. Tsekouras; F. D. Kanellos; V. T. Kontargyri; I. S. Karanasiou; A. D. Salis; N. E. Mastorakis

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Edustega: an Education-Centric Steganography methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel Education-Centric Steganography Methodology (Edustega) that takes advantages of such text to conceal data. Edustega is based on Nostega paradigm, which implies that it neither hides data in a noise (errors) nor produces noise. ...

Abdelrahman Desoky

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Strategies and Methodologies for Integrating Design Computation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodologies for Integrating Design Computation into the Design of High Density Quality Living Environment Speaker(s): Jin Yeu Tsou Date: October 9, 2002 - 12:00pm Location:...

134

Panel on future challenges in modeling methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This panel paper presents the views of six researchers and practitioners of simulation modeling. Collectively we attempt to address a range of key future challenges to modeling methodology. It is hoped that the views of this paper, and the presentations ...

Simon J. E. Taylor; Peter Lendermann; Ray J. Paul; Steven W. Reichenthal; Steffen Straßburger; Stephen J. Turner

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

 

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1960-2011 (Complete) 1960-2011 (Complete) Released: June 28, 2013 | Next Release: June 27, 2014 Comprehensive state-level estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures by source and sector. An additional field called "data_status" has been added to all data files on this page. The field consists of the year of the data cycle plus an "F" for "final." Example: "2011F" indicates that a file is the final version generated from the 2011 data cycle. The new field is needed to distinguish "final" data from "in-progress" data. See SEDS Updates for more information. + EXPAND ALL Change State Consumption All States United States Summary 2011 1960-2011 Consumption Overview: Primary Energy Source and End-Use Sectors HTML PDF

136

Methodology for Fire Configuration Risk Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a methodology for performing bounding fire risk assessments at nuclear power plants (NPPs) for on-line equipment configurations. The methodology is designed to support risk assessments prior to performing maintenance, as required by 10CFR50.65 Section (a)(4), the Maintenance Rule. Risk assessments are typically performed for internal events using probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). However, fire probabilistic risk assessments (FPRAs) are often not available or their use for this p...

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

State Energy Production Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

State Energy Data System State Energy Data System Production Estimates Technical Notes For 1960-2011 Estimates Table of Contents Section 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 Section 2. Coal ............................................................................................................................... 5 Section 3. Crude Oil ....................................................................................................................... 7 Section 4. Natural Gas (Marketed Production) .............................................................................. 9 Section 5. Renewable Energy and Nuclear Energy ..................................................................... 13

138

Estimation of the social costs of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study determines the extent to which it is possible to develop monetary estimates of the marginal social cost of fuels, using natural gas to test a methodology that could be applied to other fuels. This requires review of previous estimates of both market and nonmarket costs to the extent that such are available. For some components of social cost, calculation of estimates from secondary data is required. The feasibility of using these estimates to develop marginal social-cost estimates for the country and for states or regions must then be evaluated. In order to develop estimates of marginal social cost for use in determining minimum life-cycle costs of building space conditioning, economic theory is used to develop a conceptual model of the market cost of fuel extraction and conversion. Then, estimation methodologies for each component of nonmarket costs are examined to assess the applicability and validity of each methodology. On the basis of this analysis, empirical estimates of both market and nonmarket components of social cost are aggregated to calculate a social-cost estimate for natural gas. 38 references.

Nieves, L.A.; Lemon, J.R.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A Methodological Framework for Comparative Assessments of Equipment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodological Framework for Comparative Assessments of Equipment Energy Efficiency Policy Measures Title A Methodological Framework for Comparative Assessments of Equipment Energy...

140

Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Carbon Accounting...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOEEA-1791 (May 2010) Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount...

142

Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input Data, and Infrastructu...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input Data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site Title Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input Data, and...

143

U.S. Scientific Team Draws on New Data, Multiple Scientific Methodologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Scientific Team Draws on New Data, Multiple Scientific Scientific Team Draws on New Data, Multiple Scientific Methodologies to Reach Updated Estimate of Oil Flows from BP's Well U.S. Scientific Team Draws on New Data, Multiple Scientific Methodologies to Reach Updated Estimate of Oil Flows from BP's Well June 15, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Based on updated information and scientific assessments, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar, and Chair of the National Incident Command's Flow Rate Technical Group (FRTG) Dr. Marcia McNutt (Director of the U.S. Geological Survey) today announced an improved estimate of how much oil is flowing from the leaking BP well. Secretary Chu, Secretary Salazar, and Dr. McNutt convened a group of federal and independent scientists on Monday to discuss new analyses and

144

State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates  

SciTech Connect

This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The damage function approach for estimating fuel cycle externalities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the methodology used in a study of fuel cycle externalities sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities. The methodology is the damage function approach. This paper describes that approach and discusses its application and limitations. The fuel cycles addressed are those in which coal, biomass, oil, hydro, natural gas and uranium are used to generate electric power. The methodology is used to estimate the physical impacts of these fuel cycles on environmental resources and human health, and the external costs and benefits of these impacts.

Lee, R.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Methodology of Energy Intensities - Appendix A  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Glossary Appendix A Survey Design, Implementation, and Estimates Introduction The Energy Information Administration (EIA) designed the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

147

IMPACTS: Industrial Technologies Program, Summary of Program Results for CY2009, Appendix 7: Methodology for Technology Tracking and Assessment of Benefits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

191 DOE Industrial Technologies Program 191 DOE Industrial Technologies Program Appendix 7: Methodology for Technology Tracking and Assessment of Benefits u Technology Tracking............................................................................................................................................ 192 u Methods of Estimating Benefits.............................................................................................................................. 192 u Deriving the ITP Cost/Benefit Curve ...................................................................................................................... 193 Methodology for Technology Tracking and Assessment of Benefits

148

eGallon Methodology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

eGallon Methodology eGallon Methodology eGallon Methodology The average American measures the day-to-day cost of driving by the price of a gallon of gasoline. In other words, as the price of gasoline rises and falls, it tells consumers how much it costs to drive. If you drive past a gas station, watch the evening news or read the newspaper, you'll see the price of a gallon of gas posted. But for electric vehicle (EV) owners -- who generally fuel at home -- it's hard to measure just how much it costs to drive. To help current and potential EV drivers better understand the cost of driving an EV, the Energy Department created a metric called the "electric gallon" -- or "eGallon." The eGallon represents the cost of driving an electric vehicle (EV) the same distance a gasoline-powered

149

eGallon Methodology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

eGallon Methodology eGallon Methodology eGallon Methodology The average American measures the day-to-day cost of driving by the price of a gallon of gasoline. In other words, as the price of gasoline rises and falls, it tells consumers how much it costs to drive. If you drive past a gas station, watch the evening news or read the newspaper, you'll see the price of a gallon of gas posted. But for electric vehicle (EV) owners -- who generally fuel at home -- it's hard to measure just how much it costs to drive. To help current and potential EV drivers better understand the cost of driving an EV, the Energy Department created a metric called the "electric gallon" -- or "eGallon." The eGallon represents the cost of driving an electric vehicle (EV) the same distance a gasoline-powered

150

2007 CBECS Large Hospital Building Methodology Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology Report Main Report | Methodology Report Main Report | Methodology | FAQ | List of Tables CBECS 2007 - Release date: August 17, 2012 Data Collection The data in the Energy Characteristics and Energy Consumed in Large Hospital Buildings in the United States in 2007 report and accompanying tables were collected in the 2007 round of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). CBECS is a quadrennial survey is conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide basic statistical information about energy consumption and expenditures in United States commercial buildings and information about energy-related characteristics of these buildings. The survey was conducted in two phases, the Building Characteristics Survey and the Energy Supplier Survey. The Building Characteristics Survey collects information about selected

151

Estimating the Urban Bias of Surface Shelter Temperatures Using Upper-Air and Satellite Data. Part II: Estimation of the Urban Bias  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology is presented for estimating the urban bias of surface shelter temperatures due to the effect of the urban heat island. Multiple regression techniques were used to predict surface shelter temperatures based on the time period 1986?89 ...

David L. Epperson; Jerry M. Davis; Peter Bloomfield; Thomas R. Karl; Alan L. McNab; Kevin P. Gallo

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guidelines for Estimating Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use July 2010 i Summary Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to develop a baseline for industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water use in fiscal year 2010. Measuring actual water use through flow meters is the best method to develop this baseline. But there are instances where Federal sites do not meter these applications, so developing a baseline will be problematic. Therefore the intent of this document is to assist Federal agencies in the baseline development by providing a methodology to calculate unmetered sources of landscaping water use utilizing engineering estimates. The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative

153

Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Development of an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources in North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the 1970s, various private and governmental agencies have conducted studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources, particularly those resources contained in tight sands, fractured shales, and coal beds. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the amount of unconventional gas resources in North America, and its estimates are used by other government agencies as the basis for their resource estimates. While the USGS employs a probabilistic methodology, it is apparent from the resulting narrow ranges that the methodology underestimates the uncertainty of these undiscovered, untested, potential resources, which in turn limits the reliability and usefulness of the assessments. The objective of this research is to develop an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources that better accounts for the uncertainty in these resources. This study investigates the causes of the narrow ranges generated by the USGS analyticprobabilistic methodology used to prepare the 1995 national oil and gas assessment and the 2000 NOGA series, and presents an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. The new model improves upon the USGS method by using a stochastic approach, which includes correlation between the input variables and Monte Carlo simulation, representing a more versatile and robust methodology than the USGS analytic-probabilistic methodology. The improved methodology is applied to the assessment of potential unconventional gas resources in the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado, and compared to results of the evaluation performed by the USGS in 2002. Comparison of the results validates the means and standard deviations produced by the USGS methodology, but shows that the probability distributions generated are rather different and, that the USGS distributions are not skewed to right, as expected for a natural resource. This study indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the resulting USGS probability distributions are not caused by the analytic equations or lack of correlation between input parameters, but rather the use of narrow triangular probability distributions as input variables. Adoption of the improved methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input probability distributions, will allow a more realistic assessment of the uncertainty surrounding potential unconventional gas resources.

Salazar Vanegas, Jesus

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Estimated Global Hydrographic Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An estimate is made of the three-dimensional global oceanic temperature and salinity variability, omitting the seasonal cycle, both as a major descriptive element of the ocean circulation and for use in the error estimates of state estimation. ...

Gaël Forget; Carl Wunsch

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Applying least squares support vector machines to the airframe wing-box structural design cost estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research used the least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) method to estimate the project design cost of an airframe wing-box structure. We also compared the estimation performance using back-propagation neural networks (BPN) and statistical ... Keywords: Airframe structure, Back-propagation neural networks, Cost estimation, Least squares support vector machines, Response surface methodology

S. Deng; Tsung-Han Yeh

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

feedback on the DARPA ICV "Methodology for Evaluation of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EWG/ICV Online Forum. feedback on the DARPA ICV " Methodology for Evaluation of Collaboration Systems". ...

158

Internal Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix F Internal Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout F-1 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population...........................................................................................40 Comparison to dose estimates from global fallout

159

Sampling Methodologies for the Commercial Sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing a survey sample that accurately mirrors the target population is a key step toward a much-needed understanding of the factors affecting commercial electricity use. This thorough exploration of new and familiar methodologies is based on experience with five recent, large-scale utility surveys of commercial customers.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Efficient optimal design space characterization methodologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the primary advantages of a high-level synthesis system is its ability to explore the design space. This paper presents several methodologies for design space exploration that compute all optimal tradeoff points for the combined ... Keywords: bounding, clock-length determination, design space exploration, efficient searching, high-level synthesis, module selection, scheduling

Stephen A. Blythe; Robert A. Walker

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Towards Software Development Methodology for Web Services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emergence of Web services represents a shift from component-based architectures that have proved successful in the context of enterprise computing to service-oriented architectures that are more suited to the highly distributed Internet-based applications. ... Keywords: Methodology For Service-Oriented Applications, Software Development, Web Services

George Feuerlicht; Sooksathit Meesathit

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology and Applications to the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology and Applications to the Coso Geothermal Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: We describe here efforts in technology development to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in geothermal settings for three-dimensional resistivity models using desktop PC's or small clusters. A finite difference scheme is utilized for the forward problem, with various options to compute the parameter Jacobians, and parameter step estimates are defined using an explicit Gauss-Newton step. The paper

164

Methodology for Predicting Flammable Gas Mixtures in Double Contained Receiver Tanks [SEC 1 THRU SEC 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This methodology document provides an estimate of the maximum concentrations of flammable gases (ammonia, hydrogen, and methane) which could exist in the vapor space of a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) from the simultaneous saltwell pumping of one or more single-shell tanks (SSTs). This document expands Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) and removes some of the conservatism from it, especially in vapor phase ammonia predictions. The methodologies of Calculation Note 118 (Hedengren et a1 1997) are essentially identical for predicting flammable gas mixtures in DCRTs from saltwell pumping for low DCRT ventilation rates, 1e, < 1 cfm. The hydrogen generation model has also been updated in the methodology of this document.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

NONE

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Software Cost Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort required to develop a software system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last 30 years. This paper provides a general overview of software cost estimation methods including the recent advances in the field. As a number of these models rely on a software size estimate as input, we first provide an overview of common size metrics. We then highlight the cost estimation models that have been proposed and used successfully. Models may be classified into 2 major categories: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. A key factor in selecting a cost estimation model is the accuracy of its estimates. Unfortunately, despite the large body of experience with estimation models, the accuracy of these models is not satisfactory. The paper includes comment on the performance of the estimation models and description of several newer approaches to cost estimation.

Hareton Leung Zhang; Zhang Fan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Effects of Retrospective Gauge-Based Readjustment of Multisensor Precipitation Estimates on Hydrologic Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents methodologies for mitigating temporally inconsistent biases in National Weather Service (NWS) real-time multisensor quantitative precipitation estimates (MQPEs) through rain gauge–based readjustments, and examines their effects ...

Yu Zhang; Seann Reed; David Kitzmiller

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Sonar Observations of Langmuir Circulation and Estimation of Dispersion of Floating Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations are described of Langmuir circulation obtained using upward-pointing bottom-mounted sonars, and a methodology to use the data to estimate the dispersion of floating particles is suggested. Observations of linear bands of acoustic ...

S. A. Thorpe; M. S. Cure; A. Graham; A. J. Hall

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

On the empirical estimation of utility distribution damping parameters using power quality waveform data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an efficient yet accurate methodology for estimating system damping. The proposed technique is based on linear dynamic system theory and the Hilbert damping analysis. The proposed technique requires capacitor switching waveforms ...

Kyeon Hur; Surya Santoso; Irene Y. H. Gu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Evolving Multisensor Precipitation Estimation Methods: Their Impacts on Flow Prediction Using a Distributed Hydrologic Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates evolving methodologies for radar and merged gauge–radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) to determine their influence on the flow predictions of a distributed hydrologic model. These methods include the National ...

David Kitzmiller; Suzanne Van Cooten; Feng Ding; Kenneth Howard; Carrie Langston; Jian Zhang; Heather Moser; Yu Zhang; Jonathan J. Gourley; Dongsoo Kim; David Riley

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Estimation of economic impact of freight distribution due to highway closure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main aim of this study is to provide a theoretical framework and methodology to estimate and analyze the economic impact of freight disruption due to highway closure. The costs in this study will be classified into ...

Hu, Shiyin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

M Weimar

1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

Methodology for Establishing Remaining Life of Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a plant's maintenance personnel develop component assessment procedures, a common step is to establish a methodology that considers the type of component, the materials of construction, the operating regimes, the degradation and failure mechanisms, failure history, lead times for repair, and the costs of refurbishment. A unifying view of condition assessment identifies active and potentially active damage mechanisms and is based on three kinds of information: the degree of damage currently in the co...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Average Retail Prices of Electricity Total, 1960-2011 By Sector, 2011 By Sector, Nominal Prices, 1960-2011 By Sector, Real 1 Prices, 1960-2011 254 U.S. Energy Information...

175

UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials (Redirected from UNFCCC GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: UNFCCC GHG inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: unfccc.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/training_material/metho Cost: Free References: UNFCCC GHG inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials[1] Logo: UNFCCC GHG inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials

176

Abstract--A robust methodology for estimating the value of service reliability improvements is presented. Although  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In table 1 above, this 1-hour outage costs the customer $12,487 per year. The investment that leads to a 50, this 30-minute outage costs the customer $9,217 per year. In the end, the investment that reduces outage as opposed to 100 percent, the outage cost to the customer is now $6,244 per year. Although the reduction

177

Global methane emissions from landfills: New methodology and annual estimates 19801996  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a large number of uncounted projects which flare gas but do not fuel a commercial project. 4. Results

Columbia University

178

A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

participation, the number of customers enrolling in programsservice (i.e. , the number of customers who do not switch toinformation on the number of customers eligible for their

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Southern California Edison Company and Working Group 2December 30. Southern California Edison (SCE), 2003. “Southern California Edison Company’s Long-Term Resource Plan

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reductions in their class peak demand in response to pricesresidential customers with peak demand greater than 350 kWs) Eligible Customers (peak demand) > 1,500 kW > 2000 kW

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and 2005) ISO-NE Real-Time Price Response (RTPR) ProgramResponse to Real Time Electricity Prices”, December,occur in near-real time (system emergencies or energy price

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Estimates of Duck Breeding Populations in the Nebraska Sandhills Using Double Observer Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of breeding duck populations in the Nebraska Sandhills. Aerial transect surveys were conducted using be considered for adjusting duck counts that cannot be corrected using additional aerial or ground surveys. Key words.--Aerial survey, Anas, detection probabilities, double observer, Nebraska, population

Powell, Larkin A.

183

A methodology to pre-screen commercial buildings for potential energy savings using limited information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Typical energy audits are sufficiently expensive and time-consuming that many owners and managers of buildings are not willing to invest the time and money required for a full audit. This dissertation provides a methodology to identify buildings with large potential energy savings using limited information, specifically, utility bills, total area and weather data. The methodology is developed based on the hypothesis: if a commercial building is properly designed, constructed, operated, and maintained, the measured energy consumption should approximately match the simulated value for a typical building of the same size with the most efficient HVAC system; otherwise, there may be potential for energy savings. There are four steps in the methodology: 1) testing to determine whether the utility bills include both weather-dependent and weatherindependent loads; 2) separating weather-dependent and weather-independent loads when both are present in the same data; 3) determining the main type of HVAC system; 4) estimating potential energy savings and recommending an energy audit if appropriate. The Flatness Index is selected to test whether the utility bills include both weatherdependent and weather-independent loads. An approach to separate the utility bills based on thermal balance is developed to separate utility bills into weather-dependent and weather-independent loads for facilities in hot and humid climates. The average relative error in estimated cooling consumption is only 1.1% for 40 buildings in Texas, whereas it is -54.8% using the traditional 3P method. An application of fuzzy logic is used to identify the main type of HVAC system in buildings from their 12-month weatherdependent energy consumption. When 40 buildings were tested, 18 systems were identified correctly, seven were incorrect and the HVAC system type cannot be identified in 15 cases. The estimated potential savings by the screening methodology in eight large commercial buildings were compared with audit estimated savings for the same buildings. The audit estimated savings are between 25% - 150% of the potential energy savings estimated by the screening procedure in seven cases. The other two cases are less accurate, indicating that further refinement of the method would be valuable. The data required are easily obtained; the procedure can be carried out automatically, so no experience is required. If the actual type of HVAC system, measured weather-dependent, and weather-independent energy consumption are known, the methodology should work better.

Zhu, Yiwen

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Methodology for the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage Program September 2010 Summary of the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide 2 Authors: U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D John Litynski U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D/Sequestration Division Dawn Deel Traci Rodosta U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Office of Research and Development George Guthrie U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/

185

Rapid Energy Estimation of Computations on FPGA based Soft Processors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such energy performance, we propose a methodology based on instruction level energy profiling. We first, techniques that can quickly and ac- curately obtain the energy dissipation of the software programs executing1 Rapid Energy Estimation of Computations on FPGA based Soft Processors Jingzhao Ou and Viktor K

Hwang, Kai

186

Statistics of Sxy Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The statistics of Sxy estimates derived from orthogonal-component measurements are examined. Based on results of Goodman, the probability density function (pdf) for Sxy(f) estimates is derived, and a closed-form solution for arbitrary moments of ...

M. H. Freilich; S. S. Pawka

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A methodology for developing and deploying distributed applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a methodology for developing and deploying distributed Java applications using a reflective middleware system called RAFDA. We illustrate the methodology by describing how it has been used to develop a peer-to-peer infrastructure, and explain ...

Graham N. C. Kirby; Scott M. Walker; Stuart J. Norcross; Alan Dearle

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cost Estimation Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

189

Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

D.C. Mecham

2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

190

A simple methodology for observing fracture process of nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple methodology for observing mechanical properties of nanocomposite Part 1: interfacial properties in an Epoxy Clay Nanocomposites. ...

191

Energy Storage Valuation Methodology and Supporting Tool  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ben Kaun Ben Kaun Sr. Project Engineer Electricity Advisory Committee: Storage Valuation Panel 6-6-13 Energy Storage Valuation Methodology and Supporting Tool 2 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) * Independent, non-profit, collaborative research institute, with full spectrum electric industry coverage * EPRI members represent ~90% of energy delivered in the U.S. * Energy Storage Research Program has over 30 funding utility members 3 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Storage Valuation Can be Confusing! Renewable Integration Frequency Regulation Spinning Reserve Resource Adequacy Asset Utilization Voltage Support Reduced GHG? Lower Production Costs

192

Boiler efficiency methodology for solar heat applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains a summary of boiler efficiency measurements which can be applied to evaluate the performance of steam-generating boilers via both the direct and indirect methods. This methodology was written to assist industries in calculating the boiler efficiency for determining the applicability and value of thermal industrial heat, as part of the efforts of the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) funded by Sandia National Laboratories. Tables of combustion efficiencies are enclosed as functions of stack temperatures and the amount of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the gas stream.

Maples, D.; Conwell, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Boiler Efficiency Inst.; Pacheco, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A Methodology for Optimizing Boiler Operating Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among the many ways by which an energy manager can conserve energy is the establishment of a strategy for operation of fired boilers. In particular, he can effect total fuel consumption by his decision on how much on-line boiler surplus is required. There is a need to be able to balance the cost advantages of operating with less boiler surplus against the potential economic losses that might result from the increased risk of not meeting demand. A methodology for doing this along with an example calculation, is presented in this paper.

Jones, K. C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Methodology for Fleetwide Energy Efficiency Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Making power plant efficiency improvements is a proven and low-cost method for CO2 reductions in the near term. In this report, a methodology EPRI previously developed for evaluating efficiency improving projects in a single power plant was applied to all twelve coal-fired plants in the Ameren Missouri fleet. A list of feasible energy efficiency options was compiled and analyses were conducted to determine project-specific net annual benefits in relation to reduction of CO2 emissions. Researchers compile...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

195

Update of Part 61 Impacts Analysis Methodology. Methodology report. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Envirosphere Company has expanded and updated the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of the costs and impacts of treatment and disposal of low-level waste that is close to or exceeds Class C concentrations. The modifications described in this report principally include: (1) an update of the low-level radioactive waste source term, (2) consideration of additional alternative disposal technologies, (3) expansion of the methodology used to calculate disposal costs, (4) consideration of an additional exposure pathway involving direct human contact with disposed waste due to a hypothetical drilling scenario, and (5) use of updated health physics analysis procedures (ICRP-30). Volume 1 of this report describes the calculational algorithms of the updated analysis methodology.

Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

ISHED1: Applying the LEM Methodology to Heat Exchanger Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ISHED1: Applying the LEM Methodology to Heat Exchanger Design Kenneth A. Kaufman Ryszard S. Michalski MLI 00-2 #12;2 ISHED1: APPLYING THE LEM METHODOLOGY TO HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN Kenneth A. Kaufman-2 January 2000 #12;ISHED1: APPLYING THE LEM METHODOLOGY TO HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN Abstract Evolutionary

Michalski, Ryszard S.

197

A Risk-Based Sensor Placement Methodology  

SciTech Connect

A sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors or detectors to protect population against the exposure to and effects of known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as wind speed and direction pairs with the percentage of occurrence of the pairs over the historical period. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate population at risk against standard exposure levels. Sensor locations are determined via a dynamic programming algorithm where threats captured or detected by sensors placed in prior stages are removed from consideration in subsequent stages. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor or detector. Thus, the criterion for halting the iterative process can be the number of detectors available, a threshold marginal utility value, or the cumulative detection of a minimum factor of the total risk value represented by all threats.

Lee, Ronald W [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Government Accountability Office is responsible for, among other things, assisting the Congress in its oversight of the federal government, including agencies ’ stewardship of public funds. To use public funds effectively, the government must meet the demands of today’s changing world by employing effective management practices and processes, including the measurement of government program performance. In addition, legislators, government officials, and the public want to know whether government programs are achieving their goals and what their costs are. To make those evaluations, reliable cost information is required and federal standards have been issued for the cost accounting that is needed to prepare that information. 1 We developed the Cost Guide in order to establish a consistent methodology that is based on best practices and that can be used across the federal government for developing, managing, and evaluating capital program cost estimates. For the purposes of this guide, a cost estimate is the summation of individual cost elements, using established methods and valid data, to estimate the future costs of a program, based on what is known today. 2 The management of a cost estimate involves continually updating the estimate with actual data as they become available, revising the estimate to reflect changes, and analyzing differences between estimated and actual costs—for example, using data from a reliable earned value management (EVM) system. 3 The ability to generate reliable cost estimates is a critical function, necessary to support the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) capital programming process. 4 Without this ability, agencies are at risk of experiencing cost overruns, missed deadlines, and performance shortfalls—all recurring problems that our program assessments too often reveal. Furthermore, cost increases often mean that the government

Best Practices For Developing

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials UNFCCC-GHG Inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC GHG inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: unfccc.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/training_material/metho Cost: Free References: UNFCCC GHG inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials[1] Logo: UNFCCC GHG inventory Methodological Documents and Training Materials Visit the website for GHG inventory training materials, software support

200

Towards a Methodology for Developing Agent-Based Simulations: The MASim Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the general aspects of the MASim methodology, aimed for the development of agent-based simulations. MASim employs features common to the development of agent-based software as well as to the development of simulation models. It also borrows concepts used in mainstream of the software engineering process. 1

André M. C. Campos

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs with BEAMS, 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official “benefits estimates” for each of its major programs using its Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation (PAE) Team. PAE conducts an annual integrated modeling and analysis effort to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. These estimates are part of EERE’s budget request and are also used in the formulation of EERE’s performance measures. Two of EERE’s major programs are the Building Technologies Program (BT) and the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports PAE by developing the program characterizations and other market information necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis as part of PAE’s Portfolio Decision Support (PDS) effort. Additionally, PNNL also supports BT by providing line-item estimates for the Program’s internal use. PNNL uses three modeling approaches to perform these analyses. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits using one of those methods: the Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS). BEAMS is a PC-based accounting model that was built in Visual Basic by PNNL specifically for estimating the benefits of buildings-related projects. It allows various types of projects to be characterized including whole-building, envelope, lighting, and equipment projects. This document contains an overview section that describes the estimation process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used within the BEAMS software. This document serves both as stand-alone documentation for BEAMS, and also as a supplemental update of a previous document, Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort, (Elliott et al. 2004b). The areas most changed since the publication of that previous document are those discussing the calculation of lighting and HVAC interactive effects (for both lighting and envelope/whole-building projects). This report does not attempt to convey inputs to BEAMS or the methodology of their derivation.

Elliott, Douglas B.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Microsoft Word - MethodologyFinal.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WaterSense Program WaterSense Program Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use Michael McNeil, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Virginie Letschert, and Mirka della Cava Water and Energy Technology Team Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley CA 94720 For the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WaterSense Program February 2008 The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Energy for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Planning Analysis, and Evaluation section in the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. i Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................

203

MicroComputed Tomography: Methodology and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the availability of commercial laboratory systems and the emergence of user facilities at synchrotron radiation sources, studies of microcomputed tomography or microCT have increased exponentially. MicroComputed Technology provides a complete introduction to the technology, describing how to use it effectively and understand its results. The first part of the book focuses on methodology, covering experimental methods, data analysis, and visualization approaches. The second part addresses various microCT applications, including porous solids, microstructural evolution, soft tissue studies, multimode studies, and indirect analyses. The author presents a sufficient amount of fundamental material so that those new to the field can develop a relative understanding of how to design their own microCT studies. One of the first full-length references dedicated to microCT, this book provides an accessible introduction to field, supplemented with application examples and color images.

(NWU)

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

Challenges in Implementing Methodologies for Nonproliferation Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A handful of models for explaining and predicting States’ development of nuclear weapons programs have been proposed since the 1970s. Despite the array of techno-social variables and computational concepts employed in these models, no model has yet been established as an agreed-upon standard. Likewise, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)—one of the main institutions evaluating social, political, and technological information for assessments of States’ current nuclear capabilities—uses only a qualitative framework by which to evaluate such information to assess the correctness and completeness of a State’s declaration. In this paper, analysts familiar with both the development of techno-social modelling and the IAEA’s implementation of a safeguards system that is information driven discuss the challenges faced in the development, implementation, and evaluation of models and methodologies for nonproliferation assessments, based on experiences at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the IAEA.

Gastelum, Zoe N.; Dalton, Angela C.; Coles, Garill A.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

205

Analysis Methodology for Industrial Load Profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology is provided for evaluating the impact of various demand-side management (DSM) options on industrial customers. The basic approach uses customer metered load profile data as a basis for the customer load shape. DSM technologies are represented as load shapes and are used as a basis for altering the customers existing measured load shape. The impact of load shape changes on the customer is evaluated in terms of a change in the electric bill by using a software analytical tool called LOADEXPERT™. The software calculates the customer's bill for a particular rate structure and a given load shape. The output data from LOADEXPERT™ are used to calculate the rate of return on the DSM technology investment. Other uses of load profile data are provided.

Reddoch, T. W.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Cost analysis methodology: Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project. PVMaT is a five-year project to support the translation of research and development in PV technology into the marketplace. PVMaT, conceived as a DOE/industry partnership, seeks to advanced PV manufacturing technologies, reduce PV module production costs, increase module performance, and expand US commercial production capacities. Under PVMaT, manufacturers will propose specific manufacturing process improvements that may contribute to the goals of the project, which is to lessen the cost, thus hastening entry into the larger scale, grid-connected applications. Phase 1 of the PVMaT project is to identify obstacles and problems associated with manufacturing processes. This report describes the cost analysis methodology required under Phase 1 that will allow subcontractors to be ranked and evaluated during Phase 2.

Whisnant, R.A. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Security User Studies: Methodologies and Best Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in usable security-- the research, development, and study of systems that are both usable and secure-- has been growing both in the CHI and information security communities in the past several years. Despite this interest, however, the process of designing and conducting security-related user studies remains extremely difficult. Users deal with security infrequently and irregularly, and most do not notice or care about security until it is missing or broken. Security is rarely a primary goal or task of users, making many traditional HCI evaluation techniques difficult or even impossible to use. This workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners from the HCI and information security communities to explore methodological challenges and best practices for conducting security-related user studies.

Serge Egelman; Jen King; Robert C. Miller; Nick Ragouzis; Erika Shehan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Estimating Corn Grain Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains how to estimate the grain yield of a corn crop before harvest. An interactive grain yield calculator is included. 6 pages, 3 tables, 1 figure.

Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

PART 2. MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN POLLUTION CHAPTER V. MATHEMATICAL MODELS TO ESTIMATE THE ENERGY -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methodology to estimate the energy ­ ecologic efficiency of thermopower plants (TPP) Presently, the analysis impact point of view and also of the efficiency of the electrical and/or thermal energy producedPART 2. MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN POLLUTION CHAPTER V. MATHEMATICAL MODELS TO ESTIMATE THE ENERGY

Baica, Malvina

210

Estimating the Remaining Useful Life of Residential Cory Welch and Brad Rogers, Navigant Consulting, Inc.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating the Remaining Useful Life of Residential Appliances Cory Welch and Brad Rogers, Navigant. This paper describes a methodology for estimating the RUL of residential technologies using mortality data is that Weibull shape factors for many residential appliances were found to fall within a tight range

211

Development of a pre-screening methodology to aid in determining potential energy savings in commercial buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a methodology developed to aid in the determination of potential sources and the potential scale of energy savings in commercial buildings. As a pre-screening tool, the methodology is designed to serve as the first analysis of the building’s potential for energy savings using limited data prior to a site visit. A Microsoft® Excel-based tool was developed to perform this analysis semi-automatically with user operation. A fundamental concept used in this methodology is that of the energy balance load, defined as heating plus electricity minus cooling. The methodology is designed to require only historical weather data, historical whole-building energy consumption data, the total conditioned floor area, and the basic function of the building. Upon following a short procedure developed and outlined in this thesis, this limited data yields information that can lead to conclusions about the building’s energy consumption. The output information includes estimates of a major building thermal parameter—the building’s overall heat transfer coefficient including the total outside air flow rate into the building. In addition to providing this information, the Excel tool includes already-formatted plots of the energy consumption commonly used in energy analysis. These include cooling, heating, and electricity vs. both outside air temperature and time. Three case studies illustrate the utility of this methodology. The calculated energy balance load—calculated using parameters determined through this methodology—yielded values on average within 5.4% of measured values.

Hicks, Dave C.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Estimating frequency of change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many online data sources are updated autonomously and independently. In this article, we make the case for estimating the change frequency of data to improve Web crawlers, Web caches and to help data mining. We first identify various scenarios, where ... Keywords: Change frequency estimation, Poisson process

Junghoo Cho; Hector Garcia-Molina

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Valuing Energy Security: Customer Damage Function Methodology and Case Studies at DoD Installations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a methodology to value non-energy savings that can be attributed to energy security projects. The methodology is based on: (1) completing a site survey to collect data on two hypothetical outage scenarios lasting for different durations to compute a customer damage function (CDF), which represents interruption costs as a function of the outage duration; (2) characterizing the reliability of the commercial power supply at the site; and (3) estimating the value of electrical energy security (VEES), which is a metric that characterizes on an annual basis the cost of utility outages. The avoided cost of commercial power outages can be used as ancillary non-energy savings to increase the return on investment of energy security projects.

Giraldez, J.; Booth, S.; Anderson, K.; Massey, K.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Adaptive Real-Time Methodology for Optimizing Energy-Efficient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Email Adaptive Real-Time Methodology for Optimizing Energy-Efficient Computing Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an effective way to reduce energy and power...

216

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing the Energy Efficiency Potential of Industrial Motor Systems Speaker(s): Ali Hasanbeigi Date: February 8,...

217

Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

A METHODOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PARALLEL GRASP ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 7, 2003 ... for the 3-index assignment problem (AP3) and for the job-shop scheduling problem (JSP) are analyzed with the methodology proposed.

219

Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal...

220

PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facebook icon Twitter icon UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

222

DOE Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM): Stage Exit V3 | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(SDLC) used for information systems developed and maintained for the Department Of Energy DOE Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM): Stage Exit V3 More Documents &...

223

Synthesizing Membrane Proteins Using In Vitro Methodology | Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proteins Using In Vitro Methodology Technology available for licensing: in vitro, cell-free expression system that caters to the production of protein types that are challenging...

224

Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Evaluation Methodology Development and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An overview of the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection of Generation IV nuclear energy Systems.

Bari,R.A.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Therios, I.; Whitlock, J.

2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

Methodologies for Determining Persistence of Commissioning Benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies on the persistence of commissioning benefits to date have used a variety of methods to evaluate this persistence. This paper proposes a consistent framework for describing and evaluating the persistence of commissioning benefits. It begins by splitting commissioning benefits into two broad categories: 1) benefits that inherently persist; and 2) benefits that may not persist. The study of persistence then considers only the benefits that may not persist. These benefits are critical, since the top five reasons cited for performing commissioning in both new buildings and existing buildings are benefits that may not persist. These benefits are then further divided into benefits that may be quantified and benefits that are generally difficult to quantify. This paper proposes that benefits that may be quantified should generally be evaluated for persistence using approaches that are already widely accepted and used for other purposes, with adaptations where needed. Specifically, it proposes that energy and water savings be evaluated using methods consistent with the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (adapted with additional weather normalization), that comfort and indoor air quality improvements be evaluated using relevant standards, specifically ASHRAE Standard 55 and ASHRAE Standard 62, but goes further and proposes a methodology for economic quantification of these benefits as well. Finally, it is proposed that the persistence of measures whose benefit is difficult to quantify be evaluated simply by determining whether the measure is still in place or performing.

Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

On an Enhanced PERSIANN-CCS Algorithm for Precipitation Estimation  

SciTech Connect

By employing wavelet and selected features (WSF), median merging (MM), and selected curve-fitting (SCF) techniques, the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Networks Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) has been improved. The PERSIANN-CCS methodology includes the following four main steps: 1) segmentation of satellite cloud images into cloud patches, 2) feature extraction, 3) classification of cloud patches, and 4) derivation of the temperature rain-rate (T R) relationship for every cluster. The enhancements help improve step 2 by employing WSF, and step 4 by employing MM and SCF. For the study area herein, the results show that the enhanced methodology improves the equitable threat score (ETS) of the daily and hourly rainfall estimates mostly in the winter and fall. The ETS percentage improvement is about 20% for the daily (10% for hourly) estimates in the winter, 10% for the daily (8% for hourly) estimates in the fall, and at most 5% for the daily estimates in the summer at some rainfall thresholds. In the winter and fall, the area bias is improved almost at all rainfall thresholds for daily and hourly estimates. However, no significant improvement is obtained in the spring, and the area bias in the summer is also greater than that of the implemented PERSIANN-CCS algorithm.

Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU); Hsu, Kuo-Lin [University of California, Irvine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

State Emissions Estimates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Because energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) constitutes over 80 percent of total emissions, the state energy-related CO 2 emission levels provide a good indicator of the relative contribution of individual states to total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) emissions estimates at the state level for energy-related CO 2 are based on data contained in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). 1 The state-level emissions estimates are based on energy consumption data for the following fuel categories: three categories of coal (residential/commercial, industrial, and electric power sector); natural gas; and ten petroleum products including-- asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases

229

Faster Phase Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop several algorithms for performing quantum phase estimation based on basic measurements and classical post-processing. We present a pedagogical review of quantum phase estimation and simulate the algorithm to numerically determine its scaling in circuit depth and width. We show that the use of purely random measurements requires a number of measurements that is optimal up to constant factors, albeit at the cost of exponential classical post-processing; the method can also be used to improve classical signal processing. We then develop a quantum algorithm for phase estimation that yields an asymptotic improvement in runtime, coming within a factor of log* of the minimum number of measurements required while still requiring only minimal classical post-processing. The corresponding quantum circuit requires asymptotically lower depth and width (number of qubits) than quantum phase estimation.

Krysta M. Svore; Matthew B. Hastings; Michael Freedman

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

230

Radiation Stress Estimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation stresses Sij associated with the propagation of wind-generated waves are principal driving forces for several important surf-zone processes. The accurate estimation of the onshore flux of longshore-directed mean momentum Syx, using ...

S. S. Pawka; D. L. Inman; R. T. Guza

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Comprehensive Community NOx Emission Reduction Methodology: Overview and Results from the Application to a Case Study Community  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports on the development of a methodology to estimate energy use in a community and its associated effects on air pollution. This methodology would allow decision makers to predict the impacts of various energy conservation options and efficiency programs on air pollution reduction, which will help local governments and their residents understand how to reduce pollution and mange the information collection needed to accomplish this. This paper presents a broad overview of a community-wide energy use and NOx emissions inventory process and discusses detailed procedures used to calculate the residential sector's energy use and its associated NOx emissions. In an effort to better understand community-wide energy use and its associated NOx emissions, the City of College Station, Texas, was selected as a case study community to demonstrate the application of this methodology.

Sung, Y. H.; Haberl, J. S.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Methodology Formation Mitigation of Process Contaminants (3-MCPD)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3-MCPD (3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol )Methodology,Formation,and Mitigation reference papers. Methodology Formation Mitigation of Process Contaminants (3-MCPD) 3-MCPD 2-diol 3-MCPD 3-MCPD Esters 3-monochloropropane-1 acid analysis aocs april articles cert

233

Recent advances in ASM++ methodology for FPGA design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports the latest advances achieved in ASM++ methodology since its presentation in FPGAworld Conference 2007 and 2008. A fully new ASM++ compiler has been built, with an improved graphical interface, but also implementing a ... Keywords: ASM++ charts, FPGA, RTL, SoC, USB, compiler, methodology

S. de Pablo; F. Martínez; L. C. Herrero; J. A. Cebrián; S. Cáceres

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Factors that Impact Implementing a System Development Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract¿This paper presents the findings of empirical research from 61 companies, mostly from the United States, to identify the factors that may impact implementation of a system development methodology (SDM). The study uses a survey instrument to ... Keywords: Systems development methodology, analysis and design, project management, life cycle, managers, implementation.

Tom L. Roberts, Jr.; Michael L. Gibson; Kent T. Fields; R. Kelly Rainer, Jr.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Evaluating a graphical notation for modelling software development methodologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work aims at evaluating a graphical notation for modelling software (and other kinds of) development methodologies, thus demonstrating how useful the graphical aspects can be for sharing knowledge between the people responsible for documenting information ... Keywords: Cognitive dimensions, Graphical notation, Method engineering, Software development methodologies

Kenia Sousa; Jean Vanderdonckt; Brian Henderson-Sellers; Cesar Gonzalez-Perez

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A knowledge level software engineering methodology for agent oriented programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our goal in this paper is to introduce and motivate a methodology, called \\emph{Tropos}, for building agent oriented software systems. Tropos is based on two key ideas. First, the notion of agent and all the related mentalistic notions (for instance: ... Keywords: agent-based software engineering, design methodologies

Paolo Bresciani; Anna Perini; Paolo Giorgini; Fausto Giunchiglia; John Mylopoulos

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Parameter sweeping methodology for integration in a workflow specification framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the design and the automation of a methodology (SciDC) for the creation, execution and administration of large computational and parametric experiments in distributed systems. This methodology is oriented to be a part of a workflow ... Keywords: computational models, distributed processing, parallel processing, parameter sweeping, workflow specification

David B. Cedrés; Emilio Hernández

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4  

SciTech Connect

This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

An assessment methodology for thermal energy storage evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents an assessment methodology for evaluating the cost, performance, and overall economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The methodology was developed by Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program personnel at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for use by PNL and other TES concept evaluators. The methodology is generically applicable to all TES concepts; however, specific analyses may require additional or more detailed definition of the ground rules, assumptions, and analytical approach. The overall objective of the assessment methodology is to assist in preparing equitable and proper evaluations of TES concepts that will allow developers and end-users to make valid decisions about research and development (R and D) and implementation. The methodology meets this objective by establishing standard approaches, ground rules, assumptions, and definitions that are analytically correct and can be consistently applied by concept evaluators. 15 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Spanner, G.E.; Williams, T.A.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Estimating Terrorist Risk with Possibility Theory  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes techniques that use possibility theory to estimate the risk of terrorist acts. These techniques were developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as part of the National Infrastructure Simulation Analysis Center (NISAC) project. The techniques have been used to estimate the risk of various terrorist scenarios to support NISAC analyses during 2004. The techniques are based on the Logic Evolved Decision (LED) methodology developed over the past few years by Terry Bott and Steve Eisenhawer at LANL. [LED] The LED methodology involves the use of fuzzy sets, possibility theory, and approximate reasoning. LED captures the uncertainty due to vagueness and imprecision that is inherent in the fidelity of the information available for terrorist acts; probability theory cannot capture these uncertainties. This report does not address the philosophy supporting the development of nonprobabilistic approaches, and it does not discuss possibility theory in detail. The references provide a detailed discussion of these subjects. [Shafer] [Klir and Yuan] [Dubois and Prade] Suffice to say that these approaches were developed to address types of uncertainty that cannot be addressed by a probability measure. An earlier report discussed in detail the problems with using a probability measure to evaluate terrorist risk. [Darby Methodology]. Two related techniques are discussed in this report: (1) a numerical technique, and (2) a linguistic technique. The numerical technique uses traditional possibility theory applied to crisp sets, while the linguistic technique applies possibility theory to fuzzy sets. Both of these techniques as applied to terrorist risk for NISAC applications are implemented in software called PossibleRisk. The techniques implemented in PossibleRisk were developed specifically for use in estimating terrorist risk for the NISAC program. The LEDTools code can be used to perform the same linguistic evaluation as performed in PossibleRisk. [LEDTools] LEDTools is a general purpose linguistic evaluation tool and allows user defined universes of discourse and approximate reasoning rules, whereas PossibleRisk uses predefined universes of discourse (risk, attack, success, loss, and consequence) and rules. Also LEDTools has the capability to model a large number of threat scenarios with a graph and to integrate the scenarios (paths from the graph) into the linguistic evaluation. Example uses of PossibleRisk and LEDTools for the possibilistic evaluation of terrorist risk are provided in this report.

J.L. Darby

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Enhancement of satellite precipitation estimation via unsupervised dimensionality reduction  

SciTech Connect

A methodology to enhance Satellite Precipitation Estimation (SPE) using unsupervised dimensionality reduction (UDR) techniques is developed. This enhanced technique is an extension to the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) and Cloud Classification System (CCS) method (PERSIANN-CCS) enriched using wavelet features combined with dimensionality reduction. Cloud-top brightness temperature measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12) are used for precipitation estimation at 4 km 4 km spatial resolutions every 30 min. The study area in the continental United States covers parts of Louisiana, Arkansas, Kansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. Based on quantitative measures, root mean square error (RMSE) and Heidke skill score (HSS), the results show that the UDR techniques can improve the precipitation estimation accuracy. In addition, ICA is shown to have better performance than other UDR techniques; and in some cases, it achieves 10% improvement in the HSS.

Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

REQUESTS FOR RETIREMENT ESTIMATE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REQUEST FOR RETIREMENT ANNUITY ESTIMATE REQUEST FOR RETIREMENT ANNUITY ESTIMATE Instructions: Please read and answer the following questions thoroughly to include checking all applicable boxes. Unanswered questions may delay processing. Print and Fax back your request form to 202.586.6395 or drop request to GM-169. The request will be assigned to your servicing retirement specialist. They will confirm receipt of your request. SECTION A Request Submitted _____________________ ______________________ ________________________ _____________________ Name (last, first, middle) Last four SSN Date of Birth ___________________________ _________________________ __________________________ Organization Office Telephone Number Fax Number

245

Iterative phase estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an iterative algorithm for phase estimation of a parameter theta, which is within a logarithmic factor of the Heisenberg limit. Unlike other methods, we do not need any entanglement or an extra rotation gate which can perform arbitrary rotations with almost perfect accuracy: only a single copy of the unitary channel and basic measurements are needed. Simulations show that the algorithm is successful. We also look at iterative phase estimation when depolarizing noise is present. It is seen that the algorithm is still successful provided the number of iterative stages is below a certain threshold.

Caleb J O'Loan

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

246

Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accurate estimate of carbon fluxes associated with tropical deforestation from the last two decades is needed to balance the global carbon budget. Several studies have already estimated carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, but the estimates vary greatly and are difficult to compare due to differences in data sources, assumptions, and methodologies. In this paper, we review the different estimates and datasets, and the various challenges associated with comparing them and with accurately estimating carbon emissions from deforestation. We performed a simulation study over legal Amazonia to illustrate some of these major issues. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of considering land-cover dynamics following deforestation, including the fluxes from reclearing of secondary vegetation, the decay of product and slash pools, and the fluxes from regrowing forest. It also suggests that accurate carbon-flux estimates will need to consider historical land-cover changes for at least the previous 20 years. However, this result is highly sensitive to estimates of the partitioning of cleared carbon into instantaneous burning vs. long-timescale slash pools. We also show that carbon flux estimates based on ‘committed flux ’ calculations, as used by a few studies, are not comparable with the ‘annual balance ’ calculation method used by other studies.

Holly K. Gibbsw; Frédéric Achardz; Ruth Defries; Jonathan A. Foleyw; R. A. Houghton

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

External Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix E External Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout E-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure as the dependence on fallout time of arrival. The most exposed individuals were outdoor workers; the least exposed was about a factor of 20 less than that from "global fallout" from high- yield weapons tests carried out

248

External Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix G External Dose Estimates from Global Fallout G-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure from the fallout from all of these tests was about 0.7 mSv, about equivalent to 2-3 years of external radiation exposure from natural background. In contrast to the fallout from tests at the Nevada Test site

249

Advanced Model and Methodology Development [Heat Transfer and Fluid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Model and Advanced Model and Methodology Development Capabilities Engineering Computation and Design Engineering and Structural Mechanics Systems/Component Design, Engineering and Drafting Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Overview Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Underhood Thermal Management Combustion Simulations Advanced Model and Methodology Development Multi-physics Reactor Performance and Safety Simulations Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Bookmark and Share Advanced Model and Methodology Development Electrorefiner Model for Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel Electrorefiner Model for Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Click on image to

250

Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A system for simulating aerosols has been developed using a chemical transport model together with an assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals. The methodology and model components are described in this paper, and the modeled distribution of aerosols for the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) is presented by Rasch et al. [this issue]. The system generated aerosol forecasts to guide deployment of ships and aircraft during INDOEX. The system consists of the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) combined with an assimilation package developed for applications in atmospheric chemistry. MATCH predicts the evolution of sulfate, carbonaceous, and mineral dust aerosols, and it diagnoses the distribution of sea salt aerosols. The model includes a detailed treatment of the sources, chemical transformation, transport, and deposition of the aerosol species. The aerosol forecasts involve a two-stage process. During the assimilation phase the total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) is estimated from the model aerosol fields. The model state is then adjusted to improve the agreement between the simulated AOD and satellite retrievals of AOD. During the subsequent integration phase the aerosol fields are evolved using meteorological fields from an external model. Comparison of the modeled AOD against estimates of the AOD from INDOEX Sun photometer data show that the differences in daily means are #0.03 # 0.06. Although the initial application is limited to the Indian Ocean, the methodology could be extended to derive global aerosol analyses combining in situ and remotely sensed aerosol observations.

William D. Collins; Phillip J. Rasch; Brian E. Eaton; Boris V. Khattatov; Jean-francois Lamarque; C. Zender

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Real-time estimation of olive oil quality parameters: a combined approach based on ANNs and machine vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work describes a combined approach based on Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Vision for the real-time estimation of some qualitative olive oil parameters. The proposed methodology proves to be a useful tool for the real-time estimation ... Keywords: ANNs, acidity, machine vision, olive oil, peroxides, ripeness, sanitation condition

Monica Carfagni; Marco Daou; Rocco Furferi

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Paducah DUF6 Conversion Final EIS - Appendix F: Assessment Methodologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paducah DUF Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS APPENDIX F: ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES Assessment Methodologies F-2 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS Assessment Methodologies F-3 Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS APPENDIX F: ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES In general, the activities assessed in this environmental impact statement (EIS) could affect workers, members of the general public, and the environment during construction of new facilities, during routine operation of facilities, during transportation, and during facility or transportation accidents. Activities could have adverse effects (e.g., human health impairment) or positive effects (e.g., regional socioeconomic benefits, such as the creation of jobs). Some impacts would result primarily from the unique characteristics of the uranium and other chemical

253

Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOE/EA-1791 (May 2010) Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOE/EA-1791 (May 2010) Barr Engineering, Minneapolis engaged Truescape in May 2010 to: 1) Provide a series of TrueViewTM2 "human field of view" survey controlled photo simulations from pre-determined viewpoint locations to assist with the assessment of the potential visibility of a proposed turbine, and 2) Simulate two different height options for the turbine tower, being 80m vs. 100m. Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOE/EA-1791 (May 2010)

254

Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOE/EA-1791 (May 2010) Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOE/EA-1791 (May 2010) Barr Engineering, Minneapolis engaged Truescape in May 2010 to: 1) Provide a series of TrueViewTM2 "human field of view" survey controlled photo simulations from pre-determined viewpoint locations to assist with the assessment of the potential visibility of a proposed turbine, and 2) Simulate two different height options for the turbine tower, being 80m vs. 100m. Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOE/EA-1791 (May 2010)

255

Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal System, Nevada, Status Update Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal System, Nevada, Status Update Authors Joe Iovenitti, Jon Sainsbury, Ileana Tibuleac, Robert Karlin, Philip Wannamaker, Virginia Maris, David Blackwell, Mahesh Thakur, Fletcher H. Ibser, Jennifer Lewicki, B. Mack. Kennedy and Michael Swyer Conference Thirty-Eighth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University; Stanford, California; 2013 Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the

256

Identifying best practices for supporting broadband growth: Methodology and analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a methodology for identifying best practices followed by various countries worldwide for supporting broadband growth. It also investigates and analyzes these practices using data concerning broadband penetration, access technologies, ... Keywords: Best practices, Broadband, Telecommunications policies

C. Bouras; E. Giannaka; Thrasyvoulos Tsiatsos

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Methodology for assessment of biofuel resources in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is described for assessing the potential of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries. The approach combines biomass resource assessment to identify appropriate biofuel options for developing countries. 4 references.

Harper, J.P.; Antonopolous, A.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, - Landfill Gas Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: cdm.unfccc.int/public_inputs/meth/acm0001/index.html Cost: Free Language: English References: UNFCCC-Consolidated baseline and monitoring methodology for landfill gas project activities[1] This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. References

259

Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress (ESECS EE-4015) Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies (This page intentionally left blank) 8/7/2006 - 2 - Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Introduction This report addresses section 1819 of Public Law 109-58, also referred to as the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Section 1819 states: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report evaluating methodologies to ensure the widest participation practicable in setting goals and milestones under the hydrogen program of the Department, including international participants." In response to section 1819, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) delivers this report

260

Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes the methodology and results for a probabilistic risk analysis of research, development, and demonstration work-primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program.

Young, K. R.; Augustine, C.; Anderson, A.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Protein MAS NMR methodology and structural analysis of protein assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methodological developments and applications of solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy, with particular emphasis on the analysis of protein structure, are described in this thesis. ...

Bayro, Marvin J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Methodology for Developing the REScheck Software through Version...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Developing the REScheck TM Software through Version 4.4.3 R Bartlett RW Schultz LM Connell ZT Taylor K Gowri JD Wiberg RG Lucas September 2012...

264

The object as a vessel for vitality : a design methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"To Build, form blocks, like a ladder into the sky, into the Earth,to bind the elements, Water and Fire". Like Wittgenstein's this is an attempt to define a personal methodology, which when documented and left behind might ...

Schwarz, Allan David

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

LBL-34045 UC-1600 Residential HVAC Data, Assumptions and Methodology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 UC-1600 Residential HVAC Data, Assumptions and Methodology for End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1 Francis X. Johnson, Richard E. Brown, James W. Hanford, Alan H. Sanstad and...

266

Hydrogen Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

DOE's Hydrogen Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress summarizes the processes used to set Hydrogen Program goals and milestones. Published in August 2006, it fulfills the requirement under se

267

A Test and Diagnosis Methodology for RF Transceivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an RF test and diagnosis methodology based on digital DFT structure and builtin DSP function of a SoC Chip. Constellation variation plots are proposed to identify the faulty component. Furthermore, linear interpolation is used to ...

Hung-kai Chen; Chauchin Su

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Methodological Approaches to Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate change due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) is expected to have important impacts on water resources, with a variety of societal impacts. Recent research has shown that applying different methodologies to assess hydrologic impacts ...

Brent M. Lofgren; Andrew D. Gronewold; Anthony Acciaioli; Jessica Cherry; Allison Steiner; David Watkins

269

Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

Deru, M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Assessing the effectiveness of voluntary solid waste reduction policies: Methodology and a Flemish case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of statistical techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments for waste management. The voluntary character of these instruments implies that latent characteristics, unobserved by the analyst, might influence the subscription decision and might lead to biased estimates of the effectiveness of the policy instrument if standard techniques are used. We propose an extension of the difference-in-differences (DiD) estimator to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments, which is termed the dynamic difference-in-differences (or DDD) estimator. We illustrate the technique by estimating the effectiveness of voluntary cooperation agreements between the Flemish environmental administration and individual municipalities aimed at curbing residential solid waste. Using a dataset covering all 308 Flemish municipalities for the period 2000-2005, our results indicate that municipalities subscribing to the agreement accomplished less reduction of their waste levels compared to what could be expected on the basis of their own performance prior to subscription and the performance of the non-subscribers. This result might be explained by the rising marginal cost of extra residential solid waste reduction policies. In addition, there are indications that subscribing municipalities refrain from additional reduction efforts once the target waste level of the program is achieved. The more complicated DDD methodology is shown to generate additional insight over the ordinary DiD analysis.

Jaeger, Simon de [EHSAL - European University College Brussels, Stormstraat 2 (Belgium)], E-mail: simon.dejaeger@ehsal.be; Eyckmans, Johan [EHSAL - European University College Brussels, Stormstraat 2 (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studien (Belgium)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Enhancing and Testing Fast Fault Screening (FFS) Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this multi-year study is to develop a methodology for fast prediction of the most severe three-phase fault locations for transient stability studies and rank them in order of severity. The methodology is called Fast Fault Screening (FFS).  The key advantage of the FFS is the ability to quickly scan through thousands of potential fault locations from transient stability perspective and identify the most severe locations. In the previous efforts, FFS was developed for angular ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

NPP Estimation for Grasslands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NPP for Grasslands NPP for Grasslands Introduction The Oak Ridge DAAC Net Primary Production (NPP) Database includes field measurements from grassland study sites worldwide. The following brief review and discussion is intended to explain the complexity of NPP estimates derived from grassland measurements. There is no single answer to the question, "What is the productivity of the ecosystem at study site A?"; rather there may be range of estimates of NPP, depending upon what data were actually collected and how these data are processed. Although some of these methods for determining NPP for grasslands may be applicable to other vegetation types (e.g., semi-deserts, tundra, or some crops), methods for forests, in particular, are significantly different. Nevertheless, it should be possible to answer the question, "Is this modelled value of NPP reasonable for this ecosystem type at this location?"

273

Operated device estimation framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protective device estimation is a challenging task because there are numerous protective devices present in a typical distribution system. Among various protective devices, auto-reclosers and fuses are the main overcurrent protection on distribution systems. Operation of a protective device in response to a particular fault condition depends upon the protective device’s operating behavior and coordination of various such protective devices. This thesis presents the design and implementation of a protective device estimation algorithm which helps in identifying which protective devices have operated to clear a short circuit condition. The algorithm uses manufacturer’s device details, power quality data measured from substation monitoring devices and power system event features estimated using existing DFA algorithms. The proposed technique can be used to evaluate coordination of these protective devices and helps in locating a fault in a distribution system feeder. This approach is independent of feeder topology and could be readily used for any distribution system. The effectiveness of this algorithm is verified by simulated and actual test data. Suggestions are included for future research and application by electric utilities.

Rengarajan, Janarthanan

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Estimating monthly and state-level NO sub x , SO sub 2 , VOC and CO sub 2 emissions using the MSCET database  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Month and State Current Emission Trends (MSCET) database. It describes the methodology used to estimate NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, and CO{sub 2} emissions and the data sources used by the methodology. Selected emissions results from the database are presented. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Cilek, C.M.; Kohout, E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Estimating monthly and state-level NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC and CO{sub 2} emissions using the MSCET database  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Month and State Current Emission Trends (MSCET) database. It describes the methodology used to estimate NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, and CO{sub 2} emissions and the data sources used by the methodology. Selected emissions results from the database are presented. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Cilek, C.M.; Kohout, E.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Synchrophasor Measurement Using Substation Intelligent Electronic Devices: Algorithms and Test Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the performance of synchrophasor measurement obtained using substation Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) and proposes new algorithms and test methodology to improve and verify their performance when used in power system applications. To improve the dynamic performance when exposed to sinusoidal waveform distortions, such as modulation, frequency drift, abrupt change in magnitude, etc, an adaptive approach for accurately estimating phasors while eliminating the effect of various transient disturbances on voltages and currents is proposed. The algorithm pre-analyzes the waveform spanning the window of observation to identify and localize the discontinuities which affect the accuracy of phasor computation. A quadratic polynomial signal model is used to improve the accuracy of phasor estimates during power oscillations. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the advantages. This algorithm can also be used as reference algorithm for testing the performance of the devices extracting synchronized phasor measurements. A novel approach for estimating the phasor parameters, namely frequency, magnitude and angle in real time based on a newly constructed recursive wavelet transform is developed. This algorithm is capable of estimating the phasor parameters in a quarter cycle of an input signal. It features fast response and achieves high accuracy over a wide range of frequency deviations. The signal sampling rate and data window size can be selected to meet desirable application requirements, such as fast response, high accuracy and low computational burden. In addition, an approach for eliminating a decaying DC component, which has significant impact on estimating phasors, is proposed using recursive wavelet transform. This dissertation develops test methodology and tools for evaluating the conformance to standard-define performance for synchrophasor measurements. An interleaving technique applied on output phasors can equivalently increase the reporting rate and can precisely depict the transient behavior of a synchrophasor unit under the step input. A reference phasor estimator is developed and implemented. Various types of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and PMU-enabled IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices) and time synchronization options have been tested against the standards using the proposed algorithm. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages.

Ren, Jinfeng

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Bayesian-lopa methodology for risk assessment of an LNG importation terminal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the U.S. to fulfill the increasing energy demands. In order to meet the LNG demand, many LNG facilities including LNG importation terminals are operating currently. Therefore, it is important to estimate the potential risks in LNG terminals to ensure their safety. One of the best ways to estimate the risk is LOPA (Layer of Protection Analysis) because it can provide quantified risk results with less time and efforts than other methods. For LOPA application, failure data are essential to compute risk frequencies. However, the failure data from the LNG industry are very sparse. Bayesian estimation is identified as one method to compensate for its weaknesses. It can update the generic data with plant specific data. Based on Bayesian estimation, the frequencies of initiating events were obtained using a conjugate gamma prior distribution such as OREDA (Offshore Reliability Data) database and Poisson likelihood distribution. If there is no prior information, Jeffreys noninformative prior may be used. The LNG plant failure database was used as plant specific likelihood information. The PFDs (Probability of Failure on Demand) of IPLs (Independent Protection Layers) were estimated with the conjugate beta prior such as EIReDA (European Industry Reliability Data Bank) database and binomial likelihood distribution. In some cases EIReDA did not provide failure data, so the newly developed Frequency-PFD conversion method was used instead. By the combination of Bayesian estimation and LOPA procedures, the Bayesian-LOPA methodology was developed and was applied to an LNG importation terminal. The found risk values were compared to the tolerable risk criteria to make risk decisions. Finally, the risk values of seven incident scenarios were compared to each other to make a risk ranking. In conclusion, the newly developed Bayesian-LOPA methodology really does work well in an LNG importation terminal and it can be applied in other industries including refineries and petrochemicals. Moreover, it can be used with other frequency analysis methods such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA).

Yun, Geun-Woong

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Comparison on the Estimation of the Biomass of a Batch Bioreactor through Fuzzy Systems, Neural Networks and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of biomass production of delta-endotoxins of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a major problem in biotechnological processes, as bio-insecticides, which has been addressed with different methodologies such as extended Kalman filters (EKF), ...

Andrus Allan Giraldo Munoz; O. Lucia Quintero

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Rapid energy estimation of computations on FPGA based soft processors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — FPGA based soft processors are an attractive option for implementing embedded applications. As energy efficiency has become a key performance metric, techniques that can quickly and accurately obtain the energy performance of these soft processors are needed. While low-level simulation based on traditional FPGA design flow is too time consuming for obtaining such energy performance, we propose a methodology based on instruction level energy profiling. We first analyze the energy dissipation of various instructions. An energy estimator is built using this information. To illustrate the effectiveness of our approach, the energy performance of several FFT and matrix multiplication software programs running on a state-of-the-art soft processor is evaluated using the estimator. Compared with the results obtained through low-level simulation, an average estimation error of 5.9 % is observed in our experiments. I.

Jingzhao Ou; Viktor K. Prasanna

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Evaluation of Statistical Methodologies Used in U. S. Army Ordnance and Explosive Work  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (Huntsville, AL) to evaluate the mathematical basis of existing software tools used to assist the Army with the characterization of sites potentially contaminated with unexploded ordnance (UXO). These software tools are collectively known as SiteStats/GridStats. The first purpose of the software is to guide sampling of underground anomalies to estimate a site's UXO density. The second purpose is to delineate areas of homogeneous UXO density that can be used in the formulation of response actions. It was found that SiteStats/GridStats does adequately guide the sampling so that the UXO density estimator for a sector is unbiased. However, the software's techniques for delineation of homogeneous areas perform less well than visual inspection, which is frequently used to override the software in the overall sectorization methodology. The main problems with the software lie in the criteria used to detect nonhomogeneity and those used to recommend the number of homogeneous subareas. SiteStats/GridStats is not a decision-making tool in the classical sense. Although it does provide information to decision makers, it does not require a decision based on that information. SiteStats/GridStats provides information that is supplemented by visual inspections, land-use plans, and risk estimates prior to making any decisions. Although the sector UXO density estimator is unbiased regardless of UXO density variation within a sector, its variability increases with increased sector density variation. For this reason, the current practice of visual inspection of individual sampled grid densities (as provided by Site-Stats/GridStats) is necessary to ensure approximate homogeneity, particularly at sites with medium to high UXO density. Together with Site-Stats/GridStats override capabilities, this provides a sufficient mechanism for homogeneous sectorization and thus yields representative UXO density estimates. Objections raised by various parties to the use of a numerical ''discriminator'' in SiteStats/GridStats were likely because of the fact that the concerned statistical technique is customarily applied for a different purpose and because of poor documentation. The ''discriminator'', in Site-Stats/GridStats is a ''tuning parameter'' for the sampling process, and it affects the precision of the grid density estimates through changes in required sample size. It is recommended that sector characterization in terms of a map showing contour lines of constant UXO density with an expressed uncertainty or confidence level is a better basis for remediation decisions than a sector UXO density point estimate. A number of spatial density estimation techniques could be adapted to the UXO density estimation problem.

Ostrouchov, G

2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Estimating and understanding DOE waste management costs`  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines costs associated with cleaning up the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the waste management program. Life-cycle waste management costs have been compiled and reported in the DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Waste management costs are a critical issue for DOE because of the current budget constraints. The DOE sites are struggling to accomplish their environmental management objectives given funding scenarios that are well below anticipated waste management costs. Through the BEMR process, DOE has compiled complex-wide cleanup cost estimates and has begun analysis of these costs with respect to alternative waste management scenarios and policy strategies. From this analysis, DOE is attempting to identify the major cost drivers and prioritize environmental management activities to achieve maximum utilization of existing funding. This paper provides an overview of the methodology DOE has used to estimate and analyze some waste management costs, including the key data requirements and uncertainties.

Kang, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Sherick, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Utility Savings Estimators | Building Energy Codes Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Utility Savings Estimators: Commercial Estimator | Residential Estimator (These *.zip files contain the Microsoft Excel macro-enabled (*.xlsm) estimator files. You will...

283

Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyImpacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyFigure 3: Commercial electricity demand with and without the

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Methodology for fault detection and diagnostics in an ocean turbine using vibration analysis and modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis describes a methodology for mechanical fault detection and diagnostics in an ocean turbine using vibration analysis and modeling. This methodology relies on the… (more)

Mjit, Mustapha.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Estimation of the Mean Field Bias of Radar Rainfall Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper procedures are developed for estimating the mean field bias of radar rainfall estimates. Mean field bias is modeled as a random process that varies not only from storm to storm but also over the course of a storm. State estimates of ...

James A. Smith; Witold F. Krajewski

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Using hydrodynamic modeling for estimating flooding and water depths in grand bay, alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a methodology for using hydrodynamic modeling to estimate inundation areas and water depths during a hurricane event. The Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is used in this research. EFDC is one of the most commonly applied models ... Keywords: EFDC, flooding, grand bay, grid generation, hydrodynamics, inundation, modeling

Vladimir J. Alarcon; William H. McAnally

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has been publishing monthly storage information for years. In order to address the need for more timely information, in 1994 the American Gas Association (AGA) began publishing weekly storage levels. Both the EIA and the AGA series provide estimates of the total working gas in storage, but use significantly different methodologies.

Information Center

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Commercial Energy and Cost Analysis Methodology | Building Energy Codes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development » Commercial Development » Commercial Site Map Printable Version Development Commercial Residential Adoption Compliance Regulations Resource Center Commercial Energy and Cost Analysis Methodology The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) evaluates published model codes and standards to help states and local jurisdictions better understand the impacts of updating commercial building energy codes and standards. A methodology was used for evaluating the energy and economic performance of commercial energy codes and standards and proposed changes thereto. This method serves to ensure DOE proposals are both energy efficient and cost-effective. The DOE methodology contains two primary assessments: Energy savings Cost-effectiveness Energy and economic calculations are performed through a comparison of

289

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing Motor System Energy Efficiency Supply Curves: A Methodology for Assessing the Energy Efficiency Potential of Industrial Motor Systems Speaker(s): Ali Hasanbeigi Date: February 8, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Motor-driven equipment accounts for approximately 60% of manufacturing final electricity use worldwide. A major barrier to effective policymaking, and to more global acceptance of the energy efficiency potential in industrial motor systems, is the lack of a transparent methodology for quantifying the magnitude and cost-effectiveness of these energy savings. This paper presents the results of groundbreaking analyses conducted for five countries and one region to begin to address this barrier. Using a combination of expert opinion and available data from the United States,

290

An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

Timothy J. Leahy

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: www.scribd.com/doc/34712276/Energy-efficiency-standards-for-refrigerat Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/energy-efficiency-standards-refrigera Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling,Emissions Standards" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

292

Estimating Civilian Owned Firearms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most of the world’s firearms are privately owned. 1 They include improvised craft guns as well as handguns, rifles, shotguns, and machine guns. The legal definition of a civilian firearm varies; some states allow civilian ownership of certain firearms that are restricted to military use in other states. The word civilian is used here to refer to actual possession, not legality. In 2007, the Small Arms Survey estimated the number of civilian firearm ownership worldwide at approximately 650 million weapons out of some 875 then in existence (see Figures 1 and 2). National ownership rates range from a high of 90 firearms per every 100 people in the United States, to one firearm or less for every 100 residents in countries like South Korea and Ghana (see Table 1). With the world’s factories delivering millions of newly manufactured firearms annually, and with far fewer being destroyed, civilian ownership is growing (Small Arms Survey, 2007, p. 39). Poor record-keeping and the near absence of reporting requirements for detailed information complicate assessments of global stockpiles of small arms and light weapons. When it comes to estimating civilian firearm ownership, differences in national gun culture —each country’s unique combination of historic and current sources of supply, laws and attitudes toward firearms ownership—often have distinct effects on the classification, ownership and perception of firearms. In addition, categories of firearm holders may overlap, as some individuals may use their private firearms at work as security guards, in armed groups, or in gangs.

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

A Methodology for the Analysis and Selection of Alternative for the Disposition of Surplus Plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has announced a Record of Decision (ROD) selecting alternatives for disposition of surplus plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to further U.S. efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns that were addressed include economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses supporting the ROD are documented in three DOE reports [DOE-TSR 96, DOE-PEIS 96, and DOE-NN 97, respectively]. At the request of OFMD, a team of analysts from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) provided an independent evaluation of the alternatives for plutonium that were considered during the evaluation effort. This report outlines the methodology used by the ANRCP team. This methodology, referred to as multiattribute utility theory (MAU), provides a structure for assembling results of detailed technical, economic, schedule, environment, and nonproliferation analyses for OFMD, DOE policy makers, other stakeholders, and the general public in a systematic way. The MAU methodology has been supported for use in similar situations by the National Research Council, an agency of the National Academy of Sciences.1 It is important to emphasize that the MAU process does not lead to a computerized model that actually determines the decision for a complex problem. MAU is a management tool that is one component, albeit a key component, of a decision process. We subscribe to the philosophy that the result of using models should be insights, not numbers. The MAU approach consists of four steps: (1) identification of alternatives, objectives, and performance measures, (2) estimation of the performance of the alternatives with respect to the objectives, (3) development of value functions and weights for the objectives, and (4) evaluation of the alternatives and sensitivity analysis. These steps are described below.

NONE

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Methodology for Developing and Deploying Distributed Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We describe a methodology for developing and deploying distributed Java applications using a reflective middleware system called RAFDA. We illustrate the methodology by describing how it has been used to develop a peer-to-peer infrastructure, and explain the benefits relative to other techniques. The strengths of the approach are that the application logic can be designed and implemented completely independently of distribution concerns, easing the development task, and that this gives great flexibility to alter distribution decisions late in the development cycle. 1

Graham N. C. Kirby; Scott M. Walker; Stuart J. Norcross; Alan Dearle

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Methodology for Identifying Retrofit Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measured energy savings resulting from energy conservation retrofits in commercial buildings can be used to verify the success of the retrofits, determine the payment schedule for the retrofits, and guide the selection of future retrofits. This paper presents a structured methodology, developed for buildings in the Texas LoanSTAR program, for measuring retrofit savings in commercial buildings. This methodology identifies the pre-retrofit construction and post-retrofit periods, normalizes energy consumption data, and quantifies the uncertainty associated with the measured savings. A case study from the Texas LoanSTAR program is presented as an example.

Kissock, K.; Reddy, A.; Claridge, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Performance Management Methodology Moving from Performance Measurement to Performance Management  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guide to a Balanced Scorecard: Guide to a Balanced Scorecard: Performance Management Methodology Moving from Performance Measurement to Performance Management Guide to a Balanced Scorecard Performance Management Methodology Richard H. Hopf Deputy Assistant Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management Department of Energy Lloyd W. Pratsch Procurement Executive Department of State Robert A. Welch Director for Acquisition Management and Procurement Executive Department of Commerce Pauk A. Denett Director of Administration/Senior Procurement Executive Department of Interior David J. Litman Director, Office of Acquisition and Grants Management Department of Transportation Ida M. Ustad Deputy Associate Administrator for Acquisition Policy General Services Administration Terrence J. Tychan Deputy Assistant Secretary for Grants

297

Empirical Methods of Cost Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

298

Optimal estimation with limited measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a sequential estimation problem with two decision makers, or agents, who work as members of a team. One of the agents sits at an observation post, and makes sequential observations about the state of an underlying stochastic process ... Keywords: WSNs, limited information, networked control systems, optimal estimation, real-time control, real-time monitoring, recursive estimation, sequential estimation, wireless networks, wireless sensor networks

Orhan C. Imer; Tamer Basar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

DOE safety goals comparison using NUREG-1150 PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A full-scope Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) including external events has been performed for N Reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Category A production reactor. This four-year, multi-million dollar task was a joint effort by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Technical lead in external events and NUREG-1150 methodology was provided by SNL. SAIC led the effort in the Level 1 analysis for the internally initiated events. Westinghouse Hanford supported the task in many key areas, such as data collection and interpretation, accident progression, system interaction, human factor analyses, expert elicitation, peers review, etc. The main objective of this Level 3 PRA are to assess the risks to the public and onsite workers posed by the operation of N Reactor, to identify modifications to the plant that could reduce the overall risk, and to compare those risks to the proposed DOE and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) quantitative safety goals. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Westinghouse Hanford and SNL for estimating individual health risks, and the comparison of the N Reactor results and DOE quantitative nuclear safety guidelines. This paper is devoted to DOE quantitative safety guidelines interpretation and comparison; the NRC safety objectives are also presented in order to compare N Reactor results to commercial nuclear power plants included in the NUREG-1150 study. 7 refs., 7 tabs.

Wang., O.S.; Zentner, M.D.; Rainey, T.E.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Paducah DUF6 Conversion Final EIS - Chapter 4: Environmental Impact Assessment Approach, Assumptions, and Methodology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paducah DUF Paducah DUF 6 Conversion Final EIS 4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT APPROACH, ASSUMPTIONS, AND METHODOLOGY This EIS evaluates potential impacts on human health and the natural environment from building and operating a DUF 6 conversion facility at three alternative locations at the Paducah site and for a no action alternative. These impacts might be positive, in that they would improve conditions in the human or natural environment, or negative, in that they would cause a decline in those conditions. This chapter provides an overview of the methods used to estimate the potential impacts associated with the EIS alternatives, summarizes the major assumptions that formed the basis of the evaluation, and provides some background information on human health

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008 Pledges: Methodology and Assumptions Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2008 Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) was held in Washington, D.C., from March 4-6, 2008, and involved nearly 9,000 people from 125 countries. The event brought together worldwide leaders in renewable energy (RE) from governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to discuss the role that renewables can play in alleviating poverty, growing economies, and passing on a healthy planet to future generations. The conference concluded with more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy. The U.S. government authorized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2) savings that would result from the pledges made at the 2008 conference. This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions derived from those pledges.

Babiuch, B.; Bilello, D. E.; Cowlin, S. C.; Mann, M.; Wise, A.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A Proposed Methodology For The Analysis And Selection Of Alternatives For The Disposition Of Surplus Plutonium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Proposed Methodology for the Analysis and Selection of Alternatives for the Disposition of Surplus Plutonium The nuclear states are currently involved in the development of comprehensive approaches to the long-term storage and management of fissile materials. A major objective of this effort is to provide a framework for prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The evaluation should include non-proliferation, economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The ANRCP has proposed that an evaluation of alternatives be guided by the principles of decision analysis, a logical and formal approach to the solution of complicated problems that are too complex to solve informally. This approach would consist of four steps: 1) identification of alternatives and objectives, 2) estimation of the performance of the alternatives with respect to the objectives, 3) development of values and weights for the objectives, and 4) evaluation of ...

James S. Dyer; James S; John C. Butler; Jianmin Jia; Thomas Edmunds

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in the activities planned for FY 06. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. These benefits estimates, along with market penetrations and other results, are then modeled as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY06 Budget Request.

Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix. We examine site characterization projects from several sites in the world. The list includes Yucca Mountain in the USA, Tono and Horonobe in Japan, AECL in Canada, sites in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland. We identify important geologic features and parameters common to most (or all) sites to provide useful information for future repository siting activity. At first glance, one could question whether there was any commonality among the sites, which are in different rock types at different locations. For example, the planned Yucca Mountain site is a dry repository in unsaturated tuff, whereas the Swedish sites are situated in saturated granite. However, the study concludes that indeed there are a number of important common features and parameters among all the sites--namely, (1) fault properties, (2) fracture-matrix interaction (3) groundwater flux, (4) boundary conditions, and (5) the permeability and porosity of the materials. We list the lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project and other site characterization programs. Most programs have by and large been quite successful. Nonetheless, there are definitely 'should-haves' and 'could-haves', or lessons to be learned, in all these programs. Although each site characterization program has some unique aspects, we believe that these crosscutting lessons can be very useful for future site investigations to be conducted in Japan. One of the most common lessons learned is that a repository program should allow for flexibility, in both schedule and approach. We examine field investigation technologies used to collect site characterization data in the field. An extensive list of existing field technologies is presented, with some discussion on usage and limitations. Many of the technologies on the list were in fact used during the characterization of Yucca Mountain and elsewhere by LBNL personnel. The study also includes emerging technologies and identifies the need to develop better estimation of important parameters for repository siting. Notable emerging technologies include 3-D seismic and satellite-based remote sensing and wireless micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors. They enable cost-effective and ubiquitous monitoring to be applied for site characterization. We list and classify the types of uncertainties involved in site characterization. Uncertainties can exist in all aspects of site characterization: data, interpretation, conceptualization, and modeling. We use the Swedish program to exemplify such uncertainties. We also devote a chapter on geochemical issues regarding the interaction between groundwater and natural and engineered barrier materials. A recommendation has been made to take advantage of the recent advancement in geochemical modeling capabilities in natural systems. Although it is not of immediate relevance at the preliminary investigation stage, it serves as a good reminder that geochemical investigation efforts should not be overlooked at any stage in the repository program. We construct a synthetic preliminary-investigation site based on an extensive data set available from a geoscientific project in Japan, which we use as a 'real' site to evaluate uncertainties resulting from hydrogeological modeling and examine strategies for characterizing a new site. We plan various preliminary-investigation configurations and conduct preliminary numerical investigations at the synthetic site. We construct a model of the 'real' site for each PI configuration, make predictions of particle travel times, and compare against the 'real' data obtained from the 'real' model. We conclude that drilling as many as nine boreholes does not necessarily improve the understanding of the site compared to drilling as few as three boreholes, unless there is an underlying stru

Karasaki, Kenzi; Apps, John; Doughty, Christine; Gwatney, Hope; Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Trautz, Robert; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix. We examine site characterization projects from several sites in the world. The list includes Yucca Mountain in the USA, Tono and Horonobe in Japan, AECL in Canada, sites in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland. We identify important geologic features and parameters common to most (or all) sites to provide useful information for future repository siting activity. At first glance, one could question whether there was any commonality among the sites, which are in different rock types at different locations. For example, the planned Yucca Mountain site is a dry repository in unsaturated tuff, whereas the Swedish sites are situated in saturated granite. However, the study concludes that indeed there are a number of important common features and parameters among all the sites--namely, (1) fault properties, (2) fracture-matrix interaction (3) groundwater flux, (4) boundary conditions, and (5) the permeability and porosity of the materials. We list the lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project and other site characterization programs. Most programs have by and large been quite successful. Nonetheless, there are definitely 'should-haves' and 'could-haves', or lessons to be learned, in all these programs. Although each site characterization program has some unique aspects, we believe that these crosscutting lessons can be very useful for future site investigations to be conducted in Japan. One of the most common lessons learned is that a repository program should allow for flexibility, in both schedule and approach. We examine field investigation technologies used to collect site characterization data in the field. An extensive list of existing field technologies is presented, with some discussion on usage and limitations. Many of the technologies on the list were in fact used during the characterization of Yucca Mountain and elsewhere by LBNL personnel. The study also includes emerging technologies and identifies the need to develop better estimation of important parameters for repository siting. Notable emerging technologies include 3-D seismic and satellite-based remote sensing and wireless micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors. They enable cost-effective and ubiquitous monitoring to be applied for site characterization. We list and classify the types of uncertainties involved in site characterization. Uncertainties can exist in all aspects of site characterization: data, interpretation, conceptualization, and modeling. We use the Swedish program to exemplify such uncertainties. We also devote a chapter on geochemical issues regarding the interaction between groundwater and natural and engineered barrier materials. A recommendation has been made to take advantage of the recent advancement in geochemical modeling capabilities in natural systems. Although it is not of immediate relevance at the preliminary investigation stage, it serves as a good reminder that geochemical investigation efforts should not be overlooked at any stage in the repository program. We construct a synthetic preliminary-investigation site based on an extensive data set available from a geoscientific project in Japan, which we use as a 'real' site to evaluate uncertainties resulting from hydrogeological modeling and examine strategies for characterizing a new site. We plan various preliminary-investigation configurations and conduct preliminary numerical investigations at the synthetic site. We construct a model of the 'real' site for each PI configuration, make predictions of particle travel times, and compare against the 'real' data obtained from the 'real' model. We conclude that drilling as many as nine boreholes does not necessarily improve the understanding of the site compared to drilling as few as three boreholes, unless there is an underlying structure that is larger than the spacing of the boreholes. The

Karasaki, Kenzi; Apps, John; Doughty, Christine; Gwatney, Hope; Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Trautz, Robert; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Methodology for extracting local constants from petroleum cracking flows  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A methodology provides for the extraction of local chemical kinetic model constants for use in a reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code with chemical kinetic computations to optimize the operating conditions or design of the system, including retrofit design improvements to existing systems. The coupled CFD and kinetic computer code are used in combination with data obtained from a matrix of experimental tests to extract the kinetic constants. Local fluid dynamic effects are implicitly included in the extracted local kinetic constants for each particular application system to which the methodology is applied. The extracted local kinetic model constants work well over a fairly broad range of operating conditions for specific and complex reaction sets in specific and complex reactor systems. While disclosed in terms of use in a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) riser, the inventive methodology has application in virtually any reaction set to extract constants for any particular application and reaction set formulation. The methodology includes the step of: (1) selecting the test data sets for various conditions; (2) establishing the general trend of the parametric effect on the measured product yields; (3) calculating product yields for the selected test conditions using coupled computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics; (4) adjusting the local kinetic constants to match calculated product yields with experimental data; and (5) validating the determined set of local kinetic constants by comparing the calculated results with experimental data from additional test runs at different operating conditions.

Chang, Shen-Lin (Woodridge, IL); Lottes, Steven A. (Naperville, IL); Zhou, Chenn Q. (Munster, IN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Photovoltaic Electricity INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME Methodology Electricity, 2nd edition, IEA PVPS Task 12, International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power systems Programme-of-system (frame, mounting, cabling, inverter; for utility applications the transformer, site preparation, and mai

308

Blood vessel segmentation methodologies in retinal images - A survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retinal vessel segmentation algorithms are a fundamental component of automatic retinal disease screening systems. This work examines the blood vessel segmentation methodologies in two dimensional retinal images acquired from a fundus camera and a survey ... Keywords: Blood vessel segmentation, Image segmentation, Medical imaging, Retinal images, Retinopathy, Survey

M. M. Fraz; P. Remagnino; A. Hoppe; B. Uyyanonvara; A. R. Rudnicka; C. G. Owen; S. A. Barman

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Toward a model-driven, alignment-oriented ERP methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current methods for project management in the software engineering field consider a project as a process that transforms a specific business need into specific software. The role played by standard applications such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) ... Keywords: ERP, Enterprise engineering, Information system engineering, Project methodology, System alignment

Pierre-Alain Millet

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Microsoft Word - 42651 UCI System Study Methodology r051215.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SYSTEMS STUDY METHODOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSES OF ADVANCED BRAYTON CYCLES FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY ZERO EMISSION PLANTS DOE Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42652 Prepared by: Advanced Power and Energy Program University of California Irvine, California 92697-3550 December 15, 2005 0 Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Process Design Procedure ....................................................................... 1 Site Conditions and Feedstock Characteristics ........................................................................... 1 Site Conditions........................................................................................................................

311

AIAA 2001-1535 A SYMBOLIC METHODOLOGY FOR THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Structural Dynamics of Lagerwey LW-50/750 Wind Turbine," Wind En- gineering, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1998, pp. 253 is applied to a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine. The pa- per presents a new methodology for modeling, wind turbines, etc. Over the last decade the advent of composites and the pursuit to build lighter

Patil, Mayuresh

312

A Quasi-Dynamic HVAC and Building Simulation Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis introduces a quasi-dynamic building simulation methodology which complements existing building simulators by allowing transient models of HVAC (heating, ventilating and air-conditioning) systems to be created in an analogous way to their design and simulated in a computationally efficient manner. The methodology represents a system as interconnected, object-oriented sub-models known as components. Fluids and their local properties are modeled using discrete, incompressible objects known as packets. System wide pressure and flow rates are modeled similar to electrical circuit models. Transferring packets between components emulates fluid flow, while the system wide fluid circuit formed by the components' interconnections determines system wide pressures and flow rates. A tool named PAQS, after the PAacketized Quasi-dynamic Simulation methodology, was built to demonstrate the described methodology. Validation tests of PAQS found that its steady state energy use predictions differed less than 3% from a comparable steady state model. PAQS was also able to correctly model the transient behavior of a dynamic linear analytical system.

Davis, Clinton Paul

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Methodology Mashups: An Exploration of Processes Used to Maintain Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The majority of studies of software development processes explore initial development rather than ongoing software maintenance, yet the majority of the systems development budget in many organizations is devoted to maintenance. Software maintenance projects ... Keywords: Grounded Theory, Maintenance Methodology, Software Development, Software Maintenance, Software Process

Dana Edberg; Polina Ivanova; William Kuechler

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

An integrated multicriteria decision-making methodology for outsourcing management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, an outsourcer evaluation and management system is developed for a textile company by use of fuzzy goal programming (FGP). At first phase of the methodology, evaluation criteria for the outsourcers and the objectives of the company are ... Keywords: Fuzzy goal programming, Outsourcer management, Outsourcer/supplier selection, PROMETHEE

Ceyhun Araz; Pinar Mizrak Ozfirat; Irem Ozkarahan

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

A multicriteria methodology for equity selection using financial analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we present a multiple criteria methodology for supporting decisions that concern the selection of equities, on the basis of financial analysis. The ELECTRE Tri outranking classification method is employed for selecting the attractive ... Keywords: Equity portfolio selection, Financial analysis, Multiple criteria decision making

Panagiotis Xidonas; George Mavrotas; John Psarras

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Disposal criticality analysis methodology for fissile waste forms  

SciTech Connect

A general methodology has been developed to evaluate the criticality potential of the wide range of waste forms planned for geologic disposal. The range of waste forms include commercial spent fuel, high level waste, DOE spent fuel (including highly enriched), MOX using weapons grade plutonium, and immobilized plutonium. The disposal of these waste forms will be in a container with sufficiently thick corrosion resistant barriers to prevent water penetration for up to 10,000 years. The criticality control for DOE spent fuel is primarily provided by neutron absorber material incorporated into the basket holding the individual assemblies. For the immobilized plutonium, the neutron absorber material is incorporated into the waste form itself. The disposal criticality analysis methodology includes the analysis of geochemical and physical processes that can breach the waste package and affect the waste forms within. The basic purpose of the methodology is to guide the criticality control features of the waste package design, and to demonstrate that the final design meets the criticality control licensing requirements. The methodology can also be extended to the analysis of criticality consequences (primarily increased radionuclide inventory), which will support the total performance assessment for the respository.

Davis, J.W. [Framatome Cogema Fuels, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Gottlieb, P. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very helpful when time and data resources are limited. The methodology consists of five tasks: 1) select a section of the reservoir with the most detailed geologic, reservoir, and production data, 2) perform material balance analysis for the selected section to determine 001? and the history of total expansion, voidage, and injectage, 3) establish an average 5-spot pattern within the selected section, 4) develop a black oil numerical simulation model for a quarter of the 5-spot pattern and simulate the primary and waterflood recovery processes, and 5) forecast carbon dioxide performance using Shell's Scoping model, Texaco's "PROPHET" model, and VIP miscible simulator. One of the major limitations of the methodology is that details of individual well performance and reservoir pressure and fluid saturation distributions in the project area are not available. Therefore, the forecast is limited to the average pattern and to the reservoir as a whole. Results of the Dollarhide Clearfork simulation study show that 9.7 % to 14.1 % of OOIP may be recovered by C02 flood in the selected section. It would require WAG injection cycles with a total fluid injection of 0.831 HCPV.

Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Optimizing Site-Specific ALARA Assessments: PWR Methodology Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade utilities have made significant progress towards reducing personnel exposure to levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). This document presents a methodology and protocol for assisting utility ALARA program and Health Physics Managers in evaluating and enhancing utility ALARA programs with a view to facilitate implementation of further reasonable exposure reduction measures.

1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

319

A methodology for evaluation of web-based scholarship  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is growing recognition that the paradigms of modern scholarship are shifting with the advent of the World Wide Web and other Internet-based forums. In some specialty areas within the discipline of Information Technology, one frequently hears folkloric ... Keywords: methodology, peer-review, research, scholarship, web-based

David P. Dailey

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

IntelliGrid Smart Grid Roadmap Methodology and Lessons Learned  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This white paper summarizes the key findings of the EPRI Smart Grid Roadmap Guidebook which synthesizes the results of the company-specific Smart Grid roadmaps developed by EPRI from 2007 to 2011.  The report’s major themes are the lessons learned and the methodologies used to develop the roadmaps. 

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ontological realism: A methodology for coordinated evolution of scientific ontologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 2002 we have been testing and refining a methodology for ontology development that is now being used by multiple groups of researchers in different life science domains. Gary Merrill, in a recent paper in this journal, describes some of the reasons ...

Barry Smith; Werner Ceusters

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

A methodology for the selection and optimisation of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology for the selection and optimisation of countermeasure strategies G. M. COX, N. M. J the selection of sustainable, long-term management and restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated dose received by the population. The countermeasures selected, and their level of implementation, can

Crout, Neil

323

MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY Michael P. Meyers of the American Meteorological Society Mountain Weather and Forecasting Monograph Draft from Friday, May 21, 2010 of weather analysis and forecasting in complex terrain with special emphasis placed on the role of humans

Steenburgh, Jim

324

Hazard-free self-timed design: methodology and application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces an original methodology for hazard-free self-timed design, assuming the worst conditions for robustness. Hazards are classified under three types. Equation hazards are eliminated by an optimal covering. A new variable, labeled state-trajectory ...

Eric Senn; P. Perona

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

NMR Advanced methodologies to investigate water diffusion in materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NMR Advanced methodologies to investigate water diffusion in materials and biological systems Ph · Introduction: _Water Diffusion _Experimental technique: NMR · Diffusion NMR: applications to the study glasses · Diffusion NMR in the framework of multi-quantum coherences · Project outline #12;Outlook

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

326

Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems. These efforts have produced a generic PA methodology for the evaluation of waste management systems that has gained wide acceptance within the international community. This report documents how this methodology has been used as an effective management tool to evaluate different disposal designs and sites; inform development of regulatory requirements; identify, prioritize, and guide research aimed at reducing uncertainties for objective estimations of risk; and support safety assessments.

Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

A Simple Methodology for Estimating Mean and Variability of Annual Runoff and Reservoir Yield under Present and Future Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overlying the challenge of managing within natural hydroclimatic variability is the likely modification of runoff variability along with average runoff due to anthropogenic enhancement of greenhouse gas concentrations. In this paper analytical ...

Thomas A. McMahon; Murray C. Peel; Geoffrey G. S. Pegram; Ian N. Smith

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Sequential Importance Sampling for Rare Event Estimation with Computer Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Importance sampling often drastically improves the variance of percentile and quantile estimators of rare events. We propose a sequential strategy for iterative refinement of importance distributions for sampling uncertain inputs to a computer model to estimate quantiles of model output or the probability that the model output exceeds a fixed or random threshold. A framework is introduced for updating a model surrogate to maximize its predictive capability for rare event estimation with sequential importance sampling. Examples of the proposed methodology involving materials strength and nuclear reactor applications will be presented. The conclusions are: (1) Importance sampling improves UQ of percentile and quantile estimates relative to brute force approach; (2) Benefits of importance sampling increase as percentiles become more extreme; (3) Iterative refinement improves importance distributions in relatively few iterations; (4) Surrogates are necessary for slow running codes; (5) Sequential design improves surrogate quality in region of parameter space indicated by importance distributions; and (6) Importance distributions and VRFs stabilize quickly, while quantile estimates may converge slowly.

Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Picard, Richard R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

330

Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of this independent review will permit NREL and DOE to better understand the credibility of the TIAX cost estimation process and to implement changes in future cost analyses, if necessary. The Team found the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells to be reasonable and, using 2005 cell stack technology and assuming production of 500,000 units per year, to have calculated a credible cost of $108/kW.

Wheeler, D.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stress estimation- Part 3: hydraulic fracturing (HF) and /orHayashi, K. 1999. Hydraulic fracturing reopening pressureobtained primarily from hydraulic fracturing tests performed

Karasaki, Kenzi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

It uses a bottom-up approach to estimate residential end-use consumption and evaluate the energy saving potential for refrigerators. References Retrieved from "http:...

333

State estimation on correlated copies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State estimation is usually analyzed in the situation when copies are in a product state, either mixed or pure. We investigate here the concept of state estimation on correlated copies. We analyze state estimation on correlated N qubit states, which are permutationally invariant. Using a correlated state we try to estimate as good as possible the direction of the Bloch vector of a single particle reduced density matrix. We derive the optimal fidelity for all permutation invariant states. We find the optimal state, which yields the highest estimation fidelity among the states with the same reduced density matrix. Interestingly this state is not a product state. We also point out that states produced by optimal universal cloning machines are the worst form the point of view of estimating the reduced density matrix.

Rafal Demkowicz-Dobrzanski

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

334

Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3  

SciTech Connect

The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

ASHMET: a computer code for estimating insolation incident on tilted surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer code, ASHMET, has been developed by MSFC to estimate the amount of solar insolation incident on the surfaces of solar collectors. Both tracking and fixed-position collectors have been included. Climatological data for 248 US locations are built into the code. This report describes the methodology of the code, and its input and output. The basic methodology used by ASHMET is the ASHRAE clear-day insolation relationships modified by a clearness index derived from SOLMET-measured solar radiation data to a horizontal surface.

Elkin, R.F.; Toelle, R.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in subsequent activities. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY07 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the FCVT program for internal project management purposes.

SIngh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

337

Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort  

SciTech Connect

The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits produced by technologies and practices supported by BT and by WIP. However, the approach is general enough for analysis of buildings-related technologies, independent of any specific program. An overview describes the GPRA process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used and the diffusion curve estimates.

Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

2004-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

338

Frequency tracking and parameter estimation for robust quantum state estimation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we consider the problem of tracking the state of a quantum system via a continuous weak measurement. If the system Hamiltonian is known precisely, this merely requires integrating the appropriate stochastic master equation. However, even a small error in the assumed Hamiltonian can render this approach useless. The natural answer to this problem is to include the parameters of the Hamiltonian as part of the estimation problem, and the full Bayesian solution to this task provides a state estimate that is robust against uncertainties. However, this approach requires considerable computational overhead. Here we consider a single qubit in which the Hamiltonian contains a single unknown parameter. We show that classical frequency estimation techniques greatly reduce the computational overhead associated with Bayesian estimation and provide accurate estimates for the qubit frequency.

Ralph, Jason F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Jacobs, Kurt [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts at Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States); Hill, Charles D. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Strategies and Methodologies for Integrating Design Computation into the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategies and Methodologies for Integrating Design Computation into the Strategies and Methodologies for Integrating Design Computation into the Design of High Density Quality Living Environment Speaker(s): Jin Yeu Tsou Date: October 9, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Through rapid urbanization process, Hong Kong and other cities located in the Pearl River Delta region face serious challenges in establishing effective method to overcome the deterioration of the urban living condition. The environmental problems that brought about have not only been treated as environmental science issues, but also drawn a lot of attention at the political level. One important step took by the HKSAR is to announce the Joint Practice Notes for Green and Innovative Buildings I & II (JPN I & II). China government also released her Healthy Building Design Guideline

340

Validation of the Home Energy Saver Energy Calculation Methodology: Using  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of the Home Energy Saver Energy Calculation Methodology: Using Validation of the Home Energy Saver Energy Calculation Methodology: Using Empirical Data to Improve Simulation Speaker(s): Danny Parker Date: August 6, 2013 - 12:00pm - 1:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Evan Mills The Home Energy Saver (HES) suite - developed by EETD researchers - offers popular online simulation tools that enable U.S. homeowners and energy professionals to rigorously evaluate home energy use and develop recommendations on how energy can be saved across all end uses. The underlying analytical system is also available as a web service to power third-party energy analysis tools. Given the system's diverse uses, it is important that the simulation is robust and accurate. While the HES engineering methods are extensively documented and subjected to peer

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341

Methodology and criteria for siting energy plants in Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study contains a review of energy plant siting criteria, methodologies, guidelines and programs that are being considered today in this country. A preliminary screening approach for siting energy plants in Idaho is presented and a detailed hierarchical classification system for siting criteria has been developed. Methodology for using the criteria is suggested. Experience of a workshop trying to identify problems of implementing a ranking and rating for siting energy plants in the general situation for Idaho is reported. A brief analysis is presented on the needs for regulations and legislation to implement a future program of evaluation that would benefit utilities, the planning agencies, and the regulatory agencies operating within the state of Idaho.

Warnick, C.C.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Possible Improvements of the ACE Diversity Interchange Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) grid is operated by about 131 balancing authorities (BA). Within each BA, operators are responsible for managing the unbalance (caused by both load and wind). As wind penetration levels increase, the challenges of managing power variation increases. Working independently, balancing area with limited regulating/load following generation and high wind power penetration faces significant challenges. The benefits of BA cooperation and consolidation increase when there is a significant wind energy penetration. To explore the benefits of BA cooperation, this paper investigates ACE sharing approach. A technology called ACE diversity interchange (ADI) is already in use in the western interconnection. A new methodology extending ADI is proposed in the paper. The proposed advanced ADI overcoming some limitations existing in conventional ADI. Simulations using real statistical data of CAISO and BPA have shown high performance of the proposed advanced ADI methodology.

Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart; Loutan, Clyde

2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

343

Survey-guided load research: An end-use analysis methodology test  

SciTech Connect

Energy use by end-use equipment is a function of the rated capacity of the equipment, frequency of use, and duration of each use. Many end used include multiple states, each with a different capacity, frequency, and duration. Some equipment provides benefits that are related to other uses, resulting in an indirect linkage between the primary energy-using equipment and the end use. Water heaters are one example. End-use metering of energy-using equipment provides the most accurate measure of energy use. Nevertheless, this energy-use ``signal`` is buried in background ``noise`` due to variations in the capacity, frequency, and duration of each end use and end user. Reliable estimates of energy use depend on a variety of methods to increase the ``signal-to-noise`` ratio (i.e., reduce the variance). Research of the energy consumption of household end-uses contains some inherent sampling problems: intrusiveness, cost, extensive data generated, analyses are time and computationally intensive. The goal of the methodology test described in this paper was to address these problems through a method that focused end-use analyses on a limited set of issues and data for program evaluation purposes. The approach tested used a detailed survey of end-use metered subjects to identify the pattern of end-use behavior as an alternative to estimating the frequency and duration of each use from the end-use data itself.

Warwick, W.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

An Application of the Coda Methodology for Moment-Rate Spectra Using Broadband Stations in Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently developed coda magnitude methodology was applied to selected broadband stations in Turkey for the purpose of testing the coda method in a large, laterally complex region. As found in other, albeit smaller regions, coda envelope amplitude measurements are significantly less variable than distance-corrected direct wave measurements (i.e., L{sub g} and surface waves) by roughly a factor 3-to-4. Despite strong lateral crustal heterogeneity in Turkey, they found that the region could be adequately modeled assuming a simple 1-D, radially symmetric path correction. After calibrating the stations ISP, ISKB and MALT for local and regional distances, single-station moment-magnitude estimates (M{sub W}) derived from the coda spectra were in excellent agreement with those determined from multistation waveform modeling inversions, exhibiting a data standard deviation of 0.17. Though the calibration was validated using large events, the results of the calibration will extend M{sub W} estimates to significantly smaller events which could not otherwise be waveform modeled. The successful application of the method is remarkable considering the significant lateral complexity in Turkey and the simple assumptions used in the coda method.

Eken Tuna, Kevin Mayeda, Abraham Hofstetter, Rengin Gok, Gonca Orgulu, Niyazi Turkelli

2004-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

345

A linear merging methodology for high-resolution precipitation products using spatiotemporal regression  

SciTech Connect

Currently, the only viable option for a global precipitation product is the merger of several precipitation products from different modalities. In this article, we develop a linear merging methodology based on spatiotemporal regression. Four highresolution precipitation products (HRPPs), obtained through methods including the Climate Prediction Center's Morphing (CMORPH), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-Based Auto-Estimator (GOES-AE), GOES-Based Hydro-Estimator (GOES-HE) and Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrieval (SCAMPR) algorithms, are used in this study. The merged data are evaluated against the Arkansas Red Basin River Forecast Center's (ABRFC's) ground-based rainfall product. The evaluation is performed using the Heidke skill score (HSS) for four seasons, from summer 2007 to spring 2008, and for two different rainfall detection thresholds. It is shown that the merged data outperform all the other products in seven out of eight cases. A key innovation of this machine learning method is that only 6% of the validation data are used for the initial training. The sensitivity of the algorithm to location, distribution of training data, selection of input data sets and seasons is also analysed and presented.

Turlapaty, Anish C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Methodology for Costing Ancillary Services from Hydro Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the unique flexibility of Hydro resources, Hydro resource owners perceive a unique opportunity to profit from emerging markets for Ancillary Services (A/S) service products. Effective pricing and profitability measurement tools, however, are not widely available. This report creates a framework for defining A/S products and develops a methodology for calculating total incremental costs of providing A/S in terms of five cost elements.

2000-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

347

Planning Methodology to Determine Practical Circuit Limits for Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utility distribution planners are increasingly faced with accommodating large sizes of distributed generation (DG) on their power distribution circuits. In many states, the renewable portfolio standards and incentives from various sources have resulted in larger solar PV installations than experienced previously. These are often located in parts of the distribution circuits where voltage is more difficult to regulate. This project investigated planning methodologies for determining practical limits for D...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Calculating Cycling Wear and Tear Costs: Methodology and Data Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report describes development of a methodology and database that utilities can use to calculate unit-specific incremental costs for cycling operation of fossil-fueled power plants. The three-level approach will allow users to choose an easy-to-use solution based on a pure "top-down" approach of peer-unit average values, a modified top-down approach, or a detailed "bottom-up" approach based on equipment condition assessment and engineering analysis.

1997-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

A General Methodology for Designing Self-Organizing Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our technologies complexify our environments. Thus, new technologies need to deal with more and more complexity. Several efforts have been made to deal with this complexity using the concept of self-organization. However, in order to promote its use and understanding, we must first have a pragmatic understanding of complexity and self-organization. This paper presents a conceptual framework for speaking about self-organizing systems. The aim is to provide a methodology useful for designing and controlling systems developed to solve complex problems. First, practical notions of complexity and self-organization are given. Then, starting from the agent metaphor, a conceptual framework is presented. This provides formal ways of speaking about "satisfaction" of elements and systems. The main premise of the methodology claims that reducing the "friction" or "interference" of interactions between elements of a system will result in a higher "satisfaction" of the system, i.e. better performance. The methodology discusses different ways in which this can be achieved. A case study on self-organizing traffic lights illustrates the ideas presented in the paper.

Carlos Gershenson

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

351

Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies Agency/Company /Organization: International Atomic Energy Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Economic Development Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Pathways analysis Website: www.iaea.org/Publications/Factsheets/English/indicators.pdf Country: Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russia, Slovakia, Thailand UN Region: South-Eastern Asia, "Latin America and Caribbean" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

352

Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.  

SciTech Connect

The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Direct estimation of gas reserves using production data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the development of a semi-analytical technique that can be used to estimate the gas-in-place for volumetric gas reservoirs. This new methodology utilizes plotting functions, plots, extrapolations, etc. - where all analyses are based on the following governing identity. The 'governing identity' is derived and validated by others for pi less than 6000 psia. We have reproduced the derivation of this result and we provide validation using numberical simulation for cases where pi greater than 6000 psia. The relevance of this work is straightforward using a simple governing relation, we provide a series of plotting functions which can be used to extrapolate or interpret an estimate of gas-in-place using only production data (qg and Gp). The proposed methodology does not require a prior knowledge of formation and or fluid compressibility data, nor does it require average reservoir pressure. In fact, no formation or fluid properties are directly required for this analysis and interpretation approach. The new methodology is validated demonstrated using results from numerical simulation (i.e., cases where we know the exact answer), as well as for a number of field cases. Perhaps the most valuable component of this work is our development of a "spreadsheet" approach in which we perform multiple analyses interpretations simultaneously using MS Excel. This allows us to visualize all data plots simultaneously - and to "link" the analyses to a common set of parameters. While this "simultaneous" analysis approach may seem rudimentary (or even obvious), it provides the critical (and necessary) "visualization" that makes the technique functional. The base relation (given above) renders different behavior for different plotting functions, and we must have a "linkage" that forces all analyses to "connect" to one another. The proposed multiplot spreadsheet approach provides just such a connection.

Buba, Ibrahim Muhammad

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Quantitative Methodology for Assessing State-Level Nuclear Security Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The international community faces a growing threat from nuclear terrorism. The complexity of the threats of nuclear terrorism, the variety of nuclear security measures that States can devote resources towards to address the threats, and the limited resources States have to invest in these nuclear security measures make it imperative that resources are applied in the most effective way possible. In this dissertation, we develop a quantitative, risk-based methodology that States can employ to gain a better understanding of the nuclear threat they face, assist them in determining what nuclear security measures they should invest in, and facilitate communication to stake-holders to request and justify investment in these measures. The risk-based methodology has been developed employing a combination of pathways analysis, game-theory, multiple-attribute utility analysis, decision theory and risk analysis. The methodology was designed to account for the wide variety of nuclear security measures that States can invest in, the range of possible consequences from different nuclear threats, and the severity of these consequences to the State. In addition, the methodology models the adversary's strategic decision making while accounting for the capabilities, motivations, and disincentives that may influence which nuclear threat a terrorist group will attempt. The methodology is introduced into a Visual Basic for Applications code, which we demonstrate through verification and qualitative validation tests. We then develop three State nuclear infrastructures with varying levels of complexity, meant to provide a realistic representation of real-world States. We then utilize the code to evaluate the risk of nuclear terrorism against terrorist threats that have different motivations for nuclear terrorism to demonstrate how different motivations for nuclear terrorism may affect both State-level risk and the State's optimal risk-reduction strategy. These risk analyses are then used to both evaluate various nuclear security strategies and determine which nuclear security measures will have the greatest risk-reduction value. Finally, we conduct a sensitivity analysis on capabilities of terrorist groups to understand how changes in these capabilities affect the State-level risk from nuclear terrorism.

Myers, Christopher 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships  

SciTech Connect

As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

Tables of radiation dose estimates based on the Cristy-Eckerman adult male phantom are provided for a number of radiopharmaceuticals commonly used in nuclear medicine. Radiation dose estimates are listed for all major source organs, and several other organs of interest. The dose estimates were calculated using the MIRD Technique as implemented in the MIRDOSE3 computer code, developed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Internal Dose Information Center. In this code, residence times for source organs are used with decay data from the MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes to produce estimates of radiation dose to organs of standardized phantoms representing individuals of different ages. The adult male phantom of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series is different from the MIRD 5, or Reference Man phantom in several aspects, the most important of which is the difference in the masses and absorbed fractions for the active (red) marrow. The absorbed fractions for flow energy photons striking the marrow are also different. Other minor differences exist, but are not likely to significantly affect dose estimates calculated with the two phantoms. Assumptions which support each of the dose estimates appears at the bottom of the table of estimates for a given radiopharmaceutical. In most cases, the model kinetics or organ residence times are explicitly given. The results presented here can easily be extended to include other radiopharmaceuticals or phantoms.

Stabin, M.G.; Stubbs, J.B.; Toohey, R.E. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, TN (United States). Radiation Internal Dose Information Center

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits  

SciTech Connect

A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

Klasson, KT

2002-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

360

Principal Components Instrumental Variable Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The reason for the inconsistency is that the least squares estimation used for the projection of the first stage tends to fit too well, rendering an overfitted PKX which is still correlated with u if the number of instruments is large. The estimating... -dimensional IVE is just an IVE and as such possesses up to rn?G?2 moments, and thus it may achieve the performance in terms of bias of the ‘no moments’ estimators without displaying their unduly volatility due to fat tails. The fulfilment of condition (A) is key...

Winkelried, Diego; Smith, Richard J.

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A methodology for design, test, and evaluation of real-time systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a methodology that is suitable for use as part of either a prototyping approach or a component-reuse approach. This methodology integrates modeling and simulation as well as developmental and operational testing over the life cycle. ...

Kenneth D. Shere; Rachelle A. Carlson

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A systemic approach to the preservation of audio documents: methodology and software tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents amethodology for the preservation of audio documents, the operational protocol that acts as the methodology, and an original open source software system that supports and automatizes several tasks along the process. The methodology ...

Federica Bressan, Sergio Canazza

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

An integrated methodology for the performance and reliability evaluation of fault-tolerant systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis proposes a new methodology for the integrated performance and reliability evaluation of embedded fault-tolerant systems used in aircraft, space, tactical, and automotive applications. This methodology uses a ...

Domínguez-García, Alejandro D. (Alejandro Dan)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Implementation of the PR&PP methodology: the role of formal expert elicitations  

SciTech Connect

The application of the methodology developed by the GenIV International Forum's (GIF's) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group is an expert elicitation. Although the framework of the methodology is structured and systematic, it does not by itself constitute or require a formal elicitation. However, formal elicitation can be utilized in the PR&PP context to provide a systematic, credible and transparent qualitative analysis and develop input for quantitative analyses. This section provides an overview of expert elicitations, a discussion of the role formal expert elicitations can play in the PR&PP methodology, an outline of the formal expert elicitation process and a brief practical guide to conducting formal expert elicitations. Expert elicitation is a process utilizing knowledgeable people in cases, for example, when an assessment is needed but physically based data is absent or open to interpretation. More specifically, it can be used to: (1) predict future events; (2) provide estimates on new, rare, complex or poorly understood phenomena; (3) integrate or interpret existing information; or (4) determine what is currently known, how well it is known or what is worth learning in a field. Expert elicitation can be informal or formal. The informal application of expert judgment is frequently used. Although it can produce good results, it often provides demonstrably biased or otherwise flawed answers to problems. This along with the absence of transparency can result in a loss of confidence when experts speak on issues. More formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. The reason for advocating formal use is that the quality and accuracy of expert judgment comes from the completeness of the expert's understanding of the phenomena and the process used to elicit and analyze the data. The use of a more formal process to obtain, lU1derstand and analyze expert judgment has led to an improved acceptance of expert judgment because of the rigor and transparency of the results.

Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

PACKAGING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials, under both normal and accident conditions, to perform the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within the specified limits. By placing the contents in a helium leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large dose rate outside the package. Quantifying the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings provides bounding shielding calculations that define mass limits compliant with 10 CFR 71.47 for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. The approach is based on energy superposition with dose response calculated for a set of spectral groups for a baseline physical packaging configuration. The methodology includes using the MCNP radiation transport code to evaluate a family of neutron and photon spectral groups using the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers as the base case. This results in a set of multipliers for 'dose per particle' for each spectral group. For a given isotope, the source spectrum is folded with the response for each group. The summed contribution from all isotopes determines the total dose from the RAM in the container.

Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

366

WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the WaterSense program saves nationwide involves integrating two components, or modules, of the NWS model. Module 1 calculates the baseline national water consumption of typical fixtures, fittings, and appliances prior to the program (as described in Section 2.0 of this report). Module 2 develops trends in efficiency for water-using products both in the business-as-usual case and as a result of the program (Section 3.0). The NWS model combines the two modules to calculate total gallons saved by the WaterSense program (Section 4.0). Figure 1 illustrates the modules and the process involved in modeling for the NWS model analysis.The output of the NWS model provides the base case for each end use, as well as a prediction of total residential indoor water consumption during the next two decades. Based on the calculations described in Section 4.0, we can project a timeline of water savings attributable to the WaterSense program. The savings increase each year as the program results in the installation of greater numbers of efficient products, which come to compose more and more of the product stock in households throughout the United States.

Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

367

Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

368

A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

Not Available

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Estimation of Surface Heat Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors reconsider the problem of estimating the sensible heat transfer at the earth's surface from direct measurements of turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer. For simplicity, only horizontally homogeneous conditions are ...

Jielun Sun; Steven K. Esbensen; L. Mahrt

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Estimation of resources and reserves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Quantum estimation of relative information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive optimal schemes for preparation and estimation of relational degrees of freedom between two quantum systems. We specifically analyze the case of rotation parameters representing relative angles between elements of the SU(2) symmetry group. Our estimation procedure does not assume prior knowledge of the absolute spatial orientation of the systems and as such does not require information on the underlying classical reference frame in which the states are prepared.

Netanel H. Lindner; Petra F. Scudo; Dagmar Bruss

2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

373

PDV Uncertainty Estimation & Methods Comparison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods are presented for estimating the rapidly changing instantaneous frequency of a time varying signal that is contaminated by measurement noise. Useful a posteriori error estimates for several methods are verified numerically through Monte Carlo simulation. However, given the sampling rates of modern digitizers, sub-nanosecond variations in velocity are shown to be reliably measurable in most (but not all) cases. Results support the hypothesis that in many PDV regimes of interest, sub-nanosecond resolution can be achieved.

Machorro, E.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Estimate product quality with ANNs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to predict catalytic reformer octane number (ON) and gasoline splitter product qualities. Results show that ANNs are a valuable tool to derive fast and accurate product quality measurements, and offer a low-cost alternative to online analyzers or rigorous mathematical models. The paper describes product quality measurements, artificial neural networks, ANN structure, estimating gasoline octane numbers, and estimating naphtha splitter product qualities.

Brambilla, A. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Trivella, F. [Adicon Advanced Distillation Control SrL, Pisa (Italy)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE DOSE RATE FOR BOUNDING MASS LIMITS IN A 9977 PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that the hazards associated with the shipment of a radioactive material are directly proportional to its mass. This study describes a methodology that estimates the acceptable masses for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a 9977 Package compliant with the Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) external radiation level limits. 10CFR71.33 states that a shipping application identifies the radioactive and fissile materials at their maximum quantity and provides an evaluation demonstrating compliance with the external radiation standards. Since rather small amounts of some isotopes emit sufficiently strong radiation to produce a large external dose rate, quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. A methodology was established for determining the dose rate for bounding mass limits for a set of isotopes in the Model 9977 Shipping Package. Calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels using the MCNP radiation transport code to develop a set of response multipliers (Green's functions) for 'dose per source particle' for each neutron and photon spectral group. The source spectrum from one gram of each isotope was folded with the response multipliers to generate the dose rate per gram of each isotope in the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers. The maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped within the regulatory limits for dose rate at the surface was determined. For a package containing a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions approach. Furthermore, the results of this analysis can be easily extended to additional radioisotopes by simply evaluating the neutron and/or photon spectra of those isotopes and folding the spectral data with the Green's functions provided.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

376

Analysis of the HSEES Chemical Incident Database Using Data and Text Mining Methodologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical incidents can be prevented or mitigated by improving safety performance and implementing the lessons learned from past incidents. Despite some limitations in the range of information they provide, chemical incident databases can be utilized as sources of lessons learned from incidents by evaluating patterns and relationships that exist between the data variables. Much of the previous research focused on studying the causal factors of incidents; hence, this research analyzes the chemical incidents from both the causal and consequence elements of the incidents. A subset of incidents data reported to the Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) chemical incident database from 2002-2006 was analyzed using data mining and text mining methodologies. Both methodologies were performed with the aid of STATISTICA software. The analysis studied 12,737 chemical process related incidents and extracted descriptions of incidents in free-text data format from 3,316 incident reports. The structured data was analyzed using data mining tools such as classification and regression trees, association rules, and cluster analysis. The unstructured data (textual data) was transformed into structured data using text mining, and subsequently analyzed further using data mining tools such as, feature selections and cluster analysis. The data mining analysis demonstrated that this technique can be used in estimating the incident severity based on input variables of release quantity and distance between victims and source of release. Using the subset data of ammonia release, the classification and regression tree produced 23 final nodes. Each of the final nodes corresponded to a range of release quantity and, of distance between victims and source of release. For each node, the severity of injury was estimated from the observed severity scores' average. The association rule identified the conditional probability for incidents involving piping, chlorine, ammonia, and benzene in the value of 0.19, 0.04, 0.12, and 0.04 respectively. The text mining was utilized successfully to generate elements of incidents that can be used in developing incident scenarios. Also, the research has identified information gaps in the HSEES database that can be improved to enhance future data analysis. The findings from data mining and text mining should then be used to modify or revise design, operation, emergency response planning or other management strategies.

Mahdiyati, -

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential:Integrating Price and Customer Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT=Demand response (DR) is increasingly recognized asan essential ingredient to well-functioning electricity markets. DRmarket potential studies can answer questions about the amount of DRavailable in a given area, from which market segments. Several recent DRmarket potential studies have been conducted, most adapting techniquesused to estimate energy-efficiency (EE) potential. In this scoping study,we: reviewed and categorized seven recent DR market potential studies;recommended a methodology for estimating DR market potential for large,non-residential utility customers that uses price elasticities to accountfor behavior and prices; compiled participation rates and elasticityvalues from six DR options offered to large customers in recent years,and demonstrated our recommended methodology with large customer marketpotential scenarios at an illustrative Northeastern utility. We recommendan elasticity approach for large-customer DR options that rely oncusto!

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 15, Estimating Methods  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

379

End-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The computing models for HEP experiments are globally distributed and grid-based. Obstacles to good network performance arise from many causes and can be a major impediment to the success of the computing models for HEP experiments. Factors that affect overall network/application performance exist on the hosts themselves (application software, operating system, hardware), in the local area networks that support the end systems, and within the wide area networks. Since the computer and network systems are globally distributed, it can be very difficult to locate and identify the factors that are hurting application performance. In this paper, we present an end-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology developed and in use at Fermilab. The core of our approach is to narrow down the problem scope with a divide and conquer strategy. The overall complex problem is split into two distinct sub-problems: host diagnosis and tuning, and network path analysis. After satisfactorily evaluating, and if necessary resolving, each sub-problem, we conduct end-to-end performance analysis and diagnosis. The paper will discuss tools we use as part of the methodology. The long term objective of the effort is to enable site administrators and end users to conduct much of the troubleshooting themselves, before (or instead of) calling upon network and operating system 'wizards,' who are always in short supply.

Wu, Wenji; Bobyshev, Andrey; Bowden, Mark; Crawford, Matt; Demar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Grigoriev, Maxim; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability assessment is of primary importance in designing and planning distribution systems that operate in an economic manner with minimal interruption of customer loads. With the advances in renewable energy sources, Distributed Generation (DG), is forecasted to increase in distribution networks. The study of reliability evaluation of such networks is a relatively new area. This research presents a new methodology that can be used to analyze the reliability of such distribution systems and can be applied in preliminary planning studies for such systems. The method uses a sequential Monte Carlo simulation of the distribution systemÂ?s stochastic model to generate the operating behavior and combines that with a path augmenting Max flow algorithm to evaluate the load status for each state change of operation in the system. Overall system and load point reliability indices such as hourly loss of load, frequency of loss of load and expected energy unserved can be computed using this technique. On addition of DG in standby mode of operation at specific locations in the network, the reliability indices can be compared for different scenarios and strategies for placement of DG and their capacities can be determined using this methodology.

Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A Methodology to Measure Retrofit Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measured energy savings promote and sustain energy conservation retrofits by verifying the success of retrofits, determining pay-back schedules, guiding the selection of future retrofits and identifying opportunities for further savings. This dissertation develops a methodology to measure retrofit energy savings and the uncertainty of the savings in commercial buildings. The functional forms of empirical models of cooling and heating energy use in commercial buildings are derived from an engineering analysis of constant-air-volume and variable-air-volume HVAC systems. One, two, three and four parameter, temperature-dependent regression models are proposed to model baseline energy use. Retrofit savings are measured as the difference between the baseline energy use project by the models and the measured post-retrofit energy use. A hybrid ordinary least squares/autoregressive method is developed to determine the uncertainty of the predicated energy use and savings. The annual predictive ability of models based on pre-retrofit data sets of less than a full year is investigated. The energy delivery efficiency is introduced to measure the efficiency of air-side systems at meeting the net building load. A preliminary investigation of the use of artificial neural network models to measure savings is presented. The methodology is demonstrated on case study examples using software specifically developed for the analysis of commercial building energy use.

Kissock, John Kelly

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

382

Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Thermal analysis of the Pioneer anomaly: A method to estimate radiative momentum transfer  

SciTech Connect

We present a methodology based on pointlike Lambertian sources that enables one to perform a reliable and comprehensive estimate of the overall thermally induced acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. We show, by developing a sensitivity analysis of the several parameters of the model, that one may achieve a valuable insight into the possible thermal origin of the so-called Pioneer anomaly.

Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Francisco, F.; Gil, P. J. S. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Enhancing the scoping study methodology: a large, inter-professional team's experience with Arksey and O'Malley's framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Daudt et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013, 13:48s framework. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013 13:48.Daudt et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013, 13:48

Daudt, Helena ML; van Mossel, Catherine; Scott, Samantha J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

BoileR Tube Life Estimator (BRTLE) Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boiler Tube Life Estimator (BRTLE) software is a stand-alone Windowsapplication that estimates the remaining life of boiler return bends experiencing fatigue cracking using the methodology in Section 9 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, 2007 Edition. The calculation of the crack tip stress intensity and reference stress is based on the Level 2 analysis approach in Part 9 of the standard, but conservative assumptions were used for toughness and other variables to minimize the user input required. Therefore, the...

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

387

A Bayesian Framework for Combining Valuation Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Obtaining more accurate equity value estimates is the starting point for stock selection, value-based indexing in a noisy market, and beating benchmark indices through tactical style rotation. Unfortunately, discounted cash flow, method of comparables, and fundamental analysis typically yield discrepant valuation estimates. Moreover, the valuation estimates typically disagree with market price. Can one form a superior valuation estimate by averaging over the individual estimates, including market price? This article suggests a Bayesian framework for combining two or more estimates into a superior valuation estimate. The framework justifies the common practice of averaging over several estimates to arrive at a final point estimate.

Kenton K. Yee

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

Risk Assessment Methodology Based on the NISTIR 7628 Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Earlier work describes computational models of critical infrastructure that allow an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the impact of loss per stakeholder resulting from security breakdowns. Here, we consider how to identify, monitor and estimate risk impact and probability for different smart grid stakeholders. Our constructive method leverages currently available standards and defined failure scenarios. We utilize the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Interagency or Internal Reports (NISTIR) 7628 as a basis to apply Cyberspace Security Econometrics system (CSES) for comparing design principles and courses of action in making security-related decisions.

Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Hauser, Katie R [ORNL; Lantz, Margaret W [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Agency/Company /Organization: Voluntary Carbon Standard Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.v-c-s.org/docs/Methodology%20for%20REDD,%20grouped%20mosaic,%20TGC Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Screenshot References: Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects[1] "This methodology sets out the project conditions and carbon accounting procedures for activities aimed at reducing unplanned anthropogenic

390

Density estimation for data with rounding errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rounding of data is common in practice. The problem of estimating the underlying density function based on data with rounding errors is addressed. A parametric maximum likelihood estimator and a nonparametric bootstrap kernel density estimator are proposed. ... Keywords: Bootstrapping, Deconvolution density estimation, Fast Fourier transformation, Kernel density estimation, Measurement error

B. Wang, W. Wertelecki

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

James-Stein type estimators of variances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we propose James-Stein type estimators for variances raised to a fixed power by shrinking individual variance estimators towards the arithmetic mean. We derive and estimate the optimal choices of shrinkage parameters under both the squared ... Keywords: 62H12, Inadmissibility, Shrinkage estimation, Shrinkage parameter, Squared loss function, Stein loss function, Variance estimation

Tiejun Tong; Homin Jang; Yuedong Wang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from weaning the U.S. from energy imports (e.g., measures of energy self-sufficiency), and minimization of future high level waste (HLW) repositories world-wide.

David E. Shropshire

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two equations for C and D waste estimation in railway construction works are developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixed C and D waste is the most generated category during railway construction works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunnel construction is essential to quantify the waste generated during the works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a relationship between C and D waste generated and railway functional units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methodology proposed can be used to obtain new constants for other areas. - Abstract: In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C and D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47 million tons of C and D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C and D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C and D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C and D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C and D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C and D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C and D waste generated for the entire project.

Guzman Baez, Ana de [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Saez, Paola; Rio Merino, Mercedes del [Departamento de Construcciones Arquitectonicas y su Control, Escuela Universitaria de Arquitectura Tecnica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Juan de Herrera 6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia Navarro, Justo, E-mail: justo.gnavarro@upm.es [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and posted 2/10/2011 and posted 2/10/2011 *Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain $50,000 FONSI: uncertain Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain FONSI: uncertain Total Estimated Cost $70,000 Attachment: Memo, Moody to Marcinowski, III, SUBJECT: NEPA 2011 APS for DOE-SRS, Dated: Annual NEPA Planning Summary Environmental Assessments (EAs) Expected to be Initiated in the Next 12 Months Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Jan-11 Estimated Schedule (**NEPA Milestones) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) issued a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Industrial Stormwater General Permit (IGP) # SCR000000 November 12, with an effective date of January

397

PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels for the 9977 shipping package using the MCNP radiation transport code to develop a set of response multipliers (Green's functions) for 'dose per particle' for each neutron and photon spectral group. The source spectrum for each isotope generated using the ORIGEN-S and RASTA computer codes was folded with the response multipliers to generate the dose rate per gram of each isotope in the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers. The maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped within the regulatory limits contained in 10 CFR 71.47 for dose rate at the surface of the package is determined. If a package contains a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions approach. Furthermore, the results of this analysis can be easily extended to additional radioisotopes by simply evaluating the neutron and/or photon spectra of those isotopes and folding the spectral data with the Green's functions provided.

Nathan, S.

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci [Yildiz Technical University Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Energy estimation of peripheral devices in embedded systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces a methodology for estimation of energy consumption in peripherals such as audio and video devices. Peripherals can be responsible for significant amount of the energy consumption in current embedded systems. We introduce a cycleaccurate energy simulator and profiler capable of simulating peripheral devices. Our energy estimation tool for peripherals can be useful for hardware and software energy optimization of multimedia applications and device drivers. The simulator and profiler use cycleaccurate energy and performance models for peripheral devices with the cycle-accurate energy and performance models for computing, storage and power devices created in previous work. We also implemented I/O communication protocols such as polling, I/O interrupts and direct memory access (DMA). Using our energy simulator and estimator, we optimized an audio driver for an MP3 (MPEG-2 Layer 3) audio decoder application. Our optimization results show 44 % reduction in the total system energy consumption for the MP3 audio decoder when optimized audio driver is used.

Ozgur Celebican

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Session #1: Cutting Edge Methodologies--Beyond Current DFT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Session #1: Cutting Edge Methodologies (beyond Current DFT) Moderator: Shengbai Zhang (RPI/ REL) Topics to be addressed: Benchmarking state-of-the-art approaches, accurate energy landscape. Identify problems with the current DFT-LDA and GGA approaches and possible pathways to overcome these problems. PBE PBE How Bad is DFT for vdW Interactions? fcc Ar Benzene dimer PBE LDA Exp CCSD(T) LDA PBE vdW Interaction between H 2 and Carbon � PBE Graphene CCSD(T) LDA Benzene omitted in the LDA and GGA van der Walls (vdW)-DFT: Langreth, Kohn � Fully nonlocal � functional: � � Long-range nonlocal correlation energy functional (omitted in the LDA and GGA) ) ( � Computational cost considerably more than GGA � Added as post-GGA energy correction but force

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401

DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 DOE GEOTHERMAL RISK ANALYSIS: Prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2009 DOE GEOTHERMAL RISK ANALYSIS: Prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) eere.energy.gov The Parker Ranch installation in Hawaii DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results DOE Geothermal Technologies Program arlene.anderson@ee.doe.gov February 1, 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) Arlene Anderson & Chad Augustine NREL Strategic Energy Analysis Center Chad.Augustine@nrel.gov Katherine R. Young (NREL) Chad Augustine (NREL) Arlene Anderson (DOE-2046GTP) NREL/PR-6A2-47526 Presented at the Stanford Geothermal Workshop, 1-3 February 2010, Stanford, California Jim McVeigh (Sentech), Ed Eugeni, (Sentech), Joe Cohen (SAIC) Pacific Gas & Electric/PIX 00059 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by

402

Validating analysis methodologies used in burnup credit criticality calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of allowing reactivity credit for the depleted (or burned) state of pressurized water reactor fuel in the licensing of spent fuel facilities introduces a new challenge to members of the nuclear criticality community. The primary difference in this analysis approach is the technical ability to calculate spent fuel compositions (or inventories) and to predict their effect on the system multiplication factor. Isotopic prediction codes are used routinely for in-core physics calculations and the prediction of radiation source terms for both thermal and shielding analyses, but represent an innovation for criticality specialists. This paper discusses two methodologies currently being developed to specifically evaluate isotopic composition and reactivity for the burnup credit concept. A comprehensive approach to benchmarking and validating the methods is also presented. This approach involves the analysis of commercial reactor critical data, fuel storage critical experiments, chemical assay isotopic data, and numerical benchmark calculations.

Brady, M.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Napolitano, D.G. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Boston, MA (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Methodology for modeling geothermal district heating for residential markets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methodology is presented for geothermal district heat service and for evaluating the economic market potential for such nonelectrical utilization of the geothermal resource. It is based upon accurate determination of the heating demand and its spatial and temporal profile in each potential market, determination of the cost to provide such service, and correlation of markets and resource sites. Two components of the model are discussed in this report. the residential demand submodel and data base, which includes building characteristics and population distribution on a census tract or minor civil division grid for the nation, projects heating demand densities, and temporal profiles along with the building service modifications and costs. The service submodel and data base designs and costs a subtransmission and distribution network, and it evaluates operating losses at design conditions.

Karkheck, J.; Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Aggregate Building Simulator (ABS) Methodology Development, Application, and User Manual  

SciTech Connect

As the relationship between the national building stock and various global energy issues becomes a greater concern, it has been deemed necessary to develop a system of predicting the energy consumption of large groups of buildings. Ideally this system is to take advantage of the most advanced energy simulation software available, be able to execute runs quickly, and provide concise and useful results at a level of detail that meets the users needs without inundating them with data. The resulting methodology that was developed allows the user to quickly develop and execute energy simulations of many buildings simultaneously, taking advantage of parallel processing to greatly reduce total simulation times. The result of these simulations can then be rapidly condensed and presented in a useful and intuitive manner.

Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

POSSIBLE ROLES FOR THE INTEGRATED SAFEGUARDS EVALUATION METHODOLOGY (ISEM)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Integrated Safeguards Evaluation Methodology (ISEM) is designed to be a flexible tool capable of meeting as yet undefined requirements for the evaluation of a range of integrated safeguards proposals (ISPs), irrespective of the precise scope, the author of the proposal or the level of analysis desired. Its objective as a tool is to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to make informed decisions on integrated safeguards that strengthen the international safeguards system and maximize its efficiency. The ISEM can be used to evaluate generic facility or State-wide ISPs in support of integrated safeguards criteria development and to evaluate ISPs for implementation in specific states. Reflecting the interests and needs of the Agency, ISEM has been used to evaluate generic, single-facility ISPs. This role, with a hypothetical State assumed, was the basis for the March-April and September 2000 exercises undertaken to evaluate an Agency proposal for LWRs without MOX and Agency ISPs for research reactors and critical assemblies, respectively. It was also the basis for Agency evaluation of its ISP for spent-fuel storage. In a similar fashion, the methodology could be used to evaluate multiple-facility ISPs. However, the primary use of ISEM envisioned during its creation was for the evaluation of State-wide ISPs, both generic and State-specific. A simple State-level ISP was evaluated as the first illustrative application of the ISEM. A generic State-wide approach can reflect any number of real-world fuel cycles, or it might usefully be limited to considerations of a small number of representative groupings of facilities. It allows an evaluation of tradeoffs as well as optimization of cost and effectiveness in general terms. For any of these uses, and perhaps others, ISEM can help the Agency to filter and to optimize proposals, and to focus information analysis and complementary access.

J. F. PILAT

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Methodology to quantify leaks in aerosol sampling system components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Filter holders and continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used extensively in the nuclear industry. It is important to minimize leakage in these devices and in recognition of this consideration, a limit on leakage for sampling systems is specified in ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999; however the protocol given in the standard is really germane to measurement of significant leakage, e.g., several percent of the sampling flow rate. In the present study, a technique for quantifying leakage was developed and that approach was used to measure the sealing integrity of a CAM and two kinds of filter holders. The methodology involves use of sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas with the device being tested operated under dynamic flow conditions. The leak rates in these devices were determined in the pressure range from 2.49 kPa (10 In. H2O) vacuum to 2.49 kPa (10 In. H2O) pressure at a typical flow rate of 56.6 L/min (2 cfm). For the two filter holders, the leak rates were less than 0.007% of the nominal flow rate. The leak rate in the CAM was less than 0.2% of the nominal flow rate. These values are well within the limit prescribed in the ANSI standard, which is 5% of the nominal flow rate. Therefore the limit listed in the ANSI standard should be reconsidered as lower values can be achieved, and the methodology presented herein can be used to quantify lower leakage values in sample collectors and analyzers. A theoretical analysis was also done to determine the nature of flow through the leaks and the amount of flow contribution by the different possible mechanisms of flow through leaks.

Vijayaraghavan, Vishnu Karthik

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

BLE: Battery Life Estimator | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Estimator (BLE) software is a state-of-the-art tool kit for fitting battery aging data and for battery life estimation. It was designed to make life-cycle estimates...

408

Practical Estimates of Lake Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical estimates of lake evaporation must rely on data that can be observed in the land environment. This requires the ability to take into account the changes in the temperature and humidity that occur when the air passes from the land to the ...

F. I. Morton

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.

2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

410

Periodicity estimation of Dynamic Textures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic Textures (DTs) are image sequences of natural events like fire, smoke, water etc., that possesses regular motion patterns. Periodicity is a widely used tool to analyse regular structures of periodic one dimensional signals as well as two dimensional ... Keywords: co-occurrence matrix, dynamic textures, image sequences, image texture analysis, motion patterns, natural events, periodicity estimation, temporal textures

Khalid Zaman Bijon; Ahmed Hasan; Ashfaqur Rahman; Manzur Murshed

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Unsupervised clustering and centroid estimation using dynamic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

solving cluster detection and centroid estimation prob- lems. ... density function and these vectors estimate the cen- ..... an algorithm to minimize a cost function.

412

Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Summary Notes from 28 May 2008 Generic Technical Issue...

413

Determination of uncertainty in reserves estimate from analysis of production decline data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysts increasingly have used probabilistic approaches to evaluate the uncertainty in reserves estimates based on a decline curve analysis. This is because the results represent statistical analysis of historical data that usually possess significant amounts of noise. Probabilistic approaches usually provide a distribution of reserves estimates with three confidence levels (P10, P50 and P90) and a corresponding 80% confidence interval. The question arises: how reliable is this 80% confidence interval? In other words, in a large set of analyses, is the true value of reserves contained within this interval 80% of the time? Our investigation indicates that it is common in practice for true values of reserves to lie outside the 80% confidence interval much more than 20% of the time using traditional statistical analyses. This indicates that uncertainty is being underestimated, often significantly. Thus, the challenge in probabilistic reserves estimation using a decline curve analysis is not only how to appropriately characterize probabilistic properties of complex production data sets, but also how to determine and then improve the reliability of the uncertainty quantifications. This thesis presents an improved methodology for probabilistic quantification of reserves estimates using a decline curve analysis and practical application of the methodology to actual individual well decline curves. The application of our proposed new method to 100 oil and gas wells demonstrates that it provides much wider 80% confidence intervals, which contain the true values approximately 80% of the time. In addition, the method yields more accurate P50 values than previously published methods. Thus, the new methodology provides more reliable probabilistic reserves estimation, which has important impacts on economic risk analysis and reservoir management.

Wang, Yuhong

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define program characteristics In a technical baseline description document, identify the program's

415

Figure 1.6 State-Level Energy Consumption Estimates and Estimated ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Figure 1.6 State-Level Energy Consumption Estimates and Estimated Consumption per Capita, 2010 Consumption Consumption per Capita

416

Quantifying the Uncertainty in Estimates of World Conventional Oil Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since Hubbert proposed the "peak oil" concept to forecast ultimate recovery of crude oil for the U.S. and the world, there have been countless debates over the timing of peak world conventional oil production rate and ultimate recovery. From review of the literature, forecasts were grouped into those that are like Hubbert's with an imminent peak, and those that do not predict an imminent peak. Both groups have bases for their positions. Viewpoints from the two groups are polarized and the rhetoric is pointed and sometimes personal. A big reason for the large divide between the two groups is the failure of both to acknowledge the significant uncertainty in their estimates. Although some authors attempt to quantify uncertainty, most use deterministic methods and present single values, with no ranges. This research proposes that those that do attempt to quantify uncertainty underestimate it significantly. The objective of this thesis is to rigorously quantify the uncertainty in estimates of ultimate world conventional oil production and time to peak rate. Two different methodologies are used. The first is a regression technique based on historical production data using Hubbert's model and the other methodology uses mathematical models. However, I conduct the analysis probabilistically, considering errors in both the data and the model, which results in likelihood probability distributions for world conventional oil production and time to peak rate. In the second method, I use a multiple-experts analysis to combine estimates from the multitude of papers presented in the literature, yielding an overall distribution of estimated world conventional oil production. Giving due consideration to uncertainty, Hubbert-type mathematical modeling results in large uncertainty ranges that encompass both groups of forecasts (imminent peak and no imminent peak). These ranges are consistent with those from the multiple-experts analysis. In short, the industry does not have enough information at this time to say with any reliability what the ultimate world conventional oil production will be. It could peak soon, somewhere in the distant future, or somewhere in between. It would be wise to consider all of these possible outcomes in planning and making decisions regarding capital investment and formulation of energy policy.

Tien, Chih-Ming

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The development and application of the chemical mixture methodology in analysis of potential health impacts from airborne release in emergencies  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Mixture Methodology (CMM) is used for emergency response and safety planning by the U.S. Department of Energy, its contractors, and other private and public sector organizations. The CMM estimates potential health impacts on individuals and their ability to take protective actions as a result of exposure to airborne chemical mixtures. They are based on the concentration of each chemical in the mixture at a designated receptor location, the protective action criteria (PAC) providing chemical-specific exposure limit values, and the health code numbers (HCNs) that identify the target organ groupings that may be impacted by exposure to each chemical in a mixture. The CMM has been significantly improved since its introduction more than 10 years ago. Major enhancements involve the expansion of the number of HCNs from 44 to 60 and inclusion of updated PAC values based on an improved development methodology and updates in the data used to derive the PAC values. Comparisons between the 1999 and 2009 versions of the CMM show potentially substantial changes in the assessment results for selected sets of chemical mixtures. In particular, the toxic mode hazard indices (HIs) and target organ HIs are based on more refined acute HCNs, thereby improving the quality of chemical consequence assessment, emergency planning, and emergency response decision making. Seven hypothetical chemical storage and processing scenarios are used to demonstrate how the CMM is applied in emergency planning and hazard assessment.

Yu, Xiao-Ying; Petrocchi, Achille J.; Craig, Douglas K.; Glantz, Clifford S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ciolek, John T.; Lu, Po-Yung; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Tuccinardi, Thomas E.; Bouslaugh, Philip R.

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Bayesian estimation in homodyne interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We address phase-shift estimation by means of squeezed vacuum probe and homodyne detection. We analyze Bayesian estimator, which is known to asymptotically saturate the classical Cramer-Rao bound to the variance, and discuss convergence looking at the a posteriori distribution as the number of measurements increases. We also suggest two feasible adaptive methods, acting on the squeezing parameter and/or the homodyne local oscillator phase, which allow to optimize homodyne detection and approach the ultimate bound to precision imposed by the quantum Cramer-Rao theorem. The performances of our two-step methods are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments with a small number of homodyne data, thus giving a quantitative meaning to the notion of asymptotic optimality.

Stefano Olivares; Matteo G. A. Paris

2009-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

419

Estimating production and cost for clamshell mechanical dredges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Clamshell dredges are used around the United States for both navigational and environmental dredging projects. Clamshell dredges are extremely mobile and can excavate sediment over a wide range of depths. The object of this thesis is to develop a methodology for production and cost estimation for clamshell dredge projects. There are current methods of predicting clamshell dredge production which rely on production curves and constant cycle times. This thesis calculates production estimation by predicting cycle time which is the time required to complete one dredge cycle. By varying the cycle time according to site characteristics production can be predicted. A second important component to predicting clamshell dredge production is bucket fill factor. This is the percent of the bucket that will fill with sediment depending on the type of soil being excavated. Using cycle time as the basis for production calculation a spreadsheet has been created to simplify the calculation of production and project cost. The production calculation also factors in soil type and region of the United States. The spreadsheet is capable of operating with basic site characteristics, or with details about the dredge, bucket size, and region. Once the production is calculated the project cost can be determined. First the project length is found by dividing the total amount of sediment that is to be excavated by the production rate. Once the project length is calculated the remainder of the project cost can be found. The methods discussed in this thesis were used to calculate project cost for 5 different projects. The results were then compared to estimates by the government and the actual cost of the project. The government estimates were an average of 39% higher than the actual project cost. The method discussed in this thesis was only 6% higher than the actual cost.

Adair, Robert Fletcher

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Methodology for Costing Ancillary Services from Hydro Resources: Case Study and Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous EPRI report, "Methodology for Costing Ancillary Services From Hydro Resources" (1000642), established a methodology for determining the cost of ancillary services (A/S). This current report is the second in a series on maximizing the value of hydropower assets using optimization techniques. It is the first to draw conclusions based on applying the multiproduct hydro optimization tool, developed from the methodology in EPRI report 1000642.

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A Parallel Unstructured-Mesh Methodology for Device-Scale Combustion Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Los Alamos we are developing a parallel, unstructured-mesh, finite-volume CFD methodology for the simulation of chemically reactive flows in complex geometries. The methodology is embodied in the CHAD (Computational Hydrodynamics for Advanced Design) code. In this report we give an overview of the CHAD numerical methodology and present parallel scaling results for calculations of flows in a four-valve diesel engine.

O'Rourke, P.J.; Sahota, M.S.; Zhang, S.

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

422

Measurement campaigns for holdup estimation  

SciTech Connect

The derivation of technically defensible holdup estimates is described. Considerations important in the planning of measurement campaigns to provide necessary data are reviewed and the role of statistical sampling is discussed. By design, the presentation is nonmathematical and intended for a general audience. Though clearly important, use of sampling principles in the planning of holdup-related activities is sometimes viewed with apprehension. Holdup is often poorly understood to begin with, and the incorporation of the esoteric matters only adds to an image problem. Unfortunately, there are no painless options. In many operating facilities, surface areas on which holdup has accumulated amount to many square miles. It is not practical to pursue 100% measurement of all such surface areas. Thus, some portion is measured - constituting a ''sample,'' whether obtained by a formal procedure or not. Understanding the principles behind sampling is important in planning and in developing legitimate holdup estimates. Although derivation of legitimate, facility-wide holdup estimates is not currently mandated by Department of Energy regulatory requirements, the related activities would greatly advance the present state of knowledge.

Picard, R.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (US))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

Jochem, Warren C [ORNL; Sims, Kelly M [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Rose, Amy N [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Automated Spectral Zones Selection Methodology for Diffusion Theory Data Preparation for Pebble Bed Reactor Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A methodology is developed for the determination of the optimum spectral zones in Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). In this work a spectral zone is defined… (more)

Mphahlele, Ramatsemela

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

BWRVIP-189: BWR Vessel and Internals Project, Evaluation of RAMA Fluence Methodology Calculational Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the overall calculational uncertainty associated with the application of the Radiation Application Modeling Application (RAMA) Fluence Methodology to BWR reactor pressure vessel fluence evaluations.

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

An integrated methodology for quantitative assessment of proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear systems using probabilistic methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proliferation is the results of a competition between the proliferating country (proliferation) and the party to resist the proliferation efforts (safeguarder). An integrated evaluation methodology to evaluate proliferation ...

Ham, Hyeongpil

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for the conceptual design of distributed satellite systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for mathematically modeling the distributed satellite system (DSS) conceptual design problem as an optimization problem has been developed to advance the ...

Jilla, Cyrus D., 1974-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

A fuzzy logic material selection methodology for renewable ocean energy applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis is to develop a renewable ocean energy material selection methodology for use in FAU's Ocean Energy Projects. A detailed and… (more)

Welling, Donald Anthony.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

Marie LaRiviere

2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

A Methodology to Evaluate Agent Oriented Software Engineering Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Systems using software agents (or multi-agent systems, MAS) are becoming more popular within the development mainstream because, as the name suggests, an agent aims to handle tasks autonomously with intelligence. To benefit from autonomous control and reduced running costs, system functions are performed automatically. Agent-oriented considerations are being steadily accepted into the various software design paradigms. Agents may work alone, but most commonly, they cooperate toward achieving some application goal(s). MAS's are components in systems that are viewed as many individuals living in a society working together. From a SE perspective, solving a problem should encompass problem realization, requirements analysis, architecture design and implementation. These steps should be implemented within a life-cycle process including testing, verification, and reengineering to proving the built system is sound. In this paper, we explore the various applications of agent-based systems categorized into different application domains. A baseline is developed herein to help us focus on the core of agent concepts throughout the comparative study and to investigate both the object-oriented and agent-oriented techniques that are available for constructing agent-based systems. In each respect, we address the conceptual background associated with these methodologies and how available tools can be applied within specific domains.

Lin, Chia-En [University of North Texas; Kavi, Krishna M. [University of North Texas; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Daley, Kristopher M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Empirical modelling of contagion: a review of methodologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to identify the 12 unknown parameters. A joint test of contagion using the factor model in (2) and (17), can be achieved by comparing the objective function from the unconstrained model, qu, with the value obtained from estimating the constrained model, qc... , whereby the contagion parameters are set to zero. As the unconstrained model is just identiÞed, qu = 0, in which case the test is simply a test that under the null hypothesis of no contagion H0 : qc = 0, (19) which is distributed asymptotically as ?2...

Dungey, Mardi; Fry, Renee; Gonzalez-Hermosillo, Brenda; Martin, Vance L

434

Development of a computer-aided fault tree synthesis methodology for quantitative risk analysis in the chemical process industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been growing public concern regarding the threat to people and environment from industrial activities, thus more rigorous regulations. The investigation of almost all the major accidents shows that we could have avoided those tragedies with effective risk analysis and safety management programs. High-quality risk analysis is absolutely necessary for sustainable development. As a powerful and systematic tool, fault tree analysis (FTA) has been adapted to the particular need of chemical process quantitative risk analysis (CPQRA) and found great applications. However, the application of FTA in the chemical process industry (CPI) is limited. One major barrier is the manual synthesis of fault trees. It requires a thorough understanding of the process and is vulnerable to individual subjectivity. The quality of FTA can be highly subjective and variable. The availability of a computer-based FTA methodology will greatly benefit the CPI. The primary objective of this research is to develop a computer-aided fault tree synthesis methodology for CPQRA. The central idea is to capture the cause-and-effect logic around each item of equipment directly into mini fault trees. Special fault tree models have been developed to manage special features. Fault trees created by this method are expected to be concise. A prototype computer program is provided to illustrate the methodology. Ideally, FTA can be standardized through a computer package that reads information contained in process block diagrams and provides automatic aids to assist engineers in generating and analyzing fault trees. Another important issue with regard to QRA is the large uncertainty associated with available failure rate data. In the CPI, the ranges of failure rates observed could be quite wide. Traditional reliability studies using point values of failure rates may result in misleading conclusions. This dissertation discusses the uncertainty with failure rate data and proposes a procedure to deal with data uncertainty in determining safety integrity level (SIL) for a safety instrumented system (SIS). Efforts must be carried out to obtain more accurate values of those data that might actually impact the estimation of SIL. This procedure guides process hazard analysts toward a more accurate SIL estimation and avoids misleading results due to data uncertainty.

Wang, Yanjun

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A Methodology to Determine both the Technically Recoverable Resource and the Economically Recoverable Resource in an Unconventional Gas Play  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the past decade, the worldwide demand for energy has continued to increase at a rapid rate. Natural gas has emerged as a primary source of US energy. The technically recoverable natural gas resources in the United States have increased from approximately 1,400 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) to approximately 2,100 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2010. The recent declines in gas prices have created short-term uncertainties and increased the risk of developing natural gas fields, rendering a substantial portion of this resource uneconomical at current gas prices. This research quantifies the impact of changes in finding and development costs (FandDC), lease operating expenses (LOE), and gas prices, in the estimation of the economically recoverable gas for unconventional plays. To develop our methodology, we have performed an extensive economic analysis using data from the Barnett Shale, as a representative case study. We have used the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the values of the Estimated Ultimate Recovery (EUR) for all the wells in a given gas play, to determine the values of the P10 (10th percentile), P50 (50th percentile), and P90 (90th percentile) from the CDF. We then use these probability values to calculate the technically recoverable resource (TRR) for the play, and determine the economically recoverable resource (ERR) as a function of FandDC, LOE, and gas price. Our selected investment hurdle for a development project is a 20 percent rate of return and a payout of 5 years or less. Using our methodology, we have developed software to solve the problem. For the Barnett Shale data, at a FandDC of 3 Million dollars, we have found that 90 percent of the Barnet shale gas is economically recoverable at a gas price of 46 dollars/Mcf, 50 percent of the Barnet shale gas is economically recoverable at a gas price of 9.2 dollars/Mcf, and 10 percent of the Barnet shale gas is economically recoverable at a gas price of 5.2 dollars/Mcf. The developed methodology and software can be used to analyze other unconventional gas plays to reduce short-term uncertainties and determine the values of FandDC and gas prices that are required to recover economically a certain percentage of TRR.

Almadani, Husameddin Saleh A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Application of the Continuous EUR Method to Estimate Reserves in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reserves estimation in unconventional (low/ultra-low permeability) reservoirs has become a topic of increased interest as more of these resources are being developed, especially in North America. The estimation of reserves in unconventional reservoirs is challenging due to the long transient flow period exhibited by the production data. The use of conventional methods (i.e., Arps' decline curves) to estimate reserves is often times inaccurate and leads to the overestimation of reserves because these models are only (theoretically) applicable for the boundary-dominated flow regime. The premise of this work is to present and demonstrate a methodology which continuously estimates the ultimate recovery during the producing life of a well in order to generate a time-dependent profile of the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR). The "objective" is to estimate the final EUR value(s) from several complimentary analyses. In this work we present the "Continuous EUR Method" to estimate reserves for unconventional gas reservoirs using a rate-time analysis approach. This work offers a coherent process to reduce the uncertainty in reserves estimation for unconventional gas reservoirs by quantifying "upper" and "lower" limits of EUR prior to the onset of boundary-dominated flow. We propose the use of traditional and new rate-time relations to establish the "upper" limit for EUR. We clearly demonstrate that rate-time relations which better represent the transient and transitional flow regimes (in particular the power law exponential rate decline relation) often lead to a more accurate "upper" limit for reserves estimates — earlier in the producing life of a well (as compared to conventional ("Arps") relations). Furthermore, we propose a straight line extrapolation technique to offer a conservative estimate of maximum produced gas which we use as the "lower" limit for EUR. The EUR values estimated using this technique continually increase with time, eventually reaching a maximum value. We successfully demonstrate the methodology by applying the approach to 43 field examples producing from 7 different tight sandstone and shale gas reservoirs. We show that the difference between the "upper" and "lower" limit of reserves decreases with time and converges to the "true" value of reserves during the latter producing life of a well.

Currie, Stephanie M.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Evaluation and refinement of leak-rate estimation models. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Leak-rate estimation models are important elements in developing a leak-beforebreak methodology in piping integrity and safety analyses. Existing thermalhydraulic and crack-opening-area models used in current leak-rate estimations have been incorporated into a single computer code for leak-rate estimation. The code is called SQUIRT, which stands for Seepage Quantification of Upsets In Reactor Tubes. The SQUIRT program has been validated by comparing its thermalhydraulic predictions with the limited experimental data that have been published on two-phase flow through slits and cracks, and by comparing its crack-opening-area predictions with data from the Degraded Piping Program. In addition, leak-rate experiments were conducted to obtain validation data for a circumferential fatigue crack in a carbon steel pipe girth weld.

Paul, D.D.; Ahmad, J.; Scott, P.M.; Flanigan, L.F.; Wilkowski, G.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Novel Optimization Methodology for Welding Process/Consumable Integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced materials are being developed to improve the energy efficiency of many industries of future including steel, mining, and chemical, as well as, US infrastructures including bridges, pipelines and buildings. Effective deployment of these materials is highly dependent upon the development of arc welding technology. Traditional welding technology development is slow and often involves expensive and time-consuming trial and error experimentation. The reason for this is the lack of useful predictive tools that enable welding technology development to keep pace with the deployment of new materials in various industrial sectors. Literature reviews showed two kinds of modeling activities. Academic and national laboratory efforts focus on developing integrated weld process models by employing the detailed scientific methodologies. However, these models are cumbersome and not easy to use. Therefore, these scientific models have limited application in real-world industrial conditions. On the other hand, industrial users have relied on simple predictive models based on analytical and empirical equations to drive their product development. The scopes of these simple models are limited. In this research, attempts were made to bridge this gap and provide the industry with a computational tool that combines the advantages of both approaches. This research resulted in the development of predictive tools which facilitate the development of optimized welding processes and consumables. The work demonstrated that it is possible to develop hybrid integrated models for relating the weld metal composition and process parameters to the performance of welds. In addition, these tools can be deployed for industrial users through user friendly graphical interface. In principle, the welding industry users can use these modular tools to guide their welding process parameter and consumable composition selection. It is hypothesized that by expanding these tools throughout welding industry, substantial energy savings can be made. Savings are expected to be even greater in the case of new steels, which will require extensive mapping over large experimental ranges of parameters such as voltage, current, speed, heat input and pre-heat.

Quintana, Marie A; DebRoy, Tarasankar; Vitek, John; Babu, Suresh

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

A framework and methodology for nuclear fuel cycle transparency.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key objective to the global deployment of nuclear technology is maintaining transparency among nation-states and international communities. By providing an environment in which to exchange scientific and technological information regarding nuclear technology, the safe and legitimate use of nuclear material and technology can be assured. Many nations are considering closed or multiple-application nuclear fuel cycles and are subsequently developing advanced reactors in an effort to obtain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Proliferation resistance features that prevent theft or diversion of nuclear material and reduce the likelihood of diversion from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. IAEA Safeguards have been effective in minimizing opportunities for diversion; however, recent changes in the global political climate suggest implementation of additional technology and methods to ensure the prompt detection of proliferation. For a variety of reasons, nuclear facilities are becoming increasingly automated and will require minimum manual operation. This trend provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring proliferation risk, especially in future facilities. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation associated with these activities. Additionally, a framework designed to monitor processes will ensure the legitimate use of nuclear material. This report describes recent efforts to develop a methodology capable of assessing proliferation risk in support of overall plant transparency. The framework may be tested at the candidate site located in Japan: the Fuel Handling Training Model designed for the Monju Fast Reactor at the International Cooperation and Development Training Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

McClellan, Yvonne; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M. (El Paso Production Company, Houston, TX); Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F. (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM); Knight, Connie D. (Consulting Geologist, Golden, CO); Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt (Devon Energy Corporation, Oklahoma City, OK); Holm, Gus (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Engler, Thomas W. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM); Lorenz, John Clay

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methodologies 1960-2011 estimates" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Design goals for advanced heat pumps: Engineering economics methodology: Final report  

SciTech Connect

An advanced heat pump (AHP) could make significant improvements in both the seasonal efficiency and peak power demand characteristics of all-electric equipment for space heating and cooling and water heating in residential and small commercial buildings. At the same time, however, the initial cost premium of an AHP must be low enough to make it a competitive offering in the heating and cooling marketplace of the 1990's. An essential step in the research and development process is the evaluation of the economic benefits of alternative AHP candidates. A present, residential electric rates do not provide an adequate basis for measuring such benefits in terms of actual resource utilization, especially with regard to power demand. For this reason, incremental electricity supply costs are developed in this report for typical utilities in different regions of the United States. These costs include both energy and demand charges on an hourly basis. A methodology is established to estimate the hourly kWh consumption of air-source heat pump systems with and without integrated water heating capability and to determine the annual operating cost of these systems based on the incremental electricity supply costs. Alternative design approaches for an AHP are evaluated in this analytical framework in order to determine the cost effectiveness of each approach in each region. Based on a preliminary analysis of a limited number of design alternatives, an air-source heat pump with an Energy Efficiency Ratio at 95/sup 0/F of 11.0 Btu/Wh, with integrated water heating, and in some regions, an adjustable-speed compressor, appears to be the most economic candidate for an AHP.

Petersen, S.R.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

443

A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

Hadder, G.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

TITAN: Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis, and Nowcasting—A Radar-based Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology is presented for the real-time automated identification, tracking, and short-term forecasting of thunderstorms based on volume-scan weather radar data. The emphasis is on the concepts upon which the methodology is based. A “storm” ...

Michael Dixon; Gerry Wiener

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A bibliometric study of Video Retrieval Evaluation Benchmarking (TRECVid): A methodological analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides a discussion and analysis of methodological issues encountered during a scholarly impact and bibliometric study within the field of Computer Science (TRECVid Text Retrieval and Evaluation Conference, Video Retrieval Evaluation). The ... Keywords: TRECVid, bibliometrics, methodology, research evaluation, video retrieval, visualization

Clare V. Thornley; Shane J. Mcloughlin; Andrea C. Johnson; Alan F. Smeaton

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

An evolutionary methodology for test generation for peripheral cores via dynamic FSM extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditional test generation methodologies for peripheral cores are performed by a skilled test engineer, leading to long generation times. In this paper a test generation methodology based on an evolutionary tool which exploits high level metrics is ... Keywords: µGP3, approximate methods, evolutionary methods, peripheral testing, test generation

D. Ravotto; E. Sanchez; M. Schillaci; G. Squillero

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

Wang, Yu

448

Using experts feedback in clinical case resolution and arbitration as accuracy diagnosis methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new methodology for assessing the efficiency of medical diagnostic systems and clinical decision support systems by using the feedback/opinions of medical experts. The methodology behind this work is based on a comparison between ... Keywords: Clinical case, Evaluation, Expert feedback, Medical diagnosis, PRAS-M

Alejandro RodríGuez-GonzáLez, Javier Torres-NiñO, Rafael Valencia-Garcia, Miguel A. Mayer, Giner Alor-Hernandez

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Unified methodology of neural analysis in decision support systems built for pharmaceutical technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to create universal methodology of artificial neural networks (ANNs) application in construction of decision support systems designed for various dosage forms. Two different dosage forms (solid dispersions and microemulsions) ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Decision support systems, Microemulsions, Pharmaceutical technology, Solid dispersions, Unified methodology

Aleksander Mendyk; Renata Jachowicz

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Upper Estimates for Banach Spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the relationship of dominance for sequences and trees in Banach spaces. In the context of sequences, we prove that domination of weakly null sequences is a uniform property. More precisely, if $(v_i)$ is a normalized basic sequence and $X$ is a Banach space such that every normalized weakly null sequence in $X$ has a subsequence that is dominated by $(v_i)$, then there exists a uniform constant $C\\geq1$ such that every normalized weakly null sequence in $X$ has a subsequence that is $C$-dominated by $(v_i)$. We prove as well that if $V=(v_i)_{i=1}^\\infty$ satisfies some general conditions, then a Banach space $X$ with separable dual has subsequential $V$ upper tree estimates if and only if it embeds into a Banach space with a shrinking FDD which satisfies subsequential $V$ upper block estimates. We apply this theorem to Tsirelson spaces to prove that for all countable ordinals $\\alpha$ there exists a Banach space $X$ with Szlenk index at most $\\omega^{\\alpha \\omega +1}$ which is universal for all Banach spaces with Szlenk index at most $\\omega^{\\alpha\\omega}$.

Freeman, Daniel B.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Freeman, Sullivan & Co. Sector: Energy Focus Area: Grid Assessment and Integration, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: icecalculator.com/ Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America References: [1] Logo: Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are interested in estimating interruption costs and/or the benefits associated with reliability improvements. About The Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator is an electric reliability

452

Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology  

SciTech Connect

As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic appr