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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Method for improving the limit of detection in a data signal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for improving the limit of detection for a data set in which experimental noise is uncorrelated along a given abscissa and an analytical signal is correlated to the abscissa, the steps comprising collecting the data set, converting the data set into a data signal including an analytical portion and the experimental noise portion, designating and adjusting a baseline of the data signal to center the experimental noise numerically about a zero reference, and integrating the data signal preserving the corresponding information for each point of the data signal. The steps of the method produce an enhanced integrated data signal which improves the limit of detection of the data signal. 8 figs.

Synovec, R.E.; Yueng, E.S.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

3

Error detection method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

Olson, Eric J.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

4

Method for detecting biomolecules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

Huo, Qisheng (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

5

Method for detecting an element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.

Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

6

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

7

On the Limits of Payload-Oblivious Network Attack Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alarms in order to detect them consistently. Keywords: network intrusion detection, ROC curve, evaluation. 1 Introduction We address the problem of evaluating network intrusion detection systems to the form of log data, encryption or simply a high connection failure rate--methods for detecting

Reiter, Michael

8

No Evidence for an Item Limit in Change Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items (“item-limit models”). Recent findings force us to consider the alternative ...

Keshvari, Shaiyan Oliver

9

E-Print Network 3.0 - analytical detection methods Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

materials, and data qualification reporting guidelines. Method detection limits... procedures, and NOAA's Analytical Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). ... Source: NOAA...

10

Explosives detection system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

11

Particle detection systems and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evaluation of Islanding Detection Methods  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

4.1 Passive Methods Resident in the Inverter ... 17 4.1.1 Underover Voltage and Underover Frequency...17 4.1.1.1...

13

Limitations for heterodyne detection of Brillouin scattered light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One means by which elastic properties of a material may be determined is measuring sound wave velocities in the material, from which elastic moduli of interest can be computed. Velocity can be measured by conventional piezoelectric transduction techniques, by applying laser ultrasonics, or by using Brillouin-scattering methods. Brillouin-scattering techniques for determining the sound wave velocity are particularly attractive since they are completely noninvasive. Only a probe beam of light is required since the thermal energy in the material provides the elastic motion. Heterodyne methods for detection of Brillouin-scattered light are considered one possible means to increase the speed of the scattered light frequency detection. Results of experiments with simulated Brillouin scattering suggest that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin-scattered light is feasible. Experiments to detect Brillouin-scattered light, with water as the scattering medium, were designed and interpreted using the results of the simulated scattering experiments. Overall, results showed that it is difficult to narrow the linewidth for Brillouin scattering to an acceptable level. The results given indicate that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin components requires detection bandwidths that are quite small, perhaps 10 Hz or lower. These small bandwidths can be routinely achieved using lock-in amplifier techniques.

Allemeier, R.T.; Wagner, J.W.; Telschow, K.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Spectral analysis method for detecting an element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.

Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

15

Method of detecting sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

Spicer, Leonard D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Bennett, Dennis W. (Clemson, SC); Davis, Jon F. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM.TM. on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA.TM., on the 5' end.

Nasarabadi,Shanavaz (Livermore, CA); Langlois, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S. (Round Rock, TX)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

17

Flow cytometric detection method for DNA samples  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are two methods for rapid multiplex analysis to determine the presence and identity of target DNA sequences within a DNA sample. Both methods use reporting DNA sequences, e.g., modified conventional Taqman.RTM. probes, to combine multiplex PCR amplification with microsphere-based hybridization using flow cytometry means of detection. Real-time PCR detection can also be incorporated. The first method uses a cyanine dye, such as, Cy3.TM., as the reporter linked to the 5' end of a reporting DNA sequence. The second method positions a reporter dye, e.g., FAM, on the 3' end of the reporting DNA sequence and a quencher dye, e.g., TAMRA, on the 5' end.

Nasarabadi, Shanavaz (Livermore, CA); Langlois, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Venkateswaran, Kodumudi S. (Livermore, CA)

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

19

Method and system for detecting an explosive  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Bozeman, MT)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Backgrounds and Projected Limits from Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple formula is introduced which indicates the amount by which projections of dark matter direct detection experiments are expected to be degraded due to backgrounds.

Scott Dodelson

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Polarization-resolved sensing with tilted fiber Bragg gratings: theory and limits of detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polarization based sensing with tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors is analysed theoretically by two alternative approaches. The first method is based on tracking the grating transmission for two orthogonal states of linear polarized light that are extracted from the measured Jones matrix or Stokes vectors of the TFBG transmission spectra. The second method is based on the measurements along the system principle axes and polarization dependent loss (PDL) parameter, also calculated from measured data. It is shown that the frequent crossing of the Jones matrix eigenvalues as a function of wavelength leads to a non-physical interchange of the calculated principal axes; a method to remove this unwanted mathematical artefact and to restore the order of the system eigenvalues and the corresponding principal axes is provided. A comparison of the two approaches reveals that the PDL method provides a smaller standard deviation and therefore lower limit of detection in refractometric sensing. Furthermore, the pol...

Bialiayeu, Aliaksandr; Albert, Jacques

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Method and apparatus for detecting neutrons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The instant invention is a method for making and using an apparatus for detecting neutrons. Scintillating optical fibers are fabricated by melting SiO.sub.2 with a thermal neutron capturing substance and a scintillating material in a reducing atmosphere. The melt is then drawn into fibers in an anoxic atmosphere. The fibers may then be coated and used directly in a neutron detection apparatus, or assembled into a geometrical array in a second, hydrogen-rich, scintillating material such as a polymer. Photons generated by interaction with thermal neutrons are trapped within the coated fibers and are directed to photoelectric converters. A measurable electronic signal is generated for each thermal neutron interaction within the fiber. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation. When the fibers are arranged in an array within a second scintillating material, photons generated by kinetic neutrons interacting with the second scintillating material and photons generated by thermal neutron capture within the fiber can both be directed to photoelectric converters. These electronic signals are then manipulated, stored, and interpreted by normal methods to infer the quality and quantity of incident radiation.

Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Reeder, Paul L. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA); Warner, Ray A. (Benton City, WA); Brite, Daniel W. (Richland, WA); Richey, Wayne C. (Richland, WA); Goldman, Don S. (Orangevale, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Method and apparatus for detecting explosives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

Moore, David Steven (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Systems and methods for detecting and processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments of the present invention provides systems and method for detecting. Sensing modules are provided in communication with one or more detectors. In some embodiments, detectors are provided that are sensitive to chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Embodiments of sensing modules include processing capabilities to analyze, perform computations on, and/or run models to predict or interpret data received from one or more detectors. Embodiments of sensing modules form various network configurations with one another and/or with one or more data aggregation devices. Some embodiments of sensing modules include power management functionalities.

Johnson, Michael M. (Livermore, CA); Yoshimura, Ann S. (Tracy, CA)

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

25

Method and system for detecting explosives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

26

Systems and methods for detecting neutrons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

27

Developments in Nanosecond Pulse Detection Methods and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A promising method for the detection of UHE neutrinos is the Lunar Cherenkov technique, which utilises Earth-based radio telescopes to detect the coherent Cherenkov radiation emitted when a UHE neutrino interacts in the outer layers of the Moon. The LUNASKA project aims to overcome the technological limitations of past experiments to utilise the next generation of radio telescopes in the search for these elusive particles. To take advantage of broad-bandwidth data from potentially thousands of antennas requires advances in signal processing technology. Here we describe recent developments in this field and their application in the search for UHE neutrinos, from a preliminary experiment using the first stage of an upgrade to the Australia Telescope Compact Array, to possibilities for fully utilising the completed Square Kilometre Array. We also explore a new real time technique for characterising ionospheric pulse dispersion which specifically measures ionospheric electron content that is line of sight to the moon.

R. A. McFadden; N. D. R. Bhat; R. D. Ekers; C. W. James; D. Jones; S. J. Tingay; P. P. Roberts; C. J. Phillips; R. J. Protheroe

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

28

Quantum Limits of Interferometer Topologies for Gravitational Radiation Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to expand the astrophysical reach of gravitational wave detectors, several interferometer topologies have been proposed to evade the thermodynamic and quantum mechanical limits in future detectors. In this work, we make a systematic comparison among them by considering their sensitivities and complexities. We numerically optimize their sensitivities by introducing a cost function that tries to maximize the broadband improvement over the sensitivity of current detectors. We find that frequency-dependent squeezed-light injection with a hundred-meter scale filter cavity yields a good broadband sensitivity, with low complexity, and good robustness against optical loss. This study gives us a guideline for the near-term experimental research programs in enhancing the performance of future gravitational-wave detectors.

Haixing Miao; Huan Yang; Rana X Adhikari; Yanbei Chen

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

29

Comparison of the "method of limits" and "alternate choice" methods in vibrometry testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are the "method of limits" and "alternate choice" techniques. This investigation evaluated and compared these two techniques. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine if these testing methods obtain the same vibration threshold... and to invesugate the relationship between the methods. The methods were used to test male and female populations for their vibration sensitivity in the median nerve (index finger) and the ulnar nerve (little finger) of both hands. This study utilized...

Hayes, Eloise Carlton

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

Cown, Steven H. (Rigby, ID); Derr, Kurt Warren (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

31

Graph regularization methods for Web spam detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An introduction to the conjugate gradient method without theonly implemented the conjugate gradient method. Note onemployed was the conjugate gradient method, de- scribed in

Abernethy, Jacob; Chapelle, Olivier; Castillo, Carlos

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

System and method for detecting cells or components thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

Porter, Marc D. (Ames, IA); Lipert, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Doyle, Robert T. (Ames, IA); Grubisha, Desiree S. (Corona, CA); Rahman, Salma (Ames, IA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

33

Limitations for detecting small-scale faults using the coherency analysis of seismic data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coherency analyzes the trace to trace amplitude similarities recorded by seismic waves. Coherency algorithms have been used to identify the structural or stratigraphic features of an area but the limitations for detecting small-scale features...

Barnett, David Benjamin

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

34

Absorption line shape recovery beyond the detection bandwidth limit: application to the Boltzmann constant determination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Absorption line shape recovery beyond the detection bandwidth limit: application to the Boltzmann of the influence of detection bandwidth properties on observed line shapes in laser absorption spectroscopy the Boltzmann constant (kB) [10, 11]. Based upon laser absorption spectroscopy in the linear regime

35

Detection of Thielaviopsis basicola by serological methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. One protein with a molecular wt of 230, 000 daltons reacted with rabbit anti-fungus sera. Antibodies against T. basi cola did not cross ? react with other soil borne fungi. Mycelium, endoconidia, and chlamydospore walls of T. basicola reacted... fixing, a NaCl rinse and an incubation period of 1 1/2 hr. Proteins from T. basi cola were detected by antibodies using ELISA techniques. The entire protein (31. 25 ug/ml) from T. basi coia were detected by antibodies diluted 1:1280. Alkaline...

Aye, Tin Maung

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

A novel fluorescence detection method for organosilanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quinones such as phenanthraquinone and anthraquinone react with organosilanes giving persistent, strongly fluorescent radicals. The reactions are photochemically initiated, rapid, and facile; detection of concentrations of silanes in the 10{sup {minus}7} M range are readily achieved. The staring materials do not fluorescence making the procedure simple, selective and specific.

Yang, H.X.; Craw, M.T.; Depew, M.C.; Wan, J.K.S. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Limiter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

38

Method for detection of antibodies for metallic elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected.

Barrick, Charles W. (Golden, CO); Clarke, Sara M. (Larkspur, CO); Nordin, Carl W. (Golden, CO)

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Method for detection of antibodies for metallic elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected. 10 figures.

Barrick, C.W.; Clarke, S.M.; Nordin, C.W.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Alternative Detection Methods for Highest Energy Neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several experimental techniques are currently under development, to measure the expected tiny fluxes of highest energy neutrinos above 10**18 eV. Projects in different stages of realisation are discussed here, which are based on optical and radio as well as acoustic detectors. For the detection of neutrino events in this energy range a combination of different detector concepts in one experiment seems to be most promising.

Rolf Nahnhauer

2004-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Ultra-high sensitivity radiation detection apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided to concentrate and detect very low levels of radioactive noble gases from the atmosphere. More specifically the invention provides a method and apparatus to concentrate xenon, krypton and radon in an organic fluid and to detect these gases by the radioactive emissions.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Valentine, John D. (Cincinnati, OH); Markum, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary (Rouses Point, NY); Dickerman, Charles (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Method for detection of extremely low concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and CO.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethal Island, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

System and method for detecting gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

Chow, Oscar Ken (Simsbury, CT); Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton (Windsor, CT); Dreier, Ken Wayne (Madison, CT); Miller, Jacob Andrew (Dexter, MI)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Carbon nanotube synthesis and detection : limiting the environmental impact of novel technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driven by commercial promise, the carbon nanotube (CNT) industry is growing rapidly, yet little is known about the potential environmental impacts of these novel materials. In particular, there are no methods to detect ...

Plata, Desirée L

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. An optoelectronic nose for the detection of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. An optoelectronic nose for the detection observable response, specifically colour changes quantified by digital imaging. Such an `optoelectronic nose of odorants. Our optoelectronic nose uses a colorimetric sensor array (CSA) that largely overcomes

Suslick, Kenneth S.

46

Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Improvement of the New NO Detection Method Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by impurities in the ionization cell by using a TOF mass spectrometer. The obtained sensitivity of this method. Sci. Instrum. 1997, 68, 2891). This method uses a frequency-doubled pulsed-dye laser operating near developed a new detection method for NO by using a pulsed-dye laser operating at near 226 nm to photoionize

Lee, Shan-Hu

48

Method and apparatus for detecting chemical binding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method for screening binding between a target binder and potential pharmaceutical chemicals involves sending a solution (preferably an aqueous solution) of the target binder through a conduit to a size exclusion filter, the target binder being too large to pass through the size exclusion filter, and then sending a solution of one or more potential pharmaceutical chemicals (preferably an aqueous solution) through the same conduit to the size exclusion filter after target binder has collected on the filter. The potential pharmaceutical chemicals are small enough to pass through the filter. Afterwards, x-rays are sent from an x-ray source to the size exclusion filter, and if the potential pharmaceutical chemicals form a complex with the target binder, the complex produces an x-ray fluorescence signal having an intensity that indicates that a complex has formed.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A survey on statistical methods for health care fraud detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Fraud and abuse have led to significant addition- al expense in the health careA survey on statistical methods for health care fraud detection Jing Li & Kuei-Ying Huang applied to health care fraud detection, with focuses on classifying fraudulent behaviors, identify- ing

Li, Jing

51

COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DECONTAMINATION METHODS Pages in Study: 81 Candidate for Degree of Master of Science Ethanol fermentation if aflatoxin concentrated in the distilled ethanol and/or dry distillers grain end-products. Alliquots of fermented mash, distilled ethanol, stillage, and dry distillers grain (DDG) were analyzed via LC

Ray, David

52

Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

Bayesian methods for discontinuity detection in climate model predictions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discontinuity detection is an important component in many fields: Image recognition, Digital signal processing, and Climate change research. Current methods shortcomings are: Restricted to one- or two-dimensional setting, Require uniformly spaced and/or dense input data, and Give deterministic answers without quantifying the uncertainty. Spectral methods for Uncertainty Quantification with global, smooth bases are challenged by discontinuities in model simulation results. Domain decomposition reduces the impact of nonlinearities and discontinuities. However, while gaining more smoothness in each subdomain, the current domain refinement methods require prohibitively many simulations. Therefore, detecting discontinuities up front and refining accordingly provides huge improvement to the current methodologies.

Safta, Cosmin; Debusschere, Bert J.; Najm, Habib N.; Sargsyan, Khachik

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

56

Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Detection limits for real-time source water monitoring using indigenous freshwater microalgae  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research identified toxin detection limits using the variable fluorescence of naturally occurring microalgae in source drinking water for five chemical toxins with different molecular structures and modes of toxicity. The five chemicals investigated were atrazine, Diuron, paraquat, methyl parathion, and potassium cyanide. Absolute threshold sensitivities of the algae for detection of the toxins in unmodified source drinking water were measured. Differential kinetics between the rate of action of the toxins and natural changes in algal physiology, such as diurnal photoinhibition, are significant enough that effects of the toxin can be detected and distinguished from the natural variance. This is true even for physiologically impaired algae where diminished photosynthetic capacity may arise from uncontrollable external factors such as nutrient starvation. Photoinhibition induced by high levels of solar radiation is a predictable and reversible phenomenon that can be dealt with using a period of dark adaption of 30 minutes or more.

Rodriguez Jr, Miguel [ORNL; Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Methods and systems for remote detection of gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

Johnson, Timothy J. (Pasco, WA)

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

59

Methods and systems for remote detection of gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

Johnson, Timothy J

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fault Detection and Diagnosis Method for VAV Terminal Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Air density [kg/m3] NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES 1) IEA Annex 25, Building Optimization and Fault Diagnosis Source Book, Eds. J. Hyvarinen and S. Karki, Technical Research Center of Finland, 1996 2) Harunori Yoshida: Typical Faults of Air Conditioning..., IEA Annex 34 ?Detection and Diagnosis Methods in Real Building?, Eds. A. Dexter and J. Pakanen, Section C.2, pp.143-148, 2001 6) Harunori Yoshida, Sanjay Kumar, Yasunori Morita: Online Fault Detection and Diagnosis in VAV Air Handling Unit by RARX...

Miyata, M.; Yoshida, H.; Asada, M.; Wang, F.; Hashiguchi, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Apparatus and method for void/particulate detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for detecting voids and particulates in a fluid within a containing vessel. A diffuse ultrasonic signal is coupled into the fluid by a first transducer and the portion of the ultrasonic signal transmitted through the fluid is detected by a second transducer. The received signal is analyzed by a processor to determine the void fraction of the fluid responsive to the attenuation of the received ultrasonic signal. In addition, voids and particulates are detected by evaluating the increase in side-band energy of the received signal.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA); Randall, Richard (Canoga Park, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Method for predicting peptide detection in mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of predicting whether a peptide present in a biological sample will be detected by analysis with a mass spectrometer. The method uses at least one mass spectrometer to perform repeated analysis of a sample containing peptides from proteins with known amino acids. The method then generates a data set of peptides identified as contained within the sample by the repeated analysis. The method then calculates the probability that a specific peptide in the data set was detected in the repeated analysis. The method then creates a plurality of vectors, where each vector has a plurality of dimensions, and each dimension represents a property of one or more of the amino acids present in each peptide and adjacent peptides in the data set. Using these vectors, the method then generates an algorithm from the plurality of vectors and the calculated probabilities that specific peptides in the data set were detected in the repeated analysis. The algorithm is thus capable of calculating the probability that a hypothetical peptide represented as a vector will be detected by a mass spectrometry based proteomic platform, given that the peptide is present in a sample introduced into a mass spectrometer.

Kangas, Lars [West Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA; Petritis, Konstantinos [Richland, WA

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

63

Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Multiscale numerical methods for partial differential equations using limited global information and their applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These methods employ limited single or multiple global information. We apply these numerical methods to partial differential equations (elliptic, parabolic and wave equations) with continuum scales. To compute the solution of partial differential equations on a...

Jiang, Lijian

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method and apparatus for detection of chemical vapors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a gas detector and method for using the gas detector for detecting and identifying volatile organic and/or volatile inorganic substances present in unknown vapors in an environment. The gas detector comprises a sensing means and a detecting means for detecting electrical capacitance variance of the sensing means and for further identifying the volatile organic and volatile inorganic substances. The sensing means comprises at least one sensing unit and a sensing material allocated therein the sensing unit. The sensing material is an ionic liquid which is exposed to the environment and is capable of dissolving a quantity of said volatile substance upon exposure thereto. The sensing means constitutes an electrochemical capacitor and the detecting means is in electrical communication with the sensing means.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark (Knoxville, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Caja, Josip (Knoxville, TN)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Apparatus and method for detecting leaks in piping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device are disclosed for detecting the location of leaks along a wall or piping system, preferably in double-walled piping. The apparatus comprises a sniffer probe, a rigid cord such as a length of tube attached to the probe on one end and extending out of the piping with the other end, a source of pressurized air and a source of helium. The method comprises guiding the sniffer probe into the inner pipe to its distal end, purging the inner pipe with pressurized air, filling the annulus defined between the inner and outer pipe with helium, and then detecting the presence of helium within the inner pipe with the probe as is pulled back through the inner pipe. The length of the tube at the point where a leak is detected determines the location of the leak in the pipe. 2 figures.

Trapp, D.J.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

68

Apparatus and method for detecting leaks in piping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device for detecting the location of leaks along a wall or piping system, preferably in double-walled piping. The apparatus comprises a sniffer probe, a rigid cord such as a length of tube attached to the probe on one end and extending out of the piping with the other end, a source of pressurized air and a source of helium. The method comprises guiding the sniffer probe into the inner pipe to its distal end, purging the inner pipe with pressurized air, filling the annulus defined between the inner and outer pipe with helium, and then detecting the presence of helium within the inner pipe with the probe as is pulled back through the inner pipe. The length of the tube at the point where a leak is detected determines the location of the leak in the pipe.

Trapp, Donald J. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Henderson, John R. (Castro Valley, CA)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

70

Method for detecting an image of an object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting an absorption, refraction and scatter image of an object by independently analyzing, detecting, digitizing, and combining images acquired on a high and a low angle side of a rocking curve of a crystal analyzer. An x-ray beam which is generated by any suitable conventional apparatus can be irradiated upon either a Bragg type crystal analyzer or a Laue type crystal analyzer. Images of the absorption, refraction and scattering effects are detected, such as on an image plate, and then digitized. The digitized images are simultaneously solved, preferably on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to derive a combined visual image which has dramatically improved contrast and spatial resolution over an image acquired through conventional radiology methods.

Chapman, Leroy Dean (4 Vermont Cir., Bolingbrook, IL 60440); Thomlinson, William C. (32 E. Masem, East Patchogue, NY 11772); Zhong, Zhong (Apt. I 1131 Chaping 700 E. Loop Rd., Stonybrook, NY 11790)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

71

Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

Vanderlaan, Martin (San Ramon, CA); Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Bailey, Nina R. (Berkley, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Method for immunodiagnostic detection of dioxins at low concentrations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the use of monoclonal antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for halogenated dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial samples which contain impurities. Appropriate sample preparation and selective enzyme amplification of the immunoassay sensitivity permits detection of dioxin contaminants in industrial or environmental samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per trillion.

Vanderlaan, Martin (Danville, CA); Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Petrovic, Peter (Hochheim am Main, DE); Gorbach, Siegbert (Eppstein/Ts., DE)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Jerry P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

74

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Jerry P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

75

Device and method for detecting sulfur dioxide at high temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO.sub.2 at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C., the method involving: (i) providing a SO.sub.2-detecting device including an oxygen ion-conducting substrate having on its surface at least three electrodes comprising a first, second, and third electrode; (ii) driving a starting current of specified magnitude and temporal variation between the first and second electrodes; (iii) contacting the SO.sub.2-detecting device with the SO.sub.2-containing sample while maintaining the magnitude and any temporal variation of the starting current, wherein said SO.sub.2-containing sample causes a change in the electrical conductance of said device; and (iv) detecting the change in electrical conductance of the device based on measuring an electrical property related to or indicative of the conductance of the device between the first and third electrodes, or between the second and third electrodes, and detecting SO.sub.2 in the SO.sub.2-containing sample based on the measured change in electrical conductance.

West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

ASTRO-F/FIS Observing Simulation: Detection Limits for Point Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the observing simulation software FISVI (FIS Virtual Instrument), which was developed for the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) that will be on the Japanese infrared astronomy mission ASTRO-F. The FISVI has two purposes: one is to check the specifications and performances of the ASTRO-F/FIS as a whole; the other is to prepare input data sets for the data analysis softwares prior to launch. In the FISVI, special care was taken by introducing the "Compiled PSF (Point Spread Function)" to optimise inevitable, but time-consuming, convolution processes. With the Compiled PSF, we reduce the computation time by an order of magnitude. The photon and readout noises are included in the simulations. We estimate the detection limits for point sources from the simulation of virtual patches of the sky mostly consisting of distant galaxies. We studied the importance of source confusion for simple power-law models for N(>S), the number of sources brighter than S. We found that source confusion plays a dominant role in the detection limits only for models with rapid luminosity evolution for the galaxy counts, the evolution of which is suggested by recent observations.

Woong-Seob Jeong; Soojong Pak; Hyung Mok Lee; Takao Nakagawa; Jungjoo Sohn; Insun Ahn; Issei Yamamura; Masaru Watanabe; Mitsunobu Kawada; Hiroshi Shibai

2003-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

Reducing the Detection Limit for Tetraphenylborate in Tank 50H Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRTC personnel are developing a technique that can determine the concentration of tetraphenylborate (TPB) at 300 grams in 100,000 gallons of salt solution (0.8 mg/L) in the presence of0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137. The current High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method of analysis can determine the TPB concentration at 5 mg/L and higher. The limit of quantitation was lowered by modification of the sample preparation steps. The HPLC sample preparation method currently used requires neutralization of the tank waste sample followed by extraction with acetonitrile. This method dilutes the tank waste sample 6.5 to 1 increasing the limit of quantitation. The method described in this report concentrates the sample two-fold lowering the limit of quantitation from 5 mg/L to 0.25mg/L. Researchers used solvent extraction of undiluted tank waste to isolate, and concentrate (two-fold) samples of tank supernate and Plant Inhibited Water (PIW) that simulated tank supernate at the cesium level of approximately 0.3 Ci/gal. The 137Cs content in the tank supernate measured 0.65 Ci/gal prior to a two-fold dilution with PIW. The concentration of the TPB was determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase HPLC column using methanol, acetonitrile, and buffered water as the mobile phase. Important Findings: The 0.8 mg/L quantitation limit was met in the presence of radioactive cesium. A 93 per cent reduction in activity in the acetonitrile layer was achieved. A five-mL acetonitrile aliquot from the extraction of a tank waste sample containing 0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137 could be handled in a radiological hood and comply with the less than 5 mR/hr hood limit. This method is applicable to tank waste solutions of high ionic strength (greater than 2.0 M Na). The ionic strength of tank waste solutions of low ionic strength will need to be adjusted by the addition of NaOH or 5.6 M average salt solution to facilitate the formation of two layers (organic and aqueous). Increasing the ionic strength of tank waste samples by blending in a high ionic strength solution will raise the limit of quantitation.

WHITE, THOMASL.

2004-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

78

Extending the Sensitivity to the Detection of WIMP Dark Matter with an Improved Understanding of the Limiting Neutron Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses position-sensitive Germanium and Silicon crystals in the direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) believed to constitute most of the dark matter in the Universe. WIMP interactions with matter being rare, identifying and eliminating known backgrounds is critical for detection. Event-by-event discrimination by the detectors rejects the predominant gamma and beta backgrounds while Monte Carlo simulations help estimate, and subtract, the contribution from the neutrons. This thesis describes the effort to understand neutron backgrounds as seen in the two stages of the CDMS search for WIMPs. The first stage of the experiment was at a shallow site at the Stanford Underground Facility where the limiting background came from high-energy neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muon interactions in the rock surrounding the cavern. Simulations of this background helped inform the analysis of data from an experimental run at this site and served as input for the background reduction techniques necessary to set new exclusion limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross-section, excluding new parameter space for WIMPs of masses 8-20 GeV/c{sup 2}. This thesis considers the simulation methods used as well as how various event populations in the data served as checks on the simulations to allow them to be used in the interpretation of the WIMP-search data. The studies also confirmed the presence of a limiting neutron background at the shallow site, necessitating the move to the 713-meter deep Soudan Underground Facility. Similar computer-based studies helped quantify the neutron background seen at the deeper site and informed the analysis of the data emerging from the first physics run of the experiment at Soudan. In conjunction with the WIMP-search and calibration data, the simulations confirmed that increased depth considerably reduced the neutron backgrounds seen, greatly improving the sensitivity to WIMP detection. The data run set an upper limit of 4 x 10{sup -43} on the WIMP-nucleon cross section for a WIMP mass of 60 GeV/c{sup 2} . Upper limits to the rate of background neutrons have also been determined.

Kamat, Sharmila; /Case Western Reserve U.; ,

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical ground fault detection and limitation system for employment with a nuclear reactor utilizing a liquid metal coolant. Elongate electromagnetic pumps submerged within the liquid metal coolant and electrical support equipment experiencing an insulation breakdown occasion the development of electrical ground fault current. Without some form of detection and control, these currents may build to damaging power levels to expose the pump drive components to liquid metal coolant such as sodium with resultant undesirable secondary effects. Such electrical ground fault currents are detected and controlled through the employment of an isolated power input to the pumps and with the use of a ground fault control conductor providing a direct return path from the affected components to the power source. By incorporating a resistance arrangement with the ground fault control conductor, the amount of fault current permitted to flow may be regulated to the extent that the reactor may remain in operation until maintenance may be performed, notwithstanding the existence of the fault. Monitors such as synchronous demodulators may be employed to identify and evaluate fault currents for each phase of a polyphase power, and control input to the submerged pump and associated support equipment.

Gaubatz, Donald C. (Cupertino, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Methods developed for detecting hazardous elements in produced gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, Ill. has been developing sampling and analytical methods to detect in natural gas various trace constituents that may pose health, safety, or operational risks. The constituents of interest include paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons, H[sub 2]S, organic sulfur compounds, arsenic, mercury, radon, and others. Better sampling and analytical techniques for produced natural gas, similar to those developed by IGT for processed gas, will enhance producers and processors' abilities to monitor undesirable constituents in raw gas streams and improve their clean-up processes. The methods developed at IGT were modifications of air sampling and analytical methods that are commonly used for air toxic substances. These monitoring methods, when applied to natural gas, present special challenges because gas has a much more complex matrix than the air. Methods for the analysis of the following are discussed: arsenic, mercury, radon, sulfur compounds, hydrocarbons, and aromatics including BTEX and PAHs.

Chao, S.; Attari, A. (Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Means and method of detection in chemical separation procedures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A means and method for indirect detection of constituent components of a mixture separated in a chemical separation process. Fluorescing ions are distributed across the area in which separation of the mixture will occur to provide a generally uniform background fluorescence intensity. For example, the mixture is comprised of one or more charged analytes which displace fluorescing ions where its constituent components separate to. Fluorescing ions of the same charge as the charged analyte components cause a displacement. The displacement results in the location of the separated components having a reduced fluorescence intensity to the remainder of the background. Detection of the lower fluorescence intensity areas can be visually, by photographic means and methods, or by automated laser scanning.

Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Koutny, Lance B. (Ames, IA); Hogan, Barry L. (Ames, IA); Cheung, Chan K. (Ames, IA); Ma, Yinfa (Ames, IA)

1993-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

Means and method of detection in chemical separation procedures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A means and method are described for indirect detection of constituent components of a mixture separated in a chemical separation process. Fluorescing ions are distributed across the area in which separation of the mixture will occur to provide a generally uniform background fluorescence intensity. For example, the mixture is comprised of one or more charged analytes which displace fluorescing ions where its constituent components separate to. Fluorescing ions of the same charge as the charged analyte components cause a displacement. The displacement results in the location of the separated components having a reduced fluorescence intensity to the remainder of the background. Detection of the lower fluorescence intensity areas can be visually, by photographic means and methods, or by automated laser scanning.

Yeung, E.S.; Koutny, L.B.; Hogan, B.L.; Cheung, C.K.; Yinfa Ma.

1993-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Fasteners -- Preloading test for the detection of hydrogen embrittlement -- Parallel bearing surface method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fasteners -- Preloading test for the detection of hydrogen embrittlement -- Parallel bearing surface method

International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The motion of beams in particle accelerators is dominated by a plethora of non-linear effects which can enhance chaotic motion and limit their performance. The application of advanced non-linear dynamics methods for detecting and correcting these effects and thereby increasing the region of beam stability plays an essential role during the accelerator design phase but also their operation. After describing the nature of non-linear effects and their impact on performance parameters of different particle accelerator categories, the theory of non-linear particle motion is outlined. The recent developments on the methods employed for the analysis of chaotic beam motion are detailed. In particular, the ability of the frequency map analysis method to detect chaotic motion and guide the correction of non-linear effects is demonstrated in particle tracking simulations but also experimental data.

Yannis Papaphilippou

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

85

Method of detecting luminescent target ions with modified magnetic microspheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides methods of using modified magnetic microspheres to extract target ions from a sample in order to detect their presence in a microfluidic environment. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules on the surface that allow the target ions in the sample to form complexes with specific ligand molecules on the microsphere surface. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules that sequester the target ions from the sample, but specific ligand molecules in solution subsequently re-extract the target ions from the microspheres into the solution, where the complexes form independent of the microsphere surface. Once the complexes form, they are exposed to an excitation wavelength light source suitable for exciting the target ion to emit a luminescent signal pattern. Detection of the luminescent signal pattern allows for determination of the presence of the target ions in the sample.

Shkrob, Ilya A; Kaminski, Michael D

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

86

Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.

Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

88

Radioisotope Detection Device and Methods of Radioisotope Collection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for collection of radionuclides includes a mixture of a polymer, a fluorescent organic scintillator and a chemical extractant. A radionuclide detector system includes a collection device comprising a mixture of a polymer, a fluorescent agent and a selective ligand. The system includes at least one photomultiplier tube (PMT). A method of detecting radionuclides includes providing a collector device comprising a mixture comprising a polymer, a fluorescent organic scintillator and a chemical extractant. An aqueous environment is exposed to the device and radionuclides are collected from the environment. Radionuclides can be concentrated within the device.

Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oertel, Christopher P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Giles, John R. (Pocatello, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); McIlwain, Michael E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

89

Method For Detecting The Presence Of A Ferromagnetic Object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting a presence or an absence of a ferromagnetic object within a sensing area may comprise the steps of sensing, during a sample time, a magnetic field adjacent the sensing area; producing surveillance data representative of the sensed magnetic field; determining an absolute value difference between a maximum datum and a minimum datum comprising the surveillance data; and determining whether the absolute value difference has a positive or negative sign. The absolute value difference and the corresponding positive or negative sign thereof forms a representative surveillance datum that is indicative of the presence or absence in the sensing area of the ferromagnetic material.

Roybal, Lyle G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

90

Probability of detection models for eddy current NDE methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of probability of detection (POD) models for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is motivated by a desire to quantify the variability introduced during the process of testing. Sources of variability involved in eddy current methods of NDE include those caused by variations in liftoff, material properties, probe canting angle, scan format, surface roughness and measurement noise. This thesis presents a comprehensive POD model for eddy current NDE. Eddy current methods of nondestructive testing are used widely in industry to inspect a variety of nonferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. The development of a comprehensive POD model is therefore of significant importance. The model incorporates several sources of variability characterized by a multivariate Gaussian distribution and employs finite element analysis to predict the signal distribution. The method of mixtures is then used for estimating optimal threshold values. The research demonstrates the use of a finite element model within a probabilistic framework to the spread in the measured signal for eddy current nondestructive methods. Using the signal distributions for various flaw sizes the POD curves for varying defect parameters have been computed. In contrast to experimental POD models, the cost of generating such curves is very low and complex defect shapes can be handled very easily. The results are also operator independent.

Rajesh, S.N.

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Studies of Acoustic Neutrino Detection Methods with ANTARES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The emission of neutrinos within a wide energy range is predicted from very-high-energy phenomena in the Universe. Even the current or next-generation Cherenkov neutrino telescopes might be too small to detect the faint fluxes expected for cosmic neutrinos with energies exceeding the EeV scale. The acoustic detection method is a promising option to enlarge the discovery potential in this highest-energy regime. In a possible future deep-sea detector, the pressure waves produced in a neutrino interaction could be detected by a 100 km\\^3-sized array of acoustic sensors, even if it is sparsely instrumented with about 100 sensors/km\\^3. This article focuses on the AMADEUS set-up of acoustic sensors, which is an integral part of the ANTARES detector. The main aim of the project is a feasibility study towards a future acoustic neutrino detector. However, the experience gained with the ANTARES-AMADEUS hybrid opto-acoustic set-up can also be transferred to future very large volume optical neutrino telescopes, especial...

Graf, K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Methods and apparatus for rotor blade ice detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting ice on a wind turbine having a rotor and one or more rotor blades each having blade roots includes monitoring meteorological conditions relating to icing conditions and monitoring one or more physical characteristics of the wind turbine in operation that vary in accordance with at least one of the mass of the one or more rotor blades or a mass imbalance between the rotor blades. The method also includes using the one or more monitored physical characteristics to determine whether a blade mass anomaly exists, determining whether the monitored meteorological conditions are consistent with blade icing; and signaling an icing-related blade mass anomaly when a blade mass anomaly is determined to exist and the monitored meteorological conditions are determined to be consistent with icing.

LeMieux, David Lawrence

2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

93

System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time are disclosed. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos[l brace]2[phi](t)[r brace]. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase [phi](t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of [phi][prime](t). 10 figs.

Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

94

System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos{2.phi.(t)}. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase .phi.(t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of .phi.'(t).

Qian, Shie (Austin, TX); Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

An On-line Method for Stator Fault Detection in Multi-phase PMSM Drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An On-line Method for Stator Fault Detection in Multi-phase PMSM Drives Fabien Meinguet*, Eric deals with an on-line fault detection method for multi-phase PMSM drives. The method is based an original method for detecting an abnormal asymmetrical behavior in five-phase PMSM drives and we apply

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensitive material comprising SnO2 nanocrystals doped with In2O3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

97

Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and methods of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensitive material comprising SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals doped with In.sub.2O.sub.3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Systems and methods for detecting x-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

99

Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge.

He, Zhong (Ann Arbor, MI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge. 10 figs.

He, Z.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A biosensor based detection of toxins includes enhancing a fluorescence signal by concentrating a plurality of photosynthetic organisms in a fluid into a concentrated region using biased AC electro-osmosis. A measured photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms is obtained in the concentrated region, where chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. A presence of the chemical, biological and/or radiological agents or precursors thereof, is determined in the fluid based on the measured photosynthetic activity of the concentrated plurality of photosynthetic organisms. A lab-on-a-chip system is used for the concentrating step. The presence of agents is determined from feature vectors, obtained from processing a time dependent signal using amplitude statistics and/or time-frequency analysis, relative to a control signal. A linear discriminant method including support vector machine classification (SVM) is used to identify the agents.

Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Calculating exclusion limits for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle direct detection experiments without background subtraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Competitive limits on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) spin-independent scattering cross section are currently being produced by 76Ge detectors originally designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay, such as the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments. In the absence of background subtraction, limits on the WIMP interaction cross section are set by calculating the upper confidence limit on the theoretical event rate, given the observed event rate. The standard analysis technique involves calculating the 90% upper confidence limit on the number of events in each bin, and excluding any set of parameters (WIMP mass and cross-section) which produces a theoretical event rate for any bin which exceeds the 90% upper confidence limit on the event rate for that bin. We show that, if there is more than one energy bin, this produces exclusion limits that are actually at a lower degree of confidence than 90%, and are hence erroneously tight. We formulate criteria which produce true 90% confidence exclusion limits in these circumstances, including calculating the individual bin confidence limit for which the overall probability that no bins exceeds this confidence limit is 90% and calculating the 90% minimum confidence limit on the number of bins which exceed their individual bin 90% confidence limits. We then compare the limits on the WIMP cross-section produced by these criteria with those found using the standard technique, using data from the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments.

Anne M Green

2001-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

103

Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

Weinberg, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harding, L. Dean (Chubbuck, ID); Larsen, Eric D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Power and efficiency limits for internal combustion engines via methods of finite-time thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power and efficiency limits for internal combustion engines via methods of finite publication 17 June 1993) Analytical expressionsfor the upper bounds of power and efficiency of an internal and expensiveto compute and analyze.2If we are interestedin maximum power output or in maximum effi- ciency

Berry, R. Stephen

105

Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

Sheng, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Room-temperature quantum noise limited spectrometry and methods of the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one embodiment, a heterodyne detection system for detecting light includes a first input aperture adapted for receiving first light from a scene input, a second input aperture adapted for receiving second light from a local oscillator input, a broadband local oscillator adapted for providing the second light to the second input aperture, a dispersive element adapted for dispersing the first light and the second light, and a final condensing lens coupled to an infrared detector. The final condensing lens is adapted for concentrating incident light from a primary condensing lens onto the infrared detector, and the infrared detector is a square-law detector capable of sensing the frequency difference between the first light and the second light. More systems and methods for detecting light are described according to other embodiments.

Stevens, Charles G.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Cunningham, Christopher Thomas

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

107

Room-temperature quantum noise limited spectrometry and methods of the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one embodiment, a heterodyne detection system for detecting light includes a first input aperture adapted for receiving a first light from a scene input, a second input aperture adapted for receiving a second light from a local oscillator input, a broadband local oscillator adapted for providing the second light to the second input aperture, a dispersive element adapted for dispersing the first light and the second light, and a final condensing lens coupled to an infrared detector. The final condensing lens is adapted for concentrating incident light from a primary condensing lens onto the detector, and the detector is a square-law detector capable of sensing the frequency difference between the first light and the second light. More systems and methods for detecting light are disclosed according to more embodiments.

Stevens, Charles G; Tringe, Joseph W

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

108

Methods of detection and identificationoc carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for detecting and identifying carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials are disclosed. The methods may comprise detection of photo-nuclear reaction products of nitrogen and carbon to detect and identify the carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials.

Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhalivyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

Novel detection methods for radiation-induced electron-hole pairs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most common ionizing radiation detectors typically rely on one of two general methods: collection of charge generated by the radiation, or collection of light produced by recombination of excited species. Substantial efforts have been made to improve the performance of materials used in these types of detectors, e.g. to raise the operating temperature, to improve the energy resolution, timing or tracking ability. However, regardless of the material used, all these detectors are limited in performance by statistical variation in the collection efficiency, for charge or photons. We examine three alternative schemes for detecting ionizing radiation that do not rely on traditional direct collection of the carriers or photons produced by the radiation. The first method detects refractive index changes in a resonator structure. The second looks at alternative means to sense the chemical changes caused by radiation on a scintillator-type material. The final method examines the possibilities of sensing the perturbation caused by radiation on the transmission of a RF transmission line structure. Aspects of the feasibility of each approach are examined and recommendations made for further work.

Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Derzon, Mark Steven; Martinez, Marino John

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

SQUID-Detected MRI in the Limit of Zero Static Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Josephson effect and Josephson junctions . 2.1.3 The dc2.4 Current-limiting Josephson junction array . . . . . 3transformer with Josephson junction array in series with

Kelso, Nathan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

SQUID-Detected MRI in the Limit of Zero Static Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.4 Current-limiting Josephson junction array . . . . . iv2.1.2 Josephson e?ect and Josephson junctions . 2.1.3 The dctransformer with Josephson junction array in series with

Kelso, Nathan Dean

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER SENSORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER turbine blade. We compare the data collected from the wireless sensors against wired sensors for nonstationary blade excitations. KEYWORDS : Structural Health Monitoring, Damage Detection, Wind Turbine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

A conservative spectral method for the Boltzmann equation with anisotropic scattering and the grazing collisions limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the formulation of a conservative spectral method for the Boltzmann collision operator with anisotropic scattering cross-sections. The method is an extension of the conservative spectral method of Gamba and Tharkabhushanam [17,18], which uses the weak form of the collision operator to represent the collisional term as a weighted convolution in Fourier space. The method is tested by computing the collision operator with a suitably cut-off angular cross section and comparing the results with the solution of the Landau equation. We analytically study the convergence rate of the Fourier transformed Boltzmann collision operator in the grazing collisions limit to the Fourier transformed Landau collision operator under the assumption of some regularity and decay conditions of the solution to the Boltzmann equation. Our results show that the angular singularity which corresponds to the Rutherford scattering cross section is the critical singularity for which a grazing collision limit exists for the Boltzmann operator. Additionally, we numerically study the differences between homogeneous solutions of the Boltzmann equation with the Rutherford scattering cross section and an artificial cross section, which give convergence to solutions of the Landau equation at different asymptotic rates. We numerically show the rate of the approximation as well as the consequences for the rate of entropy decay for homogeneous solutions of the Boltzmann equation and Landau equation.

Gamba, Irene M. [Department of Mathematics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); ICES, The University of Texas at Austin, 201 E. 24th St., Stop C0200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Haack, Jeffrey R. [Department of Mathematics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Methods for detection, identification and specification of listerias  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to differential carbon source metabolism in the genus Listeria, metabolic, biochemical, immunological and genetic procedures to measure said differential carbon source metabolism and the use of these produces to detect, isolate and/or distinguish species of the genus Listeria as well as detect, isolate and/or distinguish strains of species of Listeria. The present invention also contemplates test kits and enrichment media to facilitate these procedures.

Bochner, Barry (Alameda, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Building on Clues: Improving Methods to Detect and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Project Overview · Problem: Limited guidance on how to collect, analyze and share counterterrorism, 1999-2009 Anti-Abortion Animal Rights Anti-Muslim Right Left Ideology/Motivation Excecuted Similar

McShea, Daniel W.

116

Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape. Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument. The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner.

Watjen, John P. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape. Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument. The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner. 9 figs.

Watjen, J.P.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

118

Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

119

Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples.

Stanker, Larry H. (Livermore, CA); Vanderlaan, Martin (Danville, CA); Watkins, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

123

A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL LIMITATIONS TO STATISTICAL DETECTION OF REDSHIFTED H I FROM THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we explore for the first time the relative magnitudes of three fundamental sources of uncertainty, namely, foreground contamination, thermal noise, and sample variance, in detecting the H I power spectrum from the epoch of reionization (EoR). We derive limits on the sensitivity of a Fourier synthesis telescope to detect EoR based on its array configuration and a statistical representation of images made by the instrument. We use the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) configuration for our studies. Using a unified framework for estimating signal and noise components in the H I power spectrum, we derive an expression for and estimate the contamination from extragalactic point-like sources in three-dimensional k-space. Sensitivity for EoR H I power spectrum detection is estimated for different observing modes with MWA. With 1000 hr of observing on a single field using the 128 tile MWA, EoR detection is feasible (S/N >1 for k ?< 0.8 Mpc{sup –1}). Bandpass shaping and refinements to the EoR window are found to be effective in containing foreground contamination, which makes the instrument tolerant to imaging errors. We find that for a given observing time, observing many independent fields of view does not offer an advantage over a single field observation when thermal noise dominates over other uncertainties in the derived power spectrum.

Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Udaya Shankar, N.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Arcus, Wayne; Emrich, David; Herne, David [Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Bernardi, Gianni; Greenhill, Lincoln J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge (United States); Bowman, Judd D. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Briggs, Frank; Gaensler, Bryan M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney (Australia); Bunton, John D.; DeSouza, Ludi [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, NSW (Australia); Cappallo, Roger J.; Corey, Brian E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (United States); Goeke, Robert F.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hazelton, Bryna J. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie [Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Kaplan, David L., E-mail: nithya.rri@gmail.com [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); and others

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

124

Method, memory media and apparatus for detection of grid disconnect  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phase shift procedure for detecting a disconnect of a power grid from a feeder that is connected to a load and a distributed generator. The phase shift procedure compares a current phase shift of the output voltage of the distributed generator with a predetermined threshold and if greater, a command is issued for a disconnect of the distributed generator from the feeder. To extend the range of detection, the phase shift procedure is used when a power mismatch between the distributed generator and the load exceeds a threshold and either or both of an under/over frequency procedure and an under/over voltage procedure is used when any power mismatch does not exceed the threshold.

Ye, Zhihong (Clifton Park, NY); Du, Pengwei (Troy, NY)

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light. 5 figs.

Miller, S.D.; McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Durham, J.S.

1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

126

Method and apparatus for phase for and amplitude detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of techniques been developed which allow inexpensive application of SAW-type chemical sensor devices while retaining high sensitivity (ppm) to chemical detection. The new techniques do not require that the sensor be part of an oscillatory circuit, allowing large concentrations of, e.g., chemical vapors in air, to be accurately measured without compromising the capacity to measure trace concentrations. Such devices have numerous potential applications in environmental monitoring, from manufacturing environments to environmental restoration.

Cernosek, Richard W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

127

Circuitry, systems and methods for detecting magnetic fields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Circuitry for detecting magnetic fields includes a first magnetoresistive sensor and a second magnetoresistive sensor configured to form a gradiometer. The circuitry includes a digital signal processor and a first feedback loop coupled between the first magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor. A second feedback loop which is discrete from the first feedback loop is coupled between the second magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor.

Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID) [Shelley, ID; Spencer, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Roybal, Lyle G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Method for detecting the presence of prostate cancer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for cancer diagnosis, treatment and drug screening. In particular, the present invention provides compositions and methods for targeting the nuclear translocation of IkB kinase-.alpha. (IKK.alpha.) and the IKK.alpha.-mediated suppression of Maspin expression observed in metastatic prostate cancer cells.

Karin, Michael; Luo, Jun-Li; Tan, Wei

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

129

RESEARCH Open Access Pyrosequencing, a method approved to detect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sensitivity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Several methods are currently described containing at least 50% of tumor cells. Methods: We designed a pyrosequencing assay based on nested PCR is highly specific and permits precise characterization of all the exon 19 deletions. Its sensitivity

Boyer, Edmond

130

The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Hauser, M.G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Arendt, R.G. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reach, W.T. [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pei, Y.C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubin, P. [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smoot, G.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weiss, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wilkinson, D.T. [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wright, E.L. [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)] [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

LOW-FREQUENCY PHASED-ARRAY METHODS FOR CRACK DETECTION IN CAST AUSTENITIC PIPING COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, austenitic stainless steel reactor components. The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effectiveness, limitations, and reliability of advanced inspection techniques for application on safety-related components in commercial nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from recent assessments using a low-frequency phased-array methodology for detecting cracks in cast austenitic piping welds. Piping specimens that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located adjacent to welds were examined. The specimens have surface geometrical conditions and weld features that simulate portions of primary piping systems in many U.S. pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were examined to assess inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of ultrasonic (UT) responses from varied circumferential locations. The phased-array UT methods were applied from the outside surface of the specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling, and employed a modified instrument operating between 500 kHz and 1.0 MHz. Composite volumetric images of the specimens were generated. Results from laboratory studies for assessing crack detection and sizing effectiveness are discussed, including acoustic parameters observed in centrifugally cast piping base materials.

Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Iterative optimizing quantization method for reconstructing three-dimensional images from a limited number of views  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.

Lee, H.R.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

Iterative optimizing quantization method for reconstructing three-dimensional images from a limited number of views  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object.

Lee, Heung-Rae (Dublin, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Rapid and Robust Detection Methods for Poison and Microbial Contamination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for ...

Lu, Peter J.

135

Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water quality analyzer for real-time detection according to the invention comprises a biased AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) cell for receiving a fluid to be analyzed having a plurality photosynthetic organisms therein, and concentrating the plurality photosynthetic organisms into at least one concentrated region. A photodetector is provided for obtaining a measured photosynthetic activity of the plurality of photosynthetic organisms in the concentrated region, wherein chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. An electronics package analyzes the measured photosynthetic activity to indicate a presence of the chemical, biological or radiological agents in the fluid.

Greenbaum, Elias (Knoxville, TN); Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel (Oak Ridge, TN); Wu, Jie Jayne (Knoxville, TN); Qi, Hairong (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

136

Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

138

Compositions and methods for detecting gene rearrangements and translocations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a series of nucleic acid probes for use in diagnosing and monitoring certain types of leukemia using, e.g., Southern and Northern blot analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These probes detect rearrangements, such as translocations involving chromosome band 11q23 with other chromosomes bands, including 4q21, 6q27, 9p22, 19p13.3, in both dividing leukemic cells and interphase nuclei. The breakpoints in all such translocations are clustered within an 8.3 kb BamHI genomic region of the MLL gene. A novel 0.7 kb BamH1 cDNA fragment derived from this gene detects rearrangements on Southern blot analysis with a single BamHI restriction digest in all patients with the common 11q23 translocations and in patients with other 11q23 anomalies. Northern blot analyses are presented demonstrating that the MLL gene has multiple transcripts and that transcript size differentiates leukemic cells from normal cells. Also disclosed are MLL fusion proteins, MLL protein domains and anti-MLL antibodies.

Rowley, Janet D. (Chicago, IL); Diaz, Manuel O. (Chicago, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Taggants, method for forming a taggant, and a method for detecting an object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A taggant comprising at least one perfluorocarbon compound surrounded by a polyphosphazene compound. The polyphosphazene compound has the chemical structure: ##STR00001## wherein G.sub.1 and G.sub.2 are pendant groups having different polarities, m is an integer greater than or equal to 100, and each of A and B is independently selected from hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkene, an alkoxide, a polyether, a polythioether, a siloxane, and --X(CH.sub.2).sub.nY.sup.1(CH.sub.2)p.sub.1Y.sup.2(CH.sub.2)p.sub.2 . . . Y.sup.i(CH.sub.2)p.sub.iCH.sub.3, where n ranges from 1 to 6, X and Y are independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium, and p.sub.1 through p.sub.i range from 1 to 6. Cyclic polyphosphazene compounds lacking the A and B groups are also disclosed, as are methods of forming the taggant and of detecting an object.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

Detection methods of binary stars with low- and intermediate-mass components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reviews methods which can be used to detect binaries involving low- and intermediate-mass stars, with special emphasis on evolved systems. Besides the traditional methods involving radial-velocity or photometric monitoring, the paper discusses as well less known methods involving astrometry or maser (non-)detection. An extensive list of internet resources (mostly catalogues/databases of orbits and individual measurements) for the study of binary stars is provided at the end of the paper.

A. Jorissen; A. Frankowski

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein. 5 figs.

Dooley, K.J.; Barrie, S.L.; Buttner, W.J.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

142

Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein.

Dooley, Kirk J. (Shelley, ID); Barrie, Scott L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Buttner, William J. (White Bear Lake, MN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 34 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

146

Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method is disclosed for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate. The apparatus comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67. 2 figs.

Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

1984-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

Lambrecht, Richard M. (Quogue, NY); Packer, Samuel (Floral Park, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

Vilim, Richard B. (Aurora, IL); Garcia, Humberto E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chen, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL)

2002-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Real-time method for establishing a detection map for a network of sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for establishing a detection map of a dynamically configurable sensor network. This method determines an appropriate set of locations for a plurality of sensor units of a sensor network and establishes a detection map for the network of sensors while the network is being set up; the detection map includes the effects of the local terrain and individual sensor performance. Sensor performance is characterized during the placement of the sensor units, which enables dynamic adjustment or reconfiguration of the placement of individual elements of the sensor network during network set-up to accommodate variations in local terrain and individual sensor performance. The reconfiguration of the network during initial set-up to accommodate deviations from idealized individual sensor detection zones improves the effectiveness of the sensor network in detecting activities at a detection perimeter and can provide the desired sensor coverage of an area while minimizing unintentional gaps in coverage.

Nguyen, Hung D; Koch, Mark W; Giron, Casey; Rondeau, Daniel M; Russell, John L

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

150

Statistical methods for detecting loss of materials using NRTA data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors selected eight sequential statistical tests and studied their performance on near-real-time-accounting (NRTA) data that is nominally what is expected from the proposed Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan. The effort divided into three main activities: (1) use process-flow information to determine process vessel inventories and transfers at the time of material balance closure, (2) use variance propagation methods to estimate the variance-covariance matrix of a sequence of material balances, and (3) study the performance of eight sequential tests on a variety of loss scenarios. This paper describes the results of these three activities.

Burr, T.; Coulter, A.; Hakkila, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ai, H.; Kadokura, I.; Fujimaki, K. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method for Detecting an Element - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergy StorageAdvancedMetamaterialsInnovationEnergyMethod for

152

Apparatus and method for detecting full-capture radiation events  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for sampling the output signal of a radiation detector and distinguishing full-capture radiation events from Compton scattering events. The output signal of a radiation detector is continuously sampled. The samples are converted to digital values and input to a discriminator where samples that are representative of events are identified. The discriminator transfers only event samples, that is, samples representing full-capture events and Compton events, to a signal processor where the samples are saved in a three-dimensional count matrix with time (from the time of onset of the pulse) on the first axis, sample pulse current amplitude on the second axis, and number of samples on the third axis. The stored data are analyzed to separate the Compton events from full-capture events, and the energy of the full-capture events is determined without having determined the energies of any of the individual radiation detector events.

Odell, Daniel M. C. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Apparatus and method for detecting full-capture radiation events  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for sampling the output signal of a radiation detector and distinguishing full-capture radiation events from Compton scattering events. The output signal of a radiation detector is continuously sampled. The samples are converted to digital values and input to a discriminator where samples that are representative of events are identified. The discriminator transfers only event samples, that is, samples representing full-capture events and Compton events, to a signal processor where the samples are saved in a three-dimensional count matrix with time (from the time of onset of the pulse) on the first axis, sample pulse current amplitude on the second axis, and number of samples on the third axis. The stored data are analyzed to separate the Compton events from full-capture events, and the energy of the full-capture events is determined without having determined the energies of any of the individual radiation detector events. 4 figs.

Odell, D.M.C.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

154

Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.

Morrison, John L. (Butte, MT); Morrison, William H. (Manchester, CT); Christophersen, Jon P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

155

Method for detection and imaging over a broad spectral range  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of controlling the coordinate sensitivity in a superconducting microbolometer employs localized light, heating or magnetic field effects to form normal or mixed state regions on a superconducting film and to control the spatial location. Electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching were applied as pattern transfer processes in epitaxial Y--Ba--Cu--O films. Two different sensor designs were tested: (i) a 3 millimeter long and 40 micrometer wide stripe and (ii) a 1.25 millimeters long, and 50 micron wide meandering-like structure. Scanning the laser beam along the stripe leads to physical displacement of the sensitive area, and, therefore, may be used as a basis for imaging over a broad spectral range. Forming the superconducting film as a meandering structure provides the equivalent of a two-dimensional detector array. Advantages of this approach are simplicity of detector fabrication, and simplicity of the read-out process requiring only two electrical terminals.

Yefremenko, Volodymyr (Westmont, IL); Gordiyenko, Eduard (Westmont, IL); Pishko, legal representative, Olga (Kharkov, UA); Novosad, Valentyn (Chicago, IL); Pishko, deceased; Vitalii (Westmont, IL)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

156

Localized Regression Analysis as a Method for Detecting Erroneous Measurements in Geospatial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Localized Regression Analysis as a Method for Detecting Erroneous Measurements in Geospatial at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA Abstract Geospatial databases generally consist of measurements dealing with many other types of point data. Keywords: Geospatial Databases; Error Detection; Gravity Data

Ward, Karen

157

A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements Chuanfeng algorithm to detect aerosols and clouds based on micropulse lidar measurements. A semidiscretization is then introduced. Combined with empirical threshold values, we determine if the signal waves indicate clouds

Li, Zhanqing

158

Simultaneous segmentation and reconstruction: A level set method approach for limited view computed tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: An iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm that simultaneously segments and reconstructs the reconstruction domain is proposed and applied to tomographic reconstructions from a sparse number of projection images. Methods: The proposed algorithm uses a two-phase level set method segmentation in conjunction with an iterative tomographic reconstruction to achieve simultaneous segmentation and reconstruction. The simultaneous segmentation and reconstruction is achieved by alternating between level set function evolutions and per-region intensity value updates. To deal with the limited number of projections, a priori information about the reconstruction is enforced via penalized likelihood function. Specifically, smooth function within each region (piecewise smooth function) and bounded function intensity values for each region are assumed. Such a priori information is formulated into a quadratic objective function with linear bound constraints. The level set function evolutions are achieved by artificially time evolving the level set function in the negative gradient direction; the intensity value updates are achieved by using the gradient projection conjugate gradient algorithm. Results: The proposed simultaneous segmentation and reconstruction results were compared to ''conventional'' iterative reconstruction (with no segmentation), iterative reconstruction followed by segmentation, and filtered backprojection. Improvements of 6%-13% in the normalized root mean square error were observed when the proposed algorithm was applied to simulated projections of a numerical phantom and to real fan-beam projections of the Catphan phantom, both of which did not satisfy the a priori assumptions. Conclusions: The proposed simultaneous segmentation and reconstruction resulted in improved reconstruction image quality. The algorithm correctly segments the reconstruction space into regions, preserves sharp edges between different regions, and smoothes the noise within each region. The proposed algorithm framework has the flexibility to be adapted to different a priori constraints while maintaining the benefits achieved by the simultaneous segmentation and reconstruction.

Yoon, Sungwon; Pineda, Angel R.; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Mathematics, California State University, Fullerton, California 92834 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Swift detection of all previously undetected blazars in a micro-wave flux-limited sample of WMAP foreground sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Almost the totality of the bright foreground sources in the WMAP CMB maps are blazars, a class of sources that show usually also X-ray emission. However, 23 objects in a flux-limited sample of 140 blazars of the WMAP catalog (first year) were never reported before as X-ray sources. We present here the results of 41 Swift observations which led to the detection of all these 23 blazars in the 0.3-10 keV band. We conclude that all micro-wave selected blazars are X-ray emitters and that the distribution of the micro-wave to X-ray spectral slope $\\alpha_{mu x}$ of LBL blazars is very narrow, confirming that the X-ray flux of most blazars is a very good estimator of their micro-wave emission. The X-ray spectral shape of all the objects that were observed long enough to allow spectral analysis is flat and consistent with inverse Compton emission within the commonly accepted view where the radiation from blazars is emitted in a Sychrotron-Inverse-Compton scenario. We predict that all blazars and most radio galaxies above the sensitivity limit of the WMAP and of the Planck CMB missions are X-ray sources detectable by the present generation of X-ray satellites. An hypothetical all-sky soft X-ray survey with sensitivity of approximately $10^{-15}$ erg/s would be crucial to locate and remove over 100,000 blazars from CMB temperature and polarization maps and therefore accurately clean the primordial CMB signal from the largest population of extragalactic foreground contaminants.

P. Giommi; M. Capalbi; E. Cavazzuti; S. Colafrancesco; A. Cucchiara; A. Falcone; J. Kennea; R. Nesci; M. Perri; G. Tagliaferri; A. Tramacere; G. Tosti; A. J. Blustin; G. Branduardi-Raymont; D. N. Burrows; G. Chincarini; A. J. Dean; N. Gehrels; H. Krimm; F. Marshall; A. M. Parsons; B. Zhang

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

A Novel Sensitive Method of Detecting Mnemonic Decline in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Junior Scholars Thesis by REBECCA KAYE SIMMONS A NOVEL SENSITIVE METHOD OF DETECTING MNEMONIC DECLINE IN MOUSE MODEL OF ALZHEIMER?S DISEASE Approved by: Research... as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Junior Scholars Thesis by REBECCA KAYE SIMMONS iii ABSTRACT A Novel Sensitive Method of Detecting Mnemonic Decline in Mouse Models of Alzheimer?s Disease. (April 2009) Rebecca Kaye Simmons Department of Psychology...

Simmons, Rebecca

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

Campbell, Ann. N. (13170-B Central SE #188, Albuquerque, NM 87123); Anderson, Richard E. (2800 Tennessee NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.

Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

163

Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Roybal, Lyle G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohrbaugh, David T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Spencer, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

164

Statistical Methods for Automatic Crack Detection Based on Vibrothermography Sequence-of-Images Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of detection, Signal-to-noise ratio. #12;1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods in structures by non-intrusive physical measurements. There exists random measurement noise for most NDE applications and statistical methods are needed for NDE data analysis. MIL-HDBK-1823A [1] describes

165

Systems and methods of monitoring acoustic pressure to detect a flame condition in a gas turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method may detect a flashback condition in a fuel nozzle of a combustor. The method may include obtaining a current acoustic pressure signal from the combustor, analyzing the current acoustic pressure signal to determine current operating frequency information for the combustor, and indicating that the flashback condition exists based at least in part on the current operating frequency information.

Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC); Krull, Anthony Wayne (Anderson, SC); Healy, Timothy Andrew (Simpsonville, SC), Yilmaz, Ertan (Glenville, NY)

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

166

Piecing together modular : understanding the benefits and limitations of modular construction methods for multifamily development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary purpose of this thesis is to explain the benefits and limitations of modular construction as it pertains to primarily wood-frame, multifamily housing in the United States. This thesis attempts to educate the ...

Cameron, Peter J. (Peter Jay)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Swift detection of all previously undetected blazars in a micro-wave flux-limited sample of WMAP foreground sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Almost the totality of the bright foreground sources in the WMAP CMB maps are blazars, a class of sources that show usually also X-ray emission. However, 23 objects in a flux-limited sample of 140 blazars of the WMAP catalog (first year) were never reported before as X-ray sources. We present here the results of 41 Swift observations which led to the detection of all these 23 blazars in the 0.3-10 keV band. We conclude that all micro-wave selected blazars are X-ray emitters and that the distribution of the micro-wave to X-ray spectral slope $\\alpha_{mu x}$ of LBL blazars is very narrow, confirming that the X-ray flux of most blazars is a very good estimator of their micro-wave emission. The X-ray spectral shape of all the objects that were observed long enough to allow spectral analysis is flat and consistent with inverse Compton emission within the commonly accepted view where the radiation from blazars is emitted in a Sychrotron-Inverse-Compton scenario. We predict that all blazars and most radio galaxies a...

Giommi, P; Cavazzuti, E; Colafrancesco, S; Cucchiara, A; Falcone, A; Kennea, J; Nesci, R; Perri, M; Tagliaferri, G; Tramacere, A; Tosti, G; Blustin, A J; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Burrows, D N; Chincarini, G; Dean, A J; Gehrels, N; Krimm, H; Marshall, F; Parsons, A M; Zhang, B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Cost-Sensitive Classification Methods for the Detection of Smuggled Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the container, much like the radiation portal monitors currently in place [24]. For a localized source placed in the center of the cargo container, the near- est detector will be approximately 4 ft away and radiation may have to pass through a significant... with the cargo. This introduces a significant statistical variation to our measurement data, as will be shown in Ch. VI. 4 I.1.3 Current Detection Methods There are several detection systems currently in use to detect nuclear material ? fixed radiation portal...

Webster, Jennifer B

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

169

Method and Pd/V2 O5 device for H2 detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and Pd/V.sub.2O.sub.5 devices for hydrogen detection are disclosed. An exemplary method of preparing an improved sensor for chemochromic detection of hydrogen gas over a wide response range exhibits stability during repeated coloring/bleaching cycles upon exposure and removal of hydrogen gas. The method may include providing a substrate. The method may also include depositing a V.sub.20.sub.5 layer that functions as a H.sub.2 insertion host in a Pd/V.sub.20.sub.5 hydrogen sensor to be formed on said substrate. The method may also include depositing a Pd layer onto said V.sub.20.sub.5 layer; said Pd layer functioning as an optical modulator.

Liu, Ping (San Diego, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Smith, II, R. Davis (Golden, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

170

Electron acceleration with improved Stochastic Differential Equation method: cutoff shape of electron distribution in test-particle limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a method of stochastic differential equation to simulate electron acceleration at astrophysical shocks. Our method is based on It\\^{o}'s stochastic differential equations coupled with a particle splitting, employing a skew Brownian motion where an asymmetric shock crossing probability is considered. Using this code, we perform simulations of electron acceleration at stationary plane parallel shock with various parameter sets, and studied how the cutoff shape, which is characterized by cutoff shape parameter $a$, changes with the momentum dependence of the diffusion coefficient $\\beta$. In the age-limited cases, we reproduce previous results of other authors, $a\\approx2\\beta$. In the cooling-limited cases, the analytical expectation $a\\approx\\beta+1$ is roughly reproduced although we recognize deviations to some extent. In the case of escape-limited acceleration, numerical result fits analytical stationary solution well, but deviates from the previous asymptotic analytical formula $a\\approx\\beta$.

Yamazaki, Ryo; Tsuchihashi, Yuka; Nakajima, Ryosuke; Ohira, Yutaka; Yanagita, Shohei

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is considerable across the full set of threat contaminants, so preliminary indicators were developed from other well-documented benchmarks to serve as a starting point for validation efforts. By this approach, at least preliminary context is available for water or air, and sometimes both, for all chemicals on the NHSRC list that was provided for this evaluation. This means that a number of concentrations presented in this report represent indirect measures derived from related benchmarks or surrogate chemicals, as described within the many results tables provided in this report.

MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

172

Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements.

Praher, B., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Straka, K., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Usanovic, J., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Steinbichler, G., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at [Institute of Polymer Injection Moulding and Process Automation, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided whereby a plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex so as to facilitate intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface, exposing said light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern so as to cause the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface; and contacting each of the units with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units.

Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich (Moscow, RU); Timofeev, Edward Nikolaevich (Moscow, RU); Florentiev, Vladimer Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Kirillov, Eugene Vladislavovich (Moscow, RU)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided. A plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex. Each duplex facilitates intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface and exposing the light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern. This causes the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface. This places each of the units in contact with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units. 13 figs.

Mirzabekov, A.D.; Timofeev, E.N.; Florentiev, V.L.; Kirillov, E.V.

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method for tracking the location of mobile agents using stand-off detection technique  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for tracking the movement and position of mobile agents using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) as a stand-off optical detection technique. The positions of the agents are tracked by analyzing the time-history of a series of optical measurements made over the field of view of the optical system. This provides a (time+3-D) or (time+2-D) mapping of the location of the mobile agents. Repeated pulses of a laser beam impinge on a mobile agent, such as a bee, and are backscattered from the agent into a LIDAR detection system. Alternatively, the incident laser pulses excite fluorescence or phosphorescence from the agent, which is detected using a LIDAR system. Analysis of the spatial location of signals from the agents produced by repeated pulses generates a multidimensional map of agent location.

Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Bender, Susan Fae Ann (Tijeras, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Mark S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

176

Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

177

Method and apparatus for detecting timing errors in a system oscillator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting timing errors in a system oscillator for an electronic device, such as a power supply, includes the step of comparing a system oscillator signal with a delayed generated signal and generating a signal representative of the timing error when the system oscillator signal is not identical to the delayed signal. An LED indicates to an operator that a timing error has occurred. A hardware circuit implements the above-identified method.

Gliebe, Ronald J. (Library, PA); Kramer, William R. (Bethel Park, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Method and apparatus for detecting external cracks from within a metal tube  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and tool using a continuous electromagnetic wave from a transverse magnetic-dipole source with a coaxial electric-dipole receiver is described for the detection of external sidewall cracks and other anomalies in boiler tubes and other enclosures. The invention utilizes the concept of radar backscatter rather than eddy-currents or ultrasound, which are sometimes used in prior art crack-detection methods. A numerical study of the distribution of the fields shows that the direct transmission from the source to the receiver is reduced from that in free space. Further, if the diameter of the receiver dipole is made sufficiently small, it should be possible to detect cracks with a scattering loss of up to -40 dB in thin-walled boiler tubes.

Caffey, Thurlow W. H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

179

Fault detection in an air-handling unit using residual and recursive parameter identification methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A scheme for detecting faults in an air-handling unit using residual and parameter identification methods is presented. Faults can be detected by comparing the normal or expected operating condition data with the abnormal, measured data using residuals. Faults can also be detected by examining unmeasurable parameter changes in a model of a controlled system using a system parameter identification technique. In this study, autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) and autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) models with both single-input/single-output (SISO) and multi-input/single-output (MISO) structures are examined. Model parameters are determined using the Kalman filter recursive identification method. This approach is tested using experimental data from a laboratory`s variable-air-volume (VAV) air-handling unit operated with and without faults.

Lee, W.Y. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, C.; Kelly, G.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Method and apparatus for extraction of low-frequency artifacts from brain waves for alertness detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus automatically detect alertness in humans by monitoring and analyzing brain wave signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave (EEG or MEG) data from the subject, digitizing the data, separating artifact data from raw data, and comparing trends in f-data to alertness indicators, providing notification of inadequate alertness.

Clapp, Ned E. (Knoxville, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Riemannian Potato: an automatic and adaptive artifact detection method for online experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Riemannian Potato: an automatic and adaptive artifact detection method for online experiments manifold. Since the Riemannian metric is non-linear, this region of interest corresponds to a "potato" in the Riemannian manifold. Fig. 1 shows the potato for a dataset of 100 2x2 covariance matrices on simulated data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

Method and apparatus for extraction of low-frequency artifacts from brain waves for alertness detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus automatically detect alertness in humans by monitoring and analyzing brain wave signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave (EEG or MEG) data from the subject, digitizing the data, separating artifact data from raw data, and comparing trends in f-data to alertness indicators, providing notification of inadequate alertness. 4 figs.

Clapp, N.E.; Hively, L.M.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

184

E cient Detection of Global Properties in Distributed Systems Using Partial-Order Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in c that correspond to total orders containing the happened-before relation. A consistent global stateE cient Detection of Global Properties in Distributed Systems Using Partial-Order Methods Scott D "), meaning the system could have passed through a global state satisfying predicate , or Def (read \\de nitely

Stoller, Scott

185

Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Phase-based x-ray scattering—A possible method to detect cancer cells in a very early stage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This theoretical work contains a detailed investigation of the potential and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray scattering for cancer detection in biopsies if cancer is in a very early stage of development. Methods: Cancer cells in their early stage of development differ from healthy ones mainly due to their faster growing cell nuclei and the enlargement of their densities. This growth is accompanied by an altered nucleus–plasma relation for the benefit of the cell nuclei, that changes the physical properties especially the index of refraction of the cell and the one of the cell nuclei. Interaction of radiation with matter is known to be highly sensitive to small changes of the index of refraction of matter; therefore a detection of such changes of volume and density of cell nuclei by means of high angular resolved phase-based scattering of x rays might provide a technique to distinguish malignant cells from healthy ones ifthe cell–cell nucleus system is considered as a coherent phase shifting object. Then one can observe from a thin biopsy which represents a monolayer of cells (no multiple scattering) that phase-based x-ray scattering curves from healthy cells differ from those of cancer cells in their early stage of development. Results: Detailed calculations of x-ray scattering patterns from healthy and cancer cell nuclei yield graphs and numbers with which one can distinguish healthy cells from cancer ones, taking into account that both kinds of cells occur in a tissue within a range of size and density. One important result is the role and the influence of the (lateral) coherence width of the radiation on the scattering curves and the sensitivity of phase-based scattering for cancer detection. A major result is that a larger coherence width yields a larger sensitivity for cancer detection. Further import results are calculated limits for critical sizes and densities of cell nuclei in order to attribute the investigated tissue to be healthy or diseased. Conclusions: With this proposed method it should be in principle possible to detect cancer cells in apparently healthy tissues in biopsies and/or in samples of the far border region of abscised or excised tissues. Thus this method could support established methods in diagnostics of cancer-suspicious samples.

Feye-Treimer, U., E-mail: feye-treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de; Treimer, W. [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Applied Sciences, D-13353 Berlin, Germany and Joint Department G-GTOMO, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Applied Sciences, D-13353 Berlin, Germany and Joint Department G-GTOMO, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

A hyper-spherical adaptive sparse-grid method for high-dimensional discontinuity detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work proposes and analyzes a hyper-spherical adaptive hi- erarchical sparse-grid method for detecting jump discontinuities of functions in high-dimensional spaces is proposed. The method is motivated by the the- oretical and computational inefficiencies of well-known adaptive sparse-grid methods for discontinuity detection. Our novel approach constructs a func- tion representation of the discontinuity hyper-surface of an N-dimensional dis- continuous quantity of interest, by virtue of a hyper-spherical transformation. Then, a sparse-grid approximation of the transformed function is built in the hyper-spherical coordinate system, whose value at each point is estimated by solving a one-dimensional discontinuity detection problem. Due to the smooth- ness of the hyper-surface, the new technique can identify jump discontinuities with significantly reduced computational cost, compared to existing methods. Moreover, hierarchical acceleration techniques are also incorporated to further reduce the overall complexity. Rigorous error estimates and complexity anal- yses of the new method are provided as are several numerical examples that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

Zhang, Guannan [ORNL; Webster, Clayton G [ORNL; Gunzburger, Max D [ORNL; Burkardt, John V [ORNL

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

Carpenter, Michael A. (Scotia, NY); Sirinakis, George (Bronx, NY)

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

189

In-situ fault detection apparatus and method for an encased energy storing device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for detecting a breach in an electrically insulating surface of an electrically conductive power system enclosure within which a number of series connected energy storing devices are disposed. The energy storing devices disposed in the enclosure are connected to a series power connection. A detector is coupled to the series connection and detects a change of state in a test signal derived from the series connected energy storing devices. The detector detects a breach in the insulating layer of the enclosure by detecting a state change in the test signal from a nominal state to a non-nominal state. A voltage detector detects a state change of the test signals from a nominal state, represented by a voltage of a selected end energy storing device, to a non-nominal state, represented by a voltage that substantially exceeds the voltage of the selected opposing end energy storing device. Alternatively, the detector may comprise a signal generator that produces the test signal as a time-varying or modulated test signal and injects the test signal into the series connection. The detector detects the state change of the time-varying or modulated test signal from a nominal state, represented by a signal substantially equivalent to the test signal, to a non-nominal state, representative by an absence of the test signal.

Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Rosenthal, Brian (Stillwater, MN); Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

Blackburn, Brandon W [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Chichester, David L [Idaho Falls, ID

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack on a digital processing device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include: comparing at least part of a document to a static detection model; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the comparison of the document to the static detection model; executing at least part of the document; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the execution of the at least part of the document; and if attacking code is determined to be included in the document based on at least one of the comparison of the document to the static detection model and the execution of the at least part of the document, reporting the presence of an attack. In some embodiments, the methods include: selecting a data segment in at least one portion of an electronic document; determining whether the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered without causing the electronic document to result in an error when processed by a corresponding program; in response to determining that the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered, arbitrarily altering the data segment in the at least one portion of the electronic document to produce an altered electronic document; and determining whether the corresponding program produces an error state when the altered electronic document is processed by the corresponding program.

Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Li, Wei-Jen; Keromylis, Angelos D.; Androulaki, Elli

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Valentine, John D. (Redwood City, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

193

Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

194

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Receptors are exposed to at least one potential binder and arrayed on a substrate support. Each member of the array is exposed to X-ray radiation. The magnitude of a detectable X-ray fluorescence signal for at least one element can be used to determine whether a binding event between a binder and a receptor has occurred, and can provide information related to the extent of binding between the binder and receptor.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Mann, Grace (Hong Kong, HK)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

A cost-effective statistical screening method to detect oilfield brine contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A statistical screening method has been developed using Tolerance Limits for barium (Ba{sup +2}) to identify contamination of a fresh-water aquifer by oilfield brines. The method requires an understanding of the local hydrochemistry of oilfield brines, inexpensive, Publicly available hydrochemical data, a single sample analysis from the suspect well and the application of a simple statistical procedure. While this method may not provide absolute evidence of oilfield brine contamination of a fresh-water aquifer, it does identify conditions where brine contamination is a strong probability over other possible sources of chlorides.

Alyanak, N.; Grace, J.T.; Campbell, M.D. [United Resources International, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sumstine, Roger L. (St. George, UT)

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

Kotter, Dale K

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method and apparatus for automatically detecting patterns in digital point-ordered signals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method and system for detecting a physical feature of a test piece by detecting a pattern in a signal representing data from inspection of the test piece. The pattern is detected by automated additive decomposition of a digital point-ordered signal which represents the data. The present invention can properly handle a non-periodic signal. A physical parameter of the test piece is measured. A digital point-ordered signal representative of the measured physical parameter is generated. The digital point-ordered signal is decomposed into a baseline signal, a background noise signal, and a peaks/troughs signal. The peaks/troughs from the peaks/troughs signal are located and peaks/troughs information indicating the physical feature of the test piece is output. 14 figs.

Brudnoy, D.M.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

200

Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods, a method for constructing containment structures for reagent interaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided whereby a plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex so as to facilitate intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface, exposing said light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern so as to cause the fluid exposed to the light to polymerize into discrete units and adhere to the surface; and contacting each of the units with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units.

Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich (Moscow, RU); Yershov, Gennadiy Moiseyevich (Zelenograd, RU); Guschin, Dmitry Yuryevich (Hinsale, IL); Gemmell, Margaret Anne (Western Springs, IL); Shick, Valentine V. (Moscow, RU); Proudnikov, Dmitri Y. (Samara, RU); Timofeev, Edward N. (Moscow, RU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Systems and methods for detecting nuclear radiation in the presence of backgrounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for the simultaneous detection and identification of radiation species, including neutrons, gammas/x-rays and minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). A plurality of rectangular and/or triangularly shaped radiation sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within a central hole of each extruded scintillator, wherein the wavelength-shifting fiber absorbs scintillation light and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength, thereby piping the light to a photodetector whose response to the light indicates the presence of radiation The resulting method and system can simultaneously detect neutrons, gamma rays, x-rays and cosmic rays (MIPs) and identify each.

Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

An Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods to Detect Malicious SCADA Communications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical infrastructure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems were designed to operate on closed, proprietary networks where a malicious insider posed the greatest threat potential. The centralization of control and the movement towards open systems and standards has improved the efficiency of industrial control, but has also exposed legacy SCADA systems to security threats that they were not designed to mitigate. This work explores the viability of machine learning methods in detecting the new threat scenarios of command and data injection. Similar to network intrusion detection systems in the cyber security domain, the command and control communications in a critical infrastructure setting are monitored, and vetted against examples of benign and malicious command traffic, in order to identify potential attack events. Multiple learning methods are evaluated using a dataset of Remote Terminal Unit communications, which included both normal operations and instances of command and data injection attack scenarios.

Beaver, Justin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Borges, Raymond Charles [ORNL] [ORNL; Buckner, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Improved methods for detecting gravitational waves associated with short gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the era of second generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) will be among the most promising astrophysical events for joint electromagnetic and gravitational wave observation. A targeted search for gravitational wave compact binary merger signals in coincidence with short GRBs was developed and used to analyze data from the first generation LIGO and Virgo instruments. In this paper, we present improvements to this search that enhance our ability to detect gravitational wave counterparts to short GRBs. Specifically, we introduce an improved method for estimating the gravitational wave background to obtain the event significance required to make detections; implement a method of tiling extended sky regions, as required when searching for signals associated to poorly localized GRBs from Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor or the InterPlanetary Network; and incorporate astrophysical knowledge about the beaming of GRB emission to restrict the search parameter space. We descri...

Williamson, A R; Fairhurst, S; Harry, I W; Macdonald, E; Macleod, D; Predoi, V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Method and apparatus for operating a powertrain system upon detecting a stuck-closed clutch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A powertrain system includes a multi-mode transmission having a plurality of torque machines. A method for controlling the powertrain system includes identifying all presently applied clutches including commanded applied clutches and the stuck-closed clutch upon detecting one of the torque-transfer clutches is in a stuck-closed condition. A closed-loop control system is employed to control operation of the multi-mode transmission accounting for all the presently applied clutches.

Hansen, R. Anthony

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

205

Apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation using electron photoemission in a micromechanical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A micromechanical sensor and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation involve producing photoelectrons from a metal surface in contact with a semiconductor. The photoelectrons are extracted into the semiconductor, which causes photo-induced bending. The resulting bending is measured, and a signal corresponding to the measured bending is generated and processed. A plurality of individual micromechanical sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional matrix for imaging applications.

Datskos, Panagiotis G. (Knoxville, TN); Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskou, Irene C. (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Apparatus and method for epileptic seizure detection using non-linear techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus are disclosed for automatically detecting epileptic seizures by monitoring and analyzing brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; determining that one or more trends in the nonlinear measures indicate a seizure, and providing notification of seizure occurrence. 76 figs.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

207

Apparatus and method for epileptic seizure detection using non-linear techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for automatically detecting epileptic seizures by monitoring and analyzing brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; determining that one or more trends in the nonlinear measures indicate a seizure, and providing notification of seizure occurrence.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN); Clapp, Ned E. (Knoxville, TN); Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Lawkins, William F. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

Gunnels, John A. (Brewster, NY); Gustavson, Fred Gehrung (Briarcliff Manor, NY); Engle, Robert Daniel (St. Louis, MO)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

209

Method of detecting leakage from geologic formations used to sequester CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for the measurement of carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs. Tracer moieties are injected along with carbon dioxide into geological formations. Leakage is monitored by gas chromatographic analyses of absorbents. The invention also provides a process for the early leak detection of possible carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs by measuring methane (CH.sub.4), ethane (C.sub.2H.sub.6), propane (C.sub.3H.sub.8), and/or radon (Rn) leakage rates from the reservoirs. The invention further provides a method for branding sequestered carbon dioxide using perfluorcarbon tracers (PFTs) to show ownership.

White, Curt (Pittsburgh, PA); Wells, Arthur (Bridgeville, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Strazisar, Brian (Venetia, PA)

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

210

Oxazine-based sensor for contaminant detection, fabrication method therefor, and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor, a method for its fabrication, and a method for its use to detect contaminants, for example, ammonia, in stagnant and dynamic fluid media, especially liquid media. The sensor is an opto-chemical sensor that includes a polymer optical fiber, a sensing layer comprising oxazine 170 perchlorate on the polymer optical fiber, and a membrane layer on the sensing layer. The membrane layer is gas permeable and not permeable to the fluid in the fluid system, and moisture is entrapped by and between the sensing and membrane layers.

Nnanna, Agbai Agwu; Jalal, Ahmed Hasnian

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

211

Laser-ultrasound spectroscopy apparatus and method with detection of shear resonances for measuring anisotropy, thickness, and other properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for detecting shear resonances includes structure and steps for applying a radiation pulse from a pulsed source of radiation to an object to generate elastic waves therein, optically detecting the elastic waves generated in the object, and analyzing the elastic waves optically detected in the object. These shear resonances, alone or in combination with other information, may be used in the present invention to improve thickness measurement accuracy and to determine geometrical, microstructural, and physical properties of the object. At least one shear resonance in the object is detected with the elastic waves optically detected in the object. Preferably, laser-ultrasound spectroscopy is utilized to detect the shear resonances.

Levesque, Daniel (Terrebonne, CA); Moreau, Andre (St-Bruno-de-Montarville, CA); Dubois, Marc (Montreal, CA); Monchalin, Jean-Pierre (Montreal, CA); Bussiere, Jean (St-Bruno, CA); Lord, Martin (Beloeil, CA); Padioleau, Christian (Montreal, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

SU-E-J-117: Verification Method for the Detection Accuracy of Automatic Winston Lutz Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Winston Lutz test (WLT) has been a standard QA procedure performed prior to SRS treatment, to verify the mechanical iso-center setup accuracy upon different Gantry/Couch movements. Several detection algorithms exist,for analyzing the ball-radiation field alignment automatically. However, the accuracy of these algorithms have not been fully addressed. Here, we reveal the possible errors arise from each step in WLT, and verify the software detection accuracy with the Rectilinear Phantom Pointer (RLPP), a tool commonly used for aligning treatment plan coordinate with mechanical iso-center. Methods: WLT was performed with the radio-opaque ball mounted on a MIS and irradiated onto EDR2 films. The films were scanned and processed with an in-house Matlab program for automatic iso-center detection. Tests were also performed to identify the errors arise from setup, film development and scanning process. The radioopaque ball was then mounted onto the RLPP, and offset laterally and longitudinally in 7 known positions ( 0, ±0.2, ±0.5, ±0.8 mm) manually for irradiations. The gantry and couch was set to zero degree for all irradiation. The same scanned images were processed repeatedly to check the repeatability of the software. Results: Miminal discrepancies (mean=0.05mm) were detected with 2 films overlapped and irradiated but developed separately. This reveals the error arise from film processor and scanner alone. Maximum setup errors were found to be around 0.2mm, by analyzing data collected from 10 irradiations over 2 months. For the known shift introduced using the RLPP, the results agree with the manual offset, and fit linearly (R{sup 2}>0.99) when plotted relative to the first ball with zero shift. Conclusion: We systematically reveal the possible errors arise from each step in WLT, and introduce a simple method to verify the detection accuracy of our in-house software using a clinically available tool.

Tang, A; Chan, K; Fee, F; Chau, R [Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Hong Kong)

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Methods and systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

214

Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited for Commercial Landscape Maintenance Application: http://www.flaes.org/ pdf/lndspckt.pdf Limited Certification.floridatermitehelp.org or request by phone at 850-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance

Watson, Craig A.

215

Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control (SM 7&O/Structural only). See web locations below for applications. Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape

Jawitz, James W.

216

Methods for radiation detection and characterization using a multiple detector probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatuses, methods, and systems relating to radiological characterization of environments are disclosed. Multi-detector probes with a plurality of detectors in a common housing may be used to substantially concurrently detect a plurality of different radiation activities and types. Multiple multi-detector probes may be used in a down-hole environment to substantially concurrently detect radioactive activity and contents of a buried waste container. Software may process, analyze, and integrate the data from the different multi-detector probes and the different detector types therein to provide source location and integrated analysis as to the source types and activity in the measured environment. Further, the integrated data may be used to compensate for differential density effects and the effects of radiation shielding materials within the volume being measured.

Akers, Douglas William; Roybal, Lyle Gene

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

217

Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

218

System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

Zhou, Wei (Los Angeles, CA); Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Nowak, Michael P. (Menomonee Falls, WI); Dimino, Steven A. (Wauwatosa, WI)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

219

System and method for bearing fault detection using stator current noise cancellation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from the operating motor and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

Zhou, Wei (Los Angeles, CA); Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA); Harley, Ronald G. (Lawrenceville, GA); Theisen, Peter J. (West Bend, WI)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

220

Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Table S1. Detection limits (3 sigma of background signals) for different integration times (1, 5, 10, and 60 s) derived from SOAS. SOAS 1 s 5 s 30 s 60 s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table S1. Detection limits (3 sigma of background signals) for different integration times (1, 5.40 #12;Table S2. Detection limits (3 sigma of background signals) for different integration times (1, 5 of carbon atoms in the amine molecule. #12;Figure S3. Wind rose plots of ammines and NH3 on June 4, 2013

Lee, Shan-Hu

222

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

223

A Lithium-Beryllium Method for the Detection of Solar Neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for the detection of solar neutrino has been developed using the laboratory bench installations. The efficiency of the extraction of beryllium from lithium as high as 96.4{%} has been achieved, and it was shown that lithium losses during the extraction were less than 1{%}. The prospects of a full-scale experiment with a 10-t lithium detector consisting of twenty 500-kg lithium modules are discussed. The technical solutions formulated on the basis of this study enable to make design of a pilot lithium installation containing 500 kg of metallic lithium

A. V. Kopylov; I. V. Orekhov; V. V. Petukhov; A. E. Solomatin

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

224

Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. A SNAP25 sequence is described, for example, that may be cleaved in the presence of Botulinum Neurotoxin. The substrate molecule includes a reporter moiety. The substrate molecule is exposed to the sample, and resulting reaction products separated using electrophoretic separation. The elution time of the reporter moiety may be utilized to identify the presence or absence of the active target agent.

Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

225

Methods for detecting flaring structures in Sagittarius A* with high frequency VLBI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The super massive black hole candidate, Sagittarius A*, exhibits variability from radio to X-ray wavelengths on time scales that correspond to < 10 Schwarzschild radii. We survey the potential of millimeter-wavelength VLBI to detect and constrain time variable structures that could give rise to such variations, focusing on a model in which an orbiting hot spot is embedded in an accretion disk. Non-imaging algorithms are developed that use interferometric closure quantities to test for periodicity, and applied to an ensemble of hot-spot models that sample a range of parameter space. We find that structural periodicity in a wide range of cases can be detected on most potential VLBI arrays using modern VLBI instrumentation. Future enhancements of mm/sub-mm VLBI arrays including phased array processors to aggregate VLBI station collecting area, increased bandwidth recording, and addition of new VLBI sites all significantly aid periodicity detection. The methods described herein can be applied to other models of Sagittarius A*, including jet outflows and Magneto-Hydrodynamic accretion simulations.

Sheperd S. Doeleman; Vincent L. Fish; Avery E. Broderick; Abraham Loeb; Alan E. E. Rogers

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

226

Method for detecting point mutations in DNA utilizing fluorescence energy transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting point mutations in DNA using a fluorescently labeled oligomeric probe and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is disclosed. The selected probe is initially labeled at each end with a fluorescence dye, which act together as a donor/acceptor pair for FRET. The fluorescence emission from the dyes changes dramatically from the duplex stage, wherein the probe is hybridized to the complementary strand of DNA, to the single strand stage, when the probe is melted to become detached from the DNA. The change in fluorescence is caused by the dyes coming into closer proximity after melting occurs and the probe becomes detached from the DNA strand. The change in fluorescence emission as a function of temperature is used to calculate the melting temperature of the complex or T.sub.m. In the case where there is a base mismatch between the probe and the DNA strand, indicating a point mutation, the T.sub.m has been found to be significantly lower than the T.sub.m for a perfectly match probelstand duplex. The present invention allows for the detection of the existence and magnitude of T.sub.m, which allows for the quick and accurate detection of a point mutation in the DNA strand and, in some applications, the determination of the approximate location of the mutation within the sequence.

Parkhurst, Lawrence J. (Lincoln, NE); Parkhurst, Kay M. (Lincoln, NE); Middendorf, Lyle (Lincoln, NE)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

Dowla, Farid U. (Castro Valley, CA); Nekoogar, Faranak (San Ramon, CA); Benzel, David M. (Livermore, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA); Spiridon, Alex (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

228

AUTOMATED LEAK DETECTION OF BURIED TANKS USING GEOPHYSICAL METHODS AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Hanford Nuclear Site in Washington State, the Department of Energy oversees the containment, treatment, and retrieval of liquid high-level radioactive waste. Much of the waste is stored in single-shelled tanks (SSTs) built between 1943 and 1964. Currently, the waste is being retrieved from the SSTs and transferred into newer double-shelled tanks (DSTs) for temporary storage before final treatment. Monitoring the tanks during the retrieval process is critical to identifying leaks. An electrically-based geophysics monitoring program for leak detection and monitoring (LDM) has been successfully deployed on several SSTs at the Hanford site since 2004. The monitoring program takes advantage of changes in contact resistance that will occur when conductive tank liquid leaks into the soil. During monitoring, electrical current is transmitted on a number of different electrode types (e.g., steel cased wells and surface electrodes) while voltages are measured on all other electrodes, including the tanks. Data acquisition hardware and software allow for continuous real-time monitoring of the received voltages and the leak assessment is conducted through a time-series data analysis. The specific hardware and software combination creates a highly sensitive method of leak detection, complementing existing drywell logging as a means to detect and quantify leaks. Working in an industrial environment such as the Hanford site presents many challenges for electrical monitoring: cathodic protection, grounded electrical infrastructure, lightning strikes, diurnal and seasonal temperature trends, and precipitation, all of which create a complex environment for leak detection. In this discussion we present examples of challenges and solutions to working in the tank farms of the Hanford site.

CALENDINE S; SCHOFIELD JS; LEVITT MT; FINK JB; RUCKER DF

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

Atkinson, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Improved methods for detecting gravitational waves associated with short gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the era of second generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) will be among the most promising astrophysical events for joint electromagnetic and gravitational wave observation. A targeted search for gravitational wave compact binary merger signals in coincidence with short GRBs was developed and used to analyze data from the first generation LIGO and Virgo instruments. In this paper, we present improvements to this search that enhance our ability to detect gravitational wave counterparts to short GRBs. Specifically, we introduce an improved method for estimating the gravitational wave background to obtain the event significance required to make detections; implement a method of tiling extended sky regions, as required when searching for signals associated to poorly localized GRBs from Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor or the InterPlanetary Network; and incorporate astrophysical knowledge about the beaming of GRB emission to restrict the search parameter space. We describe the implementation of these enhancements and demonstrate how they improve the ability to observe binary merger gravitational wave signals associated with short GRBs.

A. R. Williamson; C. Biwer; S. Fairhurst; I. W. Harry; E. Macdonald; D. Macleod; V. Predoi

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

Detect  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOffice ofINLNuclear262AboutDesignerFile SystemDetect

232

A Robust Method for S1/S2 Heart Sounds Detection Without ECG Reference Based on Music Beat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Robust Method for S1/S2 Heart Sounds Detection Without ECG Reference Based on Music Beat Tracking), without ECG reference, based on a music beat tracking algorithm. An intermediate representation detection depending on whether or not the ECG is used as a reference (i.e. key ECG features that occur

Plumbley, Mark

233

First limits on WIMP nuclear recoil signals in ZEPLIN-II: a two phase xenon detector for dark matter detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results are presented from the first underground data run of ZEPLIN-II, a 31 kg two phase xenon detector developed to observe nuclear recoils from hypothetical weakly interacting massive dark matter particles. Discrimination between nuclear recoils and background electron recoils is afforded by recording both the scintillation and ionisation signals generated within the liquid xenon, with the ratio of these signals being different for the two classes of event. This ratio is calibrated for different incident species using an AmBe neutron source and Co-60 gamma-ray sources. From our first 31 live days of running ZEPLIN-II, the total exposure following the application of fiducial and stability cuts was 225 kgxdays. A background population of radon progeny events was observed in this run, arising from radon emission in the gas purification getters, due to radon daughter ion decays on the surfaces of the walls of the chamber. An acceptance window, defined by the neutron calibration data, of 50% nuclear recoil acceptance between 5 keVee and 20 keVee, had an observed count of 29 events, with a summed expectation of 28.6+/-4.3 gamma-ray and radon progeny induced background events. These figures provide a 90% c.l. upper limit to the number of nuclear recoils of 10.4 events in this acceptance window, which converts to a WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross-section with a minimum of 6.6x10^-7 pb following the inclusion of an energy dependent, calibrated, efficiency. A second run is currently underway in which the radon progeny will be eliminated, thereby removing the background population, with a projected sensitivity of 2x10^-7 pb for similar exposures as the first run.

G. J. Alner; H. M. Araujo; A. Bewick; C. Bungau; B. Camanzi; M. J. Carson; R. J. Cashmore; H. Chagani; V. Chepel; D. Cline; D. Davidge; J. C. Davies; E. Daw; J. Dawson; T. Durkin; B. Edwards; T. Gamble; J. Gao; C. Ghag; A. S. Howard; W. G. Jones; M. Joshi; E. V. Korolkova; V. A. Kudryavtsev; T. Lawson; V. N. Lebedenko; J. D. Lewin; P. Lightfoot; A. Lindote; I. Liubarsky; M. I. Lopes; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; K Mavrokoridis; J. E. McMillan; B. Morgan; D. Muna; A. St. J. Murphy; F. Neves; G. G. Nicklin; W. Ooi; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; S. J. S. Plank; R. M. Preece; J. J. Quenby; M. Robinson; F. Sergiampietri; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; N. J. C. Spooner; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; D. R. Tovey; E. Tziaferi; R. J. Walker; H. Wang; J. White; F. L. H. Wolfs

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Investigation of failed fuel detection and location using a flux tilting method in a fast breeder reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detection and location of failed fuel in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are very important both for safety and availability. When a fuel failure is detected, it is desirable to identify the failed subassembly quickly to reduce plant shutdown time. The flux tilting method is expected to effectively identify the defective subassembly. The feasibility of the flux tilting method is investigated for an LMFBR with a 100-MW (electric) homogeneous core. A numerical simulation is performed to estimate the viability of the flux tilting method, and a combination of the flux tilting method and the sipping method is found to be very effective in identifying the failed subassembly. In this paper a functional scheme for a computer-aided failed fuel detection and location system is discussed as part of a future on-line support system.

Hamada, M.; Uehara, K.; Muramatsu, K. (Japan Atomic Power Co., 1-6-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 (JP)); Kamei, T.; Tamaoki, T.; Yamaoka, M.; Sonada, Y.; Sano, Y. (Toshiba Corp., Nuclear Engineering Lab., 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210 (JP))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Physics-based, Bayesian sequential detection method and system for radioactive contraband  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A distributed sequential method and system for detecting and identifying radioactive contraband from highly uncertain (noisy) low-count, radionuclide measurements, i.e. an event mode sequence (EMS), using a statistical approach based on Bayesian inference and physics-model-based signal processing based on the representation of a radionuclide as a monoenergetic decomposition of monoenergetic sources. For a given photon event of the EMS, the appropriate monoenergy processing channel is determined using a confidence interval condition-based discriminator for the energy amplitude and interarrival time and parameter estimates are used to update a measured probability density function estimate for a target radionuclide. A sequential likelihood ratio test is then used to determine one of two threshold conditions signifying that the EMS is either identified as the target radionuclide or not, and if not, then repeating the process for the next sequential photon event of the EMS until one of the two threshold conditions is satisfied.

Candy, James V; Axelrod, Michael C; Breitfeller, Eric F; Chambers, David H; Guidry, Brian L; Manatt, Douglas R; Meyer, Alan W; Sale, Kenneth E

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

236

Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated TRUs against unlawful diversion from within a processing facility. To achieve this, a comprehensive strategy was implemented to incorporate traditional detectors and advanced Tensioned Metastable Fluid (TMFD) metastable fluid detectors (developed, in part, under this project) into a novel detector assembly coupled to the UREX+ centrifugal contactor array. The sections below provide a brief summary of the technical achievements completed during this project. The principal outcomes are documented in more complete details contained the doctoral dissertations and masters theses, journal papers, conference proceedings and additional items for more than the 35 publications that are listed in the program bibliography in Section 3.

McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TBC SPALLATION DETECTION BY A MICRO-INDENTATION METHOD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this research, a load-based depth-sensing micro-indentation method for spallation detection and damage assessment of thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials is presented. A non-destructive multiple loading/partial unloading testing methodology was developed where in stiffness responses of TBC coupons subjected to various thermal cyclic loading conditions were analyzed to predict the spallation site and assess TBC degradation state. The measured stiffness responses at various thermal loading cycles were used to generate time-series color maps for correlation with accumulation of TBC residual stress states. The regions with higher stiffness responses can be linked to a rise in out-of-plane residual stress located near or at the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface, which is ultimately responsible for initiating TBC spallation failure. A TBC thermal exposure testing plan was carried out where time-series cross-sectional microstructural analyses of damage accumulation and spallation failure associated with the evolution of bond coat/TGO/top coat composite (e.g. thickness, ratcheting, localized oxidations, etc.) of air plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs were evaluated and correlated to the measured stiffness responses at various thermal cycles. The results show that the load-based micro-indentation test methodology is capable of identifying the spallation site(s) before actual occurrence. This micro-indentation technique can be viewed as a viable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for determining as-manufactured and process-exposed TBCs. This technique also shows promise for the development of a portable instrument for on-line, in-situ spallation detection/prediction of industrial-size TBC turbine components.

J. M. Tannenbaum; B.S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

239

A Simple DSA Method to Detect Air Contamination During CO{sub 2} Venous Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of CO{sub 2} as a contrast agent has increased significantly for visualization of the central veins, inferior vena cava, and portal vein. The most serious complication associated with CO{sub 2} studies is air contamination. We evaluated a simple digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) method to detect air contamination during CO{sub 2} venous studies. After injections of 5, 10, and 20 cm{sup 3} of CO{sub 2} and 5 cm{sup 3} of air into the inferior vena cavas of five domestic swine in the left lateral decubitus position, a DSA was performed using the cross-table lateral projection to visualize the gases trapped in the right atrium. The time to complete dissolution of CO{sub 2} at increased doses was compared to that of air. Vital signs were observed during and after CO{sub 2} or air injection. In all animals, DSA showed the trapped gas outlining the wall of the right atrium. Five cubic centimeters of CO{sub 2} was cleared from the right atrium in an average of 46 sec (21-60 sec), whereas 5 cm{sup 3} of air remained visible over 5 min. Ascending doses of CO{sub 2} increased the time of dissolution to 54 sec (47-67 sec) for 10 cm{sup 3} and 70 sec (45-90 sec) for 45 cm{sup 3}. Vital signs remained stable during the study. Using DSA, CO{sub 2} can be distinguished from air by demonstrating rapid absorption of the former, thus allowing detection of air contamination during CO{sub 2} venous studies. If the gases trapped in the right atrium remain visible 90 sec after the injection, air contamination should be suspected.

Cho, Kyung J. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: kyungcho@umich.edu; Cho, David R. [Samsung Austin Semiconductor (United States); Hawkins, Irvin F. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data and Sensitivity Plots from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II and the University of California at Santa Barbara  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Expectations for non-baryonic dark matter are founded principally in Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, which indicate that the missing mass of the universe is not likely to be baryonic. The supersymmetric standard model (SUSY) offers a promising framework for expectations of particle species which could satisfy the observed properties of dark matter. WIMPs are the most likely SUSY candidate for a dark matter particle. The High Energy Physics Group at University of California, Santa Barbara, is part of the CDMSII Collaboration and have provided the Interactive Plotter for WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data on their website. They invite other collaborations working on dark matter research to submit datasets and, as a result, have more than 150 data sets now available for use with the plotting tool. The published source of the data is provided with each data set.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

System and method for constructing filters for detecting signals whose frequency content varies with time  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method are disclosed for constructing a bank of filters which detect the presence of signals whose frequency content varies with time. The present invention includes a novel system and method for developing one or more time templates designed to match the received signals of interest and the bank of matched filters use the one or more time templates to detect the received signals. Each matched filter compares the received signal x(t) with a respective, unique time template that has been designed to approximate a form of the signals of interest. The robust time domain template is assumed to be of the order of w(t)=A(t)cos(2{pi}{phi}(t)) and the present invention uses the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) as an approximation of the instantaneous frequency function {phi}{prime}(t). First, numerous data samples of the received signal x(t) are collected. A joint time frequency representation is then applied to represent the signal, preferably using the time frequency distribution series. The joint time-frequency transformation represents the analyzed signal energy at time t and frequency f, P(t,f), which is a three-dimensional plot of time vs. frequency vs. signal energy. Then P(t,f) is reduced to a multivalued function f(t), a two dimensional plot of time vs. frequency, using a thresholding process. Curve fitting steps are then performed on the time/frequency plot, preferably using Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting techniques, to derive a general instantaneous frequency function {phi}{prime}(t) which best fits the multivalued function f(t). Integrating {phi}{prime}(t) along t yields {phi}{prime}(t), which is then inserted into the form of the time template equation. A suitable amplitude A(t) is also preferably determined. Once the time template has been determined, one or more filters are developed which each use a version or form of the time template. 7 figs.

Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

242

The application scope of the reductive perturbation method and the upper limit of the dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dust acoustic solitary waves have been numerically investigated by using one dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell method. By comparing the numerical results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is found that there exist the maximum dimensionless amplitude and propagation speed of the dust acoustic solitary wave. And these limitations of the solitary wave are explained by using the Sagdeev potential technique. Furthermore, it is noticed that although ? ? 1 is required in the reductive perturbation method generally, the reductive perturbation method is also valid for ??method is used.

Qi, Xin; Xu, Yan-xia; Duan, Wen-shan, E-mail: duanws@nwnu.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China); Yang, Lei, E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China) [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

Kieper, Douglas Arthur (Seattle, WA); Majewski, Stanislaw (Morgantown, WV); Welch, Benjamin L. (Hampton, VA)

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

244

Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

Kieper, Douglas Arthur (Newport News, VA); Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Welch, Benjamin L. (Hampton, VA)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

245

Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

Chan, George C. Y. (Bloomington, IN); Hieftje, Gary M. (Bloomington, IN)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method for the depth corrected detection of ionizing events from a co-planar grids sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the detection of ionizing events utilizing a co-planar grids sensor comprising a semiconductor substrate, cathode electrode, collecting grid and non-collecting grid. The semiconductor substrate is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A voltage less than 0 Volts is applied to the cathode electrode. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the cathode is applied to the non-collecting grid. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the non-collecting grid is applied to the collecting grid. The collecting grid and the non-collecting grid are summed and subtracted creating a sum and difference respectively. The difference and sum are divided creating a ratio. A gain coefficient factor for each depth (distance between the ionizing event and the collecting grid) is determined, whereby the difference between the collecting electrode and the non-collecting electrode multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient is the depth corrected energy of an ionizing event. Therefore, the energy of each ionizing event is the difference between the collecting grid and the non-collecting grid multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient. The depth of the ionizing event can also be determined from the ratio.

De Geronimo, Gianluigi (Syosset, NY); Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Carini, Gabriella (Port Jefferson, NY)

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

247

Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

A feasibility study of wind turbine blade surface crack detection using an optical inspection method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A feasibility study of wind turbine blade surface crack detection using an optical inspection technique was investigated to assess its ability to detect surface flaws on an on-tower wind turbine blade and investors. Rotor blades are one of the largest mechanical components of a wind turbine and cannot

McCalley, James D.

249

Building on Clues: Improving Methods to Help Detect and Characterize Terrorist Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Security Solutions www.ihssnc.org #12;Project Overview · Problem: Limited guidance on how to collect" Responsible for Plots Within the US, 1999-2009 Anti-Abortion Animal Rights Anti-Muslim Right Left Ideology

McShea, Daniel W.

250

Behavior of the Diamond Difference and Low-Order Nodal Numerical Transport Methods in the Thick Diffusion Limit for Slab Geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the thick diffusion limit of various spatial discretizations of the one-dimensional, steady-state, monoenergetic, discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. This work specifically addresses the two lowest order nodal methods, AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1, as well as reconsiders the asymptotic limit of the Diamond Difference method. The asymptotic analyses of the AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1 nodal methods show that AHOT-N0 does not possess the thick diffusion limit for cell edge or cell average fluxes except under very limiting conditions, which is to be expected considering the AHOT-N0 method limits to the Step method in the thick diffusion limit. The AHOT-N1 method, which uses a linear in-cell representation of the flux, was shown to possess the thick diffusion limit for both cell average and cell edge fluxes. The thick diffusion limit of the DD method, including the boundary conditions, was derived entirely in terms of cell average scalar fluxes. It was shown that, for vacuum boundaries, only when {sigma}{sub t}, h, and Q are constant and {sigma}{sub a} = 0 is the asymptotic limit of the DD method close to the finite-differenced diffusion equation in the system interior, and that the boundary conditions between the systems will only agree in the absence of an external source. For a homogeneous medium an effective diffusion coefficient was shown to be present, which was responsible for causing numeric diffusion in certain cases. A technique was presented to correct the numeric diffusion in the interior by altering certain problem parameters. Numerical errors introduced by the boundary conditions and material interfaces were also explored for a two-region problem using the Diamond Difference method. A discrete diffusion solution which exactly solves the one-dimensional diffusion equation in a homogeneous region with constant cross sections and a uniform external source was also developed and shown to be equal to the finite-differenced diffusion discretization for c = 1 in the system interior, where again the boundary conditions again only agree in the absence of an external source. It was also shown that for c < 1 the exact discrete diffusion solution is written in terms of hyperbolic functions, with expressions which limit to the exact solution for the c = 1 case as c {yields} 1. Finally, a transport discretization is developed which reproduces the exact S2 solution for the case of a purely scattering homogeneous region with vacuum boundary conditions, and an extension to the discretization for the case of c < 1 is found by considering a Taylor series expansion of the exact answer centered at c = 0.

Gill DF

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

251

Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and an associated method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scintillator assembly for use in conjunction with a photomultiplier or the like in the detection of alpha radiation utilizes a substrate or transparent yttrium aluminum garnet and a relatively thin film of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet coated upon the substrate. The film material is applied to the substrate in a sputtering process, and the applied film and substrate are annealed to effect crystallization of the film upon the substrate. The resultant assembly provides relatively high energy resolution during use in a detection instrument and is sufficiently rugged for use in field environments. 4 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; McElhaney, S.A.; Bates, J.B.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

253

Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Optical method and apparatus for detection of defects and microstructural changes in ceramics and ceramic coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus detects defects and microstructural changes in hard translucent materials such as ceramic bulk compositions and ceramic coatings such as after use under load conditions. The beam from a tunable laser is directed onto the sample under study and light reflected by the sample is directed to two detectors, with light scattered with a small scatter angle directed to a first detector and light scattered with a larger scatter angle directed to a second detector for monitoring the scattering surface. The sum and ratio of the two detector outputs respectively provide a gray-scale, or "sum" image, and an indication of the lateral spread of the subsurface scatter, or "ratio" image. This two detector system allows for very high speed crack detection for on-line, real-time inspection of damage in ceramic components. Statistical image processing using a digital image processing approach allows for the quantative discrimination of the presence and distribution of small flaws in a sample while improving detection reliability. The tunable laser allows for the penetration of the sample to detect defects from the sample's surface to the laser's maximum depth of penetration. A layered optical fiber directs the incoming laser beam to the sample and transmits each scattered signal to a respective one of the two detectors.

Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL); Todd, Judith A. (Hinsdale, IL); Sun, Jiangang (Westmont, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Assessing leakage detectability at geologic CO2 sequestration sites using the probabilistic collocation method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detectability at geologic carbon sequestration sites under parameter uncertainty. Uncertainty quantification (UQ and natural features, which consti- tute one of the greatest threats to the integrity of carbon sequestration for reducing greenhouse gas emission. A primary goal of geologic carbon sequestration is to ensure

Lu, Zhiming

256

Methods to detect faulty splices in the superconducting magnet system of the LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The incident of 19 September 2008 at the LHC was caused by a faulty inter-magnet splice of about 200 n{Omega} resistance. Cryogenic and electrical techniques have been developed to detect other abnormal splices, either between or inside the magnets. The existing quench protection system can be used to detect internal splices with R > 20 n{Omega}. Since this system does not cover the bus between magnets, the cryogenic system is used to measure the rate of temperature rise due to ohmic heating. Accuracy of a few mK/h, corresponding to a few Watts, has been achieved, allowing detection of excess resistance, if it is more than 40 n{Omega} in a cryogenic subsector (two optical cells). Follow-up electrical measurements are made in regions identified by the cryogenic system. These techniques have detected two abnormal internal magnet splices of 100 n{Omega} and 50 n{Omega} respectively. In 2009, this ad hoc system will be replaced with a permanent one to monitor all splices at the n{Omega} level.

Bailey, R.; Bellesia, B.; Lasheras, N.Catalan; Dahlerup-Petersen, K.; Denz, R.; Robles, C.; Koratzinos, M.; Pojer, M.; Ponce, L.; Saban, R.; Schmidt, R.; /CERN /Fermilab /Moscow, INR /Cracow, INP

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

60 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 1, MARCH 2009 Sensorless Slowdown Detection Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

60 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 24, NO. 1, MARCH 2009 Sensorless Slowdown Detection widespread in the applications supplied by the electric network at low cost: pumps, fans, lawn mow- ers, home the speed. All are based on the behavior of SPIM Manuscript received November 28, 2007; revised April 11

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Multi-mode Damage Detection Methods with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modes structural health monitoring (SHM) and non- destructive evaluation (NDE) simply by changing the driving frequencies. This paper presents research results obtained by using PWAS transducer for SHM/NDE impedance measurements; (3) PWAS ultrasonic SHM/NDE; and (4) PWAS multi-mode corrosion detection

Giurgiutiu, Victor

259

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser`s wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known ``feature masks`` of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects. 29 figs.

Ellingson, W.A.; Brada, M.P.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

260

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser's wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known "feature masks" of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects.

Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL); Brada, Mark P. (Goleta, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides.

Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Robitaille, G. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

263

Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch.

Chavez, Rossemary V. (Monroeville, PA); Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Matusz, John M. (Plum Boro both of Allegheny County, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.

Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Novel comprehensive method for real time Video Motion Detection Surveillance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article describes a comprehensive system for surveillance and monitoring applications. The development of an efficient real time video motion detection system is motivated by their potential for deployment in the areas where security is the main concern. The paper presents a platform for real time video motion detection and subsequent generation of an alarm condition as set by the parameters of the control system. The prototype consists of a mobile platform mounted with RF camera which provides continuous feedback of the environment. The received visual information is then analyzed by user for appropriate control action, thus enabling the user to operate the system from a remote location. The system is also equipped with the ability to process the image of an object and generate control signals which are automatically transmitted to the mobile platform to track the object.

Mishra, Sumita

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Methods of sequencing and detection using energy transfer labels with cyanine dyes as donor chromophores  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Hung, Su-Chun (Richmond, CA); Ju, Jingyue (Redwood City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

RCUT: A Non-Invasive Method for Detection, Location, and Quantification of Radiological Contaminants in Pipes and Ducts - 12514  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiological Characterization Using Tracers (RCUT) is a minimally invasive method for detection and location of residual radiological contamination in pipes and ducts. The RCUT technology utilizes reactive gaseous tracers that dissociate when exposed to gamma and/or beta radiation emitting from a radiological contaminant in a pipe or duct. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) was selected as a tracer for this radiological application, because it is a chemically inert gas that is both nonflammable, nontoxic, and breaks down when exposed to gamma radiation. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the tracer pair of SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} formed SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} when exposed to a gamma or beta radioactive field, which indicated the presence of radiological contamination. Field application of RCUT involves first injecting the reactive tracers into the pipe to fill the pipe being inspected and allowing sufficient time for the tracer to interact with any contaminants present. This is followed by the injection of an inert gas at one end of the pipe to push the reactive tracer at a known or constant flow velocity along the pipe and then out the exit and sampling port at the end of the pipeline where its concentration is measured by a gas chromatograph. If a radiological contaminant is present in the pipe being tested, the presence of SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} will be detected. The time of arrival of the SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} can be used to locate the contaminant. If the pipe is free of radiological contamination, no SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} will be detected. RCUT and PCUT are both effective technologies that can be used to detect contamination within pipelines without the need for mechanical or human inspection. These methods can be used to detect, locate, and/or estimate the volume of a variety of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, and heavy metals. While further optimization is needed for RCUT, the key first step of identification of a tracer compound appropriate for the application of detecting radioactive pipeline contamination through the detection of decomposition products of SF{sub 6} has been demonstrated. Other tracer gases that will also undergo radiolysis will be considered in the future. The next step for the RCUT development process is conducting laboratory scale tests using short pipelines to define analytical requirements, establish performance boundaries, and develop strategies for lower exposure levels. Studies to identify additional analytical techniques using equipment that is more field rugged than a GC/MS would also be beneficial. (authors)

Bratton, Wesley L.; Maresca, Joseph W. Jr.; Beck, Deborah A. [Vista Engineering Technologies, L.L.C., Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Stellar activity as noise in exoplanet detection I. Methods and application to solar-like stars and activity cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The detection of exoplanets using any method is prone to confusion due to the intrinsic variability of the host star. We investigate the effect of cool starspots on the detectability of the exoplanets around solar-like stars using the radial velocity method. For investigating this activity-caused "jitter" we calculate synthetic spectra using radiative transfer, known stellar atomic and molecular lines, different surface spot configurations, and an added planetary signal. Here, the methods are described in detail, tested and compared to previously published studies. The methods are also applied to investigate the activity jitter in old and young solar-like stars, and over a solar-like activity cycles. We find that the mean full jitter amplitude obtained from the spot surfaces mimicking the solar activity varies during the cycle approximately between 1 m/s and 9 m/s. With a realistic observing frequency a Neptune mass planet on a one year orbit can be reliably recovered. On the other hand, the recovery of an Ea...

Korhonen, H; Piskunov, N; Hackman, T; Juncher, D; Jarvinen, S P; Joergensen, U G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

Laughman, Christopher Reed.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Method of detecting cancer in a single cell using mitochondrial correlation microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for distinguishing a normal cell from an abnormal cell, such as, for example a cancer cell or diseased cell, of the same tissue type using mitochondrial correlation microscopy.

Gourley, Paul L

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

Method for detecting cancer in a single cell using mitochondrial correlation microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for distinguishing a normal cell from an abnormal cell, such as, for example a cancer cell or diseased cell, of the same tissue type using mitochondrial correlation microscopy.

Gourley, Paul L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

273

Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

274

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

Dinh, T.V.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

Methods for detection and characterization of signals in noisy data with the Hilbert-Huang Transform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Hilbert-Huang Transform is a novel, adaptive approach to time series analysis that does not make assumptions about the data form. Its adaptive, local character allows the decomposition of non-stationary signals with hightime-frequency resolution but also renders it susceptible to degradation from noise. We show that complementing the HHT with techniques such as zero-phase filtering, kernel density estimation and Fourier analysis allows it to be used effectively to detect and characterize signals with low signal to noise ratio.

Alexander Stroeer; John K. Cannizzo; Jordan B. Camp; Nicolas Gagarin

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

277

Nondestructive method for detecting defects in photodetector and solar cell devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention described herein is a method for locating semiconductor device defects and for measuring the internal resistance of such devices by making use of the intrinsic distributed resistance nature of the devices. The method provides for forward-biasing a solar cell or other device while it is scanning with an optical spot. The forward-biasing is achieved with either an illuminator light source or an external current source.

Sawyer, David E. (Rockville, MD)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Method and apparatus for generating motor current spectra to enhance motor system fault detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and circuitry for sampling periodic amplitude modulations in a nonstationary periodic carrier wave to determine frequencies in the amplitude modulations. The method and circuit are described in terms of an improved motor current signature analysis. The method insures that the sampled data set contains an exact whole number of carrier wave cycles by defining the rate at which samples of motor current data are collected. The circuitry insures that a sampled data set containing stationary carrier waves is recreated from the analog motor current signal containing nonstationary carrier waves by conditioning the actual sampling rate to adjust with the frequency variations in the carrier wave. After the sampled data is transformed to the frequency domain via the Discrete Fourier Transform, the frequency distribution in the discrete spectra of those components due to the carrier wave and its harmonics will be minimized so that signals of interest are more easily analyzed.

Linehan, Daniel J. (Knoxville, TN); Bunch, Stanley L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lyster, Carl T. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Method and apparatus for generating motor current spectra to enhance motor system fault detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and circuitry are disclosed for sampling periodic amplitude modulations in a nonstationary periodic carrier wave to determine frequencies in the amplitude modulations. The method and circuit are described in terms of an improved motor current signature analysis. The method insures that the sampled data set contains an exact whole number of carrier wave cycles by defining the rate at which samples of motor current data are collected. The circuitry insures that a sampled data set containing stationary carrier waves is recreated from the analog motor current signal containing nonstationary carrier waves by conditioning the actual sampling rate to adjust with the frequency variations in the carrier wave. After the sampled data is transformed to the frequency domain via the Discrete Fourier Transform, the frequency distribution in the discrete spectra of those components due to the carrier wave and its harmonics will be minimized so that signals of interest are more easily analyzed. 29 figs.

Linehan, D.J.; Bunch, S.L.; Lyster, C.T.

1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

280

Method and apparatus of spectro-acoustically enhanced ultrasonic detection for diagnostics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for detecting a discontinuity in a material includes a source of electromagnetic radiation has a wavelength and an intensity sufficient to induce an enhancement in contrast between a manifestation of an acoustic property in the material and of the acoustic property in the discontinuity, as compared to when the material is not irradiated by the electromagnetic radiation. An acoustic emitter directs acoustic waves to the discontinuity in the material. The acoustic waves have a sensitivity to the acoustic property. An acoustic receiver receives the acoustic waves generated by the acoustic emitter after the acoustic waves have interacted with the material and the discontinuity. The acoustic receiver also generates a signal representative of the acoustic waves received by the acoustic receiver. A processor, in communication with the acoustic receiver and responsive to the signal generated by the acoustic receiver, is programmed to generate informational output about the discontinuity based on the signal generated by the acoustic receiver.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Norton, Stephen J. (Raleigh, NC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Electrical leakage detection circuit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

Wild, Arthur

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

282

Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Minimally-invasive Wearable Sensors and Data Processing Methods for Mental Stress Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................ 70 5.4 Spectral weighting .............................................................................................. 72 5.5 Summary of the proposed methods .................................................................... 73 ix Page 6... posture, and (c) SNS is dominant during tilt posture. ................................................................................. 21 Figure 13. Different activation modes and psychological markers. (a) ANS branches exhibit four different...

Choi, Jongyoon

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

Fiber optic detector and method for using same for detecting chemical species  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical sensing device for uranyl and other substances, a method for making an optical sensing device and a method for chemically binding uranyl and other indicators to glass, quartz, cellulose and similar substrates. The indicator, such as arsenazo III, is immobilized on the substrate using a chemical binding process. The immobilized arsenazo III causes uranyl from a fluid sample to bind irreversibly to the substrate at its active sites, thus causing absorption of a portion of light transmitted through the substrate. Determination of the amount of light absorbed, using conventional means, yields the concentration of uranyl present in the sample fluid. The binding of uranyl on the substrate can be reversed by subsequent exposure of the substrate to a solution of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid. The chemical binding process is suitable for similarly binding other indicators, such as bromocresol green.

Baylor, Lewis C. (North Augusta, SC); Buchanan, Bruce R. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Method of detecting the direction of arcing faults on power distribution feeders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

harmonic symmetrical current components under high impedance arcing faults hss been proposed by Raiser of Power Technologies Inc [I]. Other methods using even, odd, and "in-between" harmonics (with respect to the 60 Hz fundamental frequency) have been... and the second based on the "in-between" harmonic frequency current correlation to the voltage of the faulted feeder [8]. Benner has proposed the correlation of voltage to the difference in line current, caused due to an arcing high impedance fault...

Fernando, W. Anand Krisantha

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

288

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Antonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Alamo, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Anotonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Penn Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Method and apparatus for detecting internal structures of bulk objects using acoustic imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for producing an acoustic image of an object according to the present invention may comprise an excitation source for vibrating the object to produce at least one acoustic wave therein. The acoustic wave results in the formation of at least one surface displacement on the surface of the object. A light source produces an optical object wavefront and an optical reference wavefront and directs the optical object wavefront toward the surface of the object to produce a modulated optical object wavefront. A modulator operatively associated with the optical reference wavefront modulates the optical reference wavefront in synchronization with the acoustic wave to produce a modulated optical reference wavefront. A sensing medium positioned to receive the modulated optical object wavefront and the modulated optical reference wavefront combines the modulated optical object and reference wavefronts to produce an image related to the surface displacement on the surface of the object. A detector detects the image related to the surface displacement produced by the sensing medium. A processing system operatively associated with the detector constructs an acoustic image of interior features of the object based on the phase and amplitude of the surface displacement on the surface of the object.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Sensitive ion detection device and method for analysis of compounds as vapors in gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for the detection of trace gaseous molecular compounds dissolved or suspended in a carrier gas, particularly in ambient air, without preconcentration or the trapping of analyte particles. The IMS of the invention comprises an ionization volume of greater than 5 cm.sup.3 and preferably greater than 100 cm.sup.3. The larger size ionizers of this invention enable analysis of trace (<1 ppb) of sample compounds in the gas phase. To facilitate efficient ion motion through the large volume ionization and reaction regions of the IMS, an electric field gradient can be provided in the ionization region or in both the ionization and reaction regions. The systems can be implemented with radioactive ionization sources, corona discharge ion sources or ions can be formed by photoionization. In specific embodiments, particularly when the sample gas is ambient air, the sample gas is heater prior to entry into the instrument, the instrument is run at temperatures above ambient, and the instrument can be heated by contact with heated sample gas exiting the instrument.

Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger P

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

292

Elastomeric optical fiber sensors and method for detecting and measuring events occurring in elastic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fiber optic sensing means for the detection and measurement of events such as dynamic loadings imposed upon elastic materials including cementitious materials, elastomers, and animal body components and/or the attrition of such elastic materials are provided. One or more optical fibers each having a deformable core and cladding formed of an elastomeric material such as silicone rubber are embedded in the elastic material. Changes in light transmission through any of the optical fibers due the deformation of the optical fiber by the application of dynamic loads such as compression, tension, or bending loadings imposed on the elastic material or by the attrition of the elastic material such as by cracking, deterioration, aggregate break-up, and muscle, tendon, or organ atrophy provide a measurement of the dynamic loadings and attrition. The fiber optic sensors can be embedded in elastomers subject to dynamic loadings and attrition such as commonly used automobiles and in shoes for determining the amount and frequency of the dynamic loadings and the extent of attrition. The fiber optic sensors are also useable in cementitious material for determining the maturation thereof.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Capps, Gary J. (Knoxville, TN); Smith, David B. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Clifford P. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Method for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during long-term neutron dosimetry exposure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during-long term neutron dosimetry exposure. In one embodiment, duplicate pairs of solid state track recorder fissionable deposits are used, including a first, fissionable deposit of lower mass to quantify the number of fissions occuring during the exposure, and a second deposit of higher mass to quantify the number of atoms of for instance .sup.239 Pu by alpha counting. In a second embodiment, only one solid state track recorder fissionable deposit is used and the resulting higher track densities are counted with a scanning electron microscope. This method is also applicable to other burn-in interferences, e.g., .sup.233 U in .sup.232 Th or .sup.238 Pu in .sup.237 Np.

Ruddy, Francis H. (Monroeville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon exploration techniques for future identification and confirmation of oil and gas prospects.

Lawrence M. Monson

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

Monoclonal antibodies for the separate detection of halodeoxyuridines and method for their use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Monoclonal antibodies are described which have specific affinities for halogenated nucleoside analogs and are preferentially selective for one particular halogen. Such antibodies, when incorporated into immunochemical reagents, may be used to identify and independently quantify the cell division character of more than one population or subpopulation in flow cytometric measurements. Independent assessment of division activity in cell sub-populations facilitates selection of appropriate time and dose for administration of anti-proliferative agents. The hybridomas which secrete halogen selective antibodies and the method of making them are described. 14 figures.

Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Stanker, L.H.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Method for warning of radiological and chemical agents using detection paints on a vehicle surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Brunk, James L. (Martinez, CA); Day, S. Daniel (Danville, CA)

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

297

Method and apparatus for remote tube crevice detection by current and voltage probe resistance measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for determining the extent of contact between an electrically conducting tube and an electrically conductive tubesheet surrounding the tube, based upon the electrical resistance of the tube and tubesheet. A constant current source is applied to the interior of the electrically conducting tube by probes and a voltmeter is connected between other probes to measure the voltage at the point of current injection, which is inversely proportional to the amount of contact between the tube and tubesheet. Namely, the higher the voltage measured by the voltmeter, the less contact between the tube and tubesheet. 4 figs.

Kikta, T.J.; Mitchell, R.D.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z., E-mail: abai@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou, Z. B., E-mail: zhouzb@mail.hust.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Real-time detection method and system for identifying individual aerosol particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are collimated, tracked, and screened to determine which ones qualify for mass spectrometric analysis based on predetermined qualification or selection criteria. Screening techniques include one or more of determining particle size, shape, symmetry, and fluorescence. Only qualifying particles passing all screening criteria are subject to desorption/ionization and single particle mass spectrometry to produce corresponding test spectra, which is used to determine the identities of each of the qualifying aerosol particles by comparing the test spectra against predetermined spectra for known particle types. In this manner, activation cycling of a particle ablation laser of a single particle mass spectrometer is reduced.

Gard, Eric E. (San Francisco, CA); Coffee, Keith R. (Patterson, CA); Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Tobias, Herbert J. (Kensington, CA); Fergenson, David P. (Alamo, CA); Madden, Norm (Livermore, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Steele, Paul T. (Livermore, CA); Woods, Bruce W. (Livermore, CA)

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

300

Real-Time Detection Method And System For Identifying Individual Aerosol Particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are compared against and identified with substantially matching known particle types by producing positive and negative test spectra of an individual aerosol particle using a bipolar single particle mass spectrometer. Each test spectrum is compared to spectra of the same respective polarity in a database of predetermined positive and negative spectra for known particle types and a set of substantially matching spectra is obtained. Finally the identity of the individual aerosol particle is determined from the set of substantially matching spectra by determining a best matching one of the known particle types having both a substantially matching positive spectrum and a substantially matching negative spectrum associated with the best matching known particle type.

Gard, Eric Evan (San Francisco, CA); Fergenson, David Philip (Livermore, CA)

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A new method of pipeline detection in sonar imagery using Self-Organizing Maps Puttipipatkajorn Amornrit, Bruno Jouvencel, Salgado-Jimenez Tomas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new method of pipeline detection in sonar imagery using Self-Organizing Maps Puttipipatkajorn of this paper is to detect and follow the pipeline in sonar image. This work is performed by two steps. The first one is to split an transformed line image of pipeline signal into regions of uniform texture using

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

A comparison of diagnostic techniques for detecting salmonella spp in equine fecal samples using culture methods, gel-based pcr, and real-time pcr assays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for improved diagnostic methods for detecting Salmonella in equine fecal samples. 120 fecal samples submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Texas A&M University (CML, VMTH, TAMU) were tested...

Smith, Shelle Ann

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

303

Method and apparatus for fast laser pulse detection using gaseous plasmas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method and device of the instant invention is a detector of pulsed laser radiation which utilizes the electromotive force generated by the plasma formed when such radiation is focused onto a surface (1). Measurements are made with a 10.6 .mu.m CO.sub.2 laser capable of producing peak intensities of 10.sup.13 W/cm.sup.2 when directed through a converging lens (2). Evacuated detector response to such laser intensity is 1 kV signal peak amplitude and subnanosecond risetimes into a 50.OMEGA. load (3). Detector performance is found to be greatly altered with the introduction of a background gas (4). For example, with one atmosphere of air, the detector produces prompt signals of the order of 1 V with subnanosecond response for pulse trains lasting 100 ns. With argon, krypton, or zenon at pressures of the order of 10 torr, the detector generates "trigger pulses" of about 250 V amplitude and 0.2 ns risetimes. Such detectors are quite robust when irradiated with high intensity laser radiation and are useful for qualitative laser beam monitoring.

McLellan, Edward J. (Los Alamos, NM); Webb, John A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Method and apparatus for fast laser-pulse detection using gaseous plasmas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method and device of the instant invention is a detector of pulsed laser radiation which utilizes the electromotive force generated by the plasma formed when such radiation is focused onto a surface. Measurements are made with a 10.6 ..mu..m CO/sub 2/ laser capable of producing peak intensities of 10/sup 13/ W/cm/sup 2/ when directed through a converging lens. Evacuated detector response to such laser intensity if 1 kV signal peak amplitude and subnanosecond risetimes into a 50 ..cap omega.. load. Detector performance is found to be greatly altered with the introduction of a background gas. For example, with one atmosphere of air, the detector produces prompt signals of the order of 1 V with subnanosecond response for pulse trains lasting 100 ns. With argon, krypton, or zenon at pressures of the order of 10 torr, the detector generates trigger pulses of about 250 V amplitude and 0.2 ns risetimes. Such detectors are quite robust when irradiated with high intensity laser radiation and are useful for qualitative laser beam monitoring.

McLellan, E.J.; Webb, J.A.

1981-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

A ROBUST ABSOLUTE DETECTION EFFICIENCY CALIBRATION METHOD UTILIZING BETA/GAMMA COINCIDENCE SIGNATURES AND ISOTOPICALLY PURIFIED NEUTRON ACTIVATED RADIOXENON ISOTOPES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts to calibrate the absolute efficiency of gas cell radiations detectors have utilized a number of methodologies which allow adequate calibration but are time consuming and prone to a host of difficult-to-determine uncertainties. A method that extrapolates the total source strength from the measured beta and gamma gated beta coincidence signal was developed in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It has become clear that it is possible to achieve more consistent results across a range of isotopes and a range of activities using this method. Even more compelling is the ease with which this process can be used on routine samples to determine the total activity present in the detector. Additionally, recent advances in the generation of isotopically pure radioxenon samples of Xe-131m, Xe-133, and Xe-135 have allowed these measurement techniques to achieve much better results than would have been possible before when using mixed isotopic radioxenon source. This paper will discuss the beta/gamma absolute detection efficiency technique that utilizes several of the beta-gamma decay signatures to more precisely determine the beta and gamma efficiencies. It will than compare these results with other methods using pure sources of Xe-133, Xe-131m, and Xe-135 and a Xe-133/Xe-133m mix.

McIntyre, Justin I.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Schrom, Brian T.

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

306

System and method for ultrafast optical signal detecting via a synchronously coupled anamorphic light pulse encoded laterally  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one general embodiment, a method for ultrafast optical signal detecting is provided. In operation, a first optical input signal is propagated through a first wave guiding layer of a waveguide. Additionally, a second optical input signal is propagated through a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide. Furthermore, an optical control signal is applied to a top of the waveguide, the optical control signal being oriented diagonally relative to the top of the waveguide such that the application is used to influence at least a portion of the first optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide. In addition, the first and the second optical input signals output from the waveguide are combined. Further, the combined optical signals output from the waveguide are detected. In another general embodiment, a system for ultrafast optical signal recording is provided comprising a waveguide including a plurality of wave guiding layers, an optical control source positioned to propagate an optical control signal towards the waveguide in a diagonal orientation relative to a top of the waveguide, at least one optical input source positioned to input an optical input signal into at least a first and a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide, and a detector for detecting at least one interference pattern output from the waveguide, where at least one of the interference patterns results from a combination of the optical input signals input into the first and the second wave guiding layer. Furthermore, propagation of the optical control signal is used to influence at least a portion of the optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide.

Heebner, John E. (Livermore, CA)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

307

A method for detecting breakthrough of organic solvent vapors in a charcoal tube using semiconductor gas sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study developed a method for detecting organic vapors that break through charcoal tubes, using semiconductor gas sensors as a breakthrough detector of vapors. A glass column equipped with two sensors was inserted in Teflon tubing, and air containing organic vapor was introduced at a constant flow rate. After the output signal of the sensors became stable, a charcoal tube was inserted into the tubing at the upstream of the sensors. The resistance of the sensors was collected temporally in an integrated circuit (IC) card. The vapor concentration of the air near the sensors was measured with a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) at intervals of 5 minutes to obtain the breakthrough curve. When the relative humidity was zero, the output signals of the sensors began to change before the breakthrough point (1% breakthrough time). This tendency was almost the same for methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), toluene, and chloroform. For dichloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, the time when the sensor output signals began to rise was almost the same as the breakthrough point. When the relative humidity was 80 percent, the sensors could also detect many vapors before the breakthrough point, but they could not perceive dichloromethane and chloroform vapors. A personal sampling system with a breakthrough detector was developed and its availability is discussed.

Hori, Hajime; Noritake, Yuji; Murobushi, Hisako; Higashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Isamu

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Realistic Earth matter effects and a method to acquire information about small ?_{13} in the detection of supernova neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we first calculate the realistic Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos at the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment which is currently under construction. It is found that the Earth matter effects depend on the neutrino incident angle $\\theta$, the neutrino mass hierarchy $\\Delta m_{31}^{2}$, the crossing probability at the high resonance region inside the supernova, $P_{H}$, the neutrino temperature, $T_{\\alpha}$, and the pinching parameter in the neutrino spectrum, $\\eta_{\\alpha}$. We also take into account the collective effects due to neutrino-neutrino interactions inside the supernova. With the expression for the dependence of $P_H$ on the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, we obtain the relations between $\\theta_{13}$ and the event numbers for various reaction channels of supernova neutrinos. Using these relations, we propose a possible method to acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ smaller than $1.5^\\circ$. Such a sensitivity cannot yet be achieved by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment which has a sensitivity of the order of $\\theta_{13}\\sim 3^\\circ$. Furthermore, we apply this method to other neutrino experiments, i.e. Super-K, SNO, KamLAND, LVD, MinBooNE, Borexino, and Double-Chooz. We also study the energy spectra of the differential event numbers, ${\\rm d}N/{\\rm d}E$.

Xin-Heng Guo; Ming-Yang Huang; Bing-Lin Young

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

309

Synchronization of Limit Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

310

Method and apparatus for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux for analysis of same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charged particle detector and method are disclosed providing for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux in a measurement cycle. The detector provides multiple and independently selectable levels of integration and/or gain in a fully addressable readout manner.

Denton, M. Bonner (Tucson, AZ); Sperline, Roger (Tucson, AZ), Koppenaal, David W. (Richland, WA), Barinaga, Charles J. (Richland, WA), Hieftje, Gary (Bloomington, IN), Barnes, IV, James H. (Santa Fe, NM); Atlas, Eugene (Irvine, CA)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

311

System and method of reducing motion-induced noise in the optical detection of an ultrasound signal in a moving body of material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a system and method to reduce motion-induced noise in the detection of ultrasonic signals in a moving sheet or body of material. An ultrasonic signal is generated in a sheet of material and a detection laser beam is moved along the surface of the material. By moving the detection laser in the same direction as the direction of movement of the sheet of material the amount of noise induced in the detection of the ultrasonic signal is reduced. The scanner is moved at approximately the same speed as the moving material. The system and method may be used for many applications, such in a paper making process or steel making process. The detection laser may be directed by a scanner. The movement of the scanner is synchronized with the anticipated arrival of the ultrasonic signal under the scanner. A photodetector may be used to determine when a ultrasonic pulse has been directed to the moving sheet of material so that the scanner may be synchronized the anticipated arrival of the ultrasonic signal.

Habeger, Jr., Charles C. (Smyrna, GA); LaFond, Emmanuel F. (Atlanta, GA); Brodeur, Pierre (Smyrna, GA); Gerhardstein, Joseph P. (Decatur, GA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Development of elastography as a non-invasive method for hard spots detection of packaged beef rations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generated under the selected conditions. The elastograms were segmented using an automatic thresholding algorithm and the results were used to analyze the detection of hard spots. The optimal conditions determined for elastography were an applied strain of 1...

Wang, Wei-wei

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Quantum Limits and Robustness of Nonlinear Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the limits of intracavity absorption spectroscopy with nonlinear media. Using a common theoretical framework, we compare the detection of a trace gas within an undriven cavity with gain near and above threshold, a driven cavity with gain kept just below threshold, and a cavity driven close to the saturation point of a saturable absorber. These phase-transition-based metrology methods are typically quantum-limited by spontaneous emission, and we compare them to the empty cavity shotnoise-limited case. Although the fundamental limits achievable with nonlinear media do not surpass the empty cavity limits, we show that nonlinear methods are more robust against certain technical noise models. This recognition may have applications in spectrometer design for devices operating in non-ideal field environments.

John K. Stockton; Ari K. Tuchman

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

314

A New Method for Detecting the Time-Varying Nonlinear Damping in Nonlinear Oscillation Systems: Nonparametric Identification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents an original method that can be used for identifying time-varying nonlinear damping characteristics of a nonlinear oscillation system. The method developed involves the nonparametric identification, in ...

Jang, T. S.

315

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 514 (2003) 150155 Laser detection of radiation enhanced electron transport in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be enhanced substantially by X-ray radiation-induced damage as detected by a novel fast-pulsed laser technique by radiation-induced neutral traps in the oxide [4]. In particular, optical SHG has become an extremely useful of radiation enhanced electron transport in ultra-thin oxides R. Pasternaka, *, Y.V. Shirokayaa , Z. Markaa , J

Tolk, Norman H.

316

Final Technical Report - Stochastic Nonlinear Data-Reduction Methods with Detection and Prediction of Critical Rare Event  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, the collective efforts of all co-PIs aim to address three current limitations in modeling stochastic systems: (1) the inputs are mostly based on ad hoc models, (2) the number of independent parameters is very high, and (3) rare and critical events are difficult to capture with existing algorithms

Karniadakis, George Em; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Lin, Guang; Wan, Xiaoliang

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

317

A detailed study of a method for detecting susceptibility and resistance of gramineous plants to common root rot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

unal- tered and altered by H. sativum and F. roseum f, lt th g th fa t* h t *dlf g. aft, a d*y baht 1 1* 1 ldpl ttp, June, 1959; right, average fresh weight of three week old plant tope, February, 1960. Upper and lower limits of least significant...

Collins, Richard James

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper describes methods used for the detection of cosmic rays with energies above 10^18 eV (UHECR, UltraHigh Energy Cosmic Rays). It had been anticipated there would be a cutoff in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays around 3 10^19 eV induced by their interaction with the 2.7 K primordial photons. This has become known as the GZK cutoff. However, several showers have been detected with estimated primary energy exceeding this limit.

Carla Aramo

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

319

Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

2002-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

320

Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology; Whitaker, K.W. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The limits of ultrahigh-resolution x-ray mapping: estimating uncertainties in thin-film and interface structures determined by phase retrieval methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capturing subtle details at the sub-Angstrom level is key to understanding the structural basis of many intriguing interfacial phenomena in epitaxial thin films and nanostructures. X-ray phase retrieval methods are ideally suited to this task but the usual approaches for determination of uncertainties, based on refining a parametrized model, are not applicable in this case. Here we describe a method to estimate the uncertainties of the system electron density, obtained by phase retrieval, and of parameters of interest obtained from it. The method is based on the bootstrap approach and it can be generally applied to surface x-ray scattering data. Several examples are given which illustrate the method's utility in determining uncertainties arising from random and systematic errors. The approach also provides a quantitative measure of the validity of structural solutions obtained by phase retrieval methods.

Zhou H.; Pindak R.; Clarke, R.; Steinberg, D.NM.; Yacoby, Y.

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

322

ISSN 1066-5307, Mathematical Methods of Statistics, 2011, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 269287. c Allerton Press, Inc., 2011. Non-Uniform Bounds in Local Limit Theorems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Press, Inc., 2011. Non-Uniform Bounds in Local Limit Theorems in Case of Fractional Moments. II S. G. Bobkov1* , G. P. Chistyakov2** , and F. G ¨otze2*** 1 School of Math., Univ. of Minnesota, USA 2 Faculty.e., with the functions em(t) = um(t, 1) = e-t2/2 1 + m-2 k=1 Pk(it) . Theorem 1.3 is a particular case of the following

Bobkov, Sergey

323

Cell Phone Detection Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence and thickness of carbon and oxide layers on EUV reflective surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The characteristics of radiation that is reflected from carbon deposits and oxidation formations on highly reflective surfaces such as Mo/Si mirrors can be quantified and employed to detect and measure the presence of such impurities on optics. Specifically, it has been shown that carbon deposits on a Mo/Si multilayer mirror decreases the intensity of reflected HeNe laser (632.8 nm) light. In contrast, oxide layers formed on the mirror should cause an increase in HeNe power reflection. Both static measurements and real-time monitoring of carbon and oxide surface impurities on optical elements in lithography tools should be achievable.

Malinowski, Michael E.

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fingerprint detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints is provided and includes contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon with a colloidal metal composition for time sufficient to allow reaction of said colloidal metal composition with said latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print. Further, the method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints can include contacting the metal composition-latent print reaction product with a secondary metal-containing solution for time sufficient to allow precipitation of said secondary metal thereby enhancing the visibility of the latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print.

Saunders, George C. (Rt. 1, Box 428B, Espanola, NM 87532)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

Atkinson, David

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

327

Development of a Safeguards Verification Method and Instrument to Detect Pin Diversion from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Spent Fuel Assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical safeguards challenge has remained for decades for the IAEA to identify possible diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies. In fact, as modern nuclear power plants are pushed to higher power levels and longer fuel cycles, fuel failures (i.e., ''leakers'') as well as the corresponding fuel assembly repairs (i.e., ''reconstitutions'') are commonplace occurrences within the industry. Fuel vendors have performed hundreds of reconstitutions in the past two decades, thus, an evolved know-how and sophisticated tools exist to disassemble irradiated fuel assemblies and replace damaged pins with dummy stainless steel or other type rods. Various attempts have been made in the past two decades to develop a technology to identify a possible diversion of pin(s) and to determine whether some pins are missing or replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. However, to date, there are no safeguards instruments that can detect a possible pin diversion scenario to the requirements of the IAEA. The FORK detector system [1-2] can characterize spent fuel assemblies using operator declared data, but it is not sensitive enough to detect missing pins from spent fuel assemblies. Likewise, an emission computed tomography system [3] has been used to try to detect missing pins from a spent fuel assembly, which has shown some potential for identifying possible missing pins but this capability has not yet been fully demonstrated. The use of such a device in the future would not be envisaged, especially in an inexpensive, easy to handle setting for field applications. In this article, we describe a concept and ongoing research to help develop a new safeguards instrument for the detection of pin diversions in a PWR spent fuel assembly. The proposed instrument is based on one or more very thin radiation detectors that could be inserted within the guide tubes of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assembly. Ultimately, this work could lead to the development of a detector cluster and corresponding high-precision driving system to collect radiation signatures inside PWR spent fuel assemblies. The data obtained would provide the spatial distribution of the neutron and gamma flux fields within the spent fuel assembly, while the data analysis would be used to help identify missing or replaced pins. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to help validate this concept using a realistic 17 x 17 PWR spent fuel assembly [4-5]. The initial results of this study show that neutron profile in the guide tubes, when obtained in the presence of missing pins, can be identifiably different from the profiles obtained without missing pins, Our latest simulations have focused upon a specific type of fission chamber that could be tested for this application.

Ham, Y S; Maldonado, G I; Burdo, J; He, T

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

Detecting Generalized Synchronization of Chaotic Dynamical Systems: A Kernel-based Method and Choice of Its Parameter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An approach based on the kernel methods for capturing the nonlinear interdependence between two signals is introduced. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach is useful for characterizing generalized synchronization with a successful simple example. An attempt to choose an optimal kernel parameter based on cross validation is also discussed.

Hiromichi Suetani; Yukito Iba; Kazuyuki Aihara

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

329

Quasi-periodic motions in a special class of dynamical equations with dissipative effects: a pair of detection methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a particular class of equations of motion, generalizing to n degrees of freedom the "dissipative spin--orbit problem", commonly studied in Celestial Mechanics. Those equations are formulated in a pseudo-Hamiltonian framework with action-angle coordinates; they contain a quasi-integrable conservative part and friction terms, assumed to be linear and isotropic with respect to the action variables. In such a context, we transfer two methods determining quasi-periodic solutions, which were originally designed to analyze purely Hamiltonian quasi-integrable problems. First, we show how the frequency map analysis can be adapted to this kind of dissipative models. Our approach is based on a key remark: the method can work as usual, by studying the behavior of the angular velocities of the motions as a function of the so called "external frequencies", instead of the actions. Moreover, we explicitly implement the Kolmogorov's normalization algorithm for the dissipative systems considered here. In a previous article, we proved a theoretical result: such a constructing procedure is convergent under the hypotheses usually assumed in KAM theory. In the present work, we show that it can be translated to a code making algebraic manipulations on a computer, so to calculate effectively quasi-periodic solutions on invariant tori. Both the methods are carefully tested, by checking that their predictions are in agreement, in the case of the so called "dissipative forced pendulum". Furthermore, the results obtained by applying our adaptation of the frequency analysis method to the dissipative standard map are compared with some existing ones in the literature.

Ugo Locatelli; Letizia Stefanelli

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

330

Spitzer White Dwarf Planet Limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present preliminary limits on the presence of planets around white dwarf stars using the IRAC photometer on the Spitzer space telescope. Planets emit strongly in the mid-infrared which allows their presence to be detected as an excess at these wavelengths. We place limits of $5 M_J$ for 8 stars assuming ages of $1 Gyr$, and $10 M_J$ for 23 stars.We describe our survey, present our results and comment on approaches to improve our methodology.

F. Mullally; Ted von Hippel; D. E. Winget

2006-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

331

Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Method of detecting sulfur dioxide. [DOE patent application; 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-sulfinyl silanamine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH with SO/sub 2/. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/O and a new solid compound (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/). Both (C/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO and (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO/sub 2/ pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH, whereby any SO/sub 2/ present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the original gas sample. The solid product (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

Spicer, L.D.; Bennett, D.W.; Davis, J.F.

1981-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with [sup 67]Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the lungs by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the [sup 67]Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques can be used to locate the malignant tissue mass. 1 figure.

Cole, D.A.; Moody, D.C. III; Ellinwood, L.E.; Klein, M.G.

1992-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

Method of using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)porphine for detecting cancers of the lung  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method using tetra-aryl porphyrins for and, in particular, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine as a fluorescent tracer for cancers of the lung, and as a radiotracer therefor as a complex with .sup.67 Cu. The latter complex also provides a source of beta radiation for selective destruction of lung malignancies as well as gamma radiation useful for image analysis of the situs thereof by single photon emission computed tomography, as an example, both in vivo. Copper-64 may be substituted for the .sup.67 Cu if only radiotracer characteristics are of interest. This lighter isotope of copper is a positron emitter, and positron emission tomography techniques cna be used to locate the malignant tissue mass.

Cole, Dean A. (60 San Juan St., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Moody, III, David C. (402 Pine Tree La., Boulder, CO 80304); Ellinwood, L. Edward (694 Sperber La., Grand Junction, CO 81506); Klein, M. Gerard (715 Victor Dr., Grand Junction, CO 81506)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Development of a Safeguards Verification Method and Instrument to Detect Pin Diversion from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Spent Fuel Assemblies Phase I Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel methodology to detect diversion of spent fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has been developed in order to address a long unsolved safeguards verification problem for international safeguards community such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The concept involves inserting tiny neutron and gamma detectors into the guide tubes of a spent fuel assembly and measuring the signals. The guide tubes form a quadrant symmetric pattern in the various PWR fuel product lines and the neutron and gamma signals from these various locations are processed to obtain a unique signature for an undisturbed fuel assembly. Signatures based on the neutron and gamma signals individually or in a combination can be developed. Removal of fuel pins from the assembly will cause the signatures to be visibly perturbed thus enabling the detection of diversion. All of the required signal processing to obtain signatures can be performed on standard laptop computers. Monte Carlo simulation studies and a set of controlled experiments with actual commercial PWR spent fuel assemblies were performed and validated this novel methodology. Based on the simulation studies and benchmarking measurements, the methodology developed promises to be a powerful and practical way to detect partial defects that constitute 10% or more of the total active fuel pins. This far exceeds the detection threshold of 50% missing pins from a spent fuel assembly, a threshold defined by the IAEA Safeguards Criteria. The methodology does not rely on any operator provided data like burnup or cooling time and does not require movement of the fuel assembly from the storage rack in the spent fuel pool. A concept was developed to build a practical field device, Partial Defect Detector (PDET), which will be completely portable and will use standard radiation measuring devices already in use at the IAEA. The use of the device will not require any information provided by the operator or any prior knowledge of the spent fuel assembly. The device can also be operated without any movement of the spent fuel from its storage position. Based on parametric studies conducted via computer simulation, the device should be able to detect diversion of as low as ten percent of the missing or replaced fuel from an assembly regardless of the location of the missing fuel within the assembly, of the cooling time, initial fuel enrichment or burnup levels. Conditions in the spent fuel pool such as clarity of the water or boron content are also not issues for this device. The shape of the base signature is principally dependent on the layout of the guide tubes in the various types of PWR fuel assemblies and perturbations in the form of replaced fuel pins will distort this signature. These features of PDET are all unique and overcome limitation and disadvantages presented by currently used devices such as the Fork detector or the Cerenkov Viewing Device. Thus, this device when developed and tested could fill an important need in the safeguards area for partial defect detection, a technology that the IAEA has been seeking for the past few decades.

Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S

2008-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

336

Pulsed homodyne Gaussian quantum tomography with low detection efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulsed homodyne quantum tomography usually requires a high detection efficiency limiting its applicability in quantum optics. Here, it is shown that the presence of low detection efficiency ($<50\\%$) does not prevent the tomographic reconstruction of quantum states of light, specifically, of Gaussian type. This result is obtained by applying the so-called "minimax" adaptive reconstruction of the Wigner function to pulsed homodyne detection. In particular, we prove, by both numerical and real experiments, that an effective discrimination of different Gaussian quantum states can be achieved. Our finding paves the way to a more extensive use of quantum tomographic methods, even in physical situations in which high detection efficiency is unattainable.

Martina Esposito; Fabio Benatti; Roberto Floreanini; Stefano Olivares; Francesco Randi; Kelvin Titimbo; Marco Pividori; Fabio Novelli; Federico Cilento; Fulvio Parmigiani; Daniele Fausti

2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

337

Bursts detected and NOT detected by EGRET imaging spark chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EGRET has detected the highest energy emission from gamma-ray bursts. Only a few bursts have been detected either coincident or just following the BATSE detected emission. These bursts are among the brightest bursts detected by BATSE. The EGRET fluxes, including upper limits, are consistent with extrapolations for all the burst spectra measured with Comptel.

Dingus, Brenda L. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Catelli, Jennifer R. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Schneid, E. J. [Northrop-Grummann, MS A01-26, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

1998-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

Alpha and recoil track detection in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)—Towards a method for in vitro assessment of radiopharmaceuticals internalized in cancer cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for detection and characterization of single MeV ?-particle and recoil tracks in PMMA photoresist by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis has been demonstrated. The energy deposition along the track is shown to lead to a latent pattern in the resist due to contrast reversal. It has been shown that the pattern, consisting of conical spikes, can be developed by conventional processing as a result of the dissolution rate of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) being greater than that for the modified material in the cylindrical volume of the track core. The spikes can be imaged and counted by routine AFM analysis. Investigations by angular-resolved near-grazing incidence reveal additional tracks that correspond to recoil tracks. The observations have been correlated with modelling, and shown to be in qualitative agreement with prevailing descriptions of collision cascades. The results may be relevant to technologies that are based on detection and characterization of single energetic ions. In particular, the direct visualization of the collision cascade may allow more accurate estimates of the actual interaction volume, which in turn will permit more precise assessment of dose distribution of ?-emitting radionuclides used for targeted radiotherapy. The results could also be relevant to other diagnostic or process technologies based on interaction of energetic ions with matter.

Myhra, S., E-mail: sverre.myhra@materials.ox.ac.uk; Chakalova, R. [Oxford University Begbroke Science Park, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Oxford University Begbroke Science Park, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Falzone, N. [MRC/CRUK Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom and Department of Biomedical Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)] [MRC/CRUK Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom and Department of Biomedical Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Methods for threshold determination in multiplexed assays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for determination of threshold values of signatures comprised in an assay are described. Each signature enables detection of a target. The methods determine a probability density function of negative samples and a corresponding false positive rate curve. A false positive criterion is established and a threshold for that signature is determined as a point at which the false positive rate curve intersects the false positive criterion. A method for quantitative analysis and interpretation of assay results together with a method for determination of a desired limit of detection of a signature in an assay are also described.

Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

340

Experimental and semiempirical method to determine the Pauli-limiting field in quasi-two-dimensional superconductors as applied to ?-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2: strong evidence of a FFLO state  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present upper critical field data for {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} with the magnetic field close to parallel and parallel to the conducting layers. We show that we can eliminate the effect of vortex dynamics in these layered materials if the layers are oriented within 0.3-inch of parallel to the applied magnetic field. Eliminating vortex effects leaves one remaining feature in the data that corresponds to the Pauli paramagnetic limit (H{sub p}). We propose a semiempirical method to calculate the H{sub p} in quasi-2D superconductors. This method takes into account the energy gap of each of the quasi-2D superconductors, which is calculated from specific-heat data, and the influence of many-body effects. The calculated Pauli paramagnetic limits are then compared to critical field data for the title compound and other organic conductors. Many of the examined quasi-2D superconductors, including the above organic superconductors and CeCoIn{sub 5}, exhibit upper critical fields that exceed their calculated H{sub p} suggesting unconventional superconductivity. We show that the high-field low-temperature state in {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} is consistent with the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state.

Agosta, C. C.; Jin, J.; Coniglio, W. A.; Smith, B. E.; Cho, K.; Mihut, I.; Martin, C.; Tozer, S. W.; Murphy, T. P.; Palm, E. C.; Schlueter, J. A.; Kurmoo, M. (Materials Science Division); (Clark Univ.); (Nat. High Field Magnet Lab.); (The Royal Inst.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

L-RCM: a method to detect connected components in undirected graphs by using the Laplacian matrix and the RCM algorithm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we consider undirected graphs with no loops and multiple edges, consisting of k connected components. In these cases, it is well known that one can find a numbering of the vertices such that the adjacency matrix A is block diagonal with k blocks. This also holds for the (unnormalized) Laplacian matrix L= D-A, with D a diagonal matrix with the degrees of the nodes. In this paper we propose to use the Reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM) algorithm to obtain a block diagonal form of L that reveals the number of connected components of the graph. We present some theoretical results about the irreducibility of the Laplacian matrix ordered by the RCM algorithm. As a practical application we present a very efficient method to detect connected components with a computational cost of O(m+n), being m the number of edges and n the number of nodes. The RCM method is implemented in some comercial packages like MATLAB and Mathematica. We make the computations by using the function symrcm of MATLAB. Some numerical resu...

Pedroche, Francisco; Carrascosa, Carlos; Palomares, Alberto

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Evaluation of Islanding Detection Methods  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASEEmissions ofESTIMATE

343

Detection Rates for Close Binaries Via Microlensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microlensing is one of the most promising methods of reconstructing the stellar mass function down to masses even below the hydrogen-burning limit. The fundamental limit to this technique is the presence of unresolved binaries, which can in principle significantly alter the inferred mass function. Here we quantify the fraction of binaries that can be detected using microlensing, considering specifically the mass ratio and separation of the binary. We find that almost all binary systems with separations greater than $b \\sim 0.4$ of their combined Einstein ring radius are detectable assuming a detection threshold of $3\\%$. For two M dwarfs, this corresponds to a limiting separation of $\\gsim 1 \\au$. Since very few observed M dwarfs have companions at separations $\\lsim 1 \\au$, we conclude that close binaries will probably not corrupt the measurements of the mass function. We find that the detectability depends only weakly on the mass ratio. For those events for which individual masses can be determined, we find that binaries can be detected down to $b \\sim 0.2$.

B. Scott Gaudi; Andrew Gould

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

344

Newtonian limits of warp drive spacetimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We find a class of warp drive spacetimes possessing Newtonian limits, which we then determine. The same method is used to compute Newtonian limits of the Schwarzschild solution and spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models.

Jose Natario

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

345

Detection of pump degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Detection Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science Project Description Chemistry used in measurement and detection science plays a...

348

RADON 131 7. ANALYTICAL METHODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the analytical methods that are available for detecting, measuring, and/or monitoring radon and its progeny. The intent is not to provide an exhaustive list of analytical methods. Rather, the intention is to identify well-established methods that are used as the standard methods of analysis. Many of the analytical methods used for environmental samples are the methods approved by federal agencies and organizations such as EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Other methods presented in this chapter are those that are approved by groups such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the American Public Health Association (APHA). Additionally, analytical methods are included that modify previously used methods to obtain lower detection limits and/or to improve accuracy and precision. 7.1 BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS Table 7-1 lists various methods used to detect radon progeny in biological samples. Since the half-life of radon is short, its measurement in biological samples, such as serum, urine, blood, etc., is not practical. Measurements of the longer lived radon progeny 210 Pb and 210 Po in biological samples may be used as an indication of radon exposure; however, ingestion of these isotopes from food and drinking water or direct exposure from other environmental media are considered the primary sources of exposure for these

unknown authors

349

Abstract--This work presents an analysis of the information content of new features derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG) for the characterization of apnea-bradycardia events in preterm infants. Automatic beat detection and segmentation methods have  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the electrocardiogram (ECG) for the characterization of apnea-bradycardia events in preterm infants. Automatic beat detection and segmentation methods have been adapted to the ECG signals from preterm infants, through the application of two evolutionary algorithms. ECG data acquired from 32 preterm infants with persistent apnea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Correlation methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Correlation methods have been developed to provide a quick and relatively simple technique for estimating the performance of passive solar systems. The correlations are done with respect to data generated from simulation models. The techniques and accuracies are described. Both the Solar Load Ratio and Un-Utilizability methods are described. The advantages and limitations of correlation methods as design tools are discussed.

Balcomb, J.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Method of intrinsic marking  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of pulsed laser intrinsic marking can provide a unique identifier to detect tampering or counterfeiting.

Adams, David P; McDonald, Joel Patrick; Jared, Bradley Howell; Hodges, V. Carter; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Blair, Dianna S

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Detection of the internal corrosion in pipeline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detection of the internal corrosion in pipeline. Hyeonbae Kang. In this talk I will explain our new methods to detect internal corrosions in pipelines.

2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Lean blowoff detection sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, David (Morgantown, WV)

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

354

Detection of counterfeit currency  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1250 namometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency.

Burns, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Apply early! Limited enrollment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volcano. Experience the culture and history of Hawaii, and the impact of human activitiesApply early! Limited enrollment. Environmental Science in the Hawaiian Islands Observe, research

356

Cyber-Physical Attacks in Power Networks: Models, Fundamental Limitations and Monitor Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Future power networks will be characterized by safe and reliable functionality against physical malfunctions and cyber attacks. This paper proposes a unified framework and advanced monitoring procedures to detect and identify network components malfunction or measurements corruption caused by an omniscient adversary. We model a power system under cyber-physical attack as a linear time-invariant descriptor system with unknown inputs. Our attack model generalizes the prototypical stealth, (dynamic) false-data injection and replay attacks. We characterize the fundamental limitations of both static and dynamic procedures for attack detection and identification. Additionally, we design provably-correct (dynamic) detection and identification procedures based on tools from geometric control theory. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of our method through a comparison with existing (static) detection algorithms, and through a numerical study.

Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bullo, Francesco

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Evaluation of a Method for Remote Detection of Fuel Relocation Outside the Original Core Volumes of Fukushima Reactor Units 1-3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the feasibility of remotely detecting and quantifying fuel relocation from the core to the lower head, and to regions outside the reactor vessel primary containment of the Fukushima 1-3 reactors. The goals of this study were to determine measurement conditions and requirements, and to perform initial radiation transport sensitivity analyses for several potential measurement locations inside the reactor building. The radiation transport sensitivity analyses were performed based on reactor design information for boiling water reactors (BWRs) similar to the Fukushima reactors, ORIGEN2 analyses of 3-cycle BWR fuel inventories, and data on previously molten fuel characteristics from TMI- 2. A 100 kg mass of previously molten fuel material located on the lower head of the reactor vessel was chosen as a fuel interrogation sensitivity target. Two measurement locations were chosen for the transport analyses, one inside the drywell and one outside the concrete biological shield surrounding the drywell. Results of these initial radiation transport analyses indicate that the 100 kg of previously molten fuel material may be detectable at the measurement location inside the drywell, but that it is highly unlikely that any amount of fuel material inside the RPV will be detectable from a location outside the concrete biological shield surrounding the drywell. Three additional fuel relocation scenarios were also analyzed to assess detection sensitivity for varying amount of relocated material in the lower head of the reactor vessel, in the control rods perpendicular to the detector system, and on the lower head of the drywell. Results of these analyses along with an assessment of background radiation effects and a discussion of measurement issues, such as the detector/collimator design, are included in the paper.

Douglas W. Akers; Edwin A. Harvego

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

Ekechukwu, A

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

359

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Optical sensing elements for nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) gas detection, a sol-gel method for making the sensing elements and fiber optic sensors incorporating nitrogen dioxide gas optical sensing elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensing element, a method of making a sensing element, and a fiber optic sensor incorporating the sensing element are described. The sensor can be used for the quantitative detection of NO.sub.2 in a mixture of gases. The sensing element can be made by incorporating a diazotizing reagent which reacts with nitrous ions to produce a diazo compound and a coupling reagent which couples with the diazo compound to produce an azo dye into a sol and allowing the sol to form an optically transparent gel. The sensing element changes color in the presence of NO.sub.2 gas. The temporal response of the absorption spectrum at various NO.sub.2 concentrations has also been recorded and analyzed. Sensors having different design configurations are described. The sensing element can detect NO.sub.2 gas at levels of parts per billion.

Mechery, Shelly John (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Starkville, MS)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance, Ornamental & Turf, Private Ag, or General Standards CORE for Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance (LCLM), you must attend all day to earn the 6 CEUs required. Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO) Training & Exams Date

Florida, University of

362

Real-world Polymorphic Attack Detection Michalis Polychronakis,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proposed network-level emulation, a heuristic detection method that scans network traffic to detect, sophisticated obfuscation schemes. Keywords Polymorphism, intrusion detection, code emulation 1. Introduction them under control for as long as possible. As detection mechanisms improve, attackers employ

Markatos, Evangelos P.

363

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

364

Micro-Machined Thin Film Sensor Arrays For The Detection Of H2, Containing Gases, And Method Of Making And Using The Same.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a hydrogen sensor including a thin film sensor element formed by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD), on a micro-hotplate structure. The thin film sensor element includes a film of a hydrogen-interactive metal film that reversibly interacts with hydrogen to provide a correspondingly altered response characteristic, such as optical transmissivity, electrical conductance, electrical resistance, electrical capacitance, magneto resistance, photoconductivity, etc., relative to the response characteristic of the film in the absence of hydrogen. The hydrogen-interactive metal film may be overcoated with a thin film hydrogen-permeable barrier layer to protect the hydrogen-interactive film from deleterious interaction with non-hydrogen species. The hydrogen permeable barrier may comprise species to scavenge oxygen and other like species. The hydrogen sensor of the invention may be usefully employed for the detection of hydrogen in an environment susceptible to the incursion or generation of hydrogen and may be conveniently configured as a hand-held apparatus.

DiMeo, Jr., Frank (Danbury, CT); Baum, Thomas H. (New Fairfield, CT)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

365

Transcription factor-based biosensors for detecting dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods and compositions for detecting dicarboxylic acids using a transcription factor biosensor.

Dietrich, Jeffrey; Keasling, Jay

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heat flux limiting sleeves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC (AFROC) area decreased from 0.84 to 0.63 and the ROC area decreased from 0.91 to 0.79 (p < 0.0001). This corresponded to a 30% drop in lesion sensitivity at a NLF equal to 0.1. Detection was also sensitive to the dose used. There was no significant difference in detection between the two image processing algorithms used (p > 0.05). It was additionally found that lower threshold gold thickness from CDMAM analysis implied better cluster detection. The measured threshold gold thickness passed the acceptable limit set in the EU standards for all image qualities except half dose CR. However, calcification detection varied significantly between image qualities. This suggests that the current EU guidelines may need revising. Conclusions: Microcalcification detection was found to be sensitive to detector and dose used. Standard measurements of image quality were a good predictor of microcalcification cluster detection.

Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C. [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford GU1 1LJ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, St. George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15210 (United States); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Detection of counterfeit currency  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1,250 nanometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency. 18 figs.

Burns, D.A.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

370

Limit of light coupling into solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a limit for the strength of coupling light into the modes of solar cells. This limit depends on both a cell's thickness and its modal properties. For a cell with refractive index n and thickness d, we obtain a maximal coupling rate of 2c*sqrt(n^2-1)/d where c is speed of light. Our method can be used in the design of solar cells and in calculating their efficiency limits; besides, it can be applied to a broad variety of resonant phenomena and devices.

Naqavi, A; Ballif, C; Scharf, T; Herzig, H P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Institute of Computer Science A modified limited-memory BNS ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Computer Science. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. A modified limited-memory BNS method for unconstrained minimization based on ...

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fault current limiter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

Darmann, Francis Anthony

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Limited Distribution Notice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report has been submitted for publication outside of IBM and will probably be copyrighted is accepted for publication. It has been issued as a Research Report for early dissemination of its contents. In view of the transfer of copyright to the outside publisher, its distribution outside of IBM prior to publication should be limited to peer communications and specific requests. After outside publication, requests should be filled only by reprints or legally obtained copies of the article (e.g., payment of royalties). Some reports are available at

Josh Hailpern; John Jay High; Charles C. Palmer

375

Process Limits on Euclid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentationsSRS RespondsLift Plan ProcedureProcess Limits

376

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

377

Supernova Neutrinos Detection On Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we first discuss the detection of supernova neutrino on Earth. Then we propose a possible method to acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ smaller than $1.5^\\circ$ by detecting the ratio of the event numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos. Such an sensitivity cannot yet be achieved by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment.

Xin-Heng Guo; Ming-Yang Huang; Bing-Lin Young

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

Relating to ion detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Anton Ziolkowski, January 2013 1 MTEM LIMITED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and David Wright of the University of Edinburgh invented a new electromagnetic method to detect sub-sea and underground hydrocarbons. In 2003 they founded MTEM Ltd. to develop the technology and provide land and marine and marine transient electromagnetic surveys that can identify hydrocarbons before drilling, thus reducing

380

Detection device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

Smith, J.E.

1981-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

TANG et al.: DETECTION AND TRACKING OF OCCLUDED PEOPLE 1 Detection and Tracking of Occluded People  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with many subjects that partially occlude each other. This limitation is due to the fact that current peopleTANG et al.: DETECTION AND TRACKING OF OCCLUDED PEOPLE 1 Detection and Tracking of Occluded People We consider the problem of detection and tracking of multiple people in crowded street scenes. State

382

Probe and method for DNA detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybridization probe containing two linear strands of DNA lights up upon hybridization to a target DNA using silver nanoclusters that have been templated onto one of the DNA strands. Hybridization induces proximity between the nanoclusters on one strand and an overhang on the other strand, which results in enhanced fluorescence emission from the nanoclusters.

Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James Henry; Sharma, Jaswinder Kumar; Martinez, Jennifer Suzanne

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

383

Compositions and methods for detecting Noonan syndrome  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications for Noonan Syndrome are described. The diagnostic and therapeutic applications are based on certain mutations in a RAS-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor gene SOS1 or its expression product. The diagnostic and therapeutic applications are also based on certain mutations in a serine/threonine protein kinase gene RAF1 or its expression product thereof. Also described are nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences, probes, and primers related to RAF1 or SOS1, and variants thereof, as well as host cells expressing such variants.

Gelb, Bruce D. (New York, NY); Tartaglia, Marco (Rome, IT); Pennacchio, Len (Walnut Creek, CA)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

384

Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

Sigg, Raymond A. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

Sigg, R.A.

1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

386

Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph Theoretical Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vulnerabilities in power networks is an important prob- lem, as even a small number of vulnerable connections can benchmark power networks. 1 Introduction The electric power grid network is susceptible to power outages northeast and Canada, which affected an estimated 50 million people, causing over $6 billion in damage

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

387

Method and apparatus for detecting concealed weapons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for classifying a ferromagnetic object within a sensing area may include a magnetic field sensor that produces magnetic field data. A signal processing system operatively associated with the magnetic field sensor includes a neural network. The neural network compares the magnetic field data with magnetic field data produced by known ferromagnetic objects to make a probabilistic determination as to the classification of the ferromagnetic object within the sensing area. A user interface operatively associated with the signal processing system produces a user-discernable output indicative of the probabilistic determination of the classification of the ferromagnetic object within a sensing area.

Kotter, Dale K.; Fluck, Frederick D.

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

388

Occupancy change detection system and method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for producing an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scanning the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converting the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. The instructions also include processing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map. Within the processing of each grid cell, the instructions include comparing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map to a corresponding grid cell in the current occupancy grid map. For grid cells with a difference, the instructions include defining a change vector for each changed grid cell, wherein the change vector includes a direction from the robot to the changed grid cell and a range from the robot to the changed grid cell.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph Theoretical Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a signi?cant linear relationship between generator size andof those generators. We performed simple linear regression

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Composition for detecting uranyl  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an indicator composition for use in spectrophotometric detection of a substance in a solution, and a method for making the composition. Useful indicators are sensitive to the particular substance being measured, but are unaffected by the fluid and other chemical species that may be present in the fluid. Optical indicators are used to measure the uranium concentration of process solutions in facilities for extracting uranium from ores, production of nuclear fuels, and reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The composition comprises an organohalide covalently bonded to an indicator for the substance, in such a manner that the product is itself an indicator that provides increased spectral resolution for detecting the substance. The indicator is preferably arsenazo III and the organohalide is preferably cyanuric chloride. These form a composition that is ideally suited for detecting uranyl.

Baylor, L.C.; Stephens, S.M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Solar system fault detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

Solar system fault detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Radioactive Target Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. By using the physical law for nuclear radiation isotopes, this chapter proposes a statistical method for wireless sensor network data to detect and locate a hidden nuclear target in a large study area. The method shown that the proposed method is effective and efficient in detection and location of the nuclear

Zhang, Tonglin

394

FED pumped limiter configuration issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge.

Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

396

Early Detection Saves Lives | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-dose image scanner In 2000, the WHPP added low-dose CT scanning for early lung cancer detection to the medical screening on a pilot basis at a limited number of DOE sites,...

397

NeuDetect: A Neural Network Data Mining Wireless Network Intrusion Detection System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NeuDetect: A Neural Network Data Mining Wireless Network Intrusion Detection System C.I. Ezeife wireless intrusion detection systems, this paper presents a method of applying artificial neural networks mining clas- sification technique to wireless network intrusion detection system. The proposed system

Ezeife, Christie

398

COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Aspects of leak detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Quantum limits to estimation of photon deformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address potential deviations of radiation field from the bosonic behaviour and employ local quantum estimation theory to evaluate the ultimate bounds to precision in the estimation of these deviations using quantum-limited measurements on optical signals. We consider different classes of boson deformation and found that intensity measurement on coherent or thermal states would be suitable for their detection making, at least in principle, tests of boson deformation feasible with current quantum optical technology. On the other hand, we found that the quantum signal-to-noise ratio (QSNR) is vanishing with the deformation itself for all the considered classes of deformations and probe signals, thus making any estimation procedure of photon deformation inherently inefficient. A partial way out is provided by the polynomial dependence of the QSNR on the average number of photon, which suggests that, in principle, it would be possible to detect deformation by intensity measurements on high-energy thermal states.

Giovanni De Cillis; Matteo G. A. Paris

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 ?m were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

Nakasuji, Mamoru [2-15-11, Serigaya-chou, Kounan-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)] [2-15-11, Serigaya-chou, Kounan-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Detection Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape, Density, andagingaboutDrizzle inDetecting

403

STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

Delorme, Arnaud

404

Transmission Capital Limited | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective:Toyo Aluminium KKCapital Limited Jump to:

405

Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

The detection of cheating in multiple choice examinations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cheating in examinations is acknowledged by an increasing number of organizations to be widespread. We examine two different approaches to assess their effectiveness at detecting anomalous results, suggestive of collusion, using data taken from a number of multiple-choice examinations organized by the UK Radio Communication Foundation. Analysis of student pair overlaps of correct answers is shown to give results consistent with more orthodox statistical correlations for which confidence limits as opposed to the less familiar "Bonferroni method" can be used. A simulation approach is also developed which confirms the interpretation of the empirical approach.

Richmond, Peter

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Axion Dark Matter searches and New Limits on CPT and Lorentz-Invariance-violating interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the proton and neutron spin contributions for a wide range of nuclei using semi-empirical methods. These values are required for interpretations of searches for exotic nuclear spin-dependent couplings, including those that arise in dark matter detection schemes, which search for axions, WIMPs and topological defects, as well as tests of CPT and Lorentz-invariance violation. We reconsider experiments, which search for evidence of CPT and Lorentz-invariance-violating couplings, using a $^{3}$He/$^{129}$Xe comagnetometer and show that the $^{3}$He/$^{129}$Xe system is in fact particularly sensitive to proton interaction parameters. From existing data, we derive a limit on the CPT and Lorentz-invariance-violating parameter $|\\tilde{b}_{\\perp}^p| nuclear anapole moment data for Cs to obtain new limits on several other CPT and Lorentz-invariance-violating parameters.

Y. V. Stadnik; V. V. Flambaum

2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

408

An upper limit to [C II] emission in a z ~= 5 galaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-ionization-state far-infrared (FIR) emission lines may be useful diagnostics of star-formation activity in young galaxies, and at high redshift may be detectable from the ground. In practice, however, very little is known concerning how strong such line emission might be in the early Universe. We attempted to detect the 158 micron [C II] line from a lensed galaxy at z = 4.926 using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This source is an ordinary galaxy, in the sense that it shows high but not extreme star formation, but lensing makes it visible. Our analysis includes a careful consideration of the calibrations and weighting of the individual scans. We find only modest improvement over the simpler reduction methods, however, and the final spectrum remains dominated by systematic baseline ripple effects. We obtain a 95 per cent confidence upper limit of 33 mJy for a 200 km/s full width at half maximum line, corresponding to an unlensed luminosity of 1x10^9 L_sun for a standard cosmology. Combining this with a marginal detection of the continuum emission using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, we derive an upper limit of 0.4 per cent for the ratio of L_CII/L_FIR in this object.

Gaelen Marsden; Colin Borys; Scott C. Chapman; Mark Halpern; Douglas Scott

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

409

Nucleic acid sequence detection using multiplexed oligonucleotide PCR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for rapidly detecting single or multiple sequence alleles in a sample nucleic acid are described. Provided are all of the oligonucleotide pairs capable of annealing specifically to a target allele and discriminating among possible sequences thereof, and ligating to each other to form an oligonucleotide complex when a particular sequence feature is present (or, alternatively, absent) in the sample nucleic acid. The design of each oligonucleotide pair permits the subsequent high-level PCR amplification of a specific amplicon when the oligonucleotide complex is formed, but not when the oligonucleotide complex is not formed. The presence or absence of the specific amplicon is used to detect the allele. Detection of the specific amplicon may be achieved using a variety of methods well known in the art, including without limitation, oligonucleotide capture onto DNA chips or microarrays, oligonucleotide capture onto beads or microspheres, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Various labels and address-capture tags may be employed in the amplicon detection step of multiplexed assays, as further described herein.

Nolan, John P. (Santa Fe, NM); White, P. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

Radon detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

411

Temporary Emergency Exposure Limits for Chemicals: Methods and Practice  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClientDesignOffice -Template for a Comprehensive Water

412

Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

Rouse, G.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Tropical Limit in Statistical Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical limit for macroscopic systems in equilibrium defined as the formal limit of Boltzmann constant k going to 0 is discussed. It is shown that such tropical limit is well-adapted to analyse properties of systems with highly degenerated energy levels, particularly of frustrated systems like spin ice and spin glasses. Tropical free energy is a piecewise linear function of temperature, tropical entropy is a piecewise constant function and the system has energy for which tropical Gibbs' probability has maximum. Properties of systems in the points of jump of entropy are studied. Systems with finite and infinitely many energy levels and phenomena of limiting temperatures are discussed.

M. Angelelli; B. Konopelchenko

2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

414

3D-FFT for Signature Detection in LWIR Images  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvements in analysis detection exploitation are possible by applying whitened matched filtering within the Fourier domain to hyperspectral data cubes. We describe an implementation of a Three Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Whitened Matched Filter (3DFFTMF) approach and, using several example sets of Long Wave Infra Red (LWIR) data cubes, compare the results with those from standard Whitened Matched Filter (WMF) techniques. Since the variability in shape of gaseous plumes precludes the use of spatial conformation in the matched filtering, the 3DFFTMF results were similar to those of two other WMF methods. Including a spatial low-pass filter within the Fourier space can improve signal to noise ratios and therefore improve detection limit by facilitating the mitigation of high frequency clutter. The improvement only occurs if the low-pass filter diameter is smaller than the plume diameter.

Medvick, Patricia A.; Lind, Michael A.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Foote, Harlan P.

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

416

Applying Infrared Thermography as a Quality-Control Tool for the Rapid Detection of Proton-Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cell Catalyst-Layer-Thickness Variations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As fuel cells become more prominent, new manufacturing and production methods are needed to enable increased volumes with high quality. One necessary component of this industrial growth will be the accurate measurement of the variability of a wide range of material properties during the manufacturing process. In this study, a method to detect defects in fuel cell catalyst layers is investigated through experiment and mathematical simulation. The method uses infrared thermography and direct-current electronic-excitation methods to detect variations in platinum-containing catalyst-layer thickness with high spatial and temporal resolution. Data analysis, operating-condition impacts, and detection limits are explored, showing the measurement of defects on the millimeter length scale. Overall, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate great potential of this technique as a nondestructive method to measure defects that is amenable to use on roll-to-roll manufacturing lines.

Aieta, N. V.; Das, P. K.; Perdue, A.; Bender, G.; Herring, A. M.; Weber, A. Z.; Ulsh, M. J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Protein detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

Fruetel, Julie A. (Livermore, CA); Fiechtner, Gregory J. (Bethesda, MD); Kliner, Dahv A. V. (San Ramon, CA); McIlroy, Andrew (Livermore, CA)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

419

Limitations on entropic Bell inequalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivation of Bell inequalities in terms of quantum statistical (thermodynamic) entropies is considered. Inequalities of the Wigner form are derived but shown to be extremely limiting in their applicability due to the nature of the density matrices involved. This also helps to identify a limitation in the Cerf-Adami inequalities.

Ian T. Durham

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Congressional Request Limiting the Magnitude  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as goals? Target: limit U.S. GHG emissions (e.g., national emission budget, or percent reduction) What is a reasonable share of U.S. emission reductions relative to the global targets? What is the implied emissions on atmospheric GHG concentrations? Target: limit atmospheric GHG concentrations (e.g., 450, 550 ppm CO2,eq) How

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fuel washout detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for detecting grossly failed reactor fuel by detection of particulate matter as accumulated on a filter.

Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Arc fault detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Arc fault detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

Jha, K.N.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

424

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

425

Opaque cloud detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

426

Reservoir Characterization with Limited Sample Data using Geostatistics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary objective of this dissertation was to develop a systematic method to characterize the reservoir with the limited available data. The motivation behind the study was characterization of CO2 pilot area in the Hall Gurney Field, Lansing...

Ghoraishy, Sayyed Mojtaba

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Nonlinear subcritical magnetohydrodynamic beta limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published gyrokinetic simulations have had difficulty operating beyond about half the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) critical beta limit with stationary and low transport levels in some well-established reference cases. Here it is demonstrated that this limitation is unlikely due to numerical instability, but rather appears to be a nonlinear subcritical MHD beta limit[R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1098 (1985)] induced by the locally enhanced pressure gradients from the diamagnetic component of the nonlinearly driven (zero frequency) zonal flows. Strong evidence that the zonal flow corrugated pressure gradient profiles can act as a MHD-like beta limit unstable secondary equilibrium is provided. It is shown that the addition of sufficient ExB shear or operation closer to drift wave instability threshold, thereby reducing the high-n drift wave turbulence nonlinear pumping of the zonal flows, can allow the normal high-n ideal MHD beta limit to be reached with low transport levels. Example gyrokinetic simulations of experimental discharges are provided: one near the high-n beta limit reasonably matches the low transport levels needed when the high experimental level of ExB shear is applied; a second experimental example at moderately high beta appears to be limited by the subcritical beta.

Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Tape-cast sensors and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making electrochemical sensors in which an electrolyte material is cast into a tape. Prefabricated electrodes are then partially embedded between two wet layers of the electrolyte tape to form a green sensor, and the green sensor is then heated to sinter the electrolyte tape around the electrodes. The resulting sensors can be used in applications such as, but not limited to, combustion control, environmental monitoring, and explosive detection. A electrochemical sensor formed by the tape-casting method is also disclosed.

Mukundan, Rangachary (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

429

Redshift Limits of BL Lacertae Objects from Optical Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: BL Lacertae objects have been the targets for numerous recent multiwavelength campaigns, continuum spectral variability studies, and theoretical spectral and variability modeling. A meaningful interpretation of the results of such studies requires a reliable knowledge of the objects' redshifts; however, the redshifts for many are still unknown or uncertain. Aims: Therefore, we hope to determine or constrain the redshifts of six BL Lac objects with unknown or poorly known redshifts. Methods: Observations were made of these objects with the MDM 2.4 m Hiltner telescope. Although no spectral features were detected, and thus no redshifts could be measured, lower redshift limits were assigned to the objects based on the expected equivalent widths of absorption features in their host galaxies. Redshifts were also estimated for some objects by assuming the host galaxies are standard candles and using host galaxy apparent magnitudes taken from the literature. Results: The commonly used redshift of $z=0.102$ for 1219+285 is almost certainly wrong, while the redshifts of the other objects studied remain undetermined.

J. D. Finke; J. C. Shields; M. Boettcher; S. Basu

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ultrasensitive microanalytical diagnostic methods for rickettsial pathogens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A strategic CRADA was established between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston to address pressing needs for US protection against biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and emerging infectious diseases. The combination of unique expertise and facilities at UTMB and SNL enabled interdisciplinary research efforts in the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic methods for early detection of trace priority pathogen levels. Outstanding postdoctoral students were also trained at both institutions to help enable the next generation of scientists to tackle the challenging interdisciplinary problems in the area of biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. Novel approaches to diagnostics were developed and the both the speed of assays as well as the detection sensitivity were improved by over an order of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This is a significant step toward more timely and specific detection of dangerous infections. We developed in situ polymerized porous polymer monoliths that can be used as (1) size exclusion elements for capture and processing of rickettsial infected cells from a sample, (2) photopatternable framework for grafting high densities of functionalized antibodies/fluorescent particles using novel monolith chemistry. Grafting affinity reagents specific to rickettsial particles enables rapid, ultra-sensitive assays by overcoming transport limitations of traditional planar assay approaches. We have selectively trapped particles and bacteria at the cell trap and have also detected picomolar mouse IL-6 captured with only 20 minutes total incubation times using the densely patterned monolith framework. As predicted, the monolith exhibits >10x improvements in both capture speed and capture density compared to traditional planar approaches. The most significant advancements as part of this CRADA is the optimization of techniques allowing the detection of <10 rickettsial cells in a whole blood sample. This detection limit is over 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive that previously reported methods and overcomes a key hurdle in ability to sense dangerous infections before they are too late to treat and contain. We also showed that in the new format, cross-reactivity with interfering species is reduced thereby increasing the specificity of such tests. Promising options to treat whole blood and avoid clogging and non-specific fouling of sensors were also developed.

Hatch, A. V.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cognitive Limitations and Investment "Myopia"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of investment decisions in an uncertain and dynamically evolving environment is difficult due to the limitations of the decision maker’s cognitive capacity. Thus, actual investment decisions may deviate from ...

Chi, Tailan; Fan, Dashan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fact that one must evaluate the near-extremal and near-horizon limits of Kerr space-time in a specific order, is shown to a lead to discontinuity in the extremal limit, such that this limiting space-time differs nontrivially from the precisely extremal space-time. This is established by first showing a discontinuity in the extremal limit of the maximal analytic extension of the Kerr geometry, given by Carter. Next, we examine the ISCO of the exactly extremal Kerr geometry and show that on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr black hole, it coincides with the principal null geodesic generator of the horizon, having vanishing energy and angular momentum. We find that there is no such ISCO in the near-extremal geometry, thus garnering additional support for our primary contention. We relate this disparity between the two geometries to the lack of a trapping horizon in the extremal situation.

Parthapratim Pradhan; Parthasarathi Majumdar

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Passive fault current limiting device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

434

Assessment of strength limiting flaws in ceramic heat exchanger components: Phase 1, Final report, September 28, 1984-June 30, 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assurance of energy efficient design lifetimes of high temperature structural ceramics requires the ability to specify acceptance criteria and to test to those criteria. These criteria will be established through nondestructive testing, to determine which defects are detectable, together with fracture mechanics, to calculate effects of indetectable flaws. The first phase of this program is to examine heat exchanger material with four test methods which have shown promise for use in ceramics; ultrasonic scanning, microfocus x-ray, Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope, and Acoustic Holography. The capabilities, limits, and potential for improvement of these are presented in this report. Destructive testing, material sectioning, and fractography are included. 24 refs., 68 figs., 6 tabs.

Powers, T.; Snyder, J.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

An investigation of penetrant techniques for detection of machining-induced surface-breaking cracks on monolithic ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this effort was to evaluate penetrant methods for their ability to detect surface-breaking cracks in monolithic ceramic materials with an emphasis on detection of cracks generated by machining. There are two basic penetrant types, visible and fluorescent. The visible penetrant method is usually augmented by powder developers and cracks detected can be seen in visible light. Cracks detected by fluorescent penetrant are visible only under ultraviolet light used with or without a developer. The developer is basically a powder that wicks up penetrant from a crack to make it more observable. Although fluorescent penetrants were recommended in the literature survey conducted early in this effort, visible penetrants and two non-standard techniques, a capillary gaseous diffusion method under development at the institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow, and the {open_quotes}statiflux{close_quotes} method which involves use of electrically charged particles, were also investigated. SiAlON ring specimens (1 in. diameter, 3/4 in. wide) which had been subjected to different thermal-shock cycles were used for these tests. The capillary gaseous diffusion method is based on ammonia; the detector is a specially impregnated paper much like litmus paper. As expected, visible dye penetrants offered no detection sensitivity for tight, surface-breaking cracks in ceramics. Although the non-standard statiflux method showed promise on high-crack-density specimens, it was ineffective on limited-crack-density specimens. The fluorescent penetrant method was superior for surface-breaking crack detection, but successful application of this procedure depends greatly on the skill of the user. Two presently available high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrants were then evaluated for detection of microcracks on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC from different suppliers. Although 50X optical magnification may be sufficient for many applications, 200X magnification provides excellent delectability.

Forster, G.A.; Ellingson, W.A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Intrusion detection sensor testing tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrusion detection sensors must be frequently tested to verify that they are operational, and they must be periodically tested to verify that they are functioning at required performance levels. Concerns involving this testing can include: The significant amount of manpower required, inconsistent results due to variability in methods and personnel, exposure of personnel to hazardous environments, and difficulty in obtaining access to the areas containing some of the intrusion sensors. To address these concerns, the Department of Energy directed Sandia National Labs. to develop intrusion detection sensor testing tools. Over the past two years Sandia has developed several sensor testing tool prototypes. This paper describes the evolution of an exterior intrusion detection sensor tester and automatic data logger, and also describes various interior intrusion detection sensor test fixtures that can be remotely activated to simulate an intruder.

Hayward, D.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN EMERGENCY MILK SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

438

Detecting persons concealed in a vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for detecting the presence of humans or animals concealed within in a vehicle uses a combination of the continuous wavelet transform and a ratio-based energy calculation to determine whether the motion detected using seismic sensors placed on the vehicle is due to the presence of a heartbeat within the vehicle or is the result of motion caused by external factors such as the wind. The method performs well in the presence of light to moderate ambient wind levels, producing far fewer false alarm indications. The new method significantly improves the range of ambient environmental conditions under which human presence detection systems can reliably operate.

Tucker Jr., Raymond W.

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

439

Colorimetric detection of uranium in water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

440

Detecting Planets around Compact Binaries with Gravitational Wave Detectors in Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I propose a method to detect planets around compact binaries that are strong sources of gravitational radiation. This approach is to measure gravitational-wave phase modulations induced by the planets, and its prospect is studied with a Fisher matrix analysis. I find that, using the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), planets can be searched for around ~3000 Galactic double white dwarfs with detection limit ~4 M_J (M_J~ 2x10^{30}g: the Jupiter mass). With its follow-on missions, planets with mass ~1 M_J might be detected around double neutron stars even at cosmological distances z~1. In this manner, gravitational wave observation has potential to make interesting contributions to extra-solar planetary science.

Naoki Seto

2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "method detection limit" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The detection of signals buried in noise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines signal detection in the presence of noise, with a particular emphasis to the nuclear activation analysis. The problem is to decide what between the signal-plus-background and no-signal hypotheses fits better the data and to quantify the relevant signal amplitude or detection limit. Our solution is based on the use of Bayesian inferences to test the different hypotheses.

Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

secondary ion detection | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ion detection secondary ion detection Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

443

Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method for detecting and destroying cancer tumors. The method is based on the concept of associating a linking protein or linking peptide such as, but not limited to, annexin V or other annexins to carbon nanotubes such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form a protein-CNT complex. Said linking protein or peptide can selectively bind to cancerous cells, especially tumor vasculature endothelial cells, rather than to healthy ones by binding to cancer-specific external receptors such as anionic phospholipids including phosphatidylserine expressed on the outer surfaces of cancer cells only. Irradiation of bound CNTs with one or more specific electromagnetic wavelengths is then used to detect and destroy those cells to which the CNTs are bound via the linking protein or peptide thereby destroying the tumor or cancer cells and preferably an immunostimulant is provided to the patient to enhance the immune response against antigens released from the tumor or cancer cells.

Harrison, Jr., Roger G; Resasco, Daniel E; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

444

Ion sensing method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

445

Classical limits of unconstrained QFT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In nonrelativistic limits for states labeled by minimum packets with constrained spatial spreads and over a short term, states of unconstrained quantum field theories evolve on trajectories described by Newton's equations for the $1/r^2$ force. These states include bound solutions in the attractive force case.

Glenn Eric Johnson

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

446

Review and Exams Limited Certification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

__________________________________ Check which exam you will be taking: Commercial Landscape Maintenance Lawn & Ornamental CEU's ONLY 8 Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape Maintenance A license is necessary for each commercial landscape maintenance person who applies pesticides to ornamental plant beds. Application available at: http

Watson, Craig A.

447

Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, ?, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.

Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Queens Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

448

An Augmented Primal-Dual Method for Linear Conic Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apr 11, 2007 ... apd-function with a conjugate gradient method illustrate the ... as a conjugate gradient type method or a limited memory BFGS method.

2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

449

Radiochemical method development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Particle Dark Matter and its Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The status and prospects of the experimental efforts in the detection of Particle Dark Matter is reviewed. Emphasis is put in the direct searches for WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), outlining the various strategies and techniques currently followed and sumarizing the results. A briefing of the indirect methods of WIMP detection is also presented.

Angel Morales

1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

MULTIMOMENT RADIO TRANSIENT DETECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a multimoment technique for signal classification and apply it to the detection of fast radio transients in incoherently dedispersed data. Specifically, we define a spectral modulation index in terms of the fractional variation in intensity across a spectrum. A signal whose intensity is distributed evenly across the entire band has a lower modulation index than a spectrum whose intensity is localized in a single channel. We are interested in broadband pulses and use the modulation index to excise narrowband radio frequency interference by applying a modulation index threshold above which candidate events are removed. The technique is tested both with simulations and using data from known sources of radio pulses (RRAT J1928+15 and giant pulses from the Crab pulsar). The method is generalized to coherent dedispersion, image cubes, and astrophysical narrowband signals that are steady in time. We suggest that the modulation index, along with other statistics using higher order moments, should be incorporated into signal detection pipelines to characterize and classify signals.

Spitler, L. G.; Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S. [Astronomy Department and NAIC, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Stone, J., E-mail: lspitler@astro.cornell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Detection of gas leakage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

Thornberg, Steven (Peralta, NM); Brown, Jason (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

454

Accelerated molecular dynamics methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

455

Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

Yueting Chen

2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

456

Bioethanol Limited | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTIONBioethanol Limited

457

Waste tank characterization sampling limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ``TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories`` (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel.

Tusler, L.A.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

458

DETECTION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNALS IN THE FIRST 12 QUARTERS OF KEPLER MISSION DATA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of a search for potential transit signals in the first three years of photometry data acquired by the Kepler mission. The targets of the search include 112,321 targets that were observed over the full interval and an additional 79,992 targets that were observed for a subset of the full interval. From this set of targets we find a total of 11,087 targets that contain at least one signal that meets the Kepler detection criteria: periodicity of the signal, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, and three tests that reject false positives. Each target containing at least one detected signal is then searched repeatedly for additional signals, which represent multi-planet systems of transiting planets. When targets with multiple detections are considered, a total of 18,406 potential transiting planet signals are found in the Kepler mission data set. The detected signals are dominated by events with relatively low signal-to-noise ratios and by events with relatively short periods. The distribution of estimated transit depths appears to peak in the range between 20 and 30 parts per million, with a few detections down to fewer than 10 parts per million. The detections exhibit signal-to-noise ratios from 7.1{sigma}, which is the lower cutoff for detections, to over 10,000{sigma}, and periods ranging from 0.5 days, which is the shortest period searched, to 525 days, which is the upper limit of achievable periods given the length of the data set and the requirement that all detections include at least three transits. The detected signals are compared to a set of known transit events in the Kepler field of view, many of which were identified by alternative methods; the comparison shows that the current search recovery rate for targets with known transit events is 98.3%.

Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn; Burke, Christopher J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Rowe, Jason F.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94305 (United States)] [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94305 (United States); Borucki, William J.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Cote, Miles T.; Haas, Michael R.; Hunter, Roger C.; Sanderfer, Dwight T. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94305 (United States)] [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94305 (United States); Girouard, Forrest R., E-mail: peter.tenenbaum@nasa.gov [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94305 (United States); and others

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Detecting temperature fluctuations at equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gibbs and Boltzmann definitions of temperature agree only in the macroscopic limit. The ambiguity in identifying the equilibrium temperature of a finite sized `small' system exchanging energy with a bath is usually understood as a limitation of conventional statistical mechanics. We interpret this ambiguity as resulting from a stochastically fluctuating temperature coupled with the phase space variables giving rise to a broad temperature distribution. With this ansatz, we develop the equilibrium statistics and dynamics of small systems. Numerical evidence using an analytically tractable model shows that the effects of temperature fluctuations can be detected in equilibrium and dynamical properties of the phase space of the small system. Our theory generalizes statistical mechanics to small systems relevant to biophysics and nanotechnology.

Dixit, Purushottam D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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