National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for methanol supplemental natural

  1. ,"Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  2. ,"Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  3. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  4. ,"Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  5. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  6. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  7. Natural products and supplements for geriatric depression and cognitive disorders: An evaluation of the research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varteresian, T; Varteresian, T; Lavretsky, H

    2014-01-01

    to recommend various natural supplements and products, aKeywords Natural products . Supplements . Geriatric . Moodnatural products and supplements for vari- ous medical

  8. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  9. Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature Neuroscience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Krukowski and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 1 Web Supplement to Krukowski and Miller, Nature and Miller Web Supplement ­ Feb. 7, 2001 2 The sum is over presynaptic spike times tj, and ffast represents

  10. The nature of the methanol maser ring G23.657-00.127

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bartkiewicz; A. Brunthaler; M. Szymczak; H. J. van Langevelde; M. J. Reid

    2008-09-11

    Methanol masers are associated with young high-mass stars and are an important tool for investigating the process of massive star formation. The recently discovered methanol maser ring in G23.657-00.127 provides an excellent ``laboratory'' for a detailed study of the nature and physical origin of methanol maser emission, as well as parallax and proper motion measurements. Multi-epoch observations of the 12.2 GHz methanol maser line from the ring were conducted using the Very Long Baseline Array. Interferometric observations with milliarcsecond resolution enabled us to track single maser spots in great detail over a period of 2 years. We have determined the trigonometric parallax of G23.657-00.127 to be 0.313+/-0.039 mas, giving a distance of 3.19{+0.46}{-0.35} kpc. The proper motion of the source indicates that it is moving with the same circular velocity as the LSR, but it shows a large peculiar motion of about 35 km/s toward the Galactic center.

  11. The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

    1983-01-01

    45 Figure 9. Relationship between enhanced coke formation with increasing yields of paraffins and diminishing yields of olefins 46 Figure 10. Gas chromatogram of the concentrated carbon tetrachloride extract of spent catalyst pellets . . . 49...THE NATURE ABD FORMATION OF COKE IB THE REACTIOB OF METHANOL TO HIDROCARBOBS OVER CHABAZITE A Thesis KENNETH WOOT MCLAUGHLLN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM Univers ty partial. fulfillment nf the req~nt fo~he degree of MASTER...

  12. Texas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5 47,187.8Year(MillionBarrels) Natural

  13. Performance and emissions of propane, natural gas, and methanol fuelled bus engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetz, W.A.; Petherick, D.; Topaloglu, T.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of six transit bus engines (three diesel, one propane (LPG), one natural gas for vehicles (NGV), and one methanol) has been performed. The purpose of the program was to assess the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of current state-of-the-art large alternative fuel engines. Engine dynamometer test work was performed at the Ontario Research Foundation (ORF) which allowed a detailed comparison of several alternative-fuelled engines versus their diesel counterparts. Test data includes steady-state brake-specific fuel consumption maps, torque and horsepower curves. Transient performance, fuel consumption and emissions information came from computer-controlled engine dynamometer runs of the Advanced Design Bus (ADB) test cycle.

  14. Virginia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3Additions (Million Cubic Feet) VirginiaYear1,124,7170 0 0 2012847

  15. Washington Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3Additions (Million CubicYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May1.8 1.6 1.8

  16. Wisconsin Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3Additions (Million2.8 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.0 1993-2014 Commercial

  17. Wyoming Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3Additions (Million2.8 2.6 2.7Decade Year-0Year Jan Feb Mar1440

  18. Tennessee Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5 47,187.8Year Jan Feb Mar

  19. Vermont Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5GrossDecade Year-0489,947Thousand37,2420.1 0.1 0.1 1

  20. Nebraska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in155Decade Year-0 Year-1Yearper19998 0.8

  1. Nevada Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in155DecadeFeet)VehicleYear8 0.8 0.9 0.90

  2. New Hampshire Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996)Price (Dollars perFeet)TotalYearper2 0.10

  3. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996)Price (Dollars2009TotalDecadeper4.7 4.6 4.5454

  4. New Mexico Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996)Price780 922 (MillionYear560,479149 180 1237

  5. New York Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996)Price780Year JanYear Jan Febper Thousand0

  6. North Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb MarthroughFeet) Decade Year-0(MillionFeet)(Dollars1.40

  7. North Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb MarthroughFeet)Feet) YearThousand Cubic8 1,185

  8. Ohio Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubic Feet) Year Jan Feb MarDecadeThousand Cubic0 0 0522

  9. Oregon Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubic Feet) YearYear JanFeet)0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.80 0

  10. Pennsylvania Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubic Feet) AnnualProved7,018Separation0 0 0 0205 4 2 2

  11. Rhode Island Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November 2013 IndependentYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun4 0.4 0.40 0

  12. South Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November 2013 IndependentYearFeet)Year Jan Feb Marper6 0.7* *

  13. South Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November 2013Additions (Million CubicYear Jan Feb3 0.3 0.3

  14. Alabama Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724 2,570 2,304 1,670Same0 1 2 2 15 2007

  15. Alaska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724 2,570Month Previous Year(Million633

  16. Arizona Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724 2,570MonthThousand8 0.8 0.8 0.6 1993-2014

  17. Arkansas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade1 0

  18. Colorado Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct,622,434 1,634,58742

  19. Connecticut Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014

  20. Delaware Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0Delaware2 1 0 * * 6

  1. Florida Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunYearThousand Cubic2 230

  2. Georgia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar87.1CubicYear Jan Feb2.5 2.9 2.452

  3. Hawaii Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear JanThousand Cubic

  4. Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearYear Jan Febper Thousand Cubic Feet)4

  5. Indiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearYear JanDecade Year-0per Thousand(Million 1 5 1

  6. Iowa Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearYearDecade Year-0 Year-1Thousand Cubic1.5 1.43

  7. Kentucky Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012 2013 2014Thousand CubicYearThousand Cubic0 0

  8. Louisiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012 2013(MillionYear5,020 4,5830 249 435 553 560 517

  9. Maine Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012Decade Year-0 Year-1Total0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

  10. Maryland Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012Decade Year-0Year Jan067,8071.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.770

  11. Massachusetts Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012DecadeTotal Consumptionper Thousand Cubic2.8 2.60

  12. Michigan Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012DecadeTotal19 15 15 152009Sameper Thousand6

  13. Minnesota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012DecadeTotal19 15 (MillionYear JanThousand Cubic847

  14. Missouri Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012DecadeTotal19FuelYear Jan Feb348,781(Million10 18

  15. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8,Product:269,010Product:

  16. Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermelee, A.; Beller, M.; D'Acierno, J.

    1981-11-01

    The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen pipelines. This paper examines incentives and barriers to the implementation of this concept. The analysis is performed with the assumption that current developmental programs will achieve a process for cost-effectively separating pure hydrogen from natural gas/hydrogen mixtures to produce a separable and versatile chemical and fuel commodity. The energy systems formulation used to evaluate the role of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure is the Reference Energy System (RES). The RES is a network diagram that provides an analytic framework for incorporating all resources, technologies, and uses of energy in a uniform manner. A major aspect of the study is to perform a market analysis of traditional uses of resources in the various consuming sectors and the potential for hydrogen substitution in these sectors. The market analysis will focus on areas of industry where hydrogen is used as a feedstock rather than for its fuel-use opportunities to replace oil and natural gas. The sectors of industry where hydrogen is currently used and where its use can be expanded or substituted for other resources include petroleum refining, chemicals, iron and steel, and other minor uses.

  17. Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved% of TotalInput Supplemental Fuels

  18. The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C.

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

  19. Supplement

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutory Authority forPerk |Department ofReportSUPPLEMENT NOVEMBER

  20. New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172Year Jan FebInput Supplemental Fuels

  1. New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172YearDecade Year-0Feet)Input Supplemental

  2. North Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb MarFeet)Feet)Input Supplemental Fuels

  3. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear JanNewMajorInput Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic

  4. Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion Cubic Feet) Havre, MT NaturalYear JanInput

  5. Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 MillionYear

  6. Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - Natural GasYear JanYear JanDecadeYearInput

  7. Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (BillionYear Jan Feb

  8. Supplies of Natural Gas Supplemental Fuels (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November 2013Additions (Million CubicYearCubic Feet) Monthly

  9. Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved ReservesYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  10. Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion Cubic Feet)ThousandYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  11. Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion CubicOctober 2015 Estimates%Input

  12. Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillion CubicOctoberperFeet) Year Jan

  13. Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillionReservesReservesFoot) Decade%Year

  14. Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33Cubic Foot)Year Jan Feb Mar

  15. Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTIPeterFeet)Input

  16. Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR:Decade Year-0 Year-1

  17. Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR:DecadeCubic Foot)Year JanInput

  18. Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUMProved ReservesDecade Year-0Year JanInput

  19. Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY,ProvedFeet) YearYear Jan

  20. Alaska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46ProductionCrude%DecadeYear

  1. Colorado Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas WellsFoot)Year Jan Feb

  2. Connecticut Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992 ConsumptionYearYear JanInput

  3. Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992Thousand9)% ofYear JanInput

  4. District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242 246,243(BTU perAccount

  5. Minnesota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014 MEMORANDUMProvedFeet) U.S.2Imports (NoYearInput

  6. Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014Proved ReservesFoot) Decade

  7. District of Columbia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1-- -- -- --

  8. Method for making methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  9. Method for making methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988 1.996 2.003Summer 2013 Outlook forSupplement:

  11. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

    2013-12-31

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nation’s energy independence.

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Synthetic Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (MillionBiomass GasFeet)

  13. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  14. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  15. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  16. Methanol adsorption on graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption energies and orientation of methanol on graphene are determined from first-principles density functional calculations. We employ the well-tested vdW-DF method that seamlessly includes dispersion interactions with all of the more close-ranged interactions that result in bonds like the covalent and hydrogen bonds. The adsorption of a single methanol molecule and small methanol clusters on graphene are studied at various coverages. Adsorption in clusters or at high coverages (less than a monolayer) is found to be preferable, with the methanol C-O axis approximately parallel to the plane of graphene. The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol adsorption on flakes of graphene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For the high coverage adsorption energies we also find reasonably good agreement with previous desorption measurements.

  17. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  18. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  19. Photo Supplement Photo Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    19 Photo Supplement Photo Supplement This supplement to Chapter 1 presents a photo collection. (Lantern Press, Seattle, WA) #12;21 Photo Supplement Canoe Brand salmon can label, Alaska red salmon and Alaska Packers Association Museum, Blaine, WA [APA trademark]) #12;23 Photo Supplement Cape Karluk Brand

  20. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    vol. ) in Methanol Furnace , 2 , . . . . . . . . , . , .Velocity Profiles in Methanol Furnace Temperature Profiles:to Pure Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . C02

  1. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostko, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    methanol and methanol-water clusters evaluated frommethanol molecules and a water monomer connected via threeof small methanol and methanol-water clusters Oleg Kostko,

  2. Supplemental Material Supplemental methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Supplemental Material Supplemental methods Conjugation of ACPPs to macromolecules. The peptide Photoshop using regions similar to those shown in Supplemental figure 1. Technetium experiments for validation of SUV technique. Optical SUV values were done as described above and in Supplemental Figure 2

  3. Supplemental Discussion Infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    Supplemental Discussion Infrared spectroscopy We obtained near infrared reflectance spectra of 26 /~160 (see Supplemental Figure 1). The region between 1.81 and 1.89 µm has residual contamination the 50 Myr time period (see Supplemental Figure 2). doi: 10.1038/nature05619 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

  4. U.S. Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the NationalSalesof Others (Percent)Input Supplemental

  5. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1. Supplemental Methods 1.1 Description of the Ecosystem Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Supplemental Figures Supplemental Figure 1. Chlorophyll concentrations and chlorophyll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Figure 2. Culture-based example of issue regarding the correct identification

  6. PoS(IXEVNSymposium)039 EVN observations of the methanol masers in Cep A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    PoS(IXEVNSymposium)039 EVN observations of the methanol masers in Cep A Karl Torstensson Leiden observations of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser in the high mass star-forming re- gion Cepheus A. The maser emission field of the methanol masers shows an infall sig- nature rather than a rotation signature. We present

  7. 4, 125164, 2007 Methanol exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland and the atmosphere A. Brunner et al. Title Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Methanol (albrecht.neftel@art.admin.ch) 125 #12;BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland

  8. Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    in the U.S. were coal, oil shale, and biomass. Natural gas (produced from coal and oil shale, methanol produced frommethanol was rated below oil shale and other coal-liquid

  9. Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Gasoline and diesel fuel distributors would lose control of fuel marketing if natural gas, currently distributed by a network of pipeline-transmission companies,gasoline a far more promising alternative than methanol. They argued that oil companies

  10. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D.

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there were 120,415 HOR supplementation smolts released into Johnson Creek during the week of March 12, 2007. Life stage-specific juvenile survival from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was calculated for brood year 2005 NOR and HOR supplementation juvenile Chinook salmon. Survival of NOR parr Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 28.2% and 16.2%. Survival of NOR presmolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 28.2% and 22.3%. Survival of NOR smolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 44.7% and 32.9%. Survival of HOR smolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 31.9% and 26.2%. Multi-year analysis on smolt to adult return rate's (SAR's) and progeny to parent ratio's (P:P's) were calculated for NOR and HOR supplementation Brood Year 2002 Chinook salmon. SAR's were calculated from Johnson Creek to Johnson Creek (JC to JC), Lower Granite Dam to Lower Granite (LGD to LGD), and Lower Granite Dam to Johnson Creek (LGD to JC); for NOR fish SAR's were 0.16%, 1.16% and 1.12%, while HOR supplementation SAR's from JC to JC, LGD to LGD and LGD to JC were 0.04%, 0.19% and 0.13%. P:P's for all returning NOR and HOR supplemented adults were under replacement levels at 0.13 and 0.65, respectively. Recruit per spawner estimates (R/S) for Brood Year 2005 adult Chinook salmon were also calculated for NOR and HOR supplemented Chinook salmon at JC and LGD. R/S estimates for NOR and HOR supplemented fish at JC were 231 and 1,745, while R/S estimates at LGD were 67 and 557. Management recommendations address (1) effectiveness of data collection methods, (2) sufficiency of data quality (statistical power) to enable management recommendations, (3) removal of uncertainty and subsequent cessation of M&E activities, and (4) sufficiency of findings for program modifications prior to five-year review.

  11. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostko, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 Appearance energies for pure and protonated methanoland methanol-water clusters evaluated from photoionizationVUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water

  12. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-01-01

    methanol molecules and a water monomer connected via threemethanol and methanol-water clusters evaluated frommethanol and methanol-water clusters Journal: Manuscript ID:

  13. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  14. Methanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO is developed by EMDPower Inc Jump to:Methanol

  15. U.S. Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet per Day)

  16. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (MillionBiomass Gas (Million Cubic

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Other (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (MillionBiomass Gas (Million

  18. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (MillionBiomass Gas (MillionPropane

  19. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5Gross Withdrawals (MillionBiomass Gas

  20. Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Supplemental Material Supplemental Figure Legends Supp. Fig. 1. Fluorescence images of 3-D clusters) for Integrative Biology This journal is (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009 #12;Supplemental Figures

  1. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  2. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  3. Deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, G.W.; Brown, D.M.; Hsiung, T.H.; Lewnard, J.J. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    A novel methanol synthesis process, the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process, has been developed and scaled up to a nominal 380 kg/h (10 ton/day) pilot plant. The process is based on a gas-sparged slurry reactor instead of a conventional, fixed-bed reactor. The use of slurry reactors, which are essentially gradientless, greatly facilitated the interpretation and quantification of catalyst deactivation phenomena. With a poison-free, CO-rich feedstream, the rate of deactivation of the Cu/ZnO catalyst increased rapidly with temperature. At constant temperature, in the absence of poisons, the decline with time in the rate constant for methanol synthesis correlated with the loss of BET surface area. Iron carbonyl, nickel carbonyl, and carbonyl sulfide are severe and highly specific poisons for methanol-synthesis catalyst. There was a linear relationship between the catalyst activity loss and the concentration of metal or sulfur on the catalyst.

  4. Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell C. Xu,a Y. L. He transport of methanol at the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC and show that the overall mass current density of an in-house-fabricated DMFC with different flow fields for various methanol

  5. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

  6. Intercooling effects of methanol on turbocharged diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, T.; Daisho, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Kawase, N.

    1984-01-01

    From the viewpoint of utilizing methanol fuel in an automotive turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine, an intercooling system supplying liquid methanol has been devised and its effects on engine performance and exhaust gas emissions have been investigated. With an electronically controlled injector in this system, methanol as a supplementary fuel to diesel fuel can be injected into the intake pipe in order to intercool a hot air charge compressed by the turbocharger. It has been confirmed that especially at heavy load conditions, methanol-intercooling can yield a higher thermal efficiency, and lower nox and smoke emissions simultaneously, compared with three other cases without using methanol: natural aspiration and the cases with and without an ordinary intercooler. However, methanol fueling must be avoided at lower loads since sacrifices in efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions are involved.

  7. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  8. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    vol. ) in IVlethano'J Furnace II 1-2. III-3. III-4. III-5.vol. ) in Methanol Furnace , 2 , . . . . . . . . , . , .Velocity Profiles in Methanol Furnace Temperature Profiles:

  9. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-01-01

    cyclic trimer containing two methanol molecules and a waterTable 1 Appearance energies for pure and protonated methanoland methanol-water clusters evaluated from photoionization

  10. Methanol detection in M82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Martín; J. Martín-Pintado; R. Mauersberger

    2006-03-07

    We present a multilevel study of the emission of methanol, detected for the first time in this galaxy, and discuss the origin of its emission. The high observed methanol abundance of a few 10^-9 can only be explained if injection of methanol from dust grains is taken into account. While the overall [CH3OH]/[NH3] ratio is much larger than observed towards other starbursts, the dense high excitation component shows a similar value to that found in NGC 253 and Maffei 2. Our observations suggest the molecular material in M 82 to be formed by dense warm cores, shielded from the UV radiation and similar to the molecular clouds in other starbursts, surrounded by a less dense photodissociated halo. The dense warm cores are likely the location of recent and future star formation within M 82.

  11. Distances to Galactic methanol masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. L. J. Rygl; A. Brunthaler; K. M. Menten; M. J. Reid; H. J. van Langevelde

    2008-12-09

    We present the first EVN parallax measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in star forming regions of the Galaxy. The 6.7 GHz methanol maser transition is a very valuable astrometric tool, for its large stability and confined velocity spread, which makes it ideal to measure proper motions and parallaxes. Eight well-studied massive star forming regions have been observed during five EVN sessions of 24 hours duration each and we present here preliminary results for five of them. We achieve accuracies of up to 51 $\\mu$as, which still have the potential to be proved by more ideal observational circumstances.

  12. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  13. A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    the cathode potential, but also leads to a waste of fuel, lowering the overall efficiency of fuel cell [5A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol Q. Xu Available online 8 October 2010 Keywords: Fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Concentrated methanol Flow

  14. Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Fuqiang State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA Low crossover of both methanol and water through a polymer membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is essential for using high concentration

  15. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,Methanol...n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,Methanol...n - ,,nČ145; published online 27 June 2007 The dynamics of an excess electron in size-selected methanol clusters electron6­11 and its cluster counterparts,12­18 water n - . The solvated electron in liquid methanol has

  16. A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu i g h t s " A sandwich structured membrane for DMFCs operating with neat methanol is proposed. " The membrane offers better water management for DMFCs operating with neat methanol. " The sandwich structured

  17. 6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 6, 3945­3963, 2006 Methanol inside aged tropical biomass burning plumes G. Dufour et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First space-borne measurements of methanol inside aged tropical biomass. Dufour (gaelle.dufour@lmd.polytechnique.fr) 3945 #12;ACPD 6, 3945­3963, 2006 Methanol inside aged

  18. Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation [1] Robert H. Williams, Eric D. Larson, Ryan and Applied Science, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA Methanol and hydrogen produced-derived methanol and hydrogen would be roughly competitive with these fuels produced on a much larger scale (to

  19. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  20. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  1. Methanol Masers and Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; A. B. Ostrovskii; M. S. Kirsanova; O. V. Shelemei; M. A. Voronkov; A. V. Malyshev

    2006-01-12

    Methanol masers which are traditionally divided into two classes provide possibility to study important parts of the star forming regions: Class~II masers trace vicinities of the massive YSOs while class~I masers are likely to trace more distant parts of the outflows where newer stars can form. There are many methanol transitions which produce observed masers. This allows to use pumping analysis for estimation of the physical parameters in the maser formation regions and its environment, for the study of their evolution. Extensive surveys in different masing transitions allow to conclude on the values of the temperatures, densities, dust properties, etc. in the bulk of masing regions. Variability of the brightest masers is monitored during several years. In some cases it is probably caused by the changes of the dust temperature which follow variations in the brightness of the central YSO reflecting the character of the accretion process. A unified catalogue of the class II methanol masers consisting of more than 500 objects is compiled. Analysis of the data shows that: physical conditions within the usual maser source vary considerably; maser brightness is determined by parameters of some distinguished part of the object - maser formation region; class II methanol masers are formed not within the outflows but in the regions affected by their propagation. It is shown that the "near" solutions for the kinematic distances to the sources can be used for statistical analysis. The luminosity function of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers is constructed. It is shown that improvement of the sensitivity of surveys can increase number of detected maser sources considerably.

  2. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-10-02

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  3. Emissions from two methanol-powered buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.; Baines, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Emissions from the two methanol-powered buses used in the California Methanol Bus Demonstration have been characterized. The M.A.N. SU 240 bus is powered by M.A.N.'s D2566 FMUH methanol engine, and utilizes catalytic exhaust aftertreatment. The GMC RTS II 04 bus is powered by a first-generation DDAD 6V-92TA methanol engine without exhaust aftertreatment. Emissions of HC, CO, NO/subX/, unburned methanol, aldehydes, total particulates, and the soluble fraction of particulate were determined for both buses over steady-state and transient chassis dynamometer test cycles. Emission levels from the M.A.N. bus were considerably lower than those from the GMC bus, with the exception of NO/subX/. Comparison of emission levels from methanol-and diesel-powered buses indicates that substantial reductions in emissions are possible with careful implementation of methanol fueling.

  4. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-10-26

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  5. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  6. Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn J. White; C. W. M. Fridlund; P. Bergman; A. Beardsmore; Rene Liseau; R. R. Phillips

    2006-09-25

    We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray source. Any methanol released in such a cold environment will rapidly freeze again, spreading methanol throughout the circumbinary torus to nascent dust grains, planitesimals, and primitive bodies. These observations probe the initial chemical conditions of matter infalling onto the disk.

  7. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Cynthia (Newington, CT); Ren, Xiaoming (Menands, NY); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Niskayuna, NY)

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  8. EIS-0169-SA-02: Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Yakima Fisheries Project-Natural Spawning Channels, Increased On-site Housing, and Upgrades to the Prosser Hatchery. Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility, Cle Elum, Washington

  9. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  10. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  11. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    difference in optical properties of the coal. more rigorousProperties The fuels used are methanol and a methanol/coalcoal, They discuss , temperature of parti e per- type of viscosity TABLE II-2, Properties

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988 1.996 2.003

  13. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Download the...

  14. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The...

  15. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects...

  16. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  17. Communication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    , 2011). The rapid expansion of methanol and DME as fuels in China appears to fit Nobel Laureate George petroleum-based fuels and chemicals with methanol and methanol-derivatives ­ as a path to sustainable quickly built an industry of coal-based methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) that is competitive in price

  18. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  19. Methanol Maser Polarization in W3(OH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. T. Vlemmings; L. Harvey-Smith; R. J. Cohen

    2006-06-13

    We present the first 6.7 GHz methanol maser linear polarization map of the extended filamentary maser structure around the compact HII region W3(OH). The methanol masers show linear polarization up to 8 per cent and the polarization angles indicate a magnetic field direction along the North-South maser structure. The polarization angles are consistent with those measured for the OH masers, taking into account external Faraday rotation toward W3(OH), and confirm that the OH and methanol masers are found in similar physical conditions. Additionally we discuss the Zeeman splitting of the 6.7 GHz methanol transition and present an upper limit of ~22 mG for the magnetic field strength in the maser region. The upper limit is fully consistent with the field strengths derived from OH maser Zeeman splitting.

  20. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  1. Supplemental Professional Hiring a Supplemental Professional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Supplemental Professional Process March 2015 #12;Agenda 1 · Hiring a Supplemental Professional · FLSA Checklist · JED Steps · Additional Actions #12;Hiring a Supplemental Professional 2 · Do not give from FLSA, you will complete a JED to pay them a fixed per pay amount. ­ You will use the Supplemental

  2. Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-09-05

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of Pt.sub.3Cr/C so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  3. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  4. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-03-21

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  5. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  6. hi MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS for: _____________________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    hi MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS MARKET SUPPLEMENT STATUS for i:\\appoint\\revision\\market supplement forms\\market supplement status form.rtf Print Form #12;hi

  7. Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, B.H.; McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to ``fuel-related`` repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

  8. Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, B.H.; McGill, R.N. ); Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W. )

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to fuel-related'' repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

  9. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  10. Computational study of ion distributions at the air/liquid methanol interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiuquan; Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2011-06-16

    Molecular dynamic simulations with polarizable potentials were performed to systematically investigate the distribution of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and SrCl2 at the air/liquid methanol interface. The density profiles indicated that there is no substantial enhancement of anions at the interface for the NaX systems in contrast to what was observed at the air/aqueous interface. The surfactant-like shape of the larger more polarizable halide anions is compensated by the surfactant nature of methanol itself. As a result, methanol hydroxy groups strongly interacted with one side of polarizable anions, in which their induced dipole points, and methanol methyl groups were more likely to be found near the positive pole of anion induced dipoles. Furthermore, salts were found to disrupt the surface structure of methanol, reducing the observed enhancement of methyl groups at the outer edge of the air/liquid methanol interface. With the additional of salts to methanol, the computed surface potentials increased, which is in contrast to what is observed in corresponding aqueous systems, where the surface potential decreases with the addition of salts. Both of these trends have been indirectly observed with experiments. This was found to be due to the propensity of anions for the air/water interface that is not present at the air/liquid methanol interface. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  11. Electronic Effect in Methanol Dehydrogenation on Pt Surfaces: Potential Control during Methanol Electrooxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    advanced insight into the design of an optimal catalyst as the anode for direct methanol fuel cells. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport Fuel cells are promising alternative energy conversion. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs

  12. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  13. Effect of the cathode gas diffusion layer on the water transport behavior and the performance of passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    of passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu, T.S. Zhao , W.W. Yang Department Direct methanol fuel cell Passive operation Neat methanol operation a b s t r a c t The passive operation of a direct methanol fuel cell with neat methanol requires the water that is pro- duced at the cathode

  14. Supplement Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutory Authority forPerk |Department ofReportSUPPLEMENT

  15. Comparison of Methanol Exposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, Melissa; Kalbfleisch, Kristine; Bryson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning, J ToxicolHantson PE, Acute methanol intoxication: physiopathology,The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors, Crit Rev Toxicol.

  16. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  17. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Sobolev, A. M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin avenue 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Lo, N., E-mail: Simon.Ellingsen@utas.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Casilla 36-D (Chile)

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  18. Associations of water and methanol masers at milli-arcsec angular resolution in two high-mass young stellar objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Goddi; L. Moscadelli; A. Sanna; R. Cesaroni; V. Minier

    2006-10-16

    Most previous high-angular (methanol masers. While high-angular resolution observations have clarified that water masers originate from shocks associated with protostellar jets, different environments have been proposed in several sources to explain the origin of methanol masers. Tha aim of the paper is to investigate the nature of the methanol maser birthplace in SFRs and the association between the water and methanol maser emission in the same young stellar object. We have conducted phase-reference Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of water and methanol masers toward two high-mass SFRs, Sh 2-255 IR and AFGL 5142. In Sh 2-255 IR water masers are aligned along a direction close to the orientation of the molecular outflow observed on angular scales of 1-10 arcsec, tracing possibly the disk-wind emerging from the disk atmosphere. In AFGL 5142 water masers trace expansion at the base of a protostellar jet, whilst methanol masers are more probably tracing infalling than outflowing gas. The results for AFGL 5142 suggest that water and methanol masers trace different kinematic structures in the circumstellar gas.

  19. Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnell, Leo W. (Macungie, PA); Perka, Alan T. (Macungie, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

  20. Photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,n70460...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    been described elsewhere.9 Methanol cluster anions were produced by passing argon through a reservoir of methanol and expanding the gas mixture through a piezoelectrically actuated valve with a pulsed electron

  1. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AROUND 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS. I. AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandian, J. D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M., E-mail: jagadheep@iist.ac.in [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are known to be tracers of high-mass star formation in our Galaxy. In this paper, we study the large-scale physical conditions in the star-forming clumps/cores associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers using observations of the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) inversion transitions of ammonia with the Effelsberg telescope. The gas kinetic temperature is found to be higher than in infrared dark clouds, highlighting the relatively evolved nature of the maser sources. Other than a weak correlation between maser luminosity and the ammonia line width, we do not find any differences between low- and high-luminosity methanol masers.

  2. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  3. Methanol emission from low mass protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Maret; C. Ceccarelli; A. G. G. M. Tielens; E. Caux; B. Lefloch; A. Faure; A. Castets; D. R. Flower

    2005-07-15

    We present observations of methanol lines in a sample of Class 0 low mass protostars. Using a 1-D radiative transfer model, we derive the abundances in the envelopes. In two sources of the sample, the observations can only be reproduced by the model if the methanol abundance is enhanced by about two order of magnitude in the inner hot region of the envelope. Two other sources show similar jumps, although at a lower confidence level. The observations for the other three sources are well reproduced with a constant abundance, but the presence of a jump cannot be ruled out. The observed methanol abundances in the warm gas around low mass protostars are orders of magnitude higher than gas phase chemistry models predict. Hence, in agreement with other evidences, this suggest that the high methanol abundance reflects recent evaporation of ices due to the heating by the newly formed star. The observed abundance ratios of CH3 OH, H2 CO, and CO are in good agreement with grain surface chemistry models. However, the absolute abundances are more difficult to reproduce and may point towards the presence of multiple ice components in these regions.

  4. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  5. Methanol Masers as Tracers of Circumstellar Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Norris; S. E. Byleveld; P. J. Diamond; S. P. Ellingsen; R. H. Ferris; R. G. Gough; M. J. Kesteven; P. M. McCulloch; C. J. Phillips; J. E. Reynolds; A. K. Tzioumis; Y. Takahashi; E. R. Troup; K. J. Wellington

    1998-06-25

    We show that in many methanol maser sources the masers are located in lines, with a velocity gradient along them which suggests that the masers are situated in edge-on circumstellar, or protoplanetary, disks. We present VLBI observations of the methanol maser source G309.92+0.48, in the 12.2 GHz transition, which confirm previous observations that the masers in this source lie along a line. We show that such sources are not only linear in space but, in many cases, also have a linear velocity gradient. We then model these and other data in both the 6.7 GHz and the 12.2 GHz transition from a number of star formation regions, and show that the observed spatial and velocity distribution of methanol masers, and the derived Keplerian masses, are consistent with a circumstellar disk rotating around an OB star. We consider this and other hypotheses, and conclude that about half of these methanol masers are probably located in edge-on circumstellar disks around young stars. This is of particular significance for studies of circumstellar disks because of the detailed velocity information available from the masers.

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the methanol-benzene and methanol-thiophene systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toghiani, H.; Toghiani, R.K.; Viswanath, D.S. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The equilibrium still of Rogalski and Malanowski was modified to collect data for the methanol-benzene and methanol-thiophene systems. Two isothermal sets (318.15 and 323.15 K) and one isobaric set (60.03 kPa) of data are presented for the system containing thiophene. For this system, data have not been reported in the literature for the 323.15 K isotherm nor for any isobar. In addition, isothermal data at 318.15 K and isobaric data at 69.52 kPa are presented for the methanol-benzene system. The data presented for methanol-benzene agree with available literature data. However, data for approximately twice as many compositions in the dilute composition region as are available in the literature have been measured in this work. Data in this region are useful for extracting infinite dilution values for the activity coefficients.

  7. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    the structure and radiation heat transfer in a pure methanolHowell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Bookof in- creased radiation heat transfer from the flame zone

  8. Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation* Brenda L:Ru nanoparticles on carbon (PtRu/C) for use as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. This bimetallic carbonyl support particles. Cyclic voltammo- grams of methanol oxidation from the two catalysts showed

  9. Fuel Cells Bulletin February 2005 Effect of methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    FEATURE Fuel Cells Bulletin February 2005 12 Effect of methanol concentration on passive DMFC performance The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has attracted extensive interest from scientists energy density of methanol (6100 W h/kg at 25°C) is much higher than that of gaseous fuels.[1­6] Recently

  10. Dissociative recombination of protonated methanol W. D. Geppert,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Tom

    Dissociative recombination of protonated methanol W. D. Geppert,*a M. Hamberg,a R. D. Thomas,a F. O located in Stockholm, Sweden. Analysis of the data yielded the result that formation of methanol or deuterated methanol accounted for only 3 and 6% of the total rate in CH3OH2 + and CD3OD2 + , respectively

  11. Effects of Methanol on the Retinal Function of Juvenile Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casanova, Christian

    Effects of Methanol on the Retinal Function of Juvenile Rats C. Plaziac1 , P. Lachapelle2 , C Received 18 April 2002; accepted 22 July 2002 Abstract We have investigated the effect of methanol exposure recorded prior to and up to 72 h after the administration of methanol. Data were compared to a control

  12. First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol Reinhard Beer,1 Mark W) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have. Citation: Beer, R., et al. (2008), First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

  13. Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1 Per Uvdal,2 and Peter Jakob1,a 1 the adsorption of methanol on the clean Ru 0001 surface at T 80 K. Thereby, clear evidence for intact adsorption upon adsorption of methanol on Ru 0001 , even at low temperatures, as well as partial recombinative

  14. Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol Catalyzed, with CŔH Activation (generated by dissolution[6] of Au2O3) react with methane at 1808C to selectively generate methanol (as a mixture of the ester and methanol) in high yield (Table 1, entries 1 and 2). As expected, the irreversible

  15. Methanol maser survey using the EVN Anna Bartkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    Methanol maser survey using the EVN Anna Bartkiewicz Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus-mail: langevelde@jive.nl We present the results of a five year campaign observing 6.7 GHz methanol masers towards a new type of masers. We discuss the origin of elliptically shaped methanol masers in massive star

  16. Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure Marco J. P methanol at high pressure up to 33 GPa at room temperature with x-ray diffraction, optical polarization and vitrification is observed when methanol is superpressed beyond the freezing pressure of 3.5 GPa: between 5

  17. Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong Laser Fields Bishnu Thapa and H surfaces of methanol neutral, monocation, and singlet and triplet dication were explored using the CBS in the presence of a 2.9 × 1014 W/cm2 800 nm laser field for methanol monocation on the ground state potential

  18. Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan Department of Physics structure, including all atomic positions, of methanol at high pressure and room temperature pressure of methanol is 3.5 GPa. In practice however, it is very easy to superpress the liquid phase

  19. Simultaneous observation of water and class I methanol masers toward class II methanol maser sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Seokho; Park, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    We present a simultaneous single-dish survey of 22 GHz water maser and 44 GHz and 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward 77 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser sources, which were selected from the Arecibo methanol maser Galactic plane survey (AMGPS) catalog.Water maser emission is detected in 39 (51%) sources, of which 15 are new detections. Methanol maser emission at 44 GHz and 95 GHz is found in 25 (32%) and 19 (25%) sources, of which 21 and 13 sources are newly detected, respectively. We find 4 high-velocity (> 30 km/s) water maser sources, including 3 dominant blue- or redshifted outflows.The 95 GHz masers always appear with the 44 GHz maser emission. They are strongly correlated with 44 GHz masers in velocity, flux density, and luminosity, while they are not correlated with either water or 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers. The average peak flux density ratio of 95 GHz to 44 GHz masers is close to unity, which is two times higher than previous estimates. The flux densities of class I methanol masers are more ...

  20. Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency methanol (CH3OH) and aqueous methanol solutions were investigated using broad bandwidth sum frequency of methanol molecules at the air-liquid interfaces of neat methanol and aqueous methanol solutions. However

  1. Formulation of stable mixtures of diesel fuels with methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azev, V.S.; Gerasimova, G.N.; Luneva, V.V.

    1986-07-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the possibility of formulating stable blends of diesel fuel and methanol. Two commercial products (diesel fuel L-0.5 and methanol) were used. In studying the influence of hydrocarbon composition on the solubility of methanol, certain individual aromatic hydrocarbons were used: toluene, cumene, and a-methylnaphthalene. It is shown that the most stable formulations are 5% methanol and 0.5% water; 5% methanol, 0.5% water, and 0.25% surfactant. Higher alcohols, particularly butanol, can be used to stabilize blends of methanol with diesel fuel. The butanol/methanol ratio should be no lower than 2/1, and this cannot be justified economically.

  2. Solubilities of butane, vapor pressures, and densities for benzene + cyclohexane, benzene + methanol, and methanol + cyclohexane solutions at 298 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, Yoshimori (Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan)); Hayduk, W. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    In this paper the solubilities of butane at a pressure of 101.3 kPa and a temperature of 298.15 K are presented for three mixed solvent solutions: benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + methanol, and benzene + cyclohexane. The densities and vapor pressures are also reported for these solutions at the same conditions. Whereas the benzene + methanol and cyclohexane + methanol mixtures form azeotropic solutions, they are mutually soluble for all compositions of the two solvents. On the other hand, mixtures of cyclohexane and methanol are not mutually soluble but form two immiscible liquid phases for a significant portion of the composition range, but at a higher temperature also form an azeotropic solution.

  3. METHANOL AS A TRACER OF FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levshakov, S. A. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Reimers, D., E-mail: lev@astro.ioffe.rssi.ru, E-mail: mgk@mf1309.spb.edu, E-mail: st2e101@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    The methanol molecule CH{sub 3}OH has a complex microwave spectrum with a large number of very strong lines. This spectrum includes purely rotational transitions as well as transitions with contributions of the internal degree of freedom associated with the hindered rotation of the OH group. The latter takes place due to the tunneling of hydrogen through the potential barriers between three equivalent potential minima. Such transitions are highly sensitive to changes in the electron-to-proton mass ratio, {mu} = m{sub e}/m{sub p}, and have different responses to {mu}-variations. The highest sensitivity is found for the mixed rotation-tunneling transitions at low frequencies. Observing methanol lines provides more stringent limits on the hypothetical variation of {mu} than ammonia observation with the same velocity resolution. We show that the best-quality radio astronomical data on methanol maser lines constrain the variability of {mu} in the Milky Way at the level of |{Delta}{mu}/{mu}| < 28 x 10{sup -9} (1{sigma}) which is in line with the previously obtained ammonia result, |{Delta}{mu}/{mu}| < 29 x 10{sup -9} (1{sigma}). This estimate can be further improved if the rest frequencies of the CH{sub 3}OH microwave lines will be measured more accurately.

  4. Conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons III. Methylation, ethylation, and propylation of benzene with methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaeding, W.W. (Mobil Chemical Company, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Methanol is converted to hydrocarbons (and water) over HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst in the presence of 1-8M excesses of benzene. Methanol products are primarily aliphatic hydrocarbon gases and C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} aliphatic substituents on the aromatic ring. Methylation of benzene to produce toluene increases as the feed ratio of methanol/benzene decreases. Mild conditions minimize aromatic ring production from methanol. Molar distribution of the methylene group (-CH{sub 2}-) in the product, is tabulated according to carbon number. Methane plus methyl substituents on the aromatic ring measure C{sub 1}; ethane, ethylene, and ethyl ring substituents measure C{sub 2}, etc. At temperatures up to 325 C, methylene distribution in the product is methyl = ethyl > propyl {much gt} butyl. Above 350 C, methyl {much gt} ethyl > propyl. This distribution of the methylene group, under mild conditions, may be a measure of the early production of light olefins, from methanol, within the zeolite pores.

  5. Cell, Volume 127 Supplemental Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doebley, John

    Cell, Volume 127 Supplemental Data The Molecular Genetics of Crop Domestication John F. Doebley supplemental information. 2 For genes listed

  6. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  7. supplemental directives

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2Anational lab |buisness8/%2A en

  8. SUPPLEMENTAL DIRECTIVE

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal of HonorPosterNationalProgramsSSGF Magazine | National5/%2A

  9. SUPPLEMENTAL DIRECTIVE

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal of HonorPosterNationalProgramsSSGF Magazine | National5/%2A73.3

  10. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David B. (108 Tall Oaks Dr., Wayne, NJ 07470); Gelbein, Abraham P. (45 Headley Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960)

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  11. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  12. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  13. List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressed airGeothermalList of Methanol

  14. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  15. Methanol Observation of IRAS 19312+1950: A Possible New Type of Class I Methanol Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Salii, Svetlana V; Zhang, Yong; Yung, Bosco H K; Deguchi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We report the result of a systematic methanol observation toward IRAS 19312+1950. The properties of the SiO, H2O and OH masers of this object are consistent with those of mass-losing evolved stars, but some other properties are difficult to explain in the standard scheme of stellar evolution in its late stage. Interestingly, a tentative detection of radio methanol lines was suggested toward this object by a previous observation. To date, there are no confirmed detections of methanol emission towards evolved stars, so investigation of this possible detection is important to better understand the circumstellar physical/chemical environment of IRAS 19312+1950. In this study, we systematically observed multiple methanol lines of IRAS 19312+1950 in the lambda=3mm, 7mm, and 13mm bands, and detected 6 lines including 4 thermal lines and 2 class I maser lines. We derived basic physical parameters including kinetic temperature and relative abundances by fitting a radiative transfer model. According to the derived exci...

  16. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both

  17. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

    2009-07-07

    This report is the final technical report for DOE Program DE-FC36-04GO14301 titled “Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications”. Due to the public nature of this report some of the content reported in confidential reports and meetings to the DOE is not covered in detail in this report and some of the content has been normalized to not show actual values. There is a comparison of the projects accomplishments with the objectives, an overview of some of the key subsystem work, and a review of the three levels of prototypes demonstrated during the program. There is also a description of the eventual commercial product and market this work is leading towards. The work completed under this program has significantly increased the understanding of how Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) can be deployed successfully to power consumer electronic devices. The prototype testing has demonstrated the benefits a direct methanol fuel cell system has over batteries typically used for powering consumer electronic devices. Three generations of prototypes have been developed and tested for performance, robustness and life. The technologies researched and utilized in the fuel cell stack and related subsystems for these prototypes are leveraged from advances in other industries such as the hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell industry. The work under this program advanced the state of the art of direct methanol fuel cells. The system developed by MTI micro fuel cells aided by this program differs significantly from conventional DMFC designs and offers compelling advantages in the areas of performance, life, size, and simplicity. The program has progressed as planned resulting in the completion of the scope of work and available funding in December 2008. All 18 of the final P3 prototypes builds have been tested and the results showed significant improvements over P2 prototypes in build yield, initial performance, and durability. The systems have demonstrated robust operation when tested at various orientations, temperatures, and humidity levels. Durability testing has progressed significantly over the course of the program. MEA, engine, and system level steady state testing has demonstrated degradation rates acceptable for initial product introduction. Test duration of over 5000 hrs has been achieved at both the MEA and breadboard system level. P3 level prototype life testing on engines (stacks with reactant conditioning) showed degradation rates comparable to carefully constructed lab fixtures. This was a major improvement over the P2 and P1 engine designs, which exhibited substantial reductions in life and performance between the lab cell and the actual engine. Over the course of the work on the P3 technology set, a platform approach was taken to the system design. By working in this direction, a number of product iterations with substantial market potential were identified. Although the main effort has been the development of a prototype charger for consumer electronic devices, multiple other product concepts were developed during the program showing the wide variety of potential applications.

  18. Volume$3, number 3 CHEMICAL. PHYSICS LETTERS 1 Februrf 1978 INTERACTION OF METHANOL WITH RUTHENIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Volume$3, number 3 CHEMICAL. PHYSICS LETTERS 1 Februrf 1978 INTERACTION OF METHANOL WITH RUTHENIUM of methanol with a clean methods. Methanol dissociates upon adsorption at 300 K and yields Ha(g) and chemisorbed CO as the domiwt

  19. EFFECTS OF METAL-SUPPORT INTERACTIONS ON THE SYNTHESIS OF METHANOL OVER PALLADIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryndin, Yu A.

    2013-01-01

    on the Synthesis of Methanol over Palladium by Yu. A.ABSTRACT The synthesis of methanol and other products fromThe specific activity for methanol synthesis decreased in

  20. Understanding the effect of modifying elements in supported vanadia bilayered catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vining, William Collins

    2011-01-01

    Si Figure 1.1. Schematic of methanol oxidation over isolatedSiO 2 catalysts for methanol oxidation, 163-171, Copyright (rate constant at 550 K for methanol oxidation plotted versus

  1. The Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey--I: Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagadheep D. Pandian; Paul F. Goldsmith; Avinash A. Deshpande

    2007-02-06

    We present the results of an unbiased survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the Galactic plane carried out using the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. A total of 18.2 square degrees was surveyed with uniform sampling at 35.2 deg methanol masers are clustered, reflecting the formation of massive stars in clusters.

  2. High-dose supplementation with natural ?-tocopherol does neither alter the pharmacodynamics of atorvastatin nor its phase I metabolism in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podszun, Maren C.; Grebenstein, Nadine [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Hofmann, Ute [Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, D-70376 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, D-70376 Stuttgart (Germany); Frank, Jan, E-mail: jan.frank@nutrition-research.de [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany) [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesized in the literature that intake of high-dosage vitamin E supplements might alter the expression of cytochrome P{sub 450} enzymes (CYP), particularly CYP3A4, which may lead to adverse nutrient–drug interactions. Because previously published studies reported conflicting findings, we investigated the pharmacodynamics of the lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin (ATV), a CYP3A4 substrate, in response to high-dose ?-tocopherol (?T) feeding and determined protein expression and activities of relevant CYP. Groups of ten female Dunkin–Hartley guinea pigs were fed a control (5% fat) or a high-fat control diet (HFC; 21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) or the HFC diet fortified with ?T (250 mg/kg diet), ATV (300 mg/kg diet) or both ATV + ?T for 6 weeks. Relative to control, HFC animals had increased serum cholesterol concentrations, which were significantly reduced by ATV. High-dose ?T feeding in combination with ATV (ATV + ?T), albeit not ?T feeding alone (?T), significantly lowered serum cholesterol relative to HFC, but did not alter the cholesterol-lowering activity of the drug compared to the ATV treated guinea pigs. Protein expression of CYP3A4, CYP4F2, CYP20A1 and OATP C was similar in all groups. Accordingly, no differences in plasma concentrations of phase I metabolites of ATV were observed between the ATV and ATV + ?T groups. In conclusion, feeding guinea pigs high-doses of ?T for 6 weeks did neither alter the hepatic expression of CYP, nor the pharmacodynamics and metabolism of ATV. High-dose ?T intake is thus unlikely to change the efficacy of drugs metabolized by CYP enzymes, particularly by CYP3A4. -- Highlights: ? Vitamin E-atorvastatin interactions were studied in hypercholesterolemic guinea pigs. ? High-dose ?-tocopherol did not alter the lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin. ? ?-Tocopherol did not change the expression of CYP3A4, CYP4F2, CYP20A or OATP C. ? ?-Tocopherol did not affect phase I metabolism of atorvastatin. ? Vitamin E does not change atorvastatin pharmacodynamics or toxicity in guinea pigs.

  3. Methanol supply and demand issues from a California perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyama, K.; Darling, L. (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (US))

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that despite state policies aimed at reducing high levels of petroleum dependency and air pollution, California relies primarily on petroleum fuels for transportation. As an alternative to petroleum-based fuels, methanol has become increasingly important because of its potential for improving energy security and air quality. A growing body of evidence also suggests that methanol could serve as a toxic substance control by displacing benzene in gasoline. In light of these findings, recent governmental and private-sector activities have been focused on methanol, creating a momentum that has substantially improved the prospects of this fuel for use in the transportation sector. Because this momentum could lead to greater demand for methanol fuel, questions of methanol supply demand, and availability must be addressed.

  4. Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 1 Supplemental Materials for: The Palladium., Tweddell, J.; Fu, G. C. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 2794. #12;Supplemental Material for Ferreira and Stoltz 2

  5. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.

    1984-04-20

    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  6. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-09-30

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1--6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  7. DME: The next market breakthrough or a methanol-related fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Basu, A.; Fleisch, T.H.; Masin, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    Amoco has been involved for several years in the development of technology for the synthesis of liquid fuels from remote natural gas. In a recent collaborative work with Haldor Topsoe S/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco identified Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. DME can be handled like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), itself an important alternative transportation fuel. However, unlike most other fuels, the raw exhaust of diesel engines fueled with DME satisfies California 1998 ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standards, now. DME`s greenhouse gas emissions, measured from cradle-to-grave, are lowest among all transportation fuel alternatives. Today, DME is manufactured from methanol and is used primarily as an aerosol propellant because of its attractive physical properties and its environmentally benign characteristics. Haldor Topsoe S/A developed a process for the direct production of DME from natural gas. The process can be used for the large scale manufacture of DME using predominantly single-train process units. When manufactured at large scale, DME can be produced and marketed at a cost comparable to conventional transportation fuels. The market driven demand for DME as a transportation fuel is envisioned to grow in three stages. Initially, DME is envisioned to be produced via methanol dehydration, followed by retrofits, and lastly by large scale dedicated plants. DME fuel demonstration fleet tests are scheduled to commence during 1996. Today`s methanol producer likely also will be tomorrow`s DME producer.

  8. Methanol with dimethyl ether ignition promotor as fuel for compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brook, D.L.; Cipolat, D.; Rallis, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    Reduction of the world dependence upon crude oil necessitates the use of long term alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Alcohols appear to offer a solution as in the short term they can be manufactured from natural gas and coal, while ultimately they may be produced from agricultural products. A fair measure of success has been achieved in using alcohols in spark ignition engines. However the more widely used compression ignition engines cannot utilize unmodified pure alcohols. The current techniques for using alcohol fuels in compression ignition engines all have a number of shortcomings. This paper describes a novel technique where an ignition promotor, dimethyl ether (DME), is used to increase the cetane rating of methanol. The systems particular advantage is that the DME can be catalyzed from the methanol base fuel, in situ. This fuel system matches the performance characteristics of diesel oil fuel.

  9. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  10. 2.1E Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkelmann, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Desiccant Cooling Supplement — 2. I E Update ForIntegrated Desiccant Cooling Supplement — 2. I E Update Then updates the D O E - 2 Supplement f r o m version 2.ID t o

  11. Methanol as a fuel for a lean turbocharged spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannone, G.M.; Johnson, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Lean turbocharged operation with methanol was characterized using a single-cylinder spark, ignition engine. Efficiency, exhaust emissions, and combustion properties were measured over a range of air/fuel ratios at two naturally-aspirated and three turbocharged conditions. When compared to stoichiometric, naturally-aspirated operation, the lean turbocharged conditions improved efficiency while reducing carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions. However, unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions increased. If used in conjunction with an oxidizing catalyst and appropriate feedback controls, lean turbocharged operation has the potential of improving efficiency and exhaust emissions performance over a stoichiometric, three-way catalyst system.

  12. Coadsorption of toluene and methanol on HZSM-5 zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirth, G.; Lercher, J.A. (Technische Univ. Wien (Austria))

    1991-05-02

    Coadsorption of toluene and methanol on HZSM-5 at 308 and 473 K was studied to investigate adsorption complexes formed in the zeolite pores prior to alkylation reactions. Methanol is adsorbed in the form of methoxonium ions at the Si-O{sup {minus}}-Al groups of the zeolite, and toluene is hydrogen bonded to these methoxonium ions. The thermal stability of the coadsorption complex, however, is low, as concluded from temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements. Toluene desorbs prior to methanol, dimethyl ether in minor amounts is the only reaction product detected in the gas phase during TPD.

  13. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  14. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin : Summary Report Series : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-12-01

    This progress report broadly defines the scope of supplementation plans and activities in the Columbia Basin. It provides the foundation for more detailed analysis of supplementation in subsequent reports in this series. Topics included in this report are: definition of supplementation, project diversity, objectives and performance standards, uncertainties and theory. Since this is a progress report, the content is subject to modification with new information. The supplementation theory will continue to evolve throughout the duration of RASP and beyond. The other topics in this report are essentially complete and are not expected to change significantly. This is the first of a series of four reports which will summarize information contained in the larger, RASP progress and completion reports. Our goal is to make the findings of RASP more accessible by grouping related topics into smaller but complete narratives on important aspects of supplementation. We are planning to publish the following reports under the general title Supplementation in the Columbia River Basin: Part 1, Background, Description, Performance Measures, Uncertainty and Theory; Part 2, Theoretical Framework and Models; Part 3, Planning Guidelines; and Part 4, Regional Coordination of Research and Monitoring. Supplementation is expected to be a major contributor to the planned increase in salmon and steelhead production in the Columbia Basin. The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) uses three approaches to protect and enhance salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin: (1) enhance fish production; (2) improve passage in the mainstem rivers; and (3) revise harvest management to support the rebuilding of fish runs (NPPC 1987). The fish production segment calls for a three-part approach focused on natural production, hatchery production, and supplementation. Supplementation is planned to provide over half of the total production increases. The Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated as a result of a request by NPPC to address long-standing concerns about the need to coordinate supplementation research, monitoring and evaluation. Such coordination was also recommended by the Supplementation Technical Work Group. In August 1990, the NPPC gave conditional approval to proceed with the final design of the Yakima Production Project. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund immediately a supplementation assessment to reevaluate, prioritize and coordinate all existing and planned supplementation monitoring and evaluation activities in the basin. Providing for the participation of the fishery agencies and tribes and others having expertise in this area. RASP addresses four principal objectives: (1) provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities and identify critical uncertainties associated with supplementation, (2) construct a conceptual framework and model which estimates the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and prioritizes uncertainties, (3) provide guidelines for the development of supplementation projects, (4) develop a plan for regional coordination of research and monitoring. These objectives, once attained, will provide the technical tools fishery managers need to carry out the Council's direction to protect and enhance salmon and steelhead. RASP has further divided the four broad objectives into 12 technical topics: (1) definition of supplementation; (2) description of the diversity of supplementation projects; (3) objectives and performance standards; (4) identification of uncertainties; (5) supplementation theory; (6) development of a conceptual model of supplemented populations; (7) development of spreadsheet model of risks and benefits of supplementation; (8) classification of stocks, streams, and supplementation strategies; (9) regional design of supplementation evaluation and monitoring; (10) guidelines for planning supplementation projects (11) application of the spreadsheet model to supplementation planning; and (12)

  15. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported-1462 ReceiVed: August 16, 2006; In Final Form: October 10, 2006 The mechanism of methanol oxidation. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V

  16. Theoretical characterization of the hydrogen-bond interaction of diacetamide with water and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    and methanol Minh Tho Nguyen, Natalie Leroux and The re` se Zeegers-Huyskens* Department of Chemistry formed from interaction of diacetamide with water and methanol. In both water and methanol complexes/6-31G** level being [44 kJ mol~1 for the water complex and [48 kJ mol~1 for the methanol complex

  17. Author's personal copy Modeling of a passive DMFC operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Author's personal copy Modeling of a passive DMFC operating with neat methanol W.W. Yang, T.S. Zhao 2011 Keywords: Fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Neat methanol Mass transport Model a b s t r a c t A mathematical model is developed to simulate the fundamental transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol

  18. 6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC STRUCTURE A Dissertation Jagadheep Dhanasekara Pandian ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS transition of methanol is the strongest of methanol masers, and is the second strongest maser transition ever

  19. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Exfoliated and Functionalized Calcium Niobate Nanosheets in Water and Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    and Methanol Elizabeth C. Carroll, Owen C. Compton, Dorte Madsen, Frank E. Osterloh, and Delmar S. Larsen-order kinetics on a sub-nanosecond time scale that depended on the nanosheet size. Methanol was used and methanol solutions. Methanol is known as an efficient sacrificial electron donor for layered metal oxide

  20. THE METHANOL MASER EMISSION IN W51 C.J. PHILLIPS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    THE METHANOL MASER EMISSION IN W51 C.J. PHILLIPS1 and H.J. VAN LANGEVELDE2 1 CSIRO; E-mail: chris.7-GHz methanol maser emission towards W51. In the W51 Main region, the bulk of the methanol is offset from an UCHII region. This probably indicates the methanol emission arises at the interface

  1. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O'Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  2. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1985-03-12

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  3. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-10-28

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is NiC (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  4. Supporting Information Supplemental Table 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    after proteinase XIV digestion and Methanol Choloroform Water (MCW) extraction. Soluble Se recovery Se by SAX-HPLC-ICPMS in Brassica seed and seed meals harvested from fields in the WSJV. Whole GroundGlutathione Data are mean percentages of total soluble Se ± standard deviation (SD) in methanol/water aqueous phase

  5. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  6. Photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol using ZnS microcrystallite as a photocatalyst in the presence of methanol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuwabata, Susumu; Nishida, Kazufumi; Tsuda, Ryo; Inoue, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Hiroshi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-06-01

    Photoinduced reduction of formate to methanol has been achieved using ZnS microcrystalline colloid which contained formate, methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as an electron mediator for MDH, and 2-propanol. This reaction was combined with photoreduction of carbon dioxide to formate on the ZnS microcrystallite which had already been reported to provide a new photosynthetic route for production of methanol from carbon dioxide. The production of methanol showed a saturation tendency when it was accumulated to 0.25 mmol dm[sup [minus]3], probably due to oxidation of the produced methanol at MDH or on the ZnS photocatalyst or both. The concentration of PQQ influenced the amount of formate production but not the methanol production. The quantum efficiency obtained at 280 nm for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol was 5.9%, which is the highest value that has ever been reported for the photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol.

  7. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State, 1980-1998 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-1998 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-1998 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  8. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State, 1980-1997 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-1997 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-1997 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  9. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State, 1980-1996 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-1996 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-1996 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  10. Early Admission Supplemental Application Page 1 Date ________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Early Admission Supplemental Application Page 1 Date ________________ Student Name Admission Supplemental Application Page 2 Supplemental Information for Early Admission Student Statement

  11. Supplement: Thousands of human mobile element

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Supplement: Thousands of human mobile element fragments undergo strong purifying selection near Supplemental material Supplemental text, tables, and figures. S1 pan-boreoeutherian mobile elements Mobile

  12. Georgia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    52 732 701 660 642 635 1967-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Biomass 52 732 701 660 642 608 1993-2014 Other 0 0 26 1980...

  13. New York Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 2 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Synthetic 1980-2005 Propane-Air 6 2 1980-2010 Biomass 1993-2005 Other 1980-2005...

  14. Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20 17 1 1 * 63 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 20 17 1 1 0 63 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1999-2014 Other 0 0 2005...

  15. Ohio Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    522 353 296 366 416 641 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 66 40 27 6 34 263 1980-2014 Biomass 456 313 269 360 383 378 1993-201...

  16. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    454 457 392 139 255 530 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1993-2014 Other 454 457 392 139 255 530 1980-2014...

  17. Hawaii Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2,447 2,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,743 1980-2014 Synthetic 2,438 2,465 2,442 2,491 2,639 2,733 1980-2014 Propane-Air 9 6 25 20 19 10 2004...

  18. Methanol fuel vehicle demonstration: Exhaust emission testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, J.D. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (US). Automotive Emissions Lab.

    1993-07-01

    Ford Motor Company converted four stock 1986 Ford Crown Victoria sedans to methanol flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). During 143,108 operational miles from 1987 to 1990, the FFVs underwent more than 300 dynamometer driving tests to measure exhaust emissions, catalytic activity, fuel economy, acceleration, and driveability with gasoline and methanol blend fuels. Dynamometer driving tests included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. Exhaust emission measurements included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non- oxygenated hydrocarbons, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE), formaldehyde, and methanol. Catalytic activity was based on exhaust emissions data from active and inactive catalysts. OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} were usually lower with M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline) than with gasoline for both active and inactive catalysts when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near normal operating temperatures. CO was higher with M85 than with gasoline when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near ambient temperature. Formaldehyde and methanol were higher with M85. Active catalyst FTP OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} increased as vehicle mileage increased, but increased less with M85 than with gasoline. Energy based fuel economy remained almost constant with changes in fuel composition and vehicle mileage.

  19. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter A.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Koh, Shirlaine; Bae, Sang Eun; Brankovic, Stanko R.; Strasser, Peter; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2012-06-13

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation. Using these two reactivity descriptors, a surface PtCu3 alloy is proposed to have the best catalytic properties of the Pt–Cu model catalysts tested, similar to those of a Pt–Ru bulk alloy. To validate the model, experiments on a Pt(111) surface modified with different amounts of Cu adatoms are performed. Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts.

  20. Sulfur removal from diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. H. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    Methanol is considered to be a potential on-board fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles. In current distribution systems for liquid fuels used in the transportation sector, commodity methanol can occasionally become contaminated with the sulfur in diesel fuel or gasoline. This sulfur would poison the catalytic materials used in fuel reformers for fuel cells. We tested the removal of this sulfur by means of ten activated carbons (AC) that are commercially available. Tests were conducted with methanol doped with 1 vol.% grade D-2 diesel fuel containing 0.29% sulfur, which was present essentially as 33-35 wt.% benzothiophenes (BTs) and 65-67 wt.% dibenzothiophenes (DBT). In general, coconut shell-based carbons activated by high-temperature steam were more effective at sulfur removal than coal-based carbons. Equilibrium sorption data showed linear increase in sulfur capture with the increase of sulfur concentration in methanol. Both types of carbons had similar breakthrough characteristics, with the dynamic sorption capacity of each being about one-third of its equilibrium sorption capacity. Results of this study suggest that a fixed-bed sorber of granular AC can be used, such as in refueling stations, for the removal of sulfur in diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

  1. Clustering Dynamics in Water/Methanol Mixtures: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study at 205 K < T < 295 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Clustering Dynamics in Water/Methanol Mixtures: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study at 205 K functional groups in water/methanol mixtures at different methanol molar fractions (XMeOH ) 0, 0.04, 0.1, 0 in the mixtures, at all the methanol molar fractions, are faster than those of pure water and methanol because

  2. Salary Supplement -1 -Approved: 04/10/2014 Salary Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Salary Supplement - 1 - Approved: 04/10/2014 Salary Supplement Policy Type: Administrative salaries to all employees within state and university guidelines. Therefore, supplementing an employee's salary with state, local or grant funding in excess of prescribed rates is a serious matter

  3. Maternal Supplement Use During Pregnancy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bratton, Mallory Michelle

    2012-05-31

    Background: There is little consensus regarding the need for vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy. The composition and use of supplements among pregnant women varies greatly. Toxicity or inadequacy of nutrients could have health...

  4. Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-08-01

    This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

  5. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  6. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  7. Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Supplemental Information EXTENDED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Animals SPF C57Bl/6J mice and SPF Slc6a4/ml) was provided ad libitum in drinking water. For antibiotic treatment at P0, drinking water was supplemented immediately after collection and homogenized in grants buffered saline solution (GBSS) supplemented with 5

  8. Supplemental Material Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchta, Shawn R.

    1 Supplemental Material Table of Contents Text on the multiple individuals per population phylogeny: pg 4 Supplemental Figure 1: Phylogram of U. stansburiana populations from the complete data set that included multiple individuals per population. pg 5 Supplemental Table 1: Population locations and years

  9. Internal Supplemental Compensation Approval Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Bunny

    Internal Supplemental Compensation Approval Form The Ohio State University Page 1 of 1 Internal Supplemental Compensation Approval Form UMC10036­Revised 02/10 The salary of regular, full-time faculty, the individual may be eligible to receive supplemental compensation if release time is not a feasible option

  10. Chemistry & Biology 16 Supplemental Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    Chemistry & Biology 16 Supplemental Data Inorganic Mercury Detection and Controlled Release Cheng, Gerard C. L. Wong, and Yi Lu SUPPLEMENTAL EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Materials The lipids 1, in Eagle's Menimum Essential Medium, supplemented with 100 units/mL aqueous penicillin G, 100 µg

  11. 2.1E Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkelmann, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Supplement — 2. I E Update ENERGY E N D USES A N D D 0 E -Supplement — 2.1E Update ENERGY METERS IN PLANT IntroductionRates Supplement — 2.1E Update ENERGY-CHG accepts a numeric

  12. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert C. Tsang

    2004-03-26

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The early entrance coproduction plant study conducted in Phase I of the IMPPCCT project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there are minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the synthesis gas (syngas). However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies will address the technical concerns that will make the IMPPCCT concept competitive with natural

  13. Development of a bench scale test to evaluate lubricants for use with methanol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, R.; Klaus, E.; Duda, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    In methanol-fueled diesel engines, the crankcase lubricant is used to lubricate both the engine and the fuel injector system. Crankcase lubricants including some designed for methanol-fueled engines are not completely compatible with the methanol fuel. In order to test the effect of methanol extraction on diesel engine lubricant performance, two extraction protocols were developed: one to simulate the fuel injector (1000 parts of methanol to one part of lubricant) and the other to simulate an extreme case of methanol contamination in the crank-case (one part of methanol to five parts of lubricant). The extracted samples of the lubricant were stripped to remove the methanol. The samples were then evaluated for changes in oxidative stability and lubricity. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Supplementary Information for Methanol as a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplementary Information for Methanol as a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations.757 0.68(5) Table I. Methanol (12 CH16 3 OH) maser transitions and accurate rest frequencies taken from

  15. An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

    2009-01-01

    Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

  16. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

    2010-06-11

    This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

  17. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study M. Mench, J. Scott, S. Thynell boundary Fuel cell performance Current density distribution measurements Conclusions #12;3 Method, flow rate, species inlet and fuel cell temperature, and humidity. Transparent polycarbonate windows

  18. Discovery of two new methanol masers in NGC 7538

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Pestalozzi; V. Minier; F. Motte; J. Conway

    2006-01-20

    Context: NGC7538 is known to host a 6.7 and 12.2GHz methanol maser cospatial with a Ultra Compact (UC) HII region, IRS1. Aims: We report on the serendipitous discovery of two additional 6.7GHz methanol masers in the same region, not associated with IRS1. Methods: Interferometry maser positions are compared with recent single-dish and interferometry continuum observations. Results: The positions of the masers agree to high accuracy with the 1.2mm continuum peak emission in NGC7538 IRS9 and NGC7538 S. This clear association is also confirmed by the positional agreement of the masers with existing high resolution continuum observations at cm and/or mm wavelengths. Conclusions: Making use of the established strong relation between methanol masers and high-mass star formation, we claim that we have accurately positioned the high-mass protostars within the regions where they are detected. The variety of objects hosting a 6.7GHz methanol maser in NGC7538 shows that this emission probably traces different evolutionary stages within the protostellar phase.

  19. Romania program targets methanol and Fischer-Tropsch research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Currently, the chemical organic industry, the petrochemical and engine fuels industry in Romania are entirely based on hydrocarbons from oil. To reduce the oil dependence of this sector and to ensure the stipulated growth rate of 8-9%, research and development programs have been set up with a view to the diversification of raw materials. In research on hydrocarbons from alcohol conversion, three process variants are known, i.e. olefins from methanol, gasolines from methanol and a combined gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol. The Romanian process of methanol conversion to hydrocarbons is very flexible, with all the variants mentioned being carried out in the same plant by modifying the catalysts. In research on hydrocarbons from synthesis gas a modern process is being developed for gasification of brown coal in a fluidized bed, under pressure, in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. In the field of carbon oxide hydrogenation, studies have been carried out on selective Fischer-Tropsch processes in which the reaction products are high value hydrocarbon fractions.

  20. Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod-ucts via Electron Impact and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod- ucts via Electron Impact for application in energy re- lated electrocatalysis is demonstrated using continuous methanol oxidation over

  1. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Wenpeng Liu*,a and Chao that performance and design of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is controlled not only by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions

  2. Molecular Hydrogen from Methanol Maser Sources { Out ow from the Earliest Stage of Star Formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Michael

    Molecular Hydrogen from Methanol Maser Sources { Out ow from the Earliest Stage of Star Formation in its natal molecular cloud. The strong methanol maser transition 5 1 { 6 0 A + at 6.7 GHz has also been that methanol maser emission usually occurs in massive star forming regions but away from the UCHII regions

  3. PoS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunthaler, Andreas

    PoS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and water masers Luca VLBA and VERA results in measuring trigonometric parallaxes of methanol and water maser sourcesS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and water masers Luca Moscadelli 1. Introduction

  4. Discovery of molecular hydrogen line emission associated with methanol maser emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, Michael C. B.

    Discovery of molecular hydrogen line emission associated with methanol maser emission J.-K. Lee March 9 A B S T R AC T We report the discovery of H2 line emission associated with 6.67-GHz methanol emission was found associated with an ultracompact H II region IRAS 14567­5846 and isolated methanol maser

  5. Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li density of liquid methanol (CH3OH) fuel is 4800 Wh l-1 , whereas the theoretical energy density of Li

  6. Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2- pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII Me observed for the SN2 functionalization to form methanol by two isomeric (dpms)PtIV Me(OH)2 complexes, one conversion of methane to methanol at low temper- ature is crucial for transportation of shale gas produced

  7. Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP Methanol Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP ­ Methanol Separation issues in the well heads. To counteract this problem, methanol is injected into the produced water stream at the well site. Methanol, however, is toxic to humans, animals, and plants, and must be removed before

  8. Electronic spectroscopy of intermediates involved in the conversion of methane to methanol by FeO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Electronic spectroscopy of intermediates involved in the conversion of methane to methanol by Fe.1063/1.1448489 I. INTRODUCTION The direct oxidation of methane to an easily transport- able liquid such as methanol process and as the simplest model for alkane oxidation.1,2 Although no direct, efficient methane­methanol

  9. A New Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Methanol Hong Wei Xiang,a...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    A New Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Methanol Hong Wei Xiang,a... Arno Laesecke for the viscosity of methanol is presented that is valid over the entire fluid region, including vapor, liquid coefficient is developed from experimental data and applied to methanol. The high-density contribution

  10. Quantifying global terrestrial methanol emissions using1 observations from the TES satellite sensor2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 Quantifying global terrestrial methanol emissions using1 observations from the TES Figure S1. December-January-Febuary (DJF, top) and June-July-August (JJA, bottom) biogenic3 methanol 1 Figure S4. Regions employed for quantifying terrestrial methanol fluxes (red) and for2

  11. Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 43174324 Porous current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2007-01-01

    Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 4317­4324 Porous current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with its cathode current collector made of porous metal foam was investigated did the cell having the conventional perforated-plate current collector with high methanol

  12. Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser of methylamine (CH3NH2 + ), methanol (CH3OH+ ), and methyl fluoride (CH3F+ ) cations by short, intense laser 7 m laser pulses. This work is motivated by recent studies of methanol cations by Yamanouchi and co

  13. The effect of methanol concentration on the performance of a passive DMFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    The effect of methanol concentration on the performance of a passive DMFC J.G. Liu, T.S. Zhao *, R-breathing liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), with no external pumps or other auxiliary devices, was designed, fabricated and tested with different methanol concentrations. It was found that the cell

  14. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia Abstract This paper studies the synthesis and the design of methanol recovery that methanol could be recovered completely from the hydrocarbon when 5 equilibrium trays in the extraction

  15. Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qinbin

    Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1 Brendan D of atmospheric methanol to examine the consistency between observed atmospheric concentrations and current of methanol in the model is 7 days; gas-phase oxidation by OH accounts for 63% of the global sink, dry

  16. Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell C. Lim, C.Y. Wang for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were fabricated by using a novel method of modi®ed Na.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cells; Membrane-electrode assembly (MEA); Polymer

  17. Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance J. Prabhuram, T in the performance of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) occurred after the cell had been operated at a higher temperature with higher methanol concentrations as compared with the polarization data collected under

  18. Structure of liquid and glassy methanol confined in cylindrical pores Denis Morineau1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structure of liquid and glassy methanol confined in cylindrical pores Denis Morineau1,2 , Régis scattering analysis of the density and the static structure factor of confined methanol at various and D=35 Ĺ. A change of the thermal expansivity of confined methanol at low temperature is the signature

  19. Partial oxidation of methanol over highly dispersed vanadia supported on silica SBA-15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Partial oxidation of methanol over highly dispersed vanadia supported on silica SBA-15 C. Hessa 2005; accepted 6 August 2005 The partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde (FA) was studied over vanadia partly agglomerates into vanadia crystallites during methanol oxidation. KEY WORDS: supported

  20. Journal of Power Sources 167 (2007) 265271 Simultaneous oxygen-reduction and methanol-oxidation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Power Sources 167 (2007) 265­271 Simultaneous oxygen-reduction and methanol-reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol- oxidation reaction (MOR) at the cathode of a DMFC. Good agreements between a significant poisoning effect on the ORR by the presence of methanol at the cathode. The results also indicated

  1. Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval1 evaluation and constraints on the seasonality of biogenic2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval1 evaluation and constraints Information1 2 3 #12; 3 1 FigureS1.Comparison of TES, IASI and airborne methanol measurements using GEOS-Chem as2 an intercomparison platform. Methanol abundance as modeled by GEOS-Chem (base-case3 simulation

  2. Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol the pretreatment. KEYWORDS: platinum, methanol oxidation, operando, XAFS, EXAFS, XANES, alumina, nanoparticle, size

  3. Exergetic analysis of fuel cell micropowerplants fed by methanol Nico Hotz a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Exergetic analysis of fuel cell micropowerplants fed by methanol Nico Hotz a , Ming-Tsang Lee polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) micropowerplant in combination with a steam reformer fed by methanol and a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) micropowerplant are analyzed numerically regarding their exergetic

  4. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

  5. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore »the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.« less

  6. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  7. Petroleum Data, Natural Gas Data, Coal Data, Macroeconomic Data, Petroleum Import Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Supplemental tables to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 for petroleum, natural gas, coal, macroeconomic, and import data

  8. Emissions characterization of two methanol-fueled transit buses. Final report, April-September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.

    1986-02-01

    Exhaust emissions from the two methanol-powered buses used in the California Methanol Bus Demonstration have been characterized. The M.A.N. SU 240 bus is powered by M.A.N.'s D2566 FMUH methanol engine, and utilizes catalytic exhaust aftertreatment. The GMC RTS II 04 bus is powered by a first-generation DDAD 6V-92TA methanol engine without exhaust aftertreatment. Emissions of HC, CO, NO, unburned methanol, aldehydes, total particulates, and soluble fraction of particulate were determined for both buses over steady-state and transient chassis dynamometer test cycles. Emission levels from the M.A.N. bus were considerably lower than those from the GMC bus, with the exception of NO. Comparison of emission levels from methanol- and diesel-powered buses indicates that substantial reduction in emissions (especially particulate and NO) are possible with careful implementation of methanol fueling.

  9. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  10. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  11. II. GENERAL COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENT INTRODUCTION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Suggested Audit Procedures At the end of this General Compliance Supplement is a matrix that outlines the compliance requirements, including special tests and provisions,...

  12. Solar photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Prairie, M.R.; Assink, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    This report summarizes the three-year LDRD program directed at developing catalysts based on metalloporphyrins to reduce carbon dioxide. Ultimately it was envisioned that such catalysts could be made part of a solar-driven photoredox cycle by coupling metalloporphyrins with semiconductor systems. Such a system would provide the energy required for CO{sub 2} reduction to methanol, which is an uphill 6-electron reduction. Molecular modeling and design capabilities were used to engineer metalloporphyrin catalysts for converting CO{sub 2} to CO and higher carbon reduction products like formaldehyde, formate, and methanol. Gas-diffusion electrochemical cells were developed to carry out these reactions. A tin-porphyrin/alumina photocatalyst system was partially developed to couple solar energy to this reduction process.

  13. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  14. Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a cells Direct methanol fuel cells Neat methanol Water concentration a b s t r a c t This paper reports

  15. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  16. Hydrogen isotope exchanges between water and methanol in interstellar ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faure, A; Theulé, P; Quirico, E; Schmitt, B

    2015-01-01

    The deuterium fractionation of gas-phase molecules in hot cores is believed to reflect the composition of interstellar ices. The deuteration of methanol is a major puzzle, however, because the isotopologue ratio [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD], which is predicted to be equal to 3 by standard grain chemistry models, is much larger (~20) in low-mass hot corinos and significantly lower (~1) in high-mass hot cores. This dichotomy in methanol deuteration between low-mass and massive protostars is currently not understood. In this study, we report a simplified rate equation model of the deuterium chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. We apply this model to the chemistry of hot corinos and hot cores, with IRAS 16293-2422 and the Orion~KL Compact Ridge as prototypes, respectively. The chemistry is based on a statistical initial deuteration at low temperature followed by a warm-up phase during which thermal hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanges occur between water and methanol. The exchange kinetics is incorpor...

  17. Methanol Along the Path from Envelope to Protoplanetary Disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar methanol is considered to be a parent species of larger, more complex organic molecules. A physicochemical simulation of infalling parcels of matter is performed for a low-mass star-forming system to trace the chemical evolution from cloud to disc. An axisymmetric 2D semi-analytic model generates the time-dependent density and velocity distributions, and full continuum radiative transfer is performed to calculate the dust temperature and the UV radiation field at each position as a function of time. A comprehensive gas-grain chemical network is employed to compute the chemical abundances along infall trajectories. Two physical scenarios are studied, one in which the dominant disc growth mechanism is viscous spreading, and another in which continuous infall of matter prevails. The results show that the infall path influences the abundance of methanol entering each type of disc, ranging from complete loss of methanol to an enhancement by a factor of > 1 relative to the prestellar phase. Critical ch...

  18. New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, Radoslav

    1998-08-01

    A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- srˇpported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

  19. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State, 1980-1999 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-1999 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-1999 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  20. Unbiased water and methanol maser surveys of NGC 1333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyo, A-Ran; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Ho-Gyu, E-mail: arl@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of unbiased 22 GHz H{sub 2}O water and 44 GHz class I CH{sub 3}OH methanol maser surveys in the central 7' × 10' area of NGC 1333 and two additional mapping observations of a 22 GHz water maser in a ?3' × 3' area of the IRAS4A region. In the 22 GHz water maser survey of NGC 1333 with a sensitivity of ? ? 0.3 Jy, we confirmed the detection of masers toward H{sub 2}O(B) in the region of HH 7-11 and IRAS4B. We also detected new water masers located ?20'' away in the western direction of IRAS4B or ?25'' away in the southern direction of IRAS4A. We could not, however, find young stellar objects or molecular outflows associated with them. They showed two different velocity components of ?0 and ?16 km s{sup –1}, which are blue- and redshifted relative to the adopted systemic velocity of ?7 km s{sup –1} for NGC 1333. They also showed time variabilities in both intensity and velocity from multi-epoch observations and an anti-correlation between the intensities of the blue- and redshifted velocity components. We suggest that the unidentified power source of these masers might be found in the earliest evolutionary stage of star formation, before the onset of molecular outflows. Finding this kind of water maser is only possible through an unbiased blind survey. In the 44 GHz methanol maser survey with a sensitivity of ? ? 0.5 Jy, we confirmed masers toward IRAS4A2 and the eastern shock region of IRAS2A. Both sources are also detected in 95 and 132 GHz methanol maser lines. In addition, we had new detections of methanol masers at 95 and 132 GHz toward IRAS4B. In terms of the isotropic luminosity, we detected methanol maser sources brighter than ?5 × 10{sup 25} erg s{sup –1} from our unbiased survey.

  1. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    a Furnace Burning City of Heavy Fuel Oil (from Sato, et . ~"a copper catalyst. heavy fuel oil, naptha, or natural gas,from city gas and heavy fuel oil burning in the Kyoto

  2. Combustion characteristics of indolene-methanol blends in a CFR spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the combustion characteristics of indolene, methanol and indolene-methanol blends has been completed. The investigation included theoretical and experimental parts. In the theoretical part, turbulent burning velocity, laminar burning velocity, and mass burning velocity are computed. The experimental part was completed on a CFR spark ignition engine using indolene, methanol, and indolene-methanol blends. Methanol concentration was varied from 0 to 100 vol.%. For each blend, compression ratio was varied from 5.0 to KLCR (Knock Limited Compression Ratio). The results of theoretical analysis showed that the laminar burning velocity increased as the vol.% of methanol increased. The experimental results indicated that adding methanol to indolene, MBT (Minimum advanced for Best Torque) spark advance, volumetric efficiency, brake mean effective pressure are decreased while break specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency an KLCR are increased. The theoretical and experimental results showed that adding methanol to indolene, apparent flame speed, turbulent burning velocity and the ratio of turbulent to laminar burning velocity increased. Pure methanol produced the highest turbulent burning velocity. It is concluded that methanol has considerable effect on the combustion characteristics of spark ignition engine.

  3. GALPROP Explanatory Supplement Andrew W. Strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Andrew W.

    GALPROP Explanatory Supplement Andrew W. Strong Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur extraterrestrische Physik Supplement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 General Principles 5 2.1 Transport equation

  4. Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 17, 2014 Page 1 Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background and Need: This Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement describes how Bonneville Power...

  5. SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP -1 Rev. 101/20102014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP - 1 Rev. 101/20102014 SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS January, 20102014 These Supplemental General Conditions are to modify, supplement, void, supersede and amend be deemed to include the Standard General Conditions and the Supplemental General Conditions. INDEXTABLE

  6. Supplemental Directives | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport forRetirement PlanSupplemental Directives | National Nuclear

  7. Interaction of alkanes with an amorphous methanol film at 15-180 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2005-09-15

    The hydrogen-bond imperfections and glass-liquid transition of the amorphous methanol film have been investigated on the basis of the film dewetting and the incorporation/desorption of alkane molecules adsorbed on the surface. The butane is incorporated completely in the bulk of the porous methanol film up to 70 K. At least two distinct states exist for the incorporated butane; one is assignable to solvated molecules in the bulk and the other is weakly bound species at the surface or in the subsurface site. For the nonporous methanol film, the uptake of butane in the bulk is quenched but butane forms a surface complex with methanol above 80 K. The butane incorporated in the bulk of the glassy methanol film is released at 120 K, where dewetting of the methanol film occurs simultaneously due to evolution of the supercooled liquid phase.

  8. Mass spectral characterization of oxygen-containing aromatics with methanol chemical ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, M.V.

    1984-03-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry with methanol and deuterated methanol as ionization reagents is used to differentiate oxygen-containing aromatics, including phenols, aromatic ethers, and aromatic substituted alcohols, as well as compounds containing more than one oxygen atom. The analogous sulfur-containing aromatics may be similarly differentiated. Methanol chemical ionization is used to characterize a neutral aromatic polar subfraction of a coal-derived liquid by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 16 references, 2 tables, 1 figure.

  9. Advances in Energy Reduction in Methanol Plant Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huggins, P. J.; Griffiths, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Waste heat in the flue gas from the refOrmi~g furnace is recovered by raising and superhe ting steam and for preheating combustion air use by the reforming furnace burners. ' Similarly waste heat in the synthesis gas, lhiCh is suitable for methane... synthesis without f rther process i ng, is recovered by ra ising steam, re heating boiler feedwater and preheating dea rator feedwater. j i Compression: After final cooling the ~ynthesis gas is compressed in a centrifugal compress~r to the methanol...

  10. Selective zeolite catalyst for preparing ethylbenzene from toluene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasil`ev, A.N.; Galinskii, A.A.

    1995-10-10

    A selective catalyst for methylation of toluene in the side chain has been prepared by modification of Cs{sub 0.85}NaX zeolite. Highly active catalysts for alkylation of toluene with methanol in the side chain are prepared by hydrothermal modification of zeolites. Previously it was found that with a high cesium content in catalysts, which was reached by ion exchange, their selectivity with respect to styrene considerably increases. In this paper the authors proposed a procedure for preparing a highly selective catalyst for synthesis of ethylbenzene.

  11. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A., E-mail: Shari.Breen@csiro.au [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-01

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  12. Matriculation and Graduation Ceremonies, Diplomas, Diploma Supplements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Matriculation and Graduation Ceremonies, Diplomas, Diploma Supplements Compiled 21.1.2015 12 diploma texts ­ Latin Sample diploma texts ­ English translations Diploma supplement A diploma supplement institutions that have been discussing the content and form of the supplement over the past several years

  13. University Budget Office Administrative Salary Supplement Agreement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    University Budget Office Administrative Salary Supplement Agreement Feb 2015 http://www.busfin.uga.edu/forms/salary_supplement.pdf It is the policy of the University of Georgia to award salary supplements to those faculty and staff members who these special duties or is removed by the university administration, the salary supplement will cease effective

  14. http://bbsonline.cup.cam.ac.uk/Preprints/Arbib-05012002/Supplemental/ BBS Supplemental Commentary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choe, Yoonsuck

    http://bbsonline.cup.cam.ac.uk/Preprints/Arbib-05012002/Supplemental/ 1 of 2 BBS Supplemental Commentary Below are links to the 15 supplemental commentaries on the target article, "From monkey. Author's Electronic Response to the 15 Supplemental Commentaries: Supplemental Electronic Response

  15. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-09-18

    The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

  16. Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    the use of autoreforming for a production cost 0f $0.61/gal, 3.34MJ/gal of energy consumption and 0.79gal1 Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol of the production methanol from glycerol and its integration in the production of biodiesel from algae. We propose

  17. Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory-phase transition metal oxide cations can convert methane to methanol. Methane activation by MO+ is discussed reaction are also presented. Introduction The direct oxidation of methane to an easily transportable liquid

  18. APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu* , Chunguang Suo, email: lxw@hit.edu.cn) ABSTRACT In view of micro fuel cells, the silicon processes are employed for microfabrication of the micro direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Using the MEMS technology we have successfully made

  19. Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch, 2002 Vibrational relaxation and hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol-d dissolved in CCl4 have been-d molecules both accepting and donating hydrogen bonds at 2500 cm-1 . Following vibrational relaxation

  20. Experimental Observations in the Morita Baylis-Hillman Reaction in Methanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plata, Robert Erik

    2013-05-22

    -energy profile for a Morita Baylis-Hillman reaction in methanol. Although the majority of this dissertation will be about the Morita Baylis-Hillman reaction in methanol, it could not have been fully accomplished without having to study the Morita Baylis...

  1. The Reactivity Limit for Methanol Oxidation on Platinum/Ruthenium Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Reactivity Limit for Methanol Oxidation on Platinum/Ruthenium Catalysts A. Wieckowski 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Pt/Ru Decorated (UIUC) PtRu Alloy (JM) E = 0.4 V Oxidation in 0.5 M Methanol

  2. Methanol masers : Reliable tracers of the early stages of high-mass star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Ellingsen

    2005-10-07

    The GLIMPSE and MSX surveys have been used to examine the mid-infrared properties of a statistically complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. The GLIMPSE point sources associated with methanol masers are clearly distinguished from the majority, typically having extremely red mid-infrared colors, similar to those expected of low-mass class 0 young stellar objects. The intensity of the GLIMPSE sources associated with methanol masers is typically 4 magnitudes brighter at 8.0 micron than at 3.6 micron. Targeted searches towards GLIMPSE point sources with [3.6]-[4.5] > 1.3 and an 8.0 micron magnitude less than 10 will detect more than 80% of class II methanol masers. Many of the methanol masers are associated with sources within infrared dark clouds (IRDC) which are believed to mark regions where high-mass star formation is in its very early stages. The presence of class II methanol masers in a significant fraction of IRDC suggests that high-mass star formation is common in these regions. Different maser species are thought to trace different evolutionary phases of the high-mass star formation process. Comparison of the properties of the GLIMPSE sources associated with class II methanol masers and other maser species shows interesting trends, consistent with class I methanol masers tracing a generally earlier evolutionary phase and OH masers tracing a later evolutionary phase.

  3. Aalborg Universitet Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Sřren Juhl

    by a catalytic burner, which uses the excess hydrogen of the fuel cell. Figure 1 shows the reformer and fuel cellAalborg Universitet Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro., & Sahlin, S. L. (2012). Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro

  4. Aalborg Universitet Dynamic Modeling of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell System using Empirical Data and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet Dynamic Modeling of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell System using Empirical Data Reza Published in: Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology DOI (link to publication from Publisher. K., Andreasen, S. J., & Shaker, H. R. (2014). Dynamic Modeling of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell

  5. JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS 92, 127-135 (1985) Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol to Formaldehyde'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    1985-01-01

    JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS 92, 127-135 (1985) Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol to Formaldehyde/mol at 275°C (I). Because of the extreme industrial impor- tance of formaldehyde for plastics, dyes, etc con- cepts are generally accepted regarding the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over Mo03: (a

  6. Aalborg Universitet Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350W high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    , Pontoppidanstrćde 101, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmarkp gy gy g y pp g Introd ction Steam reforming of methanol for a HTPEM f el cell stack ConclusionsIntroduction Steam reforming of methanol for a HTPEM fuel cell stack where heating, conduct detailed measurements of the fuel cells offer many evaporation and superheating

  7. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  8. Analytical quality control of products from conversion of methanol to motor fuel components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agabalyan, L.G.; Bondareva, G.V.; Fadeev, V.S.

    1985-12-01

    In the gas-chromatographic analysis of gaseous products and aqueous products and aqueous solutions containing methanol and other highpolarity compounds, supports based on polymeric materials are used. These supports have hydrophobic surfaces, relatively low adsorption capacity and no catalytic activity. The work reported in this paper was aimed at the development of analytical procedures for quality control of the feed (methanol-water mixture) and reaction products in the testing volume required in development of experimental-commercial process technology of motor fuel synthesis from methanol. The objects of investigation were the feed and products in methanol conversion to gasoline. These materials were obtained in a semiworks unit. Analytical control of the feed and products in the manufacture of synthetic gasoline from methanol can be accomplished, it is shown, by combining fluorescent indicator analysis, gas chromatography with a back-purge, and capillary chromatography.

  9. Methanol masers as tools to study high-mass star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Pestalozzi

    2007-04-23

    In this contribution I will attempt to show that the study of galactic 6.7 and 12.2GHz methanol masers themselves, as opposed to the use of methanol masers as signposts, can yield important conclusions contributing to the understanding of high-mass star formation. Due to their exclusive association with star formation, methanol masers are the best tools to do this, and their large number allows to probe the entire Galaxy. In particular I will focus on the determination of the luminosity function of methanol masers and on the determination of an unambiguous signature for a circumstellar masing disc seen edge-on. Finally I will try to point out some future fields of research in the study of methanol masers.

  10. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  11. EIS-0236-S1: Draft Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EIS-0236-S1: Draft Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0236-S1: Draft Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement This Supplemental DEIS...

  12. Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D; Famiglietti, J S

    2012-01-01

    in the State of the Climate supplements. By sustaining thesesatellite records has supplements have primarily drawn onthat can complement or supplement traditional in situ re- F

  13. Adsorption of nitrogen, neopentane, n-hexane, benzene and methanol for the evaluation of pore sizes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    Adsorption of nitrogen, neopentane, n-hexane, benzene and methanol for the evaluation of pore sizes-hexane, benzene and methanol adsorption isotherms were determined on ®ve samples of silica grade MCM-41

  14. C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(d)JavaXML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.D: Java and XML

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(d)JavaXML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.D: Java and XML For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang This supplement introduces how to use Java is required for this supplement. To learn XML, please read Supplement VI.C, "XML." 0 Introduction

  15. C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(c)XML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.C: XML

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement6(c)XML.doc Last printed Supplement VI.C: XML For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang This supplement covers the following topics: · Creating XML to format and display query results and process database operations in Oracle. 1 #12;C:\\idrive\\web\\intro6e\\supplement\\Supplement

  16. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akin, Minta C.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2009-03-14

    The low-energy, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular products from amorphous solid water (ASW) films capped with methanol is investigated versus methanol coverage (0 - 4 x 1015 cm-2) at 50 K using 100 eV incident electrons. The major ESD products from a monolayer of methanol on ASW are quite similar to the ESD products from bulk methanol film: H2, CH4, H2O, C2H6, CO, CH2O, and CH3OH. For 40 ML ASW films, the molecular oxygen, hydrogen, and water ESD yields from the ASW are suppressed with increasing methanol coverage, while the CH3OH ESD yield increases proportionally to the methanol coverage. The suppression of the water ESD products by methanol is consistent with the non-thermal reactions occurring preferentially at or near the ASW/vacuum interface and not in the interior of the film. The water and molecular hydrogen ESD yields from the water layer decrease exponentially with the methanol cap coverage with 1/e constants of ~ 0.6 x 1015 cm-2 and 1.6 x 1015 cm-2, respectively. In contrast, the O2 ESD from the water layer is very efficiently quenched by small amounts of methanol (1/e ~ 6.5 x 1013 cm-2). The rapid suppression of O2 production by small amounts of methanol is due to reactions between CH3OH and the precursors for the O2 - mainly OH radicals. A kinetic model for the O2 ESD which semi-quantitatively accounts for the observations is presented.

  17. Detection of 6.7 GHz methanol absorption towards hot corinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Pandian; S. Leurini; K. M. Menten; A. Belloche; P. F. Goldsmith

    2008-08-14

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz have been found exclusively towards high-mass star forming regions. Recently, some Class 0 protostars have been found to display conditions similar to what are found in hot cores that are associated with massive star formation. These hot corino sources have densities, gas temperatures, and methanol abundances that are adequate for exciting strong 6.7 GHz maser emission. This raises the question of whether 6.7 GHz methanol masers can be found in both hot corinos and massive star forming regions, and if not, whether thermal methanol emission can be detected. We searched for the 6.7 GHz methanol line towards five hot corino sources in the Perseus region using the Arecibo radio telescope. To constrain the excitation conditions of methanol, we observed thermal submillimeter lines of methanol in the NGC1333-IRAS 4 region with the APEX telescope. We did not detect 6.7 GHz emission in any of the sources, but found absorption against the cosmic microwave background in NGC1333-IRAS 4A and NGC1333-IRAS 4B. Using a large velocity gradient analysis, we modeled the excitation of methanol over a wide range of physical parameters, and verify that the 6.7 GHz line is indeed strongly anti-inverted for densities lower than 10^6 cm^-3. We used the submillimeter observations of methanol to verify the predictions of our model for IRAS 4A by comparison with other CH3OH transitions. Our results indicate that the methanol observations from the APEX and Arecibo telescopes are consistent with dense (n ~ 10^6 cm^-3), cold (T ~ 15-30 K) gas. The lack of maser emission in hot corinos and low-mass protostellar objects in general may be due to densities that are much higher than the quenching density in the region where the radiation field is conducive to maser pumping.

  18. Identification of the Active Species in Photochemical Hole Scavenging Reactions of Methanol on TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-11-03

    Molecular and dissociative methanol adsorption species were prepared on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces to study photocatalytic oxidation of methanol in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Adsorbed methoxy groups (CH3O-) were found to be the photoactive form of adsorbed methanol converted to adsorbed formaldehyde and a surface OH group by hole-mediated C-H bond cleavage. These results suggest that adsorbed methoxy is the effective hole scavenger in photochemical reactions involving methanol.

  19. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sederquist, R. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber for use as a sulfur removal subsystem in transportation fuel cell systems. Results suggest that an on-board GAC adsorber may not be attractive due to size and weight constraints. However, it may be feasible to install this GAC adsorber at methanol distribution stations, where space and weight are not a critical concern. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the GAC adsorber concept will be attractive if the spent AC can be regenerated for reuse. These preliminary analyses were made on basis of very limited breakthrough data obtained from the bench-scale testing. Optimization on dynamic testing parameters and study on regeneration of spent AC are needed.

  20. The effects of zirconia morphology on methanol synthesis from CO and H2 over Cu/ZrO2 catalysts: Part I -- Steady-State Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Michael J.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2005-01-01

    57001 pt1 The Effects of Zirconia Morphology on MethanolAbstract The effect of zirconia phase on the activity andto methanol. Introduction Zirconia-supported copper exhibits

  1. Nov 2007 STEO Supplement

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 20082008707 1 November 2007

  2. Formation of water and methanol in star forming molecular clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankan Das; Kinsuk Acharyya; Sonali Chakrabarti; Sandip Kumar Chakrabarti

    2008-06-29

    We study the formation of water and methanol in the dense cloud conditions to find the dependence of its production rate on the binding energies, reaction mechanisms, temperatures, and grain site number. We wish to find the effective grain surface area available for chemical reaction and the effective recombination timescales as functions of grain and gas parameters. We used a Monte Carlo simulation to follow the chemical processes occurring on the grain surface. We find that the formation rate of various molecules is strongly dependent on the binding energies. When the binding energies are high, it is very difficult to produce significant amounts of the molecular species. Instead, the grain is found to be full of atomic species. The production rates are found to depend on the number density in the gas phase. We show that the concept of the effective grain surface area, which we introduced in our earlier work, plays a significant role in grain chemistry. We compute the abundance of water and methanol and show that the results strongly depend on the density and composition in the gas phase, as well as various grain parameters. In the rate equation, it is generally assumed that the recombination efficiencies are independent of the grain parameters, and the surface coverage. Presently, our computed parameter $\\alpha$ for each product is found to depend on the accretion rate, the grain parameters and the surface coverage of the grain. We compare our results obtained from the rate equation and the one from the effective rate equation, which includes $\\alpha$. At the end we compare our results with the observed abundances.

  3. Palladium catalysts synthesized by atomic layer deposition for methanol decomposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Stair, P. C.; Libera, J. A.; Setthapun, W.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-05-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) palladium films were deposited at 200 C on various ALD metal oxide surfaces using sequential exposures to Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)2) and formalin. In situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements as well as ex situ measurements performed on planar substrates revealed that the Pd growth begins with a relatively slow nucleation process and accelerates once an adequate amount of Pd has deposited on the surface. Furthermore, the Pd nucleation is faster on ALD ZnO surfaces compared to ALD Al2O3 surfaces. ALD was utilized to synthesize highly dispersed, uniform Pd nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm in diameter) on ALD ZnO and Al2O3 coated mesoporous silica gel, and the catalytic performances of these samples were compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The ALD Pd-Al2O3 showed high activity and hydrogen selectivity at relatively low temperatures while the ALD Pd-ZnO showed very low activity as well as quick deactivation. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement revealed that the Pd supported on ZnO 'dissolves' into the substrate during the methanol decomposition reaction which accounts for the gradual disappearance of its catalytic activity. By applying one cycle of ALD Al2O3 on top of the Pd-ZnO catalyst, the activity was enhanced and the catalyst deactivation was mitigated. This Al2O3 overcoating method stabilizes the Pd-ZnO and effectively prevents the dissolution of Pd into the ZnO substrate.

  4. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, James H.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J; Campbell, Joseph L

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel containment. PROJECT OVERVIEW The University of North Florida (UNF), with project partner the University of Florida, recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a 20-watt, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), portable power supply based on the UNF innovative “passive water recovery” MEA. Extensive component, sub-system, and system development and testing was undertaken to meet the rigorous demands of the consumer electronic application. Numerous brassboard (nonpackaged) systems were developed to optimize the integration process and facilitating control algorithm development. The culmination of the development effort was a fully-integrated, DMFC, power supply (referred to as DP4). The project goals were 40 W/kg for specific power, 55 W/l for power density, and 575 Whr/l for energy density. It should be noted that the specific power and power density were for the power section only, and did not include the hybrid battery. The energy density is based on three, 200 ml, fuel cartridges, and also did not include the hybrid battery. The results show that the DP4 system configured without the methanol concentration sensor exceeded all performance goals, achieving 41.5 W/kg for specific power, 55.3 W/l for power density, and 623 Whr/l for energy density. During the project, the DOE revised its technical targets, and the definition of many of these targets, for the portable power application. With this revision, specific power, power density, specific energy (Whr/kg), and energy density are based on the total system, including fuel tank, fuel, and hybridization battery. Fuel capacity is not defined, but the same value is required for all calculations. Test data showed that the DP4 exceeded all 2011 Technical Status values; for example, the DP4 energy density was 373 Whr/l versus the DOE 2011 status of 200 Whr/l. For the

  5. Enhancement of water retention in the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    al. [10], assuming the overall efficiency of the fuel cell system is 20%, the specific energyEnhancement of water retention in the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells 31 July 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) Neat-methanol operation Water

  6. In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID-FEED DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS Z. H. Wang and C. Y. Wang Electrochemical methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Diffusion and convection of both gas and liquid phases are considered

  7. arXiv:0812.0905v2[astro-ph]9Dec2008 Distances to Galactic methanol masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    arXiv:0812.0905v2[astro-ph]9Dec2008 Distances to Galactic methanol masers Kazi L. J. Rygl Max parallax measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in star forming regions of the Galaxy. The 6.7 GHz methanol maser transition is a very valuable astrometric tool, for its large stability and confined

  8. Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. II. Amino acid composition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Digestion of milk protein and methanol-grown bacteria protein in the preruminant calf. II. Amino of milk and of methanol-grown bacteria in the terminal small intestine and the hindgut of the preruminant exclusively by skim-milk powder ; 50.5 p. 100 of the protein of the bacte- ria diet was supplied by methanol

  9. Electrochimica Acta 51 (2006) 54205429 The role of under-rib convection in mass transport of methanol through the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2006-01-01

    of methanol through the serpentine flow field and its neighboring porous layer in a DMFC Q. Ye, T.S. Zhao, C; accepted 11 February 2006 Available online 29 March 2006 Abstract Numerical simulation of a direct methanol, the net electrochemical reactions in the DMFC anode cease, but, owing to the methanol concentration

  10. arXiv:1102.0854v1[astro-ph.GA]4Feb2011 Studies of methanol maser rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Buizer, James Michael

    arXiv:1102.0854v1[astro-ph.GA]4Feb2011 Studies of methanol maser rings Anna Bartkiewicz, Marian present the results of studies of a new class of 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources with a ring- like emission-like distribution of methanol maser spots. Using the Gemini telescopes we found mid-infrared (MIR) counterparts

  11. The role of specific solvent modes in the non-radiative relaxation of an excess electron in methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in methanol A.A. Mosyak, O.V. Prezhdo1 , P.J. Rossky* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University electronic excited state of an excess electron in methanol. Compared to water, we find that the presence in methanol. The first solvation shell dominates the electronic coupling, most strongly through rotational

  12. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on High Surface Area Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported, California 94720-1462 ReceiVed: NoVember 20, 2007; In Final Form: February 6, 2008 The oxidation of methanol that the vanadium is present as isolated VO4 units in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Methanol was found to adsorb

  13. Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon 43210 ReceiVed: May 27, 2004; In Final Form: August 19, 2004 The reaction between methanol and sulfuric peak in the 800 cm-1 region, not present in either the neat methanol or concentrated sulfuric acid

  14. Water and Methanol Adsorption on MgO(100)/Mo(100) Studied by Electron Spectroscopies and Thermal Programmed Desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Water and Methanol Adsorption on MgO(100)/Mo(100) Studied by Electron Spectroscopies and Thermal, 2000 The adsorption of methanol (CH3OH) and water (D2O) on the MgO(100)/Mo(100) surface at 100 K has covered MgO(100)/Mo(100) surface. On the other hand, the formation of a methanol multilayer desorption

  15. Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189­195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell; Water transport; Mathematical modeling; Three

  16. Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser distributions and geometries of vapor clusters equilibrated with methanol-ethanol (Me-Et) liquid mixtures were distributions of vapor clusters equilibrated with liquids, ranging from neat alcohols1,2 to methanol-ethanol (Me

  17. Effect of surface composition of Pt-Au alloy cathode catalyst on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Effect of surface composition of Pt-Au alloy cathode catalyst on the performance of direct methanol 2010 Available online 12 June 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct methanol fuel cell Catalyst Active Site Pt-Au alloy a b s t r a c t A pure Pt cathode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells is not only

  18. Interaction of methanol and water on MgO,,100... studied by ultraviolet photoelectron and metastable impact electron spectroscopies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Interaction of methanol and water on MgO,,100... studied by ultraviolet photoelectron; accepted 27 October 1998 The coadsorption of methanol (CH3OH) and water (D2O) on the MgO 100 /Mo 100 photoelectron spectroscopy UPS HeI , and by thermal programmed desorption TPD . Methanol wets the MgO surface

  19. Methanol as a Sensitive Probe for Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methanol as a Sensitive Probe for Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Proton-to-Electron Mass, corresponding to the 51 ! 60Aţ and 20 ! 3Ŕ1E transitions in methanol (CH3OH), respectively, are among transitions in the ground state of methanol to a variation of the proton-to- electron mass ratio. We show

  20. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on High Surface Area Anatase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported for methanol oxidation on both TiO2 and V/TiO2 was investigated using temperature- programmed experiments/TiO2 sample consists predominantly of isolated VO4 units after calcination. Methanol was found

  1. arXiv:0812.0905v1[astro-ph]4Dec2008 Distances to Galactic methanol masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunthaler, Andreas

    arXiv:0812.0905v1[astro-ph]4Dec2008 Distances to Galactic methanol masers Kazi L. J. RyglŁ Max parallax measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in star forming regions of the Galaxy. The 6.7 GHz methanol maser transition is a very valuable astrometric tool, for its large stability and confined

  2. Effects of Methanol on the Thermodynamics of Iron(III) [Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)]porphyrin Chloride Dissociation and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Effects of Methanol on the Thermodynamics of Iron(III) [Tetrakis in acetonitrile but is catalytically active if the solvent contains methanol. It was suggested that the precursor to the active species is (F20TPP)Fe(OCH3) in methanol-containing solvents. The present study was aimed

  3. 976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malen, Jonathan A.

    of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabri- cated976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer is achieved through on-chip resis- tive heaters, whereby methanol steam reforming reactions were studied over

  4. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 142, 212408 (2015) Dynamics of water, methanol, and ethanol in a room temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 142, 212408 (2015) Dynamics of water, methanol, and ethanol with increasing alkyl chain length: water, methanol, and ethanol, diluted to low concentration in the room is increased: 23 ps for water, 28 ps for methanol, and 34 ps for ethanol. Although in each case, only a single

  5. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability. Supplement 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove {sup 137}CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

  6. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  7. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  8. Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ya-Fan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Li, Jun; Mei, Donghai

    2012-08-02

    Methanol synthesis from syngas (CO/CO2/H2) hydrogenation on the perfect Zn–terminated polar ZnO(0001) surface have been investigated using periodic density functional theory calculations. Our results show that direct CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface is unlikely because in the presence of surface atomic H and O the highly stable formate (HCOO) and carbonate (CO3) readily produced from CO2 with low barriers 0.11 and 0.09 eV will eventually accumulate and block the active sites of the ZnO(0001) surface. In contrast, methanol synthesis from CO hydrogenation is thermodynamically and kinetically feasible on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface. CO can be consecutively hydrogenated into formyl (HCO), formaldehyde (H2CO), methoxy (H3CO) intermediates, leading to the final formation of methanol (H3COH). The reaction route via hydroxymethyl (H2COH) intermediate, a previously proposed species on the defected O–terminated ZnO( ) surface, is kinetically inhibited on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface. The rate-determining step in the consecutive CO hydrogenation route is the hydrogenation of H3CO to H3COH. We also note that this last hydrogenation step is pronouncedly facilitated in the presence of water by lowering the activation barrier from 1.02 to 0.55 eV. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, and performed at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Computational resources were provided at EMSL and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. J. Li and Y.-F. Zhao were also financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 20933003 and 91026003) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB932400). Y.-F. Zhao acknowledges the fellowship from PNNL.

  9. Forms Supplement page -1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Daniel

    Forms Supplement page - 1 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 2 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 3 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12;Forms Supplement page - 4 Export Administration Regulations January 2001 #12

  10. Supplemental Schedules For the Year Ended June 30, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Supplemental Schedules For the Year Ended June 30, 2012 Included in the Higher Education ~ Supplemental Schedules #12;~ 2 ~ #12;~ 3 ~ Detailed Supplemental Statements of Financial Activity ................................................................ 41 Supplemental Statements of Assets Investment in Plant

  11. Detection of a methanol megamaser in a major-merger galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xi; Baan, Willem A; Qiao, Hai-Hua; Li, Juan; An, Tao; Breen, Shari L

    2015-01-01

    We have detected emission from both the 4_{-1}-3_{0} E (36.2~GHz) class I and 7_{-2}-8_{-1} E (37.7~GHz) class II methanol transitions towards the centre of the closest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The emission in both the methanol transitions show narrow spectral features and have luminosities approximately 8 orders of magnitude stronger than that observed from typical class I methanol masers observed in Galactic star formation regions. The emission is also orders of magnitude stronger than the expected intensity of thermal emission from these transitions and based on these findings we suggest that the emission from the two transitions are masers. These observations provides the first detection of a methanol megamaser in the 36.2 and 37.7 GHz transitions and represents only the second detection of a methanol megamaser, following the recent report of an 84 GHz methanol megamaser in NGC1068. We find the methanol megamasers are significantly offset from the nuclear region and arise towards regions wh...

  12. Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: Exercise K Final Report Melissa M://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NISTIR.8032 NISTIR 8032 #12;NISTIR 8032 Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance

  13. Molecular Cell, Volume 28 Supplemental Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Arindam

    Molecular Cell, Volume 28 Supplemental Data Dynamic Basis for One-Dimensional DNA Scanning R. Reichman, Eric Alani, and Eric C. Greene Supplemental Discussion Comparison of TIRFM with Other

  14. Supplement 8-A A Useful Theorem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Supplement 8-A A Useful Theorem The following useful result appears in Pauli's 1930 "Handbuch 2 m 2 x2 W-36 Supplement 8-A A Useful Theorem #12;Using an observation of J. Schwinger

  15. Advanced Nuclear Supplement_November 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Advanced Nuclear Supplement_November 2015 SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEES FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL- DE-SOL-0007791

  16. FORMALDEHYDE AND METHANOL DEUTERATION IN PROTOSTARS: FOSSILS FROM A PAST FAST HIGH-DENSITY PRE-COLLAPSE PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, V.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-20

    Extremely high deuteration of several molecules has been observed around low-mass protostars for a decade. Among them, formaldehyde and methanol present particularly high deuteration, with observations of abundant doubly and triply deuterated forms. Both species are thought to be mainly formed on interstellar grains during the low-temperature and dense pre-collapse phase by H and D atom additions on the iced CO. We present here a theoretical study of the formaldehyde and methanol deuteration obtained with our gas-grain model, GRAINOBLE. This model takes into account the multilayer nature of the mantle and explores the robustness of the results against the uncertainties of poorly constrained chemical and surface model parameters. The comparison of the model predictions with the observations leads to two major results: (1) the observed high deuteration is obtained during the last phase of the pre-collapse stage, when the density reaches {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, and this phase is fast, lasting only several thousands years; and (2) D and H abstraction and substitution reactions are crucial in making up the observed deuteration ratios. This work shows the power of chemical composition as a tool to reconstruct the past history of protostars.

  17. Formaldehyde and methanol deuteration in protostars: fossiles from a past fast high density pre-collapse phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taquet, Vianney; Kahane, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Extremely high deuteration of several molecules have been observed around low mass protostars since a decade. Among them, formaldehyde and methanol present particularly high deuteration, with observations of abundant doubly and triply deuterated forms. Both species are thought to be mainly formed on interstellar grains during the low temperature and dense pre-collapse phase by H and D atom additions on the iced CO. We present here a theoretical study of the formaldehyde and methanol deuteration obtained with our gas-grain model, GRAINOBLE. This model takes into account the multilayer nature of the mantle and explores the robustness of the results against the uncertainties of poorly constrained chemical and surface model parameters. The comparison of the model predictions with the observations leads to two major results: i) the observed high deuteration is obtained during the last phase of the pre-collapse stage, when the density reaches 5 10^6 cm^-3, and this phase is fast, lasting only several thousands year...

  18. A 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASER SURVEY TOWARD GLIMPSE EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xi; Shen Zhiqiang; Gan Conggui [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2011-09-01

    We report the results of a systematic survey for 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward a new sample of 192 massive young stellar object candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects or EGOs) identified from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The observations were made with the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Mopra 22 m radio telescope and resulted in the detection of 105 new 95 GHz class I methanol masers. For 92 of the sources our observations provide the first identification of a class I maser transition associated with these objects (i.e., they are new class I methanol maser sources). Our survey proves that there is indeed a high detection rate (55%) of class I methanol masers toward EGOs. Comparison of the GLIMPSE point sources associated with EGOs with and without class I methanol maser detections shows that they have similar mid-IR colors, with the majority meeting the color selection criteria -0.6 < [5.8]-[8.0] < 1.4 and 0.5 < [3.6]-[4.5] < 4.0. Investigations of the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 {mu}m colors and the associated millimeter dust clump properties (mass and density) of the EGOs for the sub-samples based on the class of methanol masers they are associated with suggest that the stellar mass range associated with class I methanol masers extends to lower masses than for class II methanol masers, or alternatively class I methanol masers may be associated with more than one evolutionary phase during the formation of a high-mass star.

  19. THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschamps, Frederic [Institute of Geophysics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Mousis, Olivier [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Sanchez-Valle, Carmen [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@erdw.ethz.c [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Rome (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of {approx}4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

  20. EIS-0030-S: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1980 Program, Facility Location Supplement, Northwest Montana/North Idaho Support and Libby Integration, Supplemental

  1. SUPPLEMENTAL TEXT Supplement 1: Derivation of the relation between D-A stoichiometry and ratio S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalet, Xavier

    1 SUPPLEMENTAL TEXT Supplement 1: Derivation of the relation between D-A stoichiometry and ratio molecule. Supplement 2: Relation of raw PRE to accurate-E: derivation Crosstalk-uncorrected proximity ratio 1 1 1 raw PR raw PR l d E E l E - + + - = - + - - (S9) #12;3 SUPPLEMENTAL FIGURE LEGENDS Fig. S1

  2. Supplemental On-Line Materials Supplemental on line materials 1 of 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, James K.B.

    Supplemental On-Line Materials Supplemental on line materials 1 of 12 Robotic ObservationsX: Enhanced Carbon Biomass and Export at 55S Supplemental on line materials 2 of 12 Carbon Explorer / Patch to NZ B #12;Bishop et al. SOFeX: Enhanced Carbon Biomass and Export at 55S Supplemental on line

  3. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  4. Visible absorption spectra of crystal violet in supercritical ethane - methanol solution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

    2002-11-01

    The effects of concentration and mole fraction of methanol in supercritical ethane on the absorption spectra of crystal violet (CV) were examined. Keeping the concentration of CV in the cell constant at 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1}, both the methanol concentration (from 0.4 to 1.2 mol l{sup -1}) and pressure of ethane (from 60 to 150 bar) were varied. The degree of solvation of CV depends both on the mole fraction and concentration of cosolvent. The dimerization of CV was found to decrease with pressure, and with the ratio between methanol and CV concentrations.

  5. Pulse radiolysis studies of solvated electrons in supercritical ethane with methanol as cosolvent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Bartels, D. M.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

    2001-08-02

    Pulse radiolysis has been used to study the solvated electron in supercritical ethane with methanol as a cosolvent. These measurements give information about the liquid structure of the cosolvent in these systems. The results show that at temperatures below 110 {sup o}C, there are high local concentrations of alcohol molecules (clusters), which are capable of solvating an electron. The agglomeration number of methanol clusters depends on mole fraction of alcohol at a fixed temperature. Addition of salts increases the size of methanol clusters.

  6. Improvement of performance and emissions of a compression ignition methanol engine with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.; Chikahisa, Takemi; Murayama, Tadashi; Miyano, Masaharu

    1994-10-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has very good compression ignition characteristics and can be converted from methanol using a {gamma}-alumina catalyst. In this study a torch ignition chamber (TIC) head with TIC close to the center of the main combustion chamber was designed for the TIC method. The possibility of improvements in reducing the quantities of DME and emission were investigated by optimizing the TIC position, methanol injection timing, DME injection timing, and intake and exhaust throttling. It was found that the necessary amount of DME was greatly reduced when optimizing methanol and DME injection timings. 2 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Historical Natural Gas Annual - 1930 Through 2000

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State, 1980-2000 PDF 12 Supplemental Gas Supplies by State, 1980-2000 PDF 13 Natural Gas Production, Transmission, and Consumption by State, 1967-2000 PDF 14 Consumption of...

  8. DEFENDANTS' SUPPLEMENTAL MEMORANDUM RE: MOTIONS TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollin, George

    DEFENDANTS' SUPPLEMENTAL MEMORANDUM RE: MOTIONS TO SUPPRESS AND DISMISS - 1 - Richard D. Wall. ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Case No.: CR-05-180-7-LRS DEFENDANTS' SUPPLEMENTAL MEMORANDUM RE: MOTIONS TO SUPPRESS AND DISMISS ) Defendants jointly submit the following supplemental memorandum of points and authorities re: Defendants

  9. DRAFT Supplement to the Environmental Assessment For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DRAFT Supplement to the Environmental Assessment For Restructuring the Program for Observer supplements the 2011 Environmental Assessment for Restructuring the Program for Observer Procurement and Deployment in the North Pacific. NMFS prepared this supplement in response to a Court Order to consider

  10. Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: Exercise J Final Report Melissa M.6028/NIST.IR.7997 NISTIR 7997 #12;Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: Exercise F Final Report Melissa M. Phillips Catherine A. Rimmer NISTIR 7997 Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality

  11. Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: Exercise H Final Report Melissa M://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.7903 NISTIR 7903 #12;ii Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: Exercise H Final Report Melissa M. Phillips Catherine A

  12. Neuron, Volume 78 Supplemental Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentner, Timothy

    Neuron, Volume 78 Supplemental Information Associative Learning Enhances Population Coding colored dot denotes the mean response for two neurons to each of four stimuli. Each colored ellipse) For a positive relationship, neuron pairs with positive signal correlation and large noise correlation have

  13. Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingyun; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Pd4/In2O3 has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modeling. In this study, three possible routes in the reaction network of CO2 + H2 ? CH3OH + H2O have been examined. Our DFT results show that the HCOO route competes with the RWGS route whereas a high activation barrier kinetically blocks the HCOOH route. DFT results also suggest that H2COO* + H* ? H2CO* +OH* and cis-COOH* + H* ?CO* + H2O* are the rate limiting steps in the HCOO route and the RWGS route, respectively. Microkinetic modeling results demonstrate that the HCOO route is the dominant reaction route for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation. We found that the activation of H adatom on the small Pd cluster and the presence of H2O on the In2O3 substrate play important roles in promoting the methanol synthesis. The hydroxyl adsorbed at the interface of Pd4/In2O3 induces the transformation of the supported Pd4 cluster from a butterfly structure into a tetrahedron structure. This important structure change not only indicates the dynamical nature of the supported nanoparticle catalyst structure during the reaction but also shifts the final hydrogenation step from H2COH to CH3O.

  14. Methanol Dehydrogenation and Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Jacob S. Spendelow, Jason D. Goodpaster, Paul J. A. Kenis, and Andrzej Wieckowski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Methanol Dehydrogenation and Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Solutions Jacob S. Spendelow, Jason D, and oxidation of methanol on Pt(111) in alkaline solutions has been examined from a fundamental mechanistic.COhasbeenconfirmedasthemainpoisoningspecies,affectingtherateofmethanoldehydrogenation primarily through repulsive interactions with methanol dehydrogenation intermediates. At direct methanol

  15. EFFECTS OF METAL-SUPPORT INTERACTIONS ON THE SYNTHESIS OF METHANOL OVER PALLADIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryndin, Yu A.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of Methanol over Palladium by Yu. A. Ryndint, R.o by reacting bis-TI-allyl palladium, Pd(n-c H ) , with theto impregnation by the palladium complex all of the supports

  16. First VLBI observations of methanol maser polarisation, in G339.88-1.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Dodson

    2008-04-14

    We investigate class II methanol masers and the environment in which they form with the Long Baseline Array (LBA). Using full polarisation VLBI, we're able to measure the magnetic field directions so as to distinguish between the two main models of the environment in which methanol masers form: disks or shocks. We present polarised images of the methanol maser source G339.88-1.2, made with the LBA at 6.7-GHz. With these first polarisation maps made with the LBA, which successfully reproduce observations with the ATCA confirming the new AIPS code, a new technique for Southern VLBI is opened. The magnetic field directions found are inconstant with methanol masers arising in disks for the majority of the emission.

  17. WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

  18. The molecular environment of massive star forming cores associated with Class II methanol maser emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Longmore; M. G. Burton; P. J. Barnes; T. Wong; C. R. Purcell; J. Ott

    2007-04-13

    Methanol maser emission has proven to be an excellent signpost of regions undergoing massive star formation (MSF). To investigate their role as an evolutionary tracer, we have recently completed a large observing program with the ATCA to derive the dynamical and physical properties of molecular/ionised gas towards a sample of MSF regions traced by 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission. We find that the molecular gas in many of these regions breaks up into multiple sub-clumps which we separate into groups based on their association with/without methanol maser and cm continuum emission. The temperature and dynamic state of the molecular gas is markedly different between the groups. Based on these differences, we attempt to assess the evolutionary state of the cores in the groups and thus investigate the role of class II methanol masers as a tracer of MSF.

  19. Understanding the effect of modifying elements in supported vanadia bilayered catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vining, William Collins

    2011-01-01

    MCM-41. Figure S4.4. . Formaldehyde mole fraction for 0.6VOmethanol oxidation to formaldehyde Abstract The effect ofoxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over VO x /CeO 2 /SiO

  20. Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrauth, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

  1. Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Hyungseok

    2012-07-16

    of shock waves characteristic of explosions at larger scales. However, little is known about how emulsion composition and droplet size affect the micro-explosion process. Through this research, methanol-in-vegetable oil emulsion has been studied from...

  3. The environment of the strongest galactic methanol maser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanna, A; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C; Reid, M J; Ellingsen, S P; Brunthaler, A; Moscadelli, L; Cesaroni, R; Krishnan, V

    2015-01-01

    The high-mass star-forming site G009.62-00.20E hosts the 6.7 GHz methanol maser source with the greatest flux density in the Galaxy which has been flaring periodically over the last ten years. We performed high-resolution astrometric measurements of the CH3OH, H2O, and OH maser emission and 7 mm continuum in the region. The radio continuum emission was resolved in two sources separated by 1300 AU. The CH3OH maser cloudlets are distributed along two north-south ridges of emission to the east and west of the strongest radio continuum component. This component likely pinpoints a massive young stellar object which heats up its dusty envelope, providing a constant IR pumping for the Class II CH3OH maser transitions. We suggest that the periodic maser activity may be accounted for by an independent, pulsating, IR radiation field provided by a bloated protostar in the vicinity of the brightest masers. We also report about the discovery of an elliptical distribution of CH3OH maser emission in the region of periodic v...

  4. SHAPE SELECTIVE NANOCATALYSTS FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2012-09-12

    While gold and platinum have long been recognized for their beauty and value, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on the nano-level to use these elements for creative solutions to our nation's energy and security needs. Multiinterdisciplinary teams consisting of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, computational scientists, and engineers are exploring unchartered territories with shape-selective nanocatalysts for the development of novel, cost effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions to meet global energy needs. This nanotechnology is vital, particularly as it relates to fuel cells.SRNL researchers have taken process, chemical, and materials discoveries and translated them for technological solution and deployment. The group has developed state-of-the art shape-selective core-shell-alloy-type gold-platinum nanostructures with outstanding catalytic capabilities that address many of the shortcomings of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The newly developed nanostructures not only busted the performance of the platinum catalyst, but also reduced the material cost and overall weight of the fuel cell.

  5. Development of microprocessor control for a V-6 engine fueled by prevaporized methanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    on line. The ultimate goal of developing this excess into s broad based alternate fuel source has not materialized due to the reduction of oil prices because of a similar glut. Many options for methanol as a fuel exist such as blends with gasoline..., prevaporized methanol in such a control scheme will more fully take advantage of the potential of the control system because of its physical state and required optimum operating parameters which vary significantly from those currently used for gasoline...

  6. A SEARCH FOR 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan RD, Shanghai 200030 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan RD, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu, Ye; Ju, Bing-Gang, E-mail: cggan@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)] [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2013-01-20

    We have observed a sample of 288 molecular outflow sources including 123 high-mass and 165 low-mass sources in order to search for class I methanol masers at the 95 GHz transition and to investigate the relationship between outflow characteristics and class I methanol maser emission with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Our survey detected 62 sources with 95 GHz methanol masers above a 3{sigma} detection limit, which includes 47 high-mass sources and 15 low-mass sources. Therefore, the detection rate is 38% for high-mass outflow sources and 9% for low-mass outflow sources, suggesting that class I methanol masers are relatively easily excited in high-mass sources. There are 37 newly detected 95 GHz methanol masers (including 27 high-mass and 10 low-mass sources), 19 of which are newly identified (i.e., first identification) class I methanol masers (including 13 high-mass and 6 low-mass sources). A statistical analysis of the distributions of maser detections with the outflow parameters reveals that the maser detection efficiency increases with the outflow properties (e.g., mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity of outflows, etc.). Systematic investigations of the relationships between the intrinsic luminosity of methanol masers and the outflow properties (including mass, momentum, kinetic energy, bolometric luminosity, and mass-loss rate of the central stellar sources) indicate a positive correlation. This further supports the theory that class I methanol masers are collisionally pumped and associated with shocks when outflows interact with the surrounding ambient medium.

  7. How do methanol masers manage to appear in the youngest star vicinities and isolated molecular clumps?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; D. M. Cragg; S. P. Ellingsen; M. J. Gaylard; S. Goedhart; C. Henkel; M. S. Kirsanova; A. B. Ostrovskii; N. V. Pankratova; O. V. Shelemei; D. J. van der Walt; T. S. Vasyunina; M. A. Voronkov

    2007-06-21

    General characteristics of methanol (CH3OH) maser emission are summarized. It is shown that methanol maser sources are concentrated in the spiral arms. Most of the methanol maser sources from the Perseus arm are associated with embedded stellar clusters and a considerable portion is situated close to compact HII regions. Almost 1/3 of the Perseus Arm sources lie at the edges of optically identified HII regions which means that massive star formation in the Perseus Arm is to a great extent triggered by local phenomena. A multiline analysis of the methanol masers allows us to determine the physical parameters in the regions of maser formation. Maser modelling shows that class II methanol masers can be pumped by the radiation of the warm dust as well as by free-free emission of a hypercompact region hcHII with a turnover frequency exceeding 100 GHz. Methanol masers of both classes can reside in the vicinity of hcHIIs. Modelling shows that periodic changes of maser fluxes can be reproduced by variations of the dust temperature by a few percent which may be caused by variations in the brightness of the central young stellar object reflecting the character of the accretion process. Sensitive observations have shown that the masers with low flux densities can still have considerable amplification factors. The analysis of class I maser surveys allows us to identify four distinct regimes that differ by the series of their brightest lines.

  8. Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-28

    Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

  9. Low pressure CO? hydrogenation to methanol over gold nanoparticles activated on a CeOx/TiO? interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Kattel, Shyam; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Nie, Xiaowa; Graciani, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-07-28

    Capture and recycling of CO? into valuable chemicals such as alcohols could help mitigate its emissions into the atmosphere. Due to its inert nature, the activation of CO? is a critical step in improving the overall reaction kinetics during its chemical conversion. Although pure gold is an inert noble metal and cannot catalyze hydrogenation reactions, it can be activated when deposited as nanoparticles on the appropriate oxide support. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, it is shown that an electronic polarization at the metal–oxide interface of Au nanoparticles anchored and stabilized on a CeOx/TiO? substrate generates active centers formore »CO? adsorption and its low pressure hydrogenation, leading to a higher selectivity toward methanol. In conclusion, this study illustrates the importance of localized electronic properties and structure in catalysis for achieving higher alcohol selectivity from CO? hydrogenation.« less

  10. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  11. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  12. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON METHANOL PRODUCTION IN INTERSTELLAR AND PREPLANETARY ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Cook, A. M.; Herbst, Eric; Chiar, J. E.; Shenoy, S. S.

    2011-11-20

    Methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) is thought to be an important link in the chain of chemical evolution that leads from simple diatomic interstellar molecules to complex organic species in protoplanetary disks that may be delivered to the surfaces of Earthlike planets. Previous research has shown that CH{sub 3}OH forms in the interstellar medium predominantly on the surfaces of dust grains. To enhance our understanding of the conditions that lead to its efficient production, we assemble a homogenized catalog of published detections and limiting values in interstellar and preplanetary ices for both CH{sub 3}OH and the other commonly observed C- and O-bearing species, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}. We use this catalog to investigate the abundance of ice-phase CH{sub 3}OH in environments ranging from dense molecular clouds to circumstellar envelopes around newly born stars of low and high mass. Results show that CH{sub 3}OH production arises during the CO freezeout phase of ice-mantle growth in the clouds, after an ice layer rich in H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} is already in place on the dust, in agreement with current astrochemical models. The abundance of solid-phase CH{sub 3}OH in this environment is sufficient to account for observed gas-phase abundances when the ices are subsequently desorbed in the vicinity of embedded stars. CH{sub 3}OH concentrations in the ices toward embedded stars show order-of-magnitude object-to-object variations, even in a sample restricted to stars of low mass associated with ices lacking evidence of thermal processing. We hypothesize that the efficiency of CH{sub 3}OH production in dense cores and protostellar envelopes is mediated by the degree of prior CO depletion.

  13. Mechanism of Methanol Synthesis on Cu through CO2 and CO Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabow, Lars C.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2011-03-04

    We present a comprehensive mean-field microkinetic model for the methanol synthesis and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions that includes novel reaction intermediates, such as formic acid (HCOOH) and hydroxymethoxy (CH?O?) and allows for the formation of formic acid (HCOOH), formaldehyde (CH?O), and methyl formate (HCOOCH?) as byproducts. All input model parameters were initially derived from periodic, self-consistent, GGA-PW91 density functional theory calculations on the Cu(111) surface and subsequently fitted to published experimentalmethanol synthesis rate data, which were collected under realistic conditions on a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al?O? catalyst. We find that the WGS reaction follows the carboxyl (COOH)-mediated path and that both CO and CO? hydrogenation pathways are active for methanol synthesis. Under typical industrial methanol synthesis conditions, CO? hydrogenation is responsible for ?2/3 of the methanol produced. The intermediates of the CO? pathway for methanol synthesis include HCOO*, HCOOH*, CH?O?*, CH?O*, and CH?O*. The formation of formate (HCOO*) from CO?* and H* on Cu(111) does not involve an intermediate carbonate (CO?*) species, and hydrogenation of HCOO* leads to HCOOH* instead of dioxymethylene (H?CO?*). The effect of CO is not only promotional; CO* is also hydrogenated in significant amounts to HCO*, CH?O *, CH?O*, and CH?OH*. We considered two possibilities for CO promotion: (a) removal of OH* via COOH* to form CO? and hydrogen (WGS), and (b) CO-assisted hydrogenation of various surface intermediates, with HCO* being the H-donor. Only the former mechanism contributes to methanol formation, but its effect is small compared with that of direct CO hydrogenation to methanol. Overall, methanol synthesis rates are limited by methoxy (CH?O*) formation at low CO?/(CO+CO?) ratios and by CH?O* hydrogenation in CO?-rich feeds. CH?O* hydrogenation is the common slow step for both the CO and the CO? methanol synthesis routes; the relative contribution of each route is determined by their respective slow steps HCO*+H*?CH?O*+* and HCOOH*+H*?CH?O?*+* as well as by feed composition and reaction conditions. An analysis of the fitted parameters for a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al?O? catalyst suggests that a more open Cu surface, for example, Cu(110), Cu(100), and Cu(211) partially covered by oxygen, may provide a better model for the active site of methanol synthesis, but our studies cannot exclude a synergistic effect with the ZnO support.

  14. Methanol conversion to light olefins over nanostructured CeAPSO-34 catalyst: Thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions and effect of template type on catalytic properties and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghamohammadi, Sogand; Haghighi, Mohammad; Charghand, Mojtaba

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: In this research nanostructured CeAPSO-34 was synthesized to explore the effect of TEAOH and morpholine on its physiochemical properties and MTO performance. Prepared catalysts were characterized with XRD, FESEM, BET, FTIR and NH3-TPD techniques. The results indicated that the nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. The catalyst obtained by using morpholine showed longer life time as well as sustaining light olefins selectivity at higher values. Furthermore, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions network was carried out to address the major channels of methanol to olefins conversion. - Highlights: • Introduction of Ce into SAPO-34 framework. • Comparison of CeAPSO-34 synthesized using morpholine and TEAOH. • The nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34. • Morpholine enhances catalyst lifetime in MTO process. • Presenting a complete reaction network for MTO process. - Abstract: TEAOH and morpholine were employed in synthesis of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 molecular sieve and used in methanol to olefins conversion. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET, FTIR and NH{sub 3}-TPD techniques. XRD patterns reflected the higher crystallinity of the catalyst synthesized with morpholine. The FESEM results indicated that the nature of the template determines the morphology of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. There was a meaningful difference in the strength of both strong and weak acid sites for CeAPSO-34 catalysts synthesized with TEAOH and morpholine templates. The catalyst synthesized with morpholine showed higher desorption temperature of both weak and strong acid sites evidenced by NH{sub 3}-TPD characterization. The catalyst obtained using morpholine template had the longer lifetime and sustained desired light olefins at higher values. A comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions network was carried out to address the major channels of methanol to olefins conversion.

  15. Role of Water in Methanol Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2012-08-07

    Photochemistry of the molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed forms of methanol on the vacuum-annealed rutile TiO2(110) surface was explored using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), both with and without coadsorbed water. Methoxy, and not methanol, was confirmed as the photochemically active form of adsorbed methanol on this surface. UV irradiation of methoxy-covered TiO2(110) lead to depletion of the methoxy coverage and formation of formaldehyde and a surface OH group. Coadsorbed water did not promote either molecular methanol photochemistry or thermal decomposition of methanol to methoxy. However, terminal OH groups (OHt), prepared by coadsorption of water and oxygen atoms, thermally converted molecularly adsorbed methanol to methoxy at 120 K, thus enabling photoactivity. While chemisorbed water molecules had no influence on methoxy photochemistry, water molecules hydrogen-bonded in the second layer to bridging oxygen (Obr) sites inhibited the methoxy photodecomposition to formaldehyde. From this we conclude that Obr sites accept protons from the hole-mediated conversion of methoxy to formaldehyde. These results provide new fundamental understanding of the hole-scavenging role of methanol in photochemical processes on TiO2-based materials and how water influences this photochemistry. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under contract DEAC05-76RL01830. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  16. Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Acharya, Danda P.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Henderson, Michael A.

    2012-12-06

    The photoactivity of methanol on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is shown to depend on the ability of methanol to diffuse on the surface and find sites active for its thermal dissociation to methoxy. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results show that the extent of methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde is negligible on the clean TiO2(110) surface at 100 K due to a scarcity of sites that can convert (photoinactive) methanol to (photoactive) methoxy. The extent of photoactivity at 100 K significantly increases when methanol is coadsorbed with oxygen, however only those molecules able to adsorb near (next to) a coadsorbed oxygen species are active. Preannealing coadsorbed methanol and oxygen to above 200 K prior to UV irradiation results in a significant increase in photoactivity. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images clearly show that the advent of increased photoactivity in TPD correlates with the onset of methanol diffusion along the surface’s Ti4+ rows at ~200 K. These results demonstrate that optimizing thermal processes (such as diffusion or proton transfer reactions) can be critical to maximizing photocatalytic reactivity on TiO2 surfaces. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under contract DEAC05-76RL01830. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  17. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Natural Gas Consumption Natural Gas Expenditures Distribution of per per per per Building-Level Intensities Total Building Square Worker per per Thousand (cubic feetsquare...

  18. 1 Filter_Supplemental-Info_090913.doc Supplemental Information Regarding RF/Microwave Filter Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weller/USF 1 Filter_Supplemental-Info_090913.doc Supplemental Information Regarding RF/Microwave Filter Design The video module on RF/microwave filter design, Filter Demonstration in Microwave Office

  19. Research Module: Scheme 2A. N-Benzylation Using Benzyl Bromide 63 Scheme 2 Part A: Redissolve in Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    in Methanol 1. Turn hot plate to 5. 2. To the flask with your product 3 from Scheme 1, attach a condener with gentle water flow. 3. Add 15 mL of methanol. · For 4-methoxy compoud 3c, you may need to add 20 mL of methanol, since the 4-methoxy substrates is probably less soluble. 4. Heat the mixture on the hot plate

  20. SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP -1 Rev. 01/2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS SUP - 1 Rev. 01/2014 SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL CONDITIONS January, 2014 These Supplemental General Conditions are to modify, supplement, void, supersede and amend The University of Michigan to include the Standard General Conditions and the Supplemental General Conditions. TABLE OF CONTENTS Article

  1. EIS-0220: Supplemental record of decision and supplement analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse2: SupplementEnergy Record

  2. Supplemental Comments of the Plumbing Manufacturers Instititute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Economic Impacts of the Proposed Definition of "Showerhead," Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-NOA-0016 Supplemental Comments of the Plumbing Manufacturers Instititute Regarding the...

  3. Direct methanol fuel cells for transportation applications. Quarterly technical report, June 1996--September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.; Kunz, H.R.; Moore, R.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research and development effort is to advance the performance and viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology for light-duty transportation applications. For fuel cells to be an attractive alternative to conventional automotive power plants, the fuel cell stack combined with the fuel processor and ancillary systems must be competitive in terms of both performance and costs. A major advantage for the direct methanol fuel cell is that a fuel processor is not required. A direct methanol fuel cell has the potential of satisfying the demanding requirements for transportation applications, such as rapid start-up and rapid refueling. The preliminary goals of this effort are: (1) 310 W/l, (2) 445 W/kg, and (3) potential manufacturing costs of $48/kW. In the twelve month period for phase 1, the following critical areas will be investigated: (1) an improved proton-exchange membrane that is more impermeable to methanol, (2) improved cathode catalysts, and (3) advanced anode catalysts. In addition, these components will be combined to form membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA`s) and evaluated in subscale tests. Finally a conceptual design and program plan will be developed for the construction of a 5 kW direct methanol stack in phase II of the program.

  4. 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Associated Outflows: An evolutionary sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, H M; Thompson, M A; Urquhart, J S; Breen, S L; Burton, M G; Ellingsen, S P; Fuller, G A; Pestalozzi, M; Voronkov, M A; Ward-Thompson, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a continuing study of a sample 44 molecular outflows, observed in 13CO lines, closely associated with 6.7GHz methanol masers, hence called Methanol Maser Associated Outflows (MMAOs). We compare MMAO properties with those of outflows from other surveys in the literature. In general, MMAOs follow similar trends, but show a deficit in number at low masses and momenta, with a corresponding higher fraction at the high end of the distributions. A similar trend is seen for the dynamical timescales of MMAOs. We argue that the lack of relatively low mass and young flows in MMAOs is due to the inherent selection-bias in the sample, i.e. its direct association with 6.7GHz methanol masers. This implies that methanol masers must switch on after the onset of outflows (hence accretion), and not before a sufficient abundance of methanol is liberated from icy dust mantles. Consequently the average dynamical age of MMAOs is older than for the general population of molecular outflows. We propose an adjusted evolution...

  5. Comparative Density Functional Study of Methanol Decomposition on Cu4 and Co4 Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2010-11-18

    A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on Cu4 and Co4 clusters is presented. The reaction intermediates and activation barriers have been determined for reaction steps to form H2 and CO. For both clusters, methanol decomposition initiated by C-H and O-H bond breaking was investigated. In the case of a Cu4 cluster, methanol dehydrogenation through hydroxymethyl (CH2OH), hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO) is found to be slightly more favorable. For a Co4 cluster, the dehydrogenation pathway through methoxy (CH3O) and formaldehyde (CH2O) is slightly more favorable. Each of these pathways results in formation of CO and H2. The Co cluster pathway is very favorable thermodynamically and kinetically for dehydrogenation. However, since CO binds strongly, it is likely to poison methanol decomposition to H2 and CO at low temperatures. In contrast, for the Cu cluster, CO poisoning is not likely to be a problem since it does not bind strongly, but the dehydrogenation steps are not energetically favorable. Pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are even less energetically favorable. The results are compared to our previous study of methanol decomposition on Pd4 and Pd8 clusters. Finally, all reaction energy changes and transition state energies, including those for the Pd clusters, are related in a linear, Broensted-Evans-Polanyi plot.

  6. Microbial Community Changes in Response to Ethanol or Methanol Amendments for U(VI) Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Madden, Andrew [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Akob, Denise M. [Florida State University; Kusel, Kirsten [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Microbial community responses to ethanol, methanol and methanol + humics amendments in relationship to uranium bioremediation were studied in laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments and ground water from a uranium-contaminated site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ethanol addition always resulted in uranium reduction at rate of 0.8-1.0 mol l-1 d-1 while methanol addition did so occasionally at rate 0.95 mol l-1 d-1. The type of carbon source added, the duration of incubation, and the sampling site influenced the bacterial community structure upon incubation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated (1) bacterial communities found in ethanol- and methanol-amended samples with U(VI) reduction were similar due to presence of -Proteobacteria, and -Proteobacteria (members of the families Burkholderiaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae); (2) methanol-amended samples without U(VI) reduction exhibited the lowest diversity and the bacterial community contained 69.2-92.8% of the family Methylophilaceae; and (3) the addition of humics resulted in an increase of phylogenetic diversity of -Proteobacteria (Rodoferax, Polaromonas, Janthinobacterium, Methylophilales, unclassified) and Firmicutes (Desulfosporosinus, Clostridium).

  7. Formaldehyde and H110a observations towards 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okoh, Daniel; Zhou, Jian Jun; Tang, Xin Di; Chukwude, Augustine; Urama, Johnson; Okeke, Pius

    2014-01-01

    Intriguing work on observations of 4.83 GHz formaldehyde (H2CO) absorptions and 4.87 GHz H110a radio recombination lines (RRLs) towards 6.7 GHz methanol (CH3OH) maser sources is presented. Methanol masers provide ideal sites to probe the earliest stages of massive star formation, while 4.8 GHz formaldehyde absorptions are accurate probes of physical conditions in dense $(10^{3} - 10^{5} cm^{-3})$ and low temperature molecular clouds towards massive star forming regions. The work is aimed at studying feature similarities between the formaldehyde absorptions and the methanol masers so as to expand knowledge of events and physical conditions in massive star forming regions. A total of 176 methanol maser sources were observed for formaldehyde absorptions, and formaldehyde absorptions were detected 138 of them. 53 of the formaldehyde absorptions were newly detected. We noted a poor correlation between the methanol and formaldehyde intensities, an indication that the signals (though arise from about the same region...

  8. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  9. Cell, Volume 137 Supplemental Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudner, David

    SUPPLEMENTAL EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Plasmid construction pKM011 [lacA::PspoIIQ-cfp (erm)] was generated by inserting PspoIIQ-cfp from pKM008 (Doan et al., 2005) into pDR183 between EcoRI and BamHI. pDR183 [lacA::erm insertions into the nonessential ywjI locus (K.A.M. and D.Z.R. unpublished). pKM186 [355°(parS*) in pMAD (erm

  10. Supplemental Schedules For the Year Ended June 30, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Supplemental Schedules For the Year Ended June 30, 2014 Clemson, south Carolina A component unit & Learning Technologies, Clemson University. #12;~ 1 ~ Supplemental Schedules #12;~ 2 ~ #12;~ 3 ~ Detailed Supplemental Statements of Financial Activity Balance Sheet - Unrestricted Current Funds

  11. Supplement to "Wellbore Models GWELL, GWNACL, and HOLA User's Guide"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadgu, T.

    2011-01-01

    EARTH SC~ENCES D~V~S~ON Supplement to "Wellbore Modelsemployer. LBL-32907 Supplement to "Wellbore Models GWELL,No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. Supplement to "Wellbore Models GWELL,

  12. Detection of class I methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) maser candidates in supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihlström, Y. M.; Mesler, R. A.; McEwen, B. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Sjouwerman, L. O.; Frail, D. A.; Claussen, M. J., E-mail: ylva@unm.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Lopezville Road 1001, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.4–0.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in Sgr A East. More than 40 masers were found in G1.4–0.1, which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at least two separate molecular clouds. The six masers in W28 are associated with the molecular cloud that is also associated with the OH maser excitation. We discuss the possibility that the methanol maser may be more numerous in SNRs than the OH maser, but harder to detect due to observational constraints.

  13. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  14. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  15. Side-chain alkylation of toluene by methanol over a basic zeolite: A kinetic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrame, P.; Fumagalli, P.; Zuretti, G. (Univ. di Milano (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    A few X zeolites, exchanged with K and/or Cs, were tested as catalysts for the reaction of toluene with excess methanol (mole ratio methanol/toluene from 5 to 19) in a fixed bed reactor. Very high selectivity for the side-chain alkylation to ethylbenzene and styrene was observed. A kinetic study of the reaction at 350 C over a CsNaX catalyst was performed: the reaction rate was found to be negatively affected by a high concentration of methanol and by the addition of small amounts of ethylbenzene or styrene to the feed. Some kinetic models, able to represent such inhibition phenomena, were compared on the basis of optimization procedures.

  16. Infrared investigations of the alkylation of toluene with methanol by alkali-modified zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielczarski, E.; Davis, M.E. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US))

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the infrared spectra of zeolite NaX, ion-exchanged CsNaX, and cesium acetate impregnated CsNaY (CsAce/CsNaY) exposed to methanol and toluene at batch and continuous flow conditions over the temperature range 200-420{degrees} C that have been recorded in situ in order to investigate the types of adsorbed species that may exist on these catalysts during side-chain alkylation of toluene with methanol to form styrene. The results from all three materials indicate that methanol and toluene adsorb at different sites within the zeolite. Zeolites with no acidity (CsAce/CsNaY) do not show the presence of formaldehyde. These data and those from the authors' previous catalytic experiments on side-chain alkylation are used to speculate on new catalyst designs necessary for further rate/selectivity enhancements over existing technology.

  17. Observations of soot in combustion of methanol/toluene spray flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avedisian, C.T. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Presser, C.; Semerjian, H.G. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Lab.); Gupta, A.K. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The influence of composition on soot formation in spray flames was investigated using, a light scattering/dissymmetry ratio technique to provide information on soot mean size and concentration. The study was carried out using binary mixtures of a sooting (i.e., toluene) and nonsooting (i.e., methanol) liquid. The ranage of mixtures included methanol volume fractions, [alpha], of 0 (i.e., pure toluene), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 0.99, and 1.0 (pure methanol). The flames were generated with an air-assist atomizer under the same operating conditions to isolate the effect of liquid composition.

  18. A high-sensitivity 6.7 GHz methanol maser survey toward H2O sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Xu; J. J. Li; K. Hachisuka; J. D. Pandian; K. M. Menten; C. Henkel

    2008-03-16

    We present the results of a high sensitivity survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers towards 22 GHz water maser using the 100 m Efflesberg telescope. A total of 89 sources were observed and 10 new methanol masers were detected. The new detections are relatively faint with peak flux densities between 0.5 and 4.0 Jy. A nil detection rate from low-mass star forming regions enhances the conclusion that the masers are only associated with massive star formation. Even the faintest methanol maser in our survey, with a luminosity of 1.1 $10^{-9} L_\\odot$ is associated with massive stars as inferred from its infrared luminosity.

  19. Detection of Class I Methanol (CH3OH) Maser Candidates in Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pihlström, Y M; Frail, D A; Claussen, M J; Mesler, R A; McEwen, B C

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.4-0.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in SgrAEast. More than 40 masers were found in G1.4-0.1 which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at least two separate molecular clouds. The six masers in W28 are associated with the molecular cloud that is also associated with the OH maser excitation. We discuss the possibility that the methanol maser may be more numerous in SNRs than the OH maser, but harder to detect due to observational constraints.

  20. A Search for 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers in M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Goldsmith; J. D. Pandian; A. A. Deshpande

    2007-10-09

    We report the negative results from a search for 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. We observed 14 GMCs in the central 4 kpc of the Galaxy, and found 3 sigma upper limits to the flux density of ~9 mJy in spectral channels having a velocity width of 0.069 km/s. By velocity shifting and combining the spectra from the positions observed, we obtain an effective 3sigma upper limit on the average emission of ~1mJy in a 0.25 km/s channel. These limits lie significantly below what we would expect based on our estimates of the methanol maser luminosity function in the Milky Way. The most likely explanation for the absence of detectable methanol masers appears to be the metallicity of M33, which is modestly less than that of the Milky Way.

  1. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the liquid-phase etherification of isoamylenes with methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piccoli, R.L. ); Lovisi, H.R. )

    1995-02-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of liquid-phase etherification of isoamylenes with methanol on ion exchange catalyst (Amberlyst 15) were studied. Thermodynamic properties and rate data were obtained in a batch reactor operating under 1,013 kPa and 323--353 K. The kinetic equation was modeled following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson formalism according to a proposed surface mechanism where the rate-controlling step is the surface reaction. According to the experimental results, methanol adsorbs very strongly on the active sites, covering them completely, and thus the reaction follows an apparent first-order behavior. The isoamylenes, according to the proposed mechanism, adsorb simultaneously on the same single active center already occupied by methanol, migrating through the liquid layer formed by the alcohol around the catalyst to react in the acidic site. From the proposed mechanism a model was suggested and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained using nonlinear estimation methods.

  2. perspectives 960 nature structural biology structural genomics supplement november 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstein, Mark

    be related to other information. In the past, for `single-mole- cule' experiments, formal integration. As illus- trated in Figs 1 and 2, the main sources of information to inter-relate with structures are fold genomic information. In particular, a number of companies offer integrated views of the human genome

  3. Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172 3,009165,360 165,928Feet) Year Jan

  4. Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0 Year-1Input

  5. New Jersey Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.823,172Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-129620,790Input

  6. New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunPrice (Dollars perFeet)

  7. North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr721,507 836,698 867,922247,047

  8. Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear JanNew Field Discoveries (BillionDecadeInput

  9. Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear JanNew FieldDecadeYear Jan FebFeet)Year Jan Feb

  10. Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearby the(Dollars1.840 2.318 3.1195) Model8)32392,743Input

  11. South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearby the(Dollars1.840YearDecadeThousandDecadeInput

  12. South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawals (MillionYear Jan Feb Mar AprFeet)

  13. Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672 7,2060 0Feet) Year Jan

  14. Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672 7,2060Year0Year JanYear Jan

  15. U.S. Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubic Feet)49,797.6Increases (Billion

  16. Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubicEstimation ResultsYear JanYearDay)Year JanInput

  17. Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubicEstimation ResultsYearYearYear Jan FebInput

  18. Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubicEstimation10,428 285,726 264,589Feet)Input

  19. Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of6,090 7,163 10,532 14,881 23,209DecadeFeet)087,066Input

  20. WIDESPREAD METHANOL EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER: THE ROLE OF COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Viti, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St. London, WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-02-20

    We report the discovery of a widespread population of collisionally excited methanol J = 4{sub -1} to 3{sub 0} E sources at 36.2 GHz from the inner 66' Multiplication-Sign 18' (160 Multiplication-Sign 43 pc) of the Galactic center. This spectral feature was imaged with a spectral resolution of 16.6 km s{sup -1} taken from 41 channels of a Very Large Array continuum survey of the Galactic center region. The revelation of 356 methanol sources, most of which are maser candidates, suggests a large abundance of methanol in the gas phase in the Galactic center region. There is also spatial and kinematic correlation between SiO (2-1) and CH{sub 3}OH emission from four Galactic center clouds: the +50 and +20 km s{sup -1} clouds and G0.13-0.13 and G0.25 + 0.01. The enhanced abundance of methanol is accounted for in terms of induced photodesorption by cosmic rays as they travel through a molecular core, collide, dissociate, ionize, and excite Lyman Werner transitions of H{sub 2}. A time-dependent chemical model in which cosmic rays drive the chemistry of the gas predicts CH{sub 3}OH abundance of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -7} on a chemical timescale of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} years. The average methanol abundance produced by the release of methanol from grain surfaces is consistent with the available data.

  1. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  2. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  3. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14

    We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  4. Ring shaped 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission around a young high-mass star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bartkiewicz; M. Szymczak; H. J. van Langevelde

    2005-09-21

    We report on EVN imaging of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission from the candidate high-mass protostar G23.657-0.127. The masers originate in a nearly circular ring of 127 mas radius and 12 mas width. The ring structure points at a central exciting object which characteristics are typical for a young massive star; its bolometric luminosity is estimated to be methanol masers originate in a spherical bubble or in a rotating disc seen nearly face-on.

  5. Preparation of silver nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kun; Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo, E-mail: tangyg@sibet.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tong, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoli [Laboratory of Biosensing Technology, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China)

    2014-02-03

    In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene nanosheets have been prepared based on the reduction of Ag ions by hydroquinone, and their catalytic performance towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol is investigated. The synthesis of the nano-composite is confirmed by transmission electron microscope measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. Excellent electrocatalytic performance of the material is demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms. This material also contributes to the low peak potential of methanol oxidation compared with most of the other materials.

  6. Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research...

  7. EIS-0421-SA-2: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0421-SA-2: Supplement Analysis EIS-0421-SA-2: Supplement Analysis The Bonneville Power Administration evaluated: design adjustments to minimize impacts to an area of high...

  8. EIS-0005-FS: Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1979 Program, Facility Location on Supplement, Southwest Oregon Area Service, Buckley-Summer Lake 500 kV Line, Supplemental

  9. DOE response to questions from AHAM on the supplemental proposed...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    response to questions from AHAM on the supplemental proposed test procedure for residential clothes washers DOE response to questions from AHAM on the supplemental proposed test...

  10. EIS-0380: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0380: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Continued Operation of Los...

  11. EIS-0423-S1: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    -S1: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury EIS-0423-S1: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the...

  12. EIS-0005-FS: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1979 Program, Facility Location on Supplement, Southwest Oregon Area Service, Buckley-Summer Lake 500 kV Line, Supplemental

  13. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENTS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SUPPLEMENTS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENTS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION...

  14. Enforcement Guidance Supplement 00-03: Specific Issues on Applicabilit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    00-03: Specific Issues on Applicability of 10 CFR 830 Enforcement Guidance Supplements Enforcement Guidance Supplement 99-03: Limitation of 10 CFR Part 830 to Equipment...

  15. Supplement: The & and | Operators For Introduction to Java Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    8 Supplement: The & and | Operators For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang Java operations. See Supplement III.D, "Bit Manipulations," for details. #12;

  16. Supplement: The & and | Operators For Introduction to Programming with C++

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    Supplement: The & and | Operators For Introduction to Programming with C++ By Y. Daniel Liang C operations. See Supplement III.K, "Bit Operations," for details. #12;

  17. Supplement to Chrisman, Langley, Bay, and Pohorille, \\Incorporating Biological Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chrisman, Lonnie

    Supplement to Chrisman, Langley, Bay, and Pohorille, \\Incorporating Biological Knowledge This supplement contains some of the detailed technical details of the proba- bilistic model, algorithm

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants Prev Next Title: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula...

  19. EIS-0350-SA-02: Final Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    350-SA-02: Final Supplement Analysis EIS-0350-SA-02: Final Supplement Analysis Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los...

  20. EIS-0505: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0505: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0505:...