Sample records for methanol ethanol flex-fueled

  1. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B:...

  2. Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

  3. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain...

  4. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Wayne Moore, Matt Foster, Kevin Hoyer, Keith Confer Delphi Advanced Powertrain DEER Conference September 29, 2010...

  5. Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we- ration, air-to-fuel ratio control, gasoline-ethanol blend, flex-fuel vehicles I. INTRODUCTION Currently

  6. TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G Engineering Dearborn, Michigan 48121 ABSTRACT Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of ethanol on ethanol sensor installed in the vehicle fueling system, or on the ethanol- dependent air-to-fuel ratio

  7. 2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In to estimate the ethanol content, which exploits the difference in stoi- chiometric air-to-fuel ratio (SAFR to large errors with mass air flow sensor bias and/or fuel injector shift. In this paper, an ethanol

  8. ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL, TUNING AND SENSITIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL periods of intense interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol

  9. Flex Fuel Vehicle Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flex Fuel Vehicle Systems * Bosch FFV Project Structure and Partners * Purpose of Work - Project Highlights * Barriers - Existing Flex Fuel Systems and Problems * Approach - Bosch...

  10. Fact #718: March 12, 2012 Number of Flex-Fuel Models Offered...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Economy program for producing flex-fuel vehicles, which run on E-85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, andor gasoline. Number of Flex Fuel Vehicle Models by...

  11. Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect from both measured and modeled cylinder pressure exhibit a monotonic correlation with the fuel ethanol

  12. Assessing deployment strategies for ethanol and flex fuel vehicles in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAulay, Jeffrey L. (Jeffrey Lewis)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the next 3-7 years the US light duty fleet and fuel supply will encounter what is commonly referred to as the "blend wall". This phenomenon describes the situation when more ethanol production has been mandated than ...

  13. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

  14. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  15. Flex Fuels Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park atFisia BabcockFlex Fuels Energy Jump

  16. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  17. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUEValidation of& Systems Simulation &

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel vehicles (FFV). A FFV is capable of operating on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel of both. FFV's are equipped with an engine and fuel system designed specifically to be compatible with ethanol's chemical properties. FFV's qualify as alternative fuel vehicles under the Energy Policy Act

  19. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

  20. Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser distributions and geometries of vapor clusters equilibrated with methanol-ethanol (Me-Et) liquid mixtures were distributions of vapor clusters equilibrated with liquids, ranging from neat alcohols1,2 to methanol-ethanol (Me

  1. Microbial Community Changes in Response to Ethanol or Methanol Amendments for U(VI) Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Madden, Andrew [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Akob, Denise M. [Florida State University; Kusel, Kirsten [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial community responses to ethanol, methanol and methanol + humics amendments in relationship to uranium bioremediation were studied in laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments and ground water from a uranium-contaminated site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ethanol addition always resulted in uranium reduction at rate of 0.8-1.0 mol l-1 d-1 while methanol addition did so occasionally at rate 0.95 mol l-1 d-1. The type of carbon source added, the duration of incubation, and the sampling site influenced the bacterial community structure upon incubation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated (1) bacterial communities found in ethanol- and methanol-amended samples with U(VI) reduction were similar due to presence of -Proteobacteria, and -Proteobacteria (members of the families Burkholderiaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae); (2) methanol-amended samples without U(VI) reduction exhibited the lowest diversity and the bacterial community contained 69.2-92.8% of the family Methylophilaceae; and (3) the addition of humics resulted in an increase of phylogenetic diversity of -Proteobacteria (Rodoferax, Polaromonas, Janthinobacterium, Methylophilales, unclassified) and Firmicutes (Desulfosporosinus, Clostridium).

  2. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinor, J E [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  3. Prediction of Transport Properties by Molecular Simulation: Methanol and Ethanol and their mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport properties of liquid methanol and ethanol are predicted by molecular dynamics simulation. The molecular models for the alcohols are rigid, non-polarizable and of united-atom type. They were developed in preceding work using experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data only. Self- and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients as well as the shear viscosity of methanol, ethanol and their binary mixture are determined using equilibrium molecular dynamics and the Green-Kubo formalism. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used for predicting the thermal conductivity of the two pure substances. The transport properties of the fluids are calculated over a wide temperature range at ambient pressure and compared with experimental and simulation data from the literature. Overall, a very good agreement with the experiment is found. For instance, the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are predicted with average deviations of less 8% for the pure alcohols and 12% for the mixture. The predicted thermal...

  4. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  5. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of methanol + 1-octanol and ethanol + 1-octanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Soto, A.; Tojo, J. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + 1-octanol and ethanol + 1-octanol have been measured at 101.325 kPa. The results were checked for thermodynamic consistency using Fredenslund et al.`s test, correlated using Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations for the liquid phase activity coefficients, and compared with the predictions of the ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC group contribution methods.

  6. Total pressure measurements for pentane + methanol + ethanol at 303. 15 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimers, J.L.; Bhethanabotla, V.R.; Campbell, S.W. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (US))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper total pressure is reported as a function of liquid-phase composition for pentane + methanol + ethanol at 303.15 K. The data were reduced using Barker's method. The excess Gibbs energy of the liquid phase is represented by a rational function obtained by making an empirical modification to the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) equation. The resulting fit to the data is superior to that obtained using a previous representation based on a modified Margules equation.

  7. E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse gas regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse.................................................................................................. 5 1.1.3 CALIFORNIA CLEAN FUELS PROGRAM ....................................... 6 1.1.5 AB 1007: THE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN

  8. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries1000: Development of aanValvetrain |

  9. Liquid-liquid equilibria of water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at various temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Souza, P.; Vidal, I. (Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is part of a wider program of research on the recovery of light alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions using high molecular weight solvents. The authors report liquid-liquid equilibrium data and binodal curves for the systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at 25, 35, and 45 C. The data were fitted to the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations.

  10. Refractive indices, densities, and excess properties for binary mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, 1,2-ethanediol, and 2-methoxyethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albuquerque, L.; Ventura, C.; Goncalves, R. [Univ. of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of refractive index and density were performed for the six binary solvent mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, 1,2-ethanediol, and 2-methoxyethanol, over the entire composition range, at 298.15 K. From these results, the excess refractive indices and the excess molar volumes were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation.

  11. Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthiesen, Jesper; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Do liquid mixtures, cooled to temperatures below their freezing point, behave as normal liquids? We address this question using nanoscale films of methanol and ethanol supercooled liquid solutions of varying composition (7 -93% methanol) at temperatures near their glass transition,Tg. The permeation of Kr through these films is used to determine the diffusivities of the supercooled liquid mixtures. We find that the temperature dependent diffusivities of the mixtures are well-fit by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation indicating that the mixtures exhibit fragile behavior at temperatures just above their Tg. Further, for a given temperature, the composition dependent diffusivity is well-fit by a Vignes-type equation, i.e. the diffusivity of any mixture can be predicted using an exponential weighting of the diffusion of the pure methanol and ethanol diffusivities. These results show that deeply supercooled liquid mixtures can be used to provide valuable insight into the properties of normal liquid mixtures.

  12. Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

  13. VLE measurements of binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane, and 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane at 101.32 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arce, A.; Martinez-Ageitos, J.; Soto, A. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane + methanol, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane + ethanol, methanol + 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane, ethanol + 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane, and 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane + 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane were determined at 101.32 kPa. Fredenslund et al.`s test confirmed the results to be thermodynamically consistent. The VLE data were satisfactorily correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations for liquid phase activity coefficients and adequately predicted using the ASOG, UNIFAC, UNIFAC-Dortmund, and UNIFAC-Lyngby group contribution methods.

  14. The Effects of Trans-Esterification of Castor Seed Oil Using Ethanol, Methanol and their Blends on the Properties and Yields of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Enontiemonria; Ayoola Ayodeji; Anawe Paul; Apeye Lucky; Oteri Ogheneofego

    The effects of ethanol, methanol and their blends at different percentage mixtures on the properties and yields of biodiesel at varied trans-esterification times and temperatures using sodium hydroxide as a base catalyst have been investigated. At 70 o C, the optimum yields were: for ethanol 88.4%, 94.2%, 94.8%, and 95.2 % and for methanol, 90.6%, 95.6%, 96.0%, and 96.4% at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and 4 hours respectively. The biodiesel yields increased as time of reaction progressed for both solvents but the yields obtained from methanol were generally higher than those from ethanol. A mixture of both solvents at 50 % each produced the overall highest of biodiesel yield of 98.6 % at 70 o C and in 4 hours compared to either solvent used alone at the same time and temperature. The properties such as densities, viscosities, flash points and pour points of the biodiesels tested were found to conform to ASTM standards. The average values were as follows: densities at 15 o C, were 0.8951, 0.8876 and 0.8832g/cm 3; viscosities (at 40 o C) were 4.7160cSt, 4.7380cSt and 4.5055cSt; flash points were 140.9 o C, 147.4 o C and 161.6 o C while for pour points they were-2.4375 o C,-1.6875 o C and-6 o C for ethyl, methyl and ethyl/methyl biodiesel respectively.

  15. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  16. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of NO and N02 in a Turbulent Propane/Air Di fusion Flame,"Fuel Methanol Ethanol Ethane Propane i so Octane n - Cetanestage of the secondary Propane, at A spark air line contains

  17. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  18. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - FY 12 439,489 Recipient (up to date): Chrysler: 270.3K estimated (labor, prototype engine and parts) MSU: 235.6K (in-kind) Barriers - Lack of modeling capability for...

  19. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FY 12 280,463439,489 Recipient (up to date): Chrysler: 262.105K (labor, prototype engine and parts) MSU: 123K (in-kind) Barriers - Lack of modeling capability for...

  20. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    12 439,489 Barriers - Target: Demonstrate a SI and HCCI dual combustion mode engine for a blend of gasoline and E85 for the best fuel economy - Development of a cost...

  1. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - FY 12 439,489 Recipient (up to date): Chrysler: 108.5K labor, one prototype engine and an extra head MSU: 73K (in-kind) Barriers - Lack of modeling capability for...

  2. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Guoming; Schock, Harold; Yang, Xiaojian; Huisjen, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Moran, Kevin; Zhen, Ron; Zhang, Shupeng

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The central objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate an HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) capable SI (spark ignited) engine that is capable of fast and smooth mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion modes. The model-based control technique was used to develop and validate the proposed control strategy for the fast and smooth combustion mode transition based upon the developed control-oriented engine; and an HCCI capable SI engine was designed and constructed using production ready two-step valve-train with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. Finally, smooth combustion mode transition was demonstrated on a metal engine within eight engine cycles. The Chrysler turbocharged 2.0L I4 direct injection engine was selected as the base engine for the project and the engine was modified to fit the two-step valve with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. To develop the model-based control strategy for stable HCCI combustion and smooth combustion mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion, a control-oriented real-time engine model was developed and implemented into the MSU HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) simulation environment. The developed model was used to study the engine actuating system requirement for the smooth and fast combustion mode transition and to develop the proposed mode transition control strategy. Finally, a single cylinder optical engine was designed and fabricated for studying the HCCI combustion characteristics. Optical engine combustion tests were conducted in both SI and HCCI combustion modes and the test results were used to calibrate the developed control-oriented engine model. Intensive GT-Power simulations were conducted to determine the optimal valve lift (high and low) and the cam phasing range. Delphi was selected to be the supplier for the two-step valve-train and Denso to be the electrical variable valve timing system supplier. A test bench was constructed to develop control strategies for the electrical variable valve timing (VVT) actuating system and satisfactory electrical VVT responses were obtained. Target engine control system was designed and fabricated at MSU for both single-cylinder optical and multi-cylinder metal engines. Finally, the developed control-oriented engine model was successfully implemented into the HIL simulation environment. The Chrysler 2.0L I4 DI engine was modified to fit the two-step vale with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. A used prototype engine was used as the base engine and the cylinder head was modified for the two-step valve with electrical VVT actuating system. Engine validation tests indicated that cylinder #3 has very high blow-by and it cannot be reduced with new pistons and rings. Due to the time constraint, it was decided to convert the four-cylinder engine into a single cylinder engine by blocking both intake and exhaust ports of the unused cylinders. The model-based combustion mode transition control algorithm was developed in the MSU HIL simulation environment and the Simulink based control strategy was implemented into the target engine controller. With both single-cylinder metal engine and control strategy ready, stable HCCI combustion was achived with COV of 2.1% Motoring tests were conducted to validate the actuator transient operations including valve lift, electrical variable valve timing, electronic throttle, multiple spark and injection controls. After the actuator operations were confirmed, 15-cycle smooth combustion mode transition from SI to HCCI combustion was achieved; and fast 8-cycle smooth combustion mode transition followed. With a fast electrical variable valve timing actuator, the number of engine cycles required for mode transition can be reduced down to five. It was also found that the combustion mode transition is sensitive to the charge air and engine coolant temperatures and regulating the corresponding temperatures to the target levels during the combustion mode transition is the key for a smooth combustion mode transition. As a summary, the proposed combust

  3. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Flex Fuel Vehicle Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and1

  5. Flex Fuel Vehicle Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and12009

  6. Indiana Flex Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua NewSmallholder Systems (SAMPLES)IndianOil

  7. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  8. Method for making methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  9. Method for making methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mednick, R. Lawrence (Roslyn Heights, NY); Blum, David B. (Wayne, NJ)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  10. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  11. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  12. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

  13. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  14. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  15. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  16. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  17. Ternary PtSnRhSnO2 nanoclusters: synthesis and electroactivity for ethanol oxidation fuel cell reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frenkel, Anatoly

    Ternary PtSnRh­SnO2 nanoclusters: synthesis and electroactivity for ethanol oxidation fuel cell. Ethanol becomes an attractive fuel in the fuel cell reactions compared with methanol and hydrogen, because­4 A major impediment to the commercialization of ethanol fuel cell stacks is the difficulty in designing

  18. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vol. ) in Methanol Furnace , 2 , . . . . . . . . , . , .Velocity Profiles in Methanol Furnace Temperature Profiles:to Pure Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . C02

  19. Produce syngas for methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.L. (Foster Wheeler International Corp., Milan (IT))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined reforming, in which an oxygen reforming reactor is added downstream from a conventional tubular reactor to produce syngas for methanol, achieves a substantial reduction in energy consumption with the least impact on the environment. This paper reports that the advantages of this process scheme are as follows: 8% to 10% reduction in the consumption of natural gas per ton of methanol, The size of the primary reformer is reduced, Reduction of syngas compression requirement due to increased syngas pressure, Reduced steam consumption, Production of syngas with the stoichiometric composition required by methanol synthesis. Synthesis gases for the production of methanol and synfuels are basically mixtures of hydrogen and carbon oxides. They have been produced from natural gas by steam reforming, autothermal reforming and noncatalytic partial oxidation.

  20. NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  1. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

  2. Flex Fuel Polygeneration: Optimizing Cost, Sustainability, and Resiliency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Thomas E.

    a system to perform high level techno-economic analysis (TEA) · Determine economic feasibility of each · Energy sources · Energy carriers 2 #12;Initial Analysis of FFPG Systems · Design power plants;Conventional Approaches to Energy Conversion (Coal, Biomass, Wind, Natural Gas, Photons) ( Fuel, Chemicals

  3. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and

  4. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and1 DOE

  5. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and1 DOE0

  6. MTBE/methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, R.E.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. methanol production has become economically competitive with imports due to de-escalation of natural gas price from $3.07 mm Btu in January 1985 to $2.07 mm Btu by December 1985. This has reversed the earlier supply outlook when it appeared that additional methanol plants would shutdown due to low cost imports. Current gas cost in conjunction with projections for continued excess supply prompted DuPont to restart their 250 mm gpy plant at Beaumont, Texas. Other former producers are contemplating restarting idle units.

  7. 4, 125164, 2007 Methanol exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    BGD 4, 125164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland and the atmosphere A. Brunner et al. Title Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Methanol (albrecht.neftel@art.admin.ch) 125 #12;BGD 4, 125164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland

  8. The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

  9. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nations energy independence.

  10. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostko, Oleg

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 1 Appearance energies for pure and protonated methanoland methanol-water clusters evaluated from photoionizationVUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water

  11. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  12. Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

  13. MTBE, methanol prices rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.D.L.; Cornitius, T.

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    After several months of drifting lower in line with declining autumn gasoline prices, tabs for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have turned around. There has been no big demand surge, but consumers and traders are beginning to build up inventories in advance of a series of midwinter shutdowns and turnarounds by producers. Spot prices, which dropped as low as 75 cts/gal, have rebounded to 90 cts/gal fob. Eager for a positive glimmer, methanol producers posted a 3-cts/gal increase in contract prices this month. It marks the first upward idea since February. In that time contract prices have dropped 75% from $1.55/gal to 39 cts/gal. A hard winter has hit early in much of the US sending natural gas prices up sharply. At the same time, formaldehyde and acetic acid markets remain firm, and with MTBE rebounding, methanol producers feel entitled to a piece of the action. {open_quotes}I don`t buy into this claim that MTBE demand is up and I don`t think producers can justify even a 3-cts/gal increase,{close_quotes} says one. {open_quotes}There is nothing in the economy to warrant a run-up. Housing starts are weaker, and demand is down at least 80,000 bbl/day with the MTBE shutdown.{close_quotes}

  14. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. Methanol market slowly tightens as Brazil starts soaking up material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the US methanol market's response to mandated oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline has been disappointing, the European market has surprisingly been tightening in recent weeks and looks set for a price rise in first-quarter 1993. The tightness is being felt mainly in the Mediterranean market, where the Libyan methanol plant is running at only 70% because of problems with gas feedstock supplies. More significantly, the Brazilian government has now given the go-ahead for a yearlong extension on imports of methanol for use as an ethanol replacement in fuel blending. The new authorization sets a monthly import limit of 48,000 m.t. during that period. Libya is an important supplier of methanol to the Brazilian market and has already shipped about 20,000 m.t. since the authorization was given. Another major supplier to Brazil is Russia, from its two giant 750,000-m.t./year plants at Gubakha and Tomsk. The material is shipped from the terminal at Yuzhnyy on the Black Sea, in Ukrainian territory since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

  16. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  17. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  18. Pacific Ethanol, Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. CEO or Equivalent: Edward Paslawski, Chairman...

  19. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMETHANOL METHANOL / COAL SLURRY j i Ali. @ i o N I. . , .PURE N METHANOL METHANOL I COAL SLURRY u o Obb~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~

  20. A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A flow field enabling operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated methanol Q. Xu Available online 8 October 2010 Keywords: Fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Concentrated methanol Flow field a b s t r a c t In this work, an anode flow field that allows a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC

  1. Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Analysis of Mass Transport of Methanol at the Anode of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell C. Xu,a Y. L. He transport of methanol at the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC and show that the overall mass current density of an in-house-fabricated DMFC with different flow fields for various methanol

  2. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Ling Tao, Dan Schell, Ryan...

  3. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

  4. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  5. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cyclic trimer containing two methanol molecules and a waterTable 1 Appearance energies for pure and protonated methanoland methanol-water clusters evaluated from photoionization

  6. Methanol detection in M82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Martn; J. Martn-Pintado; R. Mauersberger

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a multilevel study of the emission of methanol, detected for the first time in this galaxy, and discuss the origin of its emission. The high observed methanol abundance of a few 10^-9 can only be explained if injection of methanol from dust grains is taken into account. While the overall [CH3OH]/[NH3] ratio is much larger than observed towards other starbursts, the dense high excitation component shows a similar value to that found in NGC 253 and Maffei 2. Our observations suggest the molecular material in M 82 to be formed by dense warm cores, shielded from the UV radiation and similar to the molecular clouds in other starbursts, surrounded by a less dense photodissociated halo. The dense warm cores are likely the location of recent and future star formation within M 82.

  7. Distances to Galactic methanol masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. L. J. Rygl; A. Brunthaler; K. M. Menten; M. J. Reid; H. J. van Langevelde

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first EVN parallax measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in star forming regions of the Galaxy. The 6.7 GHz methanol maser transition is a very valuable astrometric tool, for its large stability and confined velocity spread, which makes it ideal to measure proper motions and parallaxes. Eight well-studied massive star forming regions have been observed during five EVN sessions of 24 hours duration each and we present here preliminary results for five of them. We achieve accuracies of up to 51 $\\mu$as, which still have the potential to be proved by more ideal observational circumstances.

  8. Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    , transport to facility, convert to ethanol, and distribute Future biomass feedstocks will come primarily from

  9. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  10. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  11. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  12. Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Fuqiang State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA Low crossover of both methanol and water through a polymer membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is essential for using high concentration

  13. A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu i g h t s " A sandwich structured membrane for DMFCs operating with neat methanol is proposed. " The membrane offers better water management for DMFCs operating with neat methanol. " The sandwich structured

  14. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,Methanol...n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,Methanol...n - ,,n145; published online 27 June 2007 The dynamics of an excess electron in size-selected methanol clusters electron611 and its cluster counterparts,1218 water n - . The solvated electron in liquid methanol has

  15. Methanol Masers and Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; A. B. Ostrovskii; M. S. Kirsanova; O. V. Shelemei; M. A. Voronkov; A. V. Malyshev

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers which are traditionally divided into two classes provide possibility to study important parts of the star forming regions: Class~II masers trace vicinities of the massive YSOs while class~I masers are likely to trace more distant parts of the outflows where newer stars can form. There are many methanol transitions which produce observed masers. This allows to use pumping analysis for estimation of the physical parameters in the maser formation regions and its environment, for the study of their evolution. Extensive surveys in different masing transitions allow to conclude on the values of the temperatures, densities, dust properties, etc. in the bulk of masing regions. Variability of the brightest masers is monitored during several years. In some cases it is probably caused by the changes of the dust temperature which follow variations in the brightness of the central YSO reflecting the character of the accretion process. A unified catalogue of the class II methanol masers consisting of more than 500 objects is compiled. Analysis of the data shows that: physical conditions within the usual maser source vary considerably; maser brightness is determined by parameters of some distinguished part of the object - maser formation region; class II methanol masers are formed not within the outflows but in the regions affected by their propagation. It is shown that the "near" solutions for the kinematic distances to the sources can be used for statistical analysis. The luminosity function of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers is constructed. It is shown that improvement of the sensitivity of surveys can increase number of detected maser sources considerably.

  16. 6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged tropical biomass burning plumes G. Dufour et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First space-borne measurements of methanol inside aged tropical biomass. Dufour (gaelle.dufour@lmd.polytechnique.fr) 3945 #12;ACPD 6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged

  17. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  18. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  19. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  20. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  1. Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc More Documents & Publications RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) Major DOE...

  2. Ethanol Myths and Facts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts More Documents & Publications Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Microsoft Word -...

  3. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  4. Emissions from two methanol-powered buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.; Baines, T.M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions from the two methanol-powered buses used in the California Methanol Bus Demonstration have been characterized. The M.A.N. SU 240 bus is powered by M.A.N.'s D2566 FMUH methanol engine, and utilizes catalytic exhaust aftertreatment. The GMC RTS II 04 bus is powered by a first-generation DDAD 6V-92TA methanol engine without exhaust aftertreatment. Emissions of HC, CO, NO/subX/, unburned methanol, aldehydes, total particulates, and the soluble fraction of particulate were determined for both buses over steady-state and transient chassis dynamometer test cycles. Emission levels from the M.A.N. bus were considerably lower than those from the GMC bus, with the exception of NO/subX/. Comparison of emission levels from methanol-and diesel-powered buses indicates that substantial reductions in emissions are possible with careful implementation of methanol fueling.

  5. Ethanol Production Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualified ethanol producers are eligible for an income tax credit of $1 per gallon of corn- or cellulosic-based ethanol that meets ASTM standard D4806. The total credit amount available for all...

  6. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Abstract: A...

  7. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boas, Harold P.

    Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant? JAMES M. GRIFFIN & RACHAEL DAHL The Mosbacher Institute VOLUME 3 | ISSUE 2 | 2012 2012 RELAXING THE ETHANOL MANDATE The severity of the drought of 2012 affecting for ethanol production, 6.72 BB for domestic food and feed and the remainder for exports (Figure 1). The USDA

  8. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Cynthia (Newington, CT); Ren, Xiaoming (Menands, NY); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Niskayuna, NY)

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  9. Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn J. White; C. W. M. Fridlund; P. Bergman; A. Beardsmore; Rene Liseau; R. R. Phillips

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray source. Any methanol released in such a cold environment will rapidly freeze again, spreading methanol throughout the circumbinary torus to nascent dust grains, planitesimals, and primitive bodies. These observations probe the initial chemical conditions of matter infalling onto the disk.

  10. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called â??dedicated bioenergy cropsâ? including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  11. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  12. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuels and VehiclesMethanol to someone by

  14. Recovery of methanol in an MTBE process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisenhunt, D.E.; Byers, G.L.; Hattiangadi, U.S.

    1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for the manufacture of methyltertiarybutylether (MTBE) in which methanol and a mixture of C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons containing isobutylene are contacted in a reaction zone containing an ion-exchange resin catalyst under suitable conditions to effect the reaction of methanol and isobutylene to produce a reaction product containing MTBE, unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the reaction product is introduced to a fractionation zone wherein it is separated into a bottoms product comprising essentially MTBE and an overhead product containing unreacted methanol, unreacted isobutylene, and other C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, and the overhead product is introduced to an absorption zone wherein the methanol is absorbed; the improvement is described which comprises utilizing silica gel as adsorbent and regenerating the silica gel adsorbent in a closed loop by contacting the silica gel absorbent with a desorption gas stream at an elevated temperature for a sufficient period of time to remove absorbed methanol, cooling the effluent from the adsorption zone to condense desorbed methanol removing desorbed methanol from the system and recycling the desorption gas to the adsorption zone.

  15. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale SustainableHydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just

  16. New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Form in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Services will accept faxed orders for Ethanol. · Monday, March 11, 2013 is the first day the PantherExpress System will accept orders for Ethanol. Requirements · Your PantherExpress System account must be properly

  17. Methanol from biomass via steam gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, J.A. [Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature stationary kiln, with a box beam rotor and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a smaller, more declined, graded temperature, water-filled kiln, with a multi-pipe rotor. Input to the demo plant will be 100 tons/day of green (45% water) wood chips; output will be 11,000 gal/day of methanol and 7500 lbs/hr of steam. The over-all biomass to methanol system is tightly integrated in its mechanical design to take full advantage of the reactivity of biomass under a slow, steady, steamy pressurized cook, and the biomass pyrolysis and methanol synthesis exotherms. This is expected to yield good energy efficiency, environmental attractiveness, and economical operation.

  18. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  19. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. Abstract: We...

  20. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Oxidation Catalyzed by Isolated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methanol Oxidation Catalyzed by Isolated Vanadia Clusters Supported on the (101) Surface of Anatase. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Oxidation Catalyzed by Isolated Vanadia...

  1. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  2. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects...

  3. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

  4. Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

  5. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, James M.; Dahl, Rachel

    regulatory apparatus could accommo- date a substantial ethanol reduction with no need for a waiver. Even if gasoline blenders found it both economically and technically desirable to reduce ethanol consumption, a reduction of 2.6 billion gal- lons... up the price of corn and gasoline blenders will have little choice but to pay the higher ethanol prices. OIL PRICE UNCERTAINTY ARGUES FOR A WAIVER With a 2013 waiver in place, refiners would have time to implement the planning to produce higher...

  6. Capacity additions ease tight methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greek, B.F. (C and EN, Houston, TX (US))

    1988-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Two menthanol plants now in operation - one in the U.S., the other in Chile - will boost global supplies of methanol more than 375 million gal annually. This large capacity addition and smaller expansions in other parts of the world will exceed demand growth during 1988 and 1989, easing the squeeze on supplies. As the result of increased supplies, methanol prices could slip slightly in the fourth quarter. They are more likely to decline next year, however. The two plants, which started up in August, are owned and operated by Tenneco Oil Co. Processing and Marketing and by Cape Horn Methanol (CHM). The Tenneco plant, located in Pasadena, Tex., was restarted after a shutdown in 1982 when prices for methanol were low. It now is running at full capacity of 125 million gal per year. The plant uses the low-pressure process technology of Lurgi, reportedly requiring for feedstock and energy between 100,000 and 125,000 cu ft of methane per gallon. Global trade in methanol smooths out the supply and demand inconsistencies. Surging methanol demand in the U.S. and in Western Europe has been met by imports from areas where methanol production is most economical - that is, where natural gas is readily available and has no other application as high in value. Canada, Chile, and Trinidad are examples of those areas.

  7. BlueFire Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Corporate

  8. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@EnergyErnestEthanol-Blended Fuels A Study

  9. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  10. Methanol engine conversion feasibility study: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the selection of the surface-assisted ignition technique to convert two-stroke Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. This study was the first phase of the Florida Department of Transportation methanol bus engine development project. It determined both the feasibility and technical approach for converting Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. State-of-the-art conversion options, associated fuel formulations, and anticipated performance were identified. Economic considerations and technical limitations were examined. The surface-assisted conversion was determined to be feasible and was recommended for hardware development.

  11. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ethanol Ethanol blend prices are generally 10 cents lower Net Ethanol price at wholesale today is more than 1.50+gal lower than gasoline. Higher blends may emerge in the...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  13. Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

  14. Methanol Maser Polarization in W3(OH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. T. Vlemmings; L. Harvey-Smith; R. J. Cohen

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first 6.7 GHz methanol maser linear polarization map of the extended filamentary maser structure around the compact HII region W3(OH). The methanol masers show linear polarization up to 8 per cent and the polarization angles indicate a magnetic field direction along the North-South maser structure. The polarization angles are consistent with those measured for the OH masers, taking into account external Faraday rotation toward W3(OH), and confirm that the OH and methanol masers are found in similar physical conditions. Additionally we discuss the Zeeman splitting of the 6.7 GHz methanol transition and present an upper limit of ~22 mG for the magnetic field strength in the maser region. The upper limit is fully consistent with the field strengths derived from OH maser Zeeman splitting.

  15. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  16. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  17. Mit Methanol iridiumkatalysiert C-C-Bindungen knpfen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    Mit Methanol iridiumkatalysiert C-C-Bindungen knpfen i Die Reaktivitt von Methanol (1) beruht meist auf dem nucleophilen Sauerstoffatom. Obwohl Methanol industriell im Monsanto-Prozess carbo, dass Methanol iridiumkatalysiert leicht an Allene (2) addiert. Damit entstehen 2,2-disub- stituierte

  18. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  19. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  20. Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of Pt.sub.3Cr/C so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  1. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  2. Methanol plant ship: Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The document is an appendix to the final report on a proposed methanol plant ship off of the coast of Trinidad. The document incorporates the results of the redetermination of capital required to implement the project. It also presents a revised cost analysis, with better accuracy, for the project. The projected operating revenues and revised expenses are also given. As a continuation of the information presented in the final report, the methanol market and proposed products are discussed in the report.

  3. Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjandra, Sinoto

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemicals, which can not be synthesized directly and in high selectivity from synthesis gas (King and Grate, 1985). Methanol synthesis was first shown to be feasible by Mittash and Schneider (1913). In the 1920s, BASF introduced the first industrial... that illustrated a significant achievement in catalyst specificity because methanol is thermodynamically the least favorable product of all other products which can be synthesized from synthesis gas. The first industrial process developed by BASF in 1920s used a...

  4. Technology and economics of gas utilization: Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seddon, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the current and emerging technology for the conversion of natural gas into methanol and assesses its impact on the production economics. Technologies of potential use for offshore developments of large gas reserves or associated gas are discussed. New technologies for the production of methanol synthesis-gas, such as autothermal reforming and GHR technology, are described and the economic advantages over conventional steam reforming are quantified. New methanol synthesis technology, such as slurry phase reactors, are outlined but appear to offer little advantage over conventional technology for offshore gas utilization. The purification of methanol for fuel and chemical grade product is outlined and the cost of transport presented. The data presented gives an overview of the production costs for production of methanol from large gas reserves (> 1Tcf, 25--35PJ/a) and smaller scale reserves (10--20MMscfd, 4--10PJ/a). The variation of the production cost of methanol with gas price indicates that the gas price is the principal economic consideration. However, adoption of new technology will improve production economics by an amount equivalent to an incremental gas cost of about $0.5/GJ. For gas reserves of low development cost, the adoption of new technology is not a prerequisite to economic viability.

  5. Pd and Pd-Cu Alloy Deposited Nafion Membranes for Reduction of Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Pd and Pd-Cu Alloy Deposited Nafion Membranes for Reduction of Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells J. Prabhuram, T. S. Zhao,*,z Z. X. Liang, H. Yang, and C. W. Wong Department Kong, China To reduce methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs , Nafion 115 membrane

  6. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazzi, Abdullah; Barnhart, Steven

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLCs light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  7. Fact #718: March 12, 2012 Number of Flex-Fuel Models Offered Increased in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartment of EnergyVehicle?Energy2011 |

  8. Driving "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy,Policy ActDetroit7471Site-Wide Environmental91 DraftEnergy

  9. Advancing Plug In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartmentDepartment2 DOEX-Ray Diagnostics ofMini-Van

  10. Advancing Plug In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartmentDepartment2 DOEX-Ray Diagnostics

  11. Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

  12. Electronic Effect in Methanol Dehydrogenation on Pt Surfaces: Potential Control during Methanol Electrooxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    advanced insight into the design of an optimal catalyst as the anode for direct methanol fuel cells. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport Fuel cells are promising alternative energy conversion. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs

  13. Corn Ethanol -April 2006 11 Cover Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Corn Ethanol - April 2006 11 Cover Story orn ethanol is the fuel du jour. It's domestic. It oil into gasoline or diesel fuel. Ethanol refineries also use huge amounts of water. An average dry's not oil. Ethanol's going to help promote "energy independence." Magazines trumpet it as the motor vehicle

  14. Effect of the cathode gas diffusion layer on the water transport behavior and the performance of passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    of passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu, T.S. Zhao , W.W. Yang Department Direct methanol fuel cell Passive operation Neat methanol operation a b s t r a c t The passive operation of a direct methanol fuel cell with neat methanol requires the water that is pro- duced at the cathode

  15. Falling MTBE demand bursts the methanol bubble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesmann, G.; Cornitius, T.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol spot markets in Europe and the US have been hit hard by weakening demand from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers. In Europe, spot prices for domestic T2 product have dropped to DM620-DM630/m.t. fob from early-January prices above DM800/m.t. and US spot prices have slipped to $1.05/gal fob from $1.35/gal. While chemical applications for methanol show sustained demand, sharp methanol hikes during 1994 have priced MTBE out of the gasoline-additive market. {open_quotes}We`ve learned an important lesson. We killed [MTBE] applications in the rest of the world,{close_quotes} says one European methanol producer. Even with methanol currently at DM620/m.t., another manufacturer points out, MTBE production costs still total $300/m.t., $30/m.t. more than MTBE spot prices. Since late 1994, Europe`s 3.3-million m.t./year MTBE production has been cut back 30%.

  16. Methanol from biomass via steam gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, J.A. [Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    R & D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature series of stationary kiln sections, with box beam rotors and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a smaller, more declined, graded temperature, water-filled stationary kiln, with a multi-pipe rotor. Input to the demo plant will be 100 tons/day of green (45% water) wood chips; output is projected at 11,000 gal/day of methanol and 7500 lbs/hr of steam. The over-all biomass to methanol system is tightly integrated in its mechanical design to take full advantage of the reactivity of biomass under a slow, steady, steamy pressurized cook, and the biomass pyrolysis and methanol synthesis exotherms. This is expected to yield good energy efficiency, environmental attractiveness, and economical operation.

  17. Comparison of Methanol Exposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, Melissa; Kalbfleisch, Kristine; Bryson, Scott

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning, J ToxicolHantson PE, Acute methanol intoxication: physiopathology,The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors, Crit Rev Toxicol.

  18. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  19. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  20. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Sobolev, A. M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin avenue 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Lo, N., E-mail: Simon.Ellingsen@utas.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Casilla 36-D (Chile)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  1. Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

  2. Relationships between circadian rhythms and ethanol intake in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.2.3. Ethanol Vapor Sessions . . . . . . . . .4.2.4.scheduling a?ects subsequent voluntary ethanol 2.1.of circadian period to ethanol intake . . . . . . . . . .

  3. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl.Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentGenetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia

  4. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialproducts, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the

  5. Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnell, Leo W. (Macungie, PA); Perka, Alan T. (Macungie, PA); Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

  6. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films. Abstract: The...

  7. Experimental Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol with Anatase-TiO2(101). Experimental Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol with Anatase-TiO2(101). Abstract:...

  8. Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol and Water on TiO2(110). Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol and Water on TiO2(110)....

  9. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a CuSiO2 catalyst. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a...

  10. Level Alignment of a Prototypical Photocatalytic System: Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Level Alignment of a Prototypical Photocatalytic System: Methanol on TiO2(110). Level Alignment of a Prototypical Photocatalytic System: Methanol on TiO2(110). Abstract:...

  11. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that...

  12. Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface. Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001)...

  13. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  14. Methanol emission from low mass protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Maret; C. Ceccarelli; A. G. G. M. Tielens; E. Caux; B. Lefloch; A. Faure; A. Castets; D. R. Flower

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of methanol lines in a sample of Class 0 low mass protostars. Using a 1-D radiative transfer model, we derive the abundances in the envelopes. In two sources of the sample, the observations can only be reproduced by the model if the methanol abundance is enhanced by about two order of magnitude in the inner hot region of the envelope. Two other sources show similar jumps, although at a lower confidence level. The observations for the other three sources are well reproduced with a constant abundance, but the presence of a jump cannot be ruled out. The observed methanol abundances in the warm gas around low mass protostars are orders of magnitude higher than gas phase chemistry models predict. Hence, in agreement with other evidences, this suggest that the high methanol abundance reflects recent evaporation of ices due to the heating by the newly formed star. The observed abundance ratios of CH3 OH, H2 CO, and CO are in good agreement with grain surface chemistry models. However, the absolute abundances are more difficult to reproduce and may point towards the presence of multiple ice components in these regions.

  15. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, C. E.

    be fermented to ethanol. The energy usage for this design is about 20,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol produced. WATER PARTIAL CONDENSER GRAIN MEA MIX 140?F 360?F FLASH TANK COOLING STEAM MALT COOKER FIGURE 1 - OLD STYLE MASHING SYSTEM Energy savings... ethanol. The basic process for fuel ethanol. as shown in Figure 3. involves steam stripping and rectification to produce 95 volume percent ethanol which is near the ethanol-water azeotropic composition. Except for the modest heat recovery provided...

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  17. Greater Ohio Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting JumpGoveNebraska:Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol Jump to:

  18. Dissociative recombination of protonated methanol W. D. Geppert,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Tom

    Dissociative recombination of protonated methanol W. D. Geppert,*a M. Hamberg,a R. D. Thomas,a F. O located in Stockholm, Sweden. Analysis of the data yielded the result that formation of methanol or deuterated methanol accounted for only 3 and 6% of the total rate in CH3OH2 + and CD3OD2 + , respectively

  19. Fuel Cells Bulletin February 2005 Effect of methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    FEATURE Fuel Cells Bulletin February 2005 12 Effect of methanol concentration on passive DMFC performance The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has attracted extensive interest from scientists energy density of methanol (6100 W h/kg at 25C) is much higher than that of gaseous fuels.[16] Recently

  20. Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure Marco J. P methanol at high pressure up to 33 GPa at room temperature with x-ray diffraction, optical polarization and vitrification is observed when methanol is superpressed beyond the freezing pressure of 3.5 GPa: between 5

  1. Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol Catalyzed, with CH Activation (generated by dissolution[6] of Au2O3) react with methane at 1808C to selectively generate methanol (as a mixture of the ester and methanol) in high yield (Table 1, entries 1 and 2). As expected, the irreversible

  2. Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Bimetallic Cluster Provides a Higher Activity Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation* Brenda L:Ru nanoparticles on carbon (PtRu/C) for use as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. This bimetallic carbonyl support particles. Cyclic voltammo- grams of methanol oxidation from the two catalysts showed

  3. Methanol maser survey using the EVN Anna Bartkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    Methanol maser survey using the EVN Anna Bartkiewicz Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus-mail: langevelde@jive.nl We present the results of a five year campaign observing 6.7 GHz methanol masers towards a new type of masers. We discuss the origin of elliptically shaped methanol masers in massive star

  4. First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol Reinhard Beer,1 Mark W) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have. Citation: Beer, R., et al. (2008), First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

  5. Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1 Per Uvdal,2 and Peter Jakob1,a 1 the adsorption of methanol on the clean Ru 0001 surface at T 80 K. Thereby, clear evidence for intact adsorption upon adsorption of methanol on Ru 0001 , even at low temperatures, as well as partial recombinative

  6. Effects of Methanol on the Retinal Function of Juvenile Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casanova, Christian

    Effects of Methanol on the Retinal Function of Juvenile Rats C. Plaziac1 , P. Lachapelle2 , C Received 18 April 2002; accepted 22 July 2002 Abstract We have investigated the effect of methanol exposure recorded prior to and up to 72 h after the administration of methanol. Data were compared to a control

  7. Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong Laser Fields Bishnu Thapa and H surfaces of methanol neutral, monocation, and singlet and triplet dication were explored using the CBS in the presence of a 2.9 1014 W/cm2 800 nm laser field for methanol monocation on the ground state potential

  8. Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan Department of Physics structure, including all atomic positions, of methanol at high pressure and room temperature pressure of methanol is 3.5 GPa. In practice however, it is very easy to superpress the liquid phase

  9. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  10. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ferment all sugars Ethanol recovery Fuel ethanol Residuecellulosic ethanol that is competitive as a pure fuel Fuels Ocean/ hydro Geothermal Transportation Electricity Hydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol

  11. Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency methanol (CH3OH) and aqueous methanol solutions were investigated using broad bandwidth sum frequency of methanol molecules at the air-liquid interfaces of neat methanol and aqueous methanol solutions. However

  12. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  13. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  14. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialtechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of workstrategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently

  15. Dekkera bruxellensis, a Non-conventional Ethanol Production Yeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : risks and benefits 16 2.3 Bioethanol industry 17 3 Ethanol production overview 19 3.1 Industrial ethanol

  16. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  17. Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry K. J. HEDGES*, S. A. LUDSIN*§ AND B. J coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to examine the effects of exposure time to ethanol (0, 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days) and ethanol quality (ACS- v. HPLC- grade) on strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba

  18. Original article Parallel selection of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Parallel selection of ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster significantly with latitude (0.036 ! 0.004 for 1° latitude; genetic divergence FST = 0.25). Patterns of ethanol of latitudinal ethanol tolerance (10 to 15%) and acetic-acid tolerance (3.7 to 13.2%) were observed in adult

  19. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Beall, David S. (Gainesville, FL); Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H. (Gainesville, FL); Guimaraes, Walter V. (Vicosa, BR); Ohta, Kazuyoshi (Miyazaki, JP); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  20. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Horton, Philip G. (Gainesville, FL); Ben-Bassat, Arie (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  1. METHANOL AS A TRACER OF FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levshakov, S. A. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Reimers, D., E-mail: lev@astro.ioffe.rssi.ru, E-mail: mgk@mf1309.spb.edu, E-mail: st2e101@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methanol molecule CH{sub 3}OH has a complex microwave spectrum with a large number of very strong lines. This spectrum includes purely rotational transitions as well as transitions with contributions of the internal degree of freedom associated with the hindered rotation of the OH group. The latter takes place due to the tunneling of hydrogen through the potential barriers between three equivalent potential minima. Such transitions are highly sensitive to changes in the electron-to-proton mass ratio, {mu} = m{sub e}/m{sub p}, and have different responses to {mu}-variations. The highest sensitivity is found for the mixed rotation-tunneling transitions at low frequencies. Observing methanol lines provides more stringent limits on the hypothetical variation of {mu} than ammonia observation with the same velocity resolution. We show that the best-quality radio astronomical data on methanol maser lines constrain the variability of {mu} in the Milky Way at the level of |{Delta}{mu}/{mu}| < 28 x 10{sup -9} (1{sigma}) which is in line with the previously obtained ammonia result, |{Delta}{mu}/{mu}| < 29 x 10{sup -9} (1{sigma}). This estimate can be further improved if the rest frequencies of the CH{sub 3}OH microwave lines will be measured more accurately.

  2. Measurements of OH and HO2concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign - Part 2: Model comparison and radical budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ppb Methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, ethylacetate MeasuredMethanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde Benzene, C3-

  3. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol (with the remaining 15% gasoline). Up to now, few of these E85-ethanols somewhat lower energy content per volume. Increasingly so-called flex-fuel E85E85 vehicles would otherwise face. The reference case forecasts for the US include increases in ethanol

  4. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David B. (108 Tall Oaks Dr., Wayne, NJ 07470); Gelbein, Abraham P. (45 Headley Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  6. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  7. advanced direct methanol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Direct Methanol Materials Science Websites Summary: increases the overall cost of the cell, reducing the fuel conversion efficiency. An alternative to H2): Application to...

  8. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  9. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Fuel Cells for Portable Power." Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Novel Materials...

  10. Methanol Observation of IRAS 19312+1950: A Possible New Type of Class I Methanol Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Salii, Svetlana V; Zhang, Yong; Yung, Bosco H K; Deguchi, Shuji

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the result of a systematic methanol observation toward IRAS 19312+1950. The properties of the SiO, H2O and OH masers of this object are consistent with those of mass-losing evolved stars, but some other properties are difficult to explain in the standard scheme of stellar evolution in its late stage. Interestingly, a tentative detection of radio methanol lines was suggested toward this object by a previous observation. To date, there are no confirmed detections of methanol emission towards evolved stars, so investigation of this possible detection is important to better understand the circumstellar physical/chemical environment of IRAS 19312+1950. In this study, we systematically observed multiple methanol lines of IRAS 19312+1950 in the lambda=3mm, 7mm, and 13mm bands, and detected 6 lines including 4 thermal lines and 2 class I maser lines. We derived basic physical parameters including kinetic temperature and relative abundances by fitting a radiative transfer model. According to the derived exci...

  11. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  12. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both

  13. Food for fuel: The price of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albino, Dominic K; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of corn to ethanol in the US since 2005 has been a major cause of global food price increases during that time and has been shown to be ineffective in achieving US energy independence and reducing environmental impact. We make three key statements to enhance understanding and communication about ethanol production's impact on the food and fuel markets: (1) The amount of corn used to produce the ethanol in a gallon of regular gas would feed a person for a day, (2) The production of ethanol is so energy intensive that it uses only 20% less fossil fuel than gasoline, and (3) The cost of gas made with ethanol is actually higher per mile because ethanol reduces gasoline's energy per gallon.

  14. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Biological Ethanol Production June 30, 2015 - 11:43am Addthis Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Photo credit:...

  15. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July 25, 2013...

  16. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  17. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  18. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  19. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  20. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet,*, Eric Apel, Daven K. Henze,§ Jason Hill, Julian D. Marshall, Hanwant B-Chem chemical transport model to constrain present-day North American ethanol sources, and gauge potential long

  1. PEMFC Power System on EthanolPEMFC Power System on Ethanol Caterpillar Inc.Caterpillar Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. RichardsThomas J. Richards #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cells 2003 Annual Merit Review 21 May 2003 #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL In 2003, a 10-15 kW stationary PEM fuel cell system examines the durability of a PEM based fuel cell system while operating on ethanol - a renewable fuel

  2. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet*,1 , Eric Apel2 , Daven K. Henze3 , Jason Hill1 , Julian D. Marshall1S1 Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts INFORMATION Supporting Information contains a total of 12 pages, 1 table, and 7 figures. 1. AIRBORNE ETHANOL

  3. Communication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    but scarce oil and natural gas. Adapting to such limitations, it has developed a chemical industry, with the rest coming from natural gas (Peng, 2011). Methanol is commonly used to produce formaldehyde, methylCommunication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy and the environment

  4. The Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey--I: Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagadheep D. Pandian; Paul F. Goldsmith; Avinash A. Deshpande

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an unbiased survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the Galactic plane carried out using the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. A total of 18.2 square degrees was surveyed with uniform sampling at 35.2 deg methanol masers are clustered, reflecting the formation of massive stars in clusters.

  5. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over PdZnOAl2O3 Catalysts. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over PdZnOAl2O3 Catalysts. Abstract: A PdZnOAl2O3...

  6. Ethanol 2000 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol 2000 Jump to:

  7. Ethanol Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol

  8. Highwater Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, searchCounty, Virginia:HighlineHighwater Ethanol

  9. Northstar Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellence Seed LLC JumpNew Jersey:Northstar Ethanol Jump to:

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologies | BlandineNaturalEmerging FuelsEthanol

  11. Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110). Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110). Abstract: The photoactivity of methanol on the...

  12. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O...

  13. Understanding the effect of modifying elements in supported vanadia bilayered catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vining, William Collins

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Si Figure 1.1. Schematic of methanol oxidation over isolatedSiO 2 catalysts for methanol oxidation, 163-171, Copyright (rate constant at 550 K for methanol oxidation plotted versus

  14. Volume$3, number 3 CHEMICAL. PHYSICS LETTERS 1 Februrf 1978 INTERACTION OF METHANOL WITH RUTHENIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Volume$3, number 3 CHEMICAL. PHYSICS LETTERS 1 Februrf 1978 INTERACTION OF METHANOL WITH RUTHENIUM of methanol with a clean methods. Methanol dissociates upon adsorption at 300 K and yields Ha(g) and chemisorbed CO as the domiwt

  15. EFFECTS OF METAL-SUPPORT INTERACTIONS ON THE SYNTHESIS OF METHANOL OVER PALLADIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryndin, Yu A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Synthesis of Methanol over Palladium by Yu. A.ABSTRACT The synthesis of methanol and other products fromThe specific activity for methanol synthesis decreased in

  16. Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Ramsey County, Minnesota September with the Gopher State Ethanol, St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota. It is based on a formal site evaluation....................................................................................................................... 3 Ethanol Production

  17. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.

    1984-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  18. Mobil plans methanol plant in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobil Chemical (Houston) is in discussions with Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC; Lagos) on a joint venture methanol plant at Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The U.S. firm has invited process owners to submit proposals for a 1-million m.t./year unit and hopes to select the technology by the end of this year. Three proposals have been submitted: Lurgi, offering its own low-pressure process; John Brown/Davy, with the ICI process; and M.W. Kellogg, proposing its own technology. Shareholding in the joint venture is yet to be decided, but it is likely to be a 50/50 tie-up. Marketing of Mobil's share or of the entire tonnage would be handled by Mobil Petrochemical International (Brussels). The plant could be onstream in late 1996.

  19. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1--6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  20. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

  1. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  2. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Clark, David P. (Carbondale, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  3. Biotech Breakthrough Produces Ethanol from Waste Glycerin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    . Biodiesel is one of the green alternatives and US production of this fuel is at an all-time high, with new biodiesel plants being constructed in record number. However, there is one problem, the fact. They developed a new technology that transforms glycerin into ethanol, another ecological fuel. Ethanol

  4. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

  5. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  6. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007) Cellulosic ethanol: biofuel researchers prepare toBiofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial welltechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work

  7. aqueous ethanol pulping: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  8. acute ethanol exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  9. acute ethanol challenge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  10. affects ethanolic fermentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  11. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  12. Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline...

  13. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October...

  14. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to...

  15. acute ethanol assessment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delaine 2008-10-10 3 Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of...

  16. Role of Water in Methanol Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methanol photochemistry or thermal decomposition of methanol to methoxy. However, terminal OH groups (OHt), prepared by coadsorption of water and oxygen atoms, thermally...

  17. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  18. Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

  19. Biodiesel Production From Animal Fats And Its Impact On The Diesel Engine With Ethanol-Diesel Blends: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darunde Dhiraj S; Prof Deshmukh Mangesh M

    Abstract Mainly animal fats and vegetable oils are used for the production of biodiesel. Several types of fuels can be derived from triacylglycerol-containing feedstock. Biodiesel which is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil or fat with an alcohol (methanol/ethanol) under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. This paper discuses fuel production, fuel properties, environmental effects including exhaust emissions and co-products. This also describes the use of glycerol which is the by-product in esterification process along with biodiesel. The impact of blending of biodiesel with ethanol and diesel on the diesel engine has described.

  20. The production of methanol by the Brookhaven National Laboratory process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.B.; Williams, J.J.; Johnson, A.R.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to develop a capital cost estimate and methanol production costs for a new methanol process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The cost of fuel delivered to the US Gulf Coast is compared with fuel produced by a conventional methanol process and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) process. The new methanol process is made possible by the development of a new liquid phase catalyst. The new liquid catalyst system can convert synthesis gas almost completely to methanol in a SINGLE pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This catalyst system reduces synthesis reaction temperatures from about 260{degree}C to about 100{degree}C, permitting isothermal synthesis conditions, in contrast to the temperature gradients in currently available pelleted, solid catalysts. Natural gas feedstock can be processed at pressures under 250 psia. Since nitrogen in the synthesis gas can be tolerated, the autothermal reforming step (combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming over a nickel catalyst) uses preheated air rather than oxygen. However, even with nitrogen present, the volume of gas fed to the reactor can still be smaller than the volume of gas that must be circulated in a conventional reactor, which operates with low conversions and requires high recycle volumes. The characteristics of the BNL system permits a major improvement in methanol plant design and economics. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  2. ICI and Penspen in Nigerian and Qatari methanol deals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.K. consulting and engineering company Penspen Ltd. (London) has signed a second joint venture agreement in Qatar and has selected the ICI (London) methanol process. The technology will also be used in a world-scale methanol plant in Nigeria that Penspen is helping to set up. Under the first agreement, signed on January 1 with Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC), a 50/50 venture is being formed to build a $370-million, 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant at Umm Said. ICI will provide its low-pressure technology and help market 75% of the output. Completion is due late 1994.

  3. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:EthanolEthanolEthanol

  5. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  6. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O'Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  7. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is NiC (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  8. Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

  9. U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slide 1 U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy Wally Tyner #12;Slide 2 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus Ethanol Subsidy 0.00 10.00 20.00 30 #12;Slide 3 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus

  10. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2.4.2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85) Contents Introduction is a renewable alternative transportation fuel blend of gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol (C2H5OH, a.k.a. ethyl matter. The E85 ethanol blend is a low carbon, clean-burning, high-octane fuel, and a versatile solvent

  11. Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

  12. Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Nigel

    Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila Roshani B. Cowmeadow, Harish R in the ethanol response. Caenorhabditis elegans carrying mutations in this gene have altered ethanol sensitivity and Drosophila mutant for this gene are unable to acquire rapid tolerance to ethanol or anesthetics

  13. Coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lercher, J.A. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1995-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to develop a better understanding of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis on zeolites, the coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite was investigated using IR spectroscopy. Initial adsorption of isobutene alone at 35{degree}C led to rapid oligomerization yielding strongly bound oligomers. The subsequent coadsorption of methanol did not induce any changes in the zeolite-adsorbate complexes. TPD following the coadsorption showed that the Bronsted acid sites could be restored by temperature treatment above approximately 300{degree}C. When methanol was adsorbed first and isobutene was subsequently coadsorbed, MTBE was formed even at 35{degree}C on the catalyst surface. MTBE desorbed easily at a temperature of 70{degree}C, restoring a major fraction of the Bronsted acid sites. Methanol was concluded to decrease the probability of oligomerization by effectively competing for the acid sites. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Methanol plant ship: implementation study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The study compiled the economic, commercial and financing requirements of a floating plant ship with a production capacity of 3,000 tons of methanol a day. The raw material for the methanol production would be supplied from a natural gas reserve off the coast of Trinidad. The report has a separate section for each aspect of the plant ship project, such as methanol storage; logistics of transporting methanol to the United States; the required sub-sea installation to bring natural gas to the plant ship; and plant ship design and equipment. It gives a detailed description of a proposed organizational structure and its tax consequences. The project's financial requirements and economic impact are examined. The environmental consequences and other operator issues are analyzed. Tables and figures accompany the report.

  15. Evaluation of reformed methanol as an automotive engine fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, David M

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal, oil shale, tar sands, and renewable resources [12], of which there are abundant supplies. Also, methanol could be distributed through the present fuel distribution network with some minor modifications. Hydrogen has also be investi- gated...

  16. Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; DeLuchi, Mark A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the U.S. were coal, oil shale, and biomass. Natural gas (produced from coal and oil shale, methanol produced frommethanol was rated below oil shale and other coal-liquid

  17. Characterization of Microexplosion Phenomena of Methanol-Glycerol Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Ge-Yi

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions even when combusting glycerol-based mixtures. In this research, microexplosion phenomena of methanol-in-glycerol mixtures have been studied using a high speed camera and an acoustic sensor system. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm has been...

  18. THE METHANOL MASER EMISSION IN W51 C.J. PHILLIPS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    THE METHANOL MASER EMISSION IN W51 C.J. PHILLIPS1 and H.J. VAN LANGEVELDE2 1 CSIRO; E-mail: chris.7-GHz methanol maser emission towards W51. In the W51 Main region, the bulk of the methanol is offset from an UCHII region. This probably indicates the methanol emission arises at the interface

  19. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported-1462 ReceiVed: August 16, 2006; In Final Form: October 10, 2006 The mechanism of methanol oxidation. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V

  20. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Exfoliated and Functionalized Calcium Niobate Nanosheets in Water and Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    and Methanol Elizabeth C. Carroll, Owen C. Compton, Dorte Madsen, Frank E. Osterloh, and Delmar S. Larsen-order kinetics on a sub-nanosecond time scale that depended on the nanosheet size. Methanol was used and methanol solutions. Methanol is known as an efficient sacrificial electron donor for layered metal oxide

  1. Author's personal copy Modeling of a passive DMFC operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Author's personal copy Modeling of a passive DMFC operating with neat methanol W.W. Yang, T.S. Zhao 2011 Keywords: Fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells Neat methanol Mass transport Model a b s t r a c t A mathematical model is developed to simulate the fundamental transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol

  2. Theoretical characterization of the hydrogen-bond interaction of diacetamide with water and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    and methanol Minh Tho Nguyen, Natalie Leroux and The re` se Zeegers-Huyskens* Department of Chemistry formed from interaction of diacetamide with water and methanol. In both water and methanol complexes/6-31G** level being [44 kJ mol~1 for the water complex and [48 kJ mol~1 for the methanol complex

  3. 6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND TRACERS OF GALACTIC STRUCTURE A Dissertation Jagadheep Dhanasekara Pandian ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;6.7 GHZ METHANOL MASERS: PROPERTIES, ASSOCIATIONS transition of methanol is the strongest of methanol masers, and is the second strongest maser transition ever

  4. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  5. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  6. QER- Comment of ND Ethanol Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To whom it may concern, Attached please find comments from the North Dakota Ethanol Council regarding infrastructure constraints in preparation for the OER Public Meeting, which will be held in Bismarck, N.D., on August 8. Sincerely, Deana Wies

  7. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence...

  8. Commercial ethanol production and marketing on a large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuenkel, A.E.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol use has advanced because of its ability to increase gasoline octane ratings. The recent oil glut, and price decline, will affect the ethanol industry. Yet the country needs the ethanol industry to complement current efforts to eliminate projected grain surpluses. State incentives must be standardized, to provide marketing consistency. At present, ethanol is the only octane enhancer not commanding its true value. Ethanol is more effective than MTBE, Toluene, or TBA, and must take its place beside these enhancers on the market.

  9. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol beers in 6 to 12 hours using either a consecutive batch or continuous cascade implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The consecutive batch technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  10. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  11. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use of pure methanol and ethanol fuels conventionally [18].x = ?3 cm (right); Fuels: ethanol ( t ), methanol ( t ), JP-various locations x. (Fuels: ethanol ( t ), methanol ( t ),

  12. Oxidation of Methanol on 2nd and 3rd Row Group VIII Transition Metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to Direct Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Oxidation of Methanol on 2nd and 3rd Row Group VIII Transition Metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Jeremy Kua and William A. Goddard III* Contribution from functional theory (B3LYP)], we calculated the 13 most likely intermediate species for methanol oxidation

  13. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling,

  15. Length of Stay Following Trauma is not Affected by Ethnicity When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangum, Craig; LoVecchio, Frank; Mathieson, Kathleen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication Craig Mangum, MD;properly controlled for ethanol and drug intoxication. Wepatients, controlling for ethanol intoxication. Methods:

  16. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. 2(1):26-40.1995 19941216. Commercial ethanol production process.facility and commercial ethanol production process.

  17. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stimulation reward: effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Resstimulus produced by ethanol withdrawal. J Pharmacol Expthe "anxiogenic" response to ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

  18. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 Javier Perez I II. ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES A. B.Development Studies of Ethanol Production--------------- 19of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (June 1979) and (b)

  19. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    60,700 ETHANOL RECOVERY Dist. Column CondenserF2 Steam Exchanger Ethanol Absorber 10 ft. diameter. 38Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report, LBL-

  20. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL BERKELEY PROGRAM--JulyXylose Fermentation to Ethanol (a) (b) Fusarium oxysporum (OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of

  1. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 EthanolBazua, D.C. and C.R. Wilke, "Ethanol Effects on the Kineticsto the Production of Ethanol, LBL-5963. (Submitted to

  2. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EthanolOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeCELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of U.S.

  3. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature oxidation of ethanol. Part 2. -Kineticof high-temperature ethanol ignition, Soviet Journal ofKinetic modeling of ethanol pyrolysis and combustion,

  4. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alvarez AI: Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exerciseR, Urbano-Marquez A: Acute ethanol treatment decreasesA: Comparative effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate

  5. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1982 19801205. Ethanol and fuel product production.The first generation fuel ethanol is derived from starch andfor bioconversion to fuel ethanol because it not only

  6. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was used to vaporize ethanol fuel. The vaporizer wasmixture of the evaporated ethanol fuel and the nitrogen gas.premixed flames of ethanol and other fuels for comparison

  7. Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell S and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 26 carbon supported PtRh catalysts and compare their catalytic activities with that of Pt/C in alkaline

  8. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  9. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  10. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter A.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Koh, Shirlaine; Bae, Sang Eun; Brankovic, Stanko R.; Strasser, Peter; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation. Using these two reactivity descriptors, a surface PtCu3 alloy is proposed to have the best catalytic properties of the PtCu model catalysts tested, similar to those of a PtRu bulk alloy. To validate the model, experiments on a Pt(111) surface modified with different amounts of Cu adatoms are performed. Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts.

  11. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  12. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  13. Clustering Dynamics in Water/Methanol Mixtures: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study at 205 K < T < 295 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Clustering Dynamics in Water/Methanol Mixtures: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study at 205 K functional groups in water/methanol mixtures at different methanol molar fractions (XMeOH ) 0, 0.04, 0.1, 0 in the mixtures, at all the methanol molar fractions, are faster than those of pure water and methanol because

  14. Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .g., from the tobacco, (4) the pulp and paper, (5) and food industry (6). One option is cooling these gases containing organic packing materials: treatment of NOx at 55 C, (7) co-treatment of methanol and R temperatures. High operating temperatures accelerate the degradation of the organic packing material, (4, 9)

  15. Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

  16. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  17. Single-cell protein from methanol with Enterobacter aerogenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnan, S.O.; Abodreheba, A.O.

    1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An identified Enterobacter aerogenes utilizing methanol as a sole carbon source was studied for the optimization of biomass production and the reduction of its nucleic acid content. Results indicated that the highest yield and conversion were obtained at 0.5% methanol. The addition of seawater as a source of trace elements has an adverse effect. However, the addition of urea as source of nitrogen enhanced the growth of E. aerogenes. Heat shock at 60 degrees C for one minute followed by incubation at 50 degrees C for 2 hours caused 72.6% reduction in the nucleic acid. 12 references.

  18. Clean Transportation | www.nccleantech.ncsu.edu North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7401, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.nccleantech.ncsu.edu | 3/13/14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.nccleantech.ncsu.edu | 3/13/14 Why become an E85 (85% ethanol/15 are the differences between gasoline and ethanol fuels? E85 vapor is less flammable than gasoline (above 35o F). E85% gasoline) fuel provider? There are approximately 14 million E85 capable flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on US

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Problems 1) Explain why the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is not as efficient as the reported "tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Problems 1) Explain why the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is not as efficient of ethanol? A flex-fuel SUV has a 25 gallon tank. Its sustainably-minded owner has decided to use E85 ethanol? 1 yr/person/450pounds of corn * 461 pounds of corn = 1.02 yrs #12;Electric Vehicle Problems 1

  20. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentethanol production, the advances are applicable to the production of a variety of fuel

  1. Investigation of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Ethanol and Acetone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y.; Ding, B.; Dong, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ transmission Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone, ethanol and the interaction between acetone and ethanol. Compared with the degradation of acetone alone, it cannot...

  2. CODED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT CODED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA by Scott Thomas Mc FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA by Scott Thomas McCain Department of Electrical

  3. Renewable Fuels Associations National Ethanol Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mark Elless, a BETO technology manager, will be representing BETO at the 20th anniversary of the National Ethanol Conference.

  4. Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. ethanol vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  5. Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure highlights NREL's recent advances in cellulosic ethanol production. Research at NREL addresses both biochemical and thermochemical processes.

  6. Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

  7. The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNair, Robert

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    of biofuel. The current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022. A large proportion of the mandate is to consist of corn-based ethanol. Most ethanol is consumed in the U.S. as a 10 percent blend of ethanol...

  8. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry group claiming it reduced gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011. The estimates have been

  9. GUV formation protocol: -Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Liviu

    GUV formation protocol: Materials: - Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning - 5-10 µl glass with ethanol and DI water using Kimwipes alternating the solvents at least twice to make sure any grease-ring using a Kimwipe and ethanol. Use Que-tip or grease slide to apply a thin layer of vacuum grease to one

  10. Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garland Jr., Theodore

    Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication J. S. Rhodes*, , M. M. Ford , C described a simple procedure, Drinking in the Dark (DID), in which C57BL/6J mice self-administer ethanol to a blood ethanol concentration (BEC) above 1 mg/ml. The test consists of replacing the water with 20

  11. UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to manufacture fuel ethanol (Rosentrater and Muthukumarappan, 2006). In 2008, 174 operating ethanol plantsORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol production co-Pascual, 2000), fuel-based DDGS are a co-product of dry mill pro- cessing, where primarily corn is used

  13. What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    to many, the uniqueness of cellu- losic ethanol as a sustainable, liquid transportation fuel, which canWhat is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol Charles E. Wyman Chemical of Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92506, USA Ethanol made biologically from cellulosic

  14. Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the potential effects of increased biofuel use, we evaluated six representative analyses of fuel ethanol that large-scale use of ethanol for fuel will almost certainly require cellulosic technology. E nergy in the future because of two federal policies: a /0.51 tax credit per gallon of ethanol used as motor fuel

  15. RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose steps to their practical usage for ethanol production. Ideally, a recombinant microorganism, possessing the capability to utilize cellulose for simultaneous growth and ethanol production, is of great interest. We have

  16. Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1 , Kent D. Rausch1 *, Ping Yang2 , Hosein Shapouri3-265-0697). #12;Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process ­ University of Illinois 2 Table of Contents 1. Introductory.....................................................................................................7 3.2. Dry Grind Ethanol

  17. Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances in Drosophila melanogaster: similar maternal) Summary - Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances were studied in a cross between 2 geo- graphic races disappeared in the F2. Further investigations demonstrated that for ethanol tolerance, the large difference

  18. Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Indian geographical populations of Drosophila clines of ethanol toler- ance (1.5-4.2%) and acetic-acid tolerance (2.9-4.9%) were observed in adult individuals of 4 geographical populations of Drosophila immigrans. Thus, both ethanol and acetic

  19. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake in mice Wei Hu Rationale Cyclic AMP (cAMP)­protein kinase A signal- ing has been implicated in the regulation of ethanol intracellular cAMP levels in the brain. However, the role of PDE4 in ethanol consumption remains unknown

  20. LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 , R. Bounaceur1 , H. Le Gall1 , A. Pires da Cruz2 , A. The influence of ethanol as an oxygenated additive has been investigated for these two fuels and has been found

  1. Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle First Draft Tad W. Patzek Department of Civil legitimately ask: Why do the various energy balances of the corn-ethanol cycle still differ so much? Why do some authors claim that the corn-ethanol cycle has a positive net energy balance (Wang et al., 1997

  2. EA-1694: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for the Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Highlands County, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for a cellulosic ethanol facility in Highlands County, Florida. This EA is on hold.

  3. An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

  4. Imaging Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). Abstract: We investigated methanol adsorption and dissociation on bridge-bonded oxygen vacancies of TiO2(110) (11) surface...

  5. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in Zeolite BEA: A Molecular Simulation Study. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in Zeolite BEA: A Molecular...

  6. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on...

  7. Supplementary Information for Methanol as a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplementary Information for Methanol as a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations.757 0.68(5) Table I. Methanol (12 CH16 3 OH) maser transitions and accurate rest frequencies taken from

  8. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam...

  9. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Experimental and Model Validation Study M. Mench, J. Scott, S. Thynell boundary Fuel cell performance Current density distribution measurements Conclusions #12;3 Method, flow rate, species inlet and fuel cell temperature, and humidity. Transparent polycarbonate windows

  10. Discovery of two new methanol masers in NGC 7538

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Pestalozzi; V. Minier; F. Motte; J. Conway

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: NGC7538 is known to host a 6.7 and 12.2GHz methanol maser cospatial with a Ultra Compact (UC) HII region, IRS1. Aims: We report on the serendipitous discovery of two additional 6.7GHz methanol masers in the same region, not associated with IRS1. Methods: Interferometry maser positions are compared with recent single-dish and interferometry continuum observations. Results: The positions of the masers agree to high accuracy with the 1.2mm continuum peak emission in NGC7538 IRS9 and NGC7538 S. This clear association is also confirmed by the positional agreement of the masers with existing high resolution continuum observations at cm and/or mm wavelengths. Conclusions: Making use of the established strong relation between methanol masers and high-mass star formation, we claim that we have accurately positioned the high-mass protostars within the regions where they are detected. The variety of objects hosting a 6.7GHz methanol maser in NGC7538 shows that this emission probably traces different evolutionary stages within the protostellar phase.

  11. Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehlinger, Victoria M.

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    pathways for the production of methanol from shale gas. The composition of the shale gas feedstock is assumed to come from the Barnett Shale Play located near Fort Worth, Texas, which is currently the most active shale gas play in the US. Process...

  12. U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    petroleum and to cut greenhouse gas emissions. A new blend of ethanol and conventional gasoline was to cost consequences of the policy, especially those influencing world food prices, are negative and far outweigh, four intended conse- quences would result: 1) the American motorist would see low- er prices

  13. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  14. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  15. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  16. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

  17. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  18. Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod-ucts via Electron Impact and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod- ucts via Electron Impact for application in energy re- lated electrocatalysis is demonstrated using continuous methanol oxidation over

  19. A role for glutathione, independent of oxidative stress, in the developmental toxicity of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siu, Michelle T.; Shapiro, Aaron M. [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wiley, Michael J. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, both in vivo and in embryo culture. We explored the ROS hypothesis further in vivo in pregnant C57BL/6J mice. Following maternal treatment with a teratogenic dose of MeOH, 4 g/kg via intraperitoneal (ip) injection on gestational day (GD) 12, there was no increase 6 h later in embryonic ROS formation, measured by 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence, despite an increase observed with the positive control ethanol (EtOH), nor was there an increase in embryonic oxidatively damaged DNA, quantified as 8-oxo-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation. MeOH teratogenicity (primarily ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) also was not altered by pre- and post-treatment with varying doses of the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). In contrast, pretreatment with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, depleted maternal hepatic and embryonic GSH, and enhanced some new anomalies (micrognathia, agnathia, short snout, fused digits, cleft lip, low set ears), but not the most common teratogenic effects of MeOH (ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) in this strain. These results suggest that ROS did not contribute to the teratogenic effects of MeOH in this in vivo mouse model, in contrast to results in embryo culture from our laboratory, and that the protective effect of GSH in this model may arise from its role as a cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase in the detoxification of formaldehyde. - Highlights: In vivo, a free radical scavenger did not block methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis. MeOH did not increase embryonic reactive oxygen species formation or DNA oxidation. MeOH teratogenesis was enhanced by glutathione (GSH) depletion. GSH may protect as the cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH3). Formaldehyde may be a ROS-independent proximate teratogenic species in vivo.

  20. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

  1. What Do We Know About Ethanol and Alkylates as Pollutants?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, D W; Marchetti, A A; Buscheck, T; Layton, D W

    2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Gov. Davis issued Executive Order D-5-99 in March 1999 calling for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline no later than December 31, 2002. The Executive Order required the California Air Board, State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to prepare an analysis of potential impacts and health risks that may be associated with the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. The SWRCB contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to lead a team of researchers, including scientists from Clarkson University, University of Iowa, and University of California, Davis, in evaluating the potential ground and surface water impacts that may occur if ethanol is used to replace MTBE. These findings are reported in the document entitled Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. This document has been peer reviewed and presented to the California Environmental Policy Council and may be viewed at: http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/. Ethanol used for fuels is made primarily from grains, but any feed stock containing sugar, starch, or cellulose can be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. It is less dense than water, but infinitely soluble in water. Ethanol vapors are denser than air. One and a half gallons of ethanol have the same energy as one gallon of gasoline. Pure fuel ethanol, and gasoline with ethanol, conducts electricity, while gasoline without ethanol is an insulator. Corrosion and compatibility of materials is an issue with the storage of pure ethanol and gasoline with high percentages of ethanol, but these issues are less important if gasoline with less than 10% ethanol is used.

  2. A New Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Methanol Hong Wei Xiang,a...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    A New Reference Correlation for the Viscosity of Methanol Hong Wei Xiang,a... Arno Laesecke for the viscosity of methanol is presented that is valid over the entire fluid region, including vapor, liquid coefficient is developed from experimental data and applied to methanol. The high-density contribution

  3. Structure of liquid and glassy methanol confined in cylindrical pores Denis Morineau1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Structure of liquid and glassy methanol confined in cylindrical pores Denis Morineau1,2 , Rgis scattering analysis of the density and the static structure factor of confined methanol at various and D=35 . A change of the thermal expansivity of confined methanol at low temperature is the signature

  4. Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval1 evaluation and constraints on the seasonality of biogenic2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval1 evaluation and constraints Information1 2 3 #12; 3 1 FigureS1.Comparison of TES, IASI and airborne methanol measurements using GEOS-Chem as2 an intercomparison platform. Methanol abundance as modeled by GEOS-Chem (base-case3 simulation

  5. Journal of Power Sources 167 (2007) 265271 Simultaneous oxygen-reduction and methanol-oxidation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 167 (2007) 265271 Simultaneous oxygen-reduction and methanol-reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol- oxidation reaction (MOR) at the cathode of a DMFC. Good agreements between a significant poisoning effect on the ORR by the presence of methanol at the cathode. The results also indicated

  6. Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP Methanol Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP Methanol Separation issues in the well heads. To counteract this problem, methanol is injected into the produced water stream at the well site. Methanol, however, is toxic to humans, animals, and plants, and must be removed before

  7. Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qinbin

    Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1 Brendan D of atmospheric methanol to examine the consistency between observed atmospheric concentrations and current of methanol in the model is 7 days; gas-phase oxidation by OH accounts for 63% of the global sink, dry

  8. Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li density of liquid methanol (CH3OH) fuel is 4800 Wh l-1 , whereas the theoretical energy density of Li

  9. Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory-phase transition metal oxide cations can convert methane to methanol. Methane activation by MO+ is discussed such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

  10. Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kr, Sren Knudsen

    Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate Samuel September 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: High temperature PEM Fuel cell Methanol Impedance spectroscopy a b s t r a c t This paper analyzes the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance

  11. Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC was observed to undergo an overshoot before it stabilized during. Available electronically August 16, 2005. Direct methanol fuel cells DMFCs are considered as a hopeful

  12. PPPL-3457 PPPL-3457 Broadening and Shifting of the Methanol 119 m Gain Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PPPL-3457 PPPL-3457 UC-70 Broadening and Shifting of the Methanol 119 m Gain Line of Linear and Shifting of the Methanol 119 mm Gain Line of Linear and Circular Polarization by Collision with Chiral handedness of a circularly polarized probe. The broadening of the 119 mm line of the methanol molecule

  13. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Wenpeng Liu*,a and Chao that performance and design of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is controlled not only by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions

  14. Quantifying global terrestrial methanol emissions using1 observations from the TES satellite sensor2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 Quantifying global terrestrial methanol emissions using1 observations from the TES Figure S1. December-January-Febuary (DJF, top) and June-July-August (JJA, bottom) biogenic3 methanol 1 Figure S4. Regions employed for quantifying terrestrial methanol fluxes (red) and for2

  15. The effect of methanol concentration on the performance of a passive DMFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    The effect of methanol concentration on the performance of a passive DMFC J.G. Liu, T.S. Zhao *, R-breathing liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), with no external pumps or other auxiliary devices, was designed, fabricated and tested with different methanol concentrations. It was found that the cell

  16. Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance J. Prabhuram, T in the performance of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) occurred after the cell had been operated at a higher temperature with higher methanol concentrations as compared with the polarization data collected under

  17. Methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone in the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Steve

    Methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone in the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean Rachael Beale,1; revised 12 June 2013; accepted 16 July 2013; published 16 October 2013. [1] Oceanic methanol, acetaldehyde to Chile (49 N to 39 S) in 2009. Methanol (48361 nM) and acetone (224 nM) varied over the track

  18. Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol the pretreatment. KEYWORDS: platinum, methanol oxidation, operando, XAFS, EXAFS, XANES, alumina, nanoparticle, size

  19. Discovery of molecular hydrogen line emission associated with methanol maser emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, Michael C. B.

    Discovery of molecular hydrogen line emission associated with methanol maser emission J.-K. Lee March 9 A B S T R AC T We report the discovery of H2 line emission associated with 6.67-GHz methanol emission was found associated with an ultracompact H II region IRAS 145675846 and isolated methanol maser

  20. PoS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunthaler, Andreas

    PoS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and water masers Luca VLBA and VERA results in measuring trigonometric parallaxes of methanol and water maser sourcesS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and water masers Luca Moscadelli 1. Introduction

  1. Electronic spectroscopy of intermediates involved in the conversion of methane to methanol by FeO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Electronic spectroscopy of intermediates involved in the conversion of methane to methanol by Fe.1063/1.1448489 I. INTRODUCTION The direct oxidation of methane to an easily transport- able liquid such as methanol process and as the simplest model for alkane oxidation.1,2 Although no direct, efficient methanemethanol

  2. Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell C. Lim, C.Y. Wang for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were fabricated by using a novel method of modied Na.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cells; Membrane-electrode assembly (MEA); Polymer

  3. Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2- pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII Me observed for the SN2 functionalization to form methanol by two isomeric (dpms)PtIV Me(OH)2 complexes, one conversion of methane to methanol at low temper- ature is crucial for transportation of shale gas produced

  4. Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser of methylamine (CH3NH2 + ), methanol (CH3OH+ ), and methyl fluoride (CH3F+ ) cations by short, intense laser 7 m laser pulses. This work is motivated by recent studies of methanol cations by Yamanouchi and co

  5. Partial oxidation of methanol over highly dispersed vanadia supported on silica SBA-15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Partial oxidation of methanol over highly dispersed vanadia supported on silica SBA-15 C. Hessa 2005; accepted 6 August 2005 The partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde (FA) was studied over vanadia partly agglomerates into vanadia crystallites during methanol oxidation. KEY WORDS: supported

  6. Molecular Hydrogen from Methanol Maser Sources { Out ow from the Earliest Stage of Star Formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Michael

    Molecular Hydrogen from Methanol Maser Sources { Out ow from the Earliest Stage of Star Formation in its natal molecular cloud. The strong methanol maser transition 5 1 { 6 0 A + at 6.7 GHz has also been that methanol maser emission usually occurs in massive star forming regions but away from the UCHII regions

  7. Passive film-induced stress and mechanical properties of a-Ti in methanol solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Passive film-induced stress and mechanical properties of a-Ti in methanol solution Zhi Qin and film mechanical properties on a-Ti in methanol solution with varying water content was investigated. Film-induced stress in the methanol solution was measured by the flow stress differential method

  8. PoS(IXEVNSymposium)039 EVN observations of the methanol masers in Cep A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    PoS(IXEVNSymposium)039 EVN observations of the methanol masers in Cep A Karl Torstensson Leiden observations of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser in the high mass star-forming re- gion Cepheus A. The maser emission field of the methanol masers shows an infall sig- nature rather than a rotation signature. We present

  9. Dramatic Reduction of Water Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells by Cathode Humidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentration methanol fuel cells, the water transport coefficient through the membrane must be reducedDramatic Reduction of Water Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells by Cathode Humidification much higher than 60C and in active air-flowing direct methanol fuel cell systems with high power

  10. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  11. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  12. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  13. Surface-induced anisotropic orientations of interfacial ethanol molecules at air/sapphire (1-102) and ethanol/sapphire (1-102) interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SSP-SFVS spectra of the ethanol liquid/? -Al 2 O 3 ( 1102 )In Ref. 7, ? for the first ethanol monolayer was assumed toassumptions led to results on ethanol bilayers different

  14. Emissions characterization of two methanol-fueled transit buses. Final report, April-September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust emissions from the two methanol-powered buses used in the California Methanol Bus Demonstration have been characterized. The M.A.N. SU 240 bus is powered by M.A.N.'s D2566 FMUH methanol engine, and utilizes catalytic exhaust aftertreatment. The GMC RTS II 04 bus is powered by a first-generation DDAD 6V-92TA methanol engine without exhaust aftertreatment. Emissions of HC, CO, NO, unburned methanol, aldehydes, total particulates, and soluble fraction of particulate were determined for both buses over steady-state and transient chassis dynamometer test cycles. Emission levels from the M.A.N. bus were considerably lower than those from the GMC bus, with the exception of NO. Comparison of emission levels from methanol- and diesel-powered buses indicates that substantial reduction in emissions (especially particulate and NO) are possible with careful implementation of methanol fueling.

  15. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  16. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  17. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  18. Methanol Along the Path from Envelope to Protoplanetary Disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interstellar methanol is considered to be a parent species of larger, more complex organic molecules. A physicochemical simulation of infalling parcels of matter is performed for a low-mass star-forming system to trace the chemical evolution from cloud to disc. An axisymmetric 2D semi-analytic model generates the time-dependent density and velocity distributions, and full continuum radiative transfer is performed to calculate the dust temperature and the UV radiation field at each position as a function of time. A comprehensive gas-grain chemical network is employed to compute the chemical abundances along infall trajectories. Two physical scenarios are studied, one in which the dominant disc growth mechanism is viscous spreading, and another in which continuous infall of matter prevails. The results show that the infall path influences the abundance of methanol entering each type of disc, ranging from complete loss of methanol to an enhancement by a factor of > 1 relative to the prestellar phase. Critical ch...

  19. Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esteve, X.; Chaudhari, S.K.; Coronas, A. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (P-T-x) for the methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether binary system were obtained by the static method in the range of temperatures from 293.15 to 423.15 K at 10 K intervals. The modified vapor pressure apparatus used is described. The Kuczynsky method was used to calculate the liquid and vapor composition and the activity coefficients of methanol from the initial composition of the sample and the measured pressure and temperature. The results were correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC temperature dependent activity coefficient models. This system shows nearly ideal behavior at 323.15 K, but positive deviations from ideality at lower temperatures and negative deviations at higher temperatures are observed. The activity coefficients become more negative with the increase in temperature and mole fraction of methanol. The excess molar enthalpy using the Gibss-Helmholtz equation and the NRTL and UNIQUAC parameters were calculated at 303.15 K and compared with experimental data. This binary system shows promise as a working pair for high-temperature heat pump applications.

  20. Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a cells Direct methanol fuel cells Neat methanol Water concentration a b s t r a c t This paper reports

  1. Unbiased water and methanol maser surveys of NGC 1333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyo, A-Ran; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Ho-Gyu, E-mail: arl@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of unbiased 22 GHz H{sub 2}O water and 44 GHz class I CH{sub 3}OH methanol maser surveys in the central 7' 10' area of NGC 1333 and two additional mapping observations of a 22 GHz water maser in a ?3' 3' area of the IRAS4A region. In the 22 GHz water maser survey of NGC 1333 with a sensitivity of ? ? 0.3 Jy, we confirmed the detection of masers toward H{sub 2}O(B) in the region of HH 7-11 and IRAS4B. We also detected new water masers located ?20'' away in the western direction of IRAS4B or ?25'' away in the southern direction of IRAS4A. We could not, however, find young stellar objects or molecular outflows associated with them. They showed two different velocity components of ?0 and ?16 km s{sup 1}, which are blue- and redshifted relative to the adopted systemic velocity of ?7 km s{sup 1} for NGC 1333. They also showed time variabilities in both intensity and velocity from multi-epoch observations and an anti-correlation between the intensities of the blue- and redshifted velocity components. We suggest that the unidentified power source of these masers might be found in the earliest evolutionary stage of star formation, before the onset of molecular outflows. Finding this kind of water maser is only possible through an unbiased blind survey. In the 44 GHz methanol maser survey with a sensitivity of ? ? 0.5 Jy, we confirmed masers toward IRAS4A2 and the eastern shock region of IRAS2A. Both sources are also detected in 95 and 132 GHz methanol maser lines. In addition, we had new detections of methanol masers at 95 and 132 GHz toward IRAS4B. In terms of the isotropic luminosity, we detected methanol maser sources brighter than ?5 10{sup 25} erg s{sup 1} from our unbiased survey.

  2. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  3. Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol RevNext- generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and theirProduction of cellulosic ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  4. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yinjie J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentcharacterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-Lin Y, Tanaka S. 2006. Ethanol fermentation from biomass

  5. Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited, Transaction offor autoignition. The wet ethanol modeling study [REF] usedengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

  6. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12 Fuel Cell Test ~ 1.5 mg Pt loading. 1.0 M Ethanol flowing at 1 ml/min. O2 flowing at 100 ml/min. Cells

  7. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  8. Enhanced Ethanol Engine And Vehicle Efficiency (Agreement 13425...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    merit08west.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  9. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  10. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc.187 24 Fukuda, H. et al. (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by26 Chisti, Y. (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol.

  11. aqueous ethanolic leaf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Polymeric Assembly of Gluten Proteins in an Aqueous Ethanol Solvent Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The supramolecular organization of wheat...

  12. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and US06, transient accelerations plus steady state * Fuels: Gasoline and intermediate ethanol blends (E0, E10, E20) * Measurements: - Particle mass: collection on Teflon-coated...

  13. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * * * * June 2002 * NRELTP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for...

  14. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol and plant-based biodiesel ( Box 1). Although bio-acid pathway Currently, biodiesel production uses plant oilsbeen developed for use as biodiesel. However, if biodiesel

  15. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  16. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Dawson 41 12 0 Lincoln 46 21 0 Keith 24 14 0 Deuel 21 8 1 Colorado Counties Sedgwick 7 2 0 Logan 14 5 0 Washington 9 2 0 Morgan 15 4 0 Weld 115 37 10 Adams 133 31 3 Jefferson 75 15 2 Clear Creek 24 3 3 Summit 36 13 2 Eagle 34 9 3 Garfield 33 9 1 Mesa 24... emissions. One effect of blending ethanol with gasoline is increasing the nations energy security by reducing reliance on foreign oil. According to the Energy Information Administration, in 2005 United States gasoline consumption was about 385 million...

  17. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dawson 41 12 0 Lincoln 46 21 0 Keith 24 14 0 Deuel 21 8 1 Colorado Counties Sedgwick 7 2 0 Logan 14 5 0 Washington 9 2 0 Morgan 15 4 0 Weld 115 37 10 Adams 133 31 3 Jefferson 75 15 2 Clear Creek 24 3 3 Summit 36 13 2 Eagle 34 9 3 Garfield 33 9 1 Mesa 24... emissions. One effect of blending ethanol with gasoline is increasing the nation?s energy security by reducing reliance on foreign oil. According to the Energy Information Administration, in 2005 United States gasoline consumption was about 385 million...

  18. Ethanol enhances collective dynamics of lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaye, Martin D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Schmalzl, Karin [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Outstation at ILL, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Conti Nibali, Valeria [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Messina, I-98100 Messina (Italy); Tarek, Mounir [UMR 7565, Structure et Reactivite des Systemes Moleculaires Complexes, CNRS-Nancy University, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Rheinstaedter, Maikel C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 Canada (Canada); Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, National Research Council Canada, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    From inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and all atom molecular dynamics simulations we present evidence for a low-energy dynamical mode in the fluid phase of a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer immersed in a 5% water/ethanol solution. In addition to the well-known phonon that shows a liquidlike dispersion with energies up to 4.5 meV, we observe an additional mode at smaller energies of 0.8 meV, which shows little or no dispersion. Both modes show transverse properties and might be related to molecular motion perpendicular to the bilayer.

  19. NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milinkovic, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

  20. Ethanol Grain Processors LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol 2000 Jump

  1. Ethanol Management Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol 2000

  2. Western Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:Western Ethanol Company LLC

  3. Prairie Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to: navigation,Power Rental MarketEthanol LLC Jump to:

  4. Iowa Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInterias Solar Energy Jump to:IESIntervalIosil EnergyIowaIowa Ethanol

  5. Kaapa Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa: Energy ResourcesKACO GeraetetechnikKaapa Ethanol LLC

  6. Kansas Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island, Florida:KaneEthanol LLC Place: Lyons,

  7. Platte Valley Fuel Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska: EnergyPiratini Energia S APlataforma Itaipu deValley Fuel Ethanol

  8. Show Me Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPower Partners WindSherbinoShirleyMe Ethanol

  9. Sioux River Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPowerSilcioEthanol LLC Place: Hudson, South

  10. Center Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd: China Datang CorporationCenter Ethanol Company LLC Jump

  11. Gulf Ethanol Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| Open Energy InformationGettopGuilford, Maine:AmbujaCounty,Ethanol

  12. Tharaldson Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tharaldson

  13. Standard Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop,Lanka-DLRStandard Ethanol LLC Jump to:

  14. Sterling Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop,Lanka-DLRStandardStaxeraEthanol LLC Jump to:

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean Cities ReflectsElectricityEthanol Blends to

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean Cities ReflectsElectricityEthanol Blends

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean CitiesStation Locations to someone byEthanol

  18. Atlantic Ethanol Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name:Ethanol Capital Jump to:

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:Ethanol Benefits

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:Ethanol

  1. Blue Flint Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |Bleckley County,Minnesota:OpenFlint Ethanol Place:

  2. High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    -oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells Shuiyun Shen, T. S. Zhao,* Jianbo Xu and Yinshi Li-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs). We demonstrate that the use of the ternary PdIrNi catalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs) offers

  3. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum,OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BYPYRUVATE V~ P a-ACETOLACTATE ETHANOL CoA AC ETA LDE HYDE V

  4. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

  5. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of22 Mohammad Riaz ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES II I. A. B.Hydrolyzates to Ethanol J2 Ren-Der Yang

  6. Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etges, William J.

    Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism IN CACTOPHILIC DROSOPHILA: THE EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ADULT ETHANOL METABOLISM WILLIAMJ. ETGES~ Department of volatile com- pounds, particularly ethanol, than Opuntia or other Sonoran Desert columnar cacti, because

  7. Whats the Issue? Changing Frames of Ethanol Policy in Congress and the Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Sarah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    our use of fossil fuels and Ethanol does not help reduce2011 Note: Ethanol production data from the Renewable Fuelsand fuel mandate programs to a growing suite of ethanol

  8. honeys were classified higher and were pre-ferred. Honeys with an ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    honeys were classified higher and were pre- ferred. Honeys with an ethanol content higher than 100 with an ethanol con- tent higher than 1000 mg·kg-1 were classi- fied as 'extremely fermented'. Ethanol

  9. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan: Energy Resources Jump to:1999) |Methanol Fuel

  10. air-breathing direct methanol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Direct Methanol Materials Science Websites Summary: increases the overall cost of the cell, reducing the fuel conversion efficiency. An alternative to H2): Application to...

  11. Indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: product price vs product slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wham, R.M.; McCracken, D.J.; Forrester, R.C. III

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts process analysis and engineering evaluation studies for the Department of Energy to provide, on a consistent basis, technical and economic assessments of processes and systems for coal conversion and utilization. Such assessments permit better understanding of the relative technical and economic potential of these processes. The objective of the work described here was to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility, economic competitiveness, and environmental acceptability of selected indirect coal liquefaction processes on a uniform, consistent, and impartial basis. Particular emphasis is placed on production of methanol as a principal product or methanol production for conversion to gasoline. Potential uses for the methanol are combustion in peaking-type turbines or blending with gasoline to yield motor fuel. Conversion of methanol to gasoline is accomplished through the use of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Under the guidance of ORNL, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Houston Division, prepared four conceptual process designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to either methanol or gasoline. The conceptual designs are based on the use of consistent technology for the core of the plant (gasification through methanol synthesis) with additional processing as necessary for production of different liquid products of interest. The bases for the conceptual designs are given. The case designations are: methanol production for turbine-grade fuel; methanol production for gasoline blending; gasoline production with coproduction of SNG; and gasoline production maximized.

  12. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of cyclohexane-n-hexane-methanol mixtures; Effect of water content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, P.; Fermeglia, M.; Kikic, I. (Istituto di Chimica Applicata e Industriale, University of Trieste, via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (IT))

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system cyclohexane-n-hexane-methanol and for the binary systems n-hexane-methanol and cyclohexane-methanol are presented over a temperature range from 284 to 298{Kappa} at pressure of 0.1 MPa. Attention is given to the effect of the purity of methanol as far as the water content is concerned. The data are correlated by means of excess Gibbs energy models (NRTL and UNIQUAC), and the binary interaction parameters are reported.

  13. Catalytic decomposition of methanol at various temperatures and several liquid hourly space velocities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Yashpal Satyapal

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to quantitatively analyze the products of the reactions. Based on the results obtained, a scheme is presented by which methanol can be converted to a gaseous fuel consisting of dimethyl ether (50K), carbon monoxide ( 16 . 67K) and hyrdogen (33 . 33K) . Dedicated... is produced by catalytically dehydrating methanol over a y-alumina catalyst to produce dimethyl ether and dehydrogenating methanol to CO and H& over a methanol synthesis catalyst and then mixing these gases in the proportion of 50% dimethyl ether, 33. 33K...

  14. H-D Substitution in Interstellar Solid Methanol: A Key Route for D Enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiro Nagaoka; Naoki Watanabe; Akira Kouchi

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Deuterium enrichment of interstellar methanol is reproduced experimentally for the first time via grain-surface H-D substitution in solid methanol at an atomic D/H ratio of 0.1. Although previous gas-grain models successfully reproduce the deuterium enrichments observed in interstellar methanol molecules (D/H of up to 0.4, compared to the cosmic ratio of $\\sim 10^{-5})$, the models exclusively focus on deuterium fractionation resulting from the successive addition of atomic hydrogen/deuterium on CO. The mechanism proposed here represents a key route for deuterium enrichment that reproduces the high observed abundances of deuterated methanol, including multiple deuterations.

  15. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A., E-mail: Shari.Breen@csiro.au [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  16. Impact of ethanol expansion on the cattle feeding industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Erin

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    feedlots are located more than 200 miles from an ethanol plant, Dried Distillerâ??s Grains with Solubles (DDGS) can be fed to lower the cost of gain; therefore, ethanol co-products can be fed to help offset potential increases in corn prices. The partial...

  17. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  18. External Quality Assurance Services (EQAS) Ethanol/Ammonia Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    External Quality Assurance Services (EQAS) Ethanol/Ammonia Program BC35 12 x 3 mL 2 Analytes QC35 12 x 3 mL Specimen Only ENGLISH INTENDED USE Bio-Rad EQAS Ethanol/Ammonia Program is designed

  19. Softwood Biomass to Ethanol Feasibility Study; Final Report: June 14, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of design and project evaluation work studying various aspects of ethanol related projects including a conceptual ethanol plant located in Martell California.

  20. Red wine but not ethanol at low doses can protect against the toxicity of methamphetamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondy, Stephen Bondy C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C.F. , Chen, C. , 2002. Melatonin in concentrated ethanoland ethanol alone attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminewine polyphenol, attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress

  1. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  2. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout...

  3. A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions (1 Activity) A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

  4. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  5. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  6. Fast photoreactions of ethanol and MTBE on tropospheric metal oxide particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idriss, H.; Seebauer, E.G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol (EtOH) and tert-Butyl methyl ether (MTBE) are both finding increased use as oxygenated additives to fuels. However, the environmental fate in the troposphere of these species is unclear when they escape as fugitive emissions. In several locations there are reports of human illness in response to MTBE in particular. Volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) such as these are generally thought to react by a variety of homogeneous free-radical mechanisms, usually beginning with attack by OH radical. However, we show by laboratory kinetic studies that the heterogeneous photoreaction on solid suspended metal-oxide particulates such as fly ash proceeds with a comparable rate, especially in urban environments. EtOH reacts to form acetaldehyde, and EtOH forms isobutene, methanol, and formaldehyde. Our work appears to be the first-ever demonstration that VOC`s can react as fast by a heterogeneous mechanism as by a homogeneous one in the atmosphere. Experiments by various optical and kinetic techniques show that the active phases in fly ash are Fe oxides, which are fairly abundant in other atmospheric particulates as well.

  7. 106 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 ETHANOL AND ()--PINENE FOR DETECTING AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    106 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 ETHANOL AND (­)--PINENE FOR DETECTING traps baited with ethanol or ethanol and (-)--pinene for bark and ambrosia beetles in pine stands control; (2) ethanol; (3) (-)--pinene; and (4) ethanol + (-)--pinene. The release rates for ethanol

  8. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita [ORNL] [ORNL; Prabhu, Sandeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth] [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Guss, Adam M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  9. Htfiffi m'* Effects of Alternative Fuels on Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, USA rThe Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environrnent, King Mon operating on gasoline arrd a similar non-FF\\-. llir:s rs a in-al ethanol composition blend requires vehicle. Compadson of emissions from flex-fuel r.rhicles operating on EB5 with &e emissions from same vehicle

  10. Alternate Fuel Vehicle Recommendations -New and Used Vehicles The University of Central Florida is now required to meet federal regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Alternate Fuel Vehicle Recommendations - New and Used Vehicles The University of Central Florida is now required to meet federal regulations concerning alternate fuel vehicle purchases is known as a flex fuel vehicle, or a vehicle that is capable of burning ethanol or regular unleaded

  11. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  12. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  13. Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Sren Juhl

    Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System East, Denmark Introduction This work presents a control strategy for a reformed methanol fuel cell system, which uses a reformer to produce hydrogen for a HTPEM fuel cell. Such systems can advantageously

  14. Control of a methanol reformer system using an Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Sren Juhl

    Control of a methanol reformer system using an Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System approach, Denmark Introduction This work presents a stoichiometry control strategy for a reformed methanol fuel cell system, which uses a reformer to produce hydrogen for an HTPEM fuel cell. One such system is the Serenus

  15. Control and experimental characterization of ap methanol reformer for a 350W HTPEM FC system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    Control and experimental characterization of ap methanol reformer for a 350W HTPEM FC system Sren@et.aau.dk 33 #12;From prototype to commercial product dk 4 www.serenergy.dk #12;Integrated methanol reformerC Reformer temperature 200-300oC System parameters Weight 13.7 kg Volume 27 L sja@et.aau.dk 5 #12

  16. Experimental Observations in the Morita Baylis-Hillman Reaction in Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plata, Robert Erik

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -energy profile for a Morita Baylis-Hillman reaction in methanol. Although the majority of this dissertation will be about the Morita Baylis-Hillman reaction in methanol, it could not have been fully accomplished without having to study the Morita Baylis...

  17. APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu* , Chunguang Suo, email: lxw@hit.edu.cn) ABSTRACT In view of micro fuel cells, the silicon processes are employed for microfabrication of the micro direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Using the MEMS technology we have successfully made

  18. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process system for TAME reactive distillation process using extraction column with water as a solvent. The design distillation column which was optimized to recover methanol and recycle water to the extraction column. Other

  19. Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch, 2002 Vibrational relaxation and hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol-d dissolved in CCl4 have been-d molecules both accepting and donating hydrogen bonds at 2500 cm-1 . Following vibrational relaxation

  20. The Reactivity Limit for Methanol Oxidation on Platinum/Ruthenium Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Reactivity Limit for Methanol Oxidation on Platinum/Ruthenium Catalysts A. Wieckowski 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Pt/Ru Decorated (UIUC) PtRu Alloy (JM) E = 0.4 V Oxidation in 0.5 M Methanol

  1. Methanol masers : Reliable tracers of the early stages of high-mass star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Ellingsen

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The GLIMPSE and MSX surveys have been used to examine the mid-infrared properties of a statistically complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. The GLIMPSE point sources associated with methanol masers are clearly distinguished from the majority, typically having extremely red mid-infrared colors, similar to those expected of low-mass class 0 young stellar objects. The intensity of the GLIMPSE sources associated with methanol masers is typically 4 magnitudes brighter at 8.0 micron than at 3.6 micron. Targeted searches towards GLIMPSE point sources with [3.6]-[4.5] > 1.3 and an 8.0 micron magnitude less than 10 will detect more than 80% of class II methanol masers. Many of the methanol masers are associated with sources within infrared dark clouds (IRDC) which are believed to mark regions where high-mass star formation is in its very early stages. The presence of class II methanol masers in a significant fraction of IRDC suggests that high-mass star formation is common in these regions. Different maser species are thought to trace different evolutionary phases of the high-mass star formation process. Comparison of the properties of the GLIMPSE sources associated with class II methanol masers and other maser species shows interesting trends, consistent with class I methanol masers tracing a generally earlier evolutionary phase and OH masers tracing a later evolutionary phase.

  2. A novel electrode architecture for passive direct methanol fuel cells R. Chen, T.S. Zhao *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A novel electrode architecture for passive direct methanol fuel cells R. Chen, T.S. Zhao 6 November 2006 Abstract The supply of cathode reactants in a passive direct methanol fuel cell: Fuel cell; Passive DMFC; Metal foam; Mass transfer resistance; Cell performance; Oxygen transport 1

  3. Electrochimica Acta 52 (2006) 14091416 Optimization of cathode catalyst layer for direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) features a large thickness and mass transport loss due to higher Pt loading electrolyte fuel cells, as a result of an optimum balance of proton transport and oxygen diffusion. Different rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell; Cathode; Catalyst layer; Porosity distribution

  4. Experimental Observations in the Morita Baylis-Hillman Reaction in Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plata, Robert Erik

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -energy profile for a Morita Baylis-Hillman reaction in methanol. Although the majority of this dissertation will be about the Morita Baylis-Hillman reaction in methanol, it could not have been fully accomplished without having to study the Morita Baylis...

  5. Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spectroscopy and dynamics of mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol Dean S mixtures of water with acetone, acetonitrile, and methanol over their entire range of compositions have and acetonitrile mixtures. Spatial distribution functions are reported for the acetone/water system. © 2000

  6. MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

  7. Experimental investigation of burning rates of pure ethanol and ethanol blended fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parag, Shintre; Raghavan, Vasudevan [Thermodynamics and Combustion Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600036 (India)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental experimental study to determine the burning rates of ethanol and ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Pure liquid ethanol or its blends with liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline or diesel, has been transpired to the surface a porous sphere using an infusion pump. Burning of the fuel takes place on the surface of the porous sphere, which is placed in an air stream blowing upwards with a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure and temperature under normal gravity conditions. At low air velocities, when ignited, a flame envelopes the sphere. For each sphere size, air stream velocity and fuel type, the fuel feed rate will vary and the same is recorded as the burning rate for that configuration. The flame stand-off distances from the sphere surface are measured by post-processing the digital image of the flame photograph using suitable imaging software. The transition velocity at which the flame moves and establishes itself at the wake region of the sphere has been determined for different diameters and fuel types. Correlations of these parameters are also presented. (author)

  8. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  9. Certification of an agricultural spray aircraft on ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G. [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Piper Pawnee, one of the most common agricultural spray aircraft, is currently undergoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification to allow the use of denatured ethanol as its fuel. This certification is part of a broader effort to introduce ethanol as a replacement for aviation gasoline. Various reasons brought about the choice of an agricultural spray aircraft to be certified on ethanol. One is the minimization of initial fuel distribution problems. Agricultural aviation often requires only single fuel storage since most of the flying is local. Additionally, corn-produced ethanol is the natural fuel of choice for farming operations. The increased power developed on ethanol compared to aviation gasoline (avgas) is very important when operating heavily loaded spray aircraft at very low altitudes. The power-plant, a Lycoming IO-540, is already certified. The aircraft is currently flying on ethanol in order to satisfy the airframe requirements. The effort is being supported by a consortium of organizations of corn-producing states. Upon completion of certification, the aircraft will be demonstrated around the mid-western states. Certification will allow the use of the aircraft in the commercial arena. Many mid-western agricultural spray operations and ag-pilots have already expressed interest in converting their aircraft to ethanol fuel.

  10. Methanol masers as tools to study high-mass star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Pestalozzi

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution I will attempt to show that the study of galactic 6.7 and 12.2GHz methanol masers themselves, as opposed to the use of methanol masers as signposts, can yield important conclusions contributing to the understanding of high-mass star formation. Due to their exclusive association with star formation, methanol masers are the best tools to do this, and their large number allows to probe the entire Galaxy. In particular I will focus on the determination of the luminosity function of methanol masers and on the determination of an unambiguous signature for a circumstellar masing disc seen edge-on. Finally I will try to point out some future fields of research in the study of methanol masers.

  11. Investigation of the flame speeds of propane/methanol gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, K.L.; Villareal, J.

    1985-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests was conducted in an acoustically tuned flame tube in order to determine the laminar burning velocities in air of various propane/methanol gas mixtures. The experimental method is explained in detail, along with the tabular results. A 90% propane, 10% methanol mixture is shown to have a maximum burning velocity of 40.8 cm/s. A 65% propane, 35% methanol mixture has a maximum velocity of 41.8 cm/s. These maximum flame speeds are shown to be about the same as that of pure propane by the same method. Gulder has found evidence that the presence of methanol in some hydrocarbon fuels may actually inhibit combustion, but we see no apparent modifications in the combustion of propane when mixed with methanol.

  12. Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosquera, Martn A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

  13. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  14. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  15. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  16. Supporting information Figure S1: Pump-rePump-Probe kinetics of peridinin in methanol. Peridinin was excited at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Supporting information Figure S1: Pump-rePump-Probe kinetics of peridinin in methanol. Peridinin spectra (black lines) measured after excitation of peridinin in methanol at 400 nm and dumping at 3 ps

  17. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akin, Minta C.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The low-energy, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular products from amorphous solid water (ASW) films capped with methanol is investigated versus methanol coverage (0 - 4 x 1015 cm-2) at 50 K using 100 eV incident electrons. The major ESD products from a monolayer of methanol on ASW are quite similar to the ESD products from bulk methanol film: H2, CH4, H2O, C2H6, CO, CH2O, and CH3OH. For 40 ML ASW films, the molecular oxygen, hydrogen, and water ESD yields from the ASW are suppressed with increasing methanol coverage, while the CH3OH ESD yield increases proportionally to the methanol coverage. The suppression of the water ESD products by methanol is consistent with the non-thermal reactions occurring preferentially at or near the ASW/vacuum interface and not in the interior of the film. The water and molecular hydrogen ESD yields from the water layer decrease exponentially with the methanol cap coverage with 1/e constants of ~ 0.6 x 1015 cm-2 and 1.6 x 1015 cm-2, respectively. In contrast, the O2 ESD from the water layer is very efficiently quenched by small amounts of methanol (1/e ~ 6.5 x 1013 cm-2). The rapid suppression of O2 production by small amounts of methanol is due to reactions between CH3OH and the precursors for the O2 - mainly OH radicals. A kinetic model for the O2 ESD which semi-quantitatively accounts for the observations is presented.

  18. Detection of 6.7 GHz methanol absorption towards hot corinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Pandian; S. Leurini; K. M. Menten; A. Belloche; P. F. Goldsmith

    2008-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz have been found exclusively towards high-mass star forming regions. Recently, some Class 0 protostars have been found to display conditions similar to what are found in hot cores that are associated with massive star formation. These hot corino sources have densities, gas temperatures, and methanol abundances that are adequate for exciting strong 6.7 GHz maser emission. This raises the question of whether 6.7 GHz methanol masers can be found in both hot corinos and massive star forming regions, and if not, whether thermal methanol emission can be detected. We searched for the 6.7 GHz methanol line towards five hot corino sources in the Perseus region using the Arecibo radio telescope. To constrain the excitation conditions of methanol, we observed thermal submillimeter lines of methanol in the NGC1333-IRAS 4 region with the APEX telescope. We did not detect 6.7 GHz emission in any of the sources, but found absorption against the cosmic microwave background in NGC1333-IRAS 4A and NGC1333-IRAS 4B. Using a large velocity gradient analysis, we modeled the excitation of methanol over a wide range of physical parameters, and verify that the 6.7 GHz line is indeed strongly anti-inverted for densities lower than 10^6 cm^-3. We used the submillimeter observations of methanol to verify the predictions of our model for IRAS 4A by comparison with other CH3OH transitions. Our results indicate that the methanol observations from the APEX and Arecibo telescopes are consistent with dense (n ~ 10^6 cm^-3), cold (T ~ 15-30 K) gas. The lack of maser emission in hot corinos and low-mass protostellar objects in general may be due to densities that are much higher than the quenching density in the region where the radiation field is conducive to maser pumping.

  19. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the final technical report for DOE Program DE-FC36-04GO14301 titled Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications. Due to the public nature of this report some of the content reported in confidential reports and meetings to the DOE is not covered in detail in this report and some of the content has been normalized to not show actual values. There is a comparison of the projects accomplishments with the objectives, an overview of some of the key subsystem work, and a review of the three levels of prototypes demonstrated during the program. There is also a description of the eventual commercial product and market this work is leading towards. The work completed under this program has significantly increased the understanding of how Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) can be deployed successfully to power consumer electronic devices. The prototype testing has demonstrated the benefits a direct methanol fuel cell system has over batteries typically used for powering consumer electronic devices. Three generations of prototypes have been developed and tested for performance, robustness and life. The technologies researched and utilized in the fuel cell stack and related subsystems for these prototypes are leveraged from advances in other industries such as the hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell industry. The work under this program advanced the state of the art of direct methanol fuel cells. The system developed by MTI micro fuel cells aided by this program differs significantly from conventional DMFC designs and offers compelling advantages in the areas of performance, life, size, and simplicity. The program has progressed as planned resulting in the completion of the scope of work and available funding in December 2008. All 18 of the final P3 prototypes builds have been tested and the results showed significant improvements over P2 prototypes in build yield, initial performance, and durability. The systems have demonstrated robust operation when tested at various orientations, temperatures, and humidity levels. Durability testing has progressed significantly over the course of the program. MEA, engine, and system level steady state testing has demonstrated degradation rates acceptable for initial product introduction. Test duration of over 5000 hrs has been achieved at both the MEA and breadboard system level. P3 level prototype life testing on engines (stacks with reactant conditioning) showed degradation rates comparable to carefully constructed lab fixtures. This was a major improvement over the P2 and P1 engine designs, which exhibited substantial reductions in life and performance between the lab cell and the actual engine. Over the course of the work on the P3 technology set, a platform approach was taken to the system design. By working in this direction, a number of product iterations with substantial market potential were identified. Although the main effort has been the development of a prototype charger for consumer electronic devices, multiple other product concepts were developed during the program showing the wide variety of potential applications.

  20. Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350WControl and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350Wp high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systemhigh temperature polymer electrolyte memb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350WControl and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350Wp high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmarkp gy gy g y pp g Introd ction Steam reforming of methanol for a HTPEM f el