National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for methane propane gas

  1. QER- Comment of National Propane Gas Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ladies and Gentlemen: Please find attached the QER comments of the National Propane Gas Association. Please feel to contact us if we can provide further information. Thank you for your attention to our submission.

  2. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  3. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt065_ti_denbigh_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

  4. National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

  5. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt065_ti_jenkins_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program State of Indiana/Greater IN Clean Cities Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan

  6. Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt065_christopher_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Southeast Propane AutoGas Development Program Technology Integration Overview

  7. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  9. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

    2006-03-01

    U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  10. Hydrate decomposition conditions in the system hydrogen sulfide-methane, and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeter, J.P.; Kobayashi, R.; Hildebrand, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental hydrate decomposition conditions are presented for 3 different H/sub 2/S-containing mixtures in the temperature region 0 C to 30 C. The 3 mixtures investigated were 4% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 89% methane; 12% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 81% methane; and 30% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 63% methane. Hydrate decomposition pressures and temperatures were obtained for each of these mixtures by observation of the pressure-temperature hysteresis curves associated with formation and decomposition of the hydrate crystals. A repeatable decomposition point was observed in every case, and this was identified as the hydrate point. The results for the 4% H/sub 2/S mixture were used to adjust parameters in a computer model based on the Parrish and Prausnitz statistical thermodynamics method, coupled with the BWRS equation of state. After the parameter adjustment, the computer model predicted the behavior of the 12% H/sub 2/S and the 30% H/sub 2/S mixtures to within 2 C. Experimental data for the 3 mixtures are given.

  11. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  12. Methane Gas Conversion Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under Iowa's methane gas conversion property tax exemption, real and personal property used to decompose waste and convert the waste to gas, collect the methane or other gases, convert the gas to...

  13. Gas-phase propane fuel delivery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a gas-phase fuel delivery system for delivering a vapor phase fuel independent of exterior temperatures. It comprises:a storage tank for storing a volume of fuel; a regulator in fluid communication with the tank for receiving fuel from the tank and for outputting the fuel in a vapor phase; a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the tank for monitoring pressure within the tank, the pressure sensor being operative to generate a pump enable signal when the pressure within the tank is less than a predetermined threshold; a pump in fluid communication with the tank.

  14. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  15. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (Ω pilot ∼ 0.2-0.6 and Ω overall ∼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant Ω pilot (> 0.5), increasing Ω overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing Ω overall (at constant Ω pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  16. Propane-air peakshaving impact on natural gas vehicles. Topical report, August 1993-January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, M.E.; Shikari, Y.; Blazek, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Propane-air peakshaving activities can lead to higher-than-normal propane levels in natural gas. Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling station operation and NGV performance can be affected by the presence of excess propane in natural gas. To assess the impact on NGV markets due to propane-air peakshaving, a comprehensive survey of gas utilities nationwide was undertaken to compile statistics on current practices. The survey revealed that about half of the responders continue to propane-air peakshave and that nearly two-thirds of these companies serve markets that include NGV fueling stations. Based on the survey results, it is estimated that nearly 13,000 NGVs could be affected by propane-air peakshaving activities by the year 2000.

  17. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  18. Diffusion of methane and other alkanes in metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borah, B; Zhang, HD; Snurr, RQ

    2015-03-03

    Diffusion of methane, ethane, propane and n-butane was studied within the micropores of several metal organic frameworks (MOFs) of varying topologies, including the MOFs PCN-14, NU-125, NU-1100 and DUT-49. Diffusion coefficients of the pure components, as well as methane/ethane, methane/ propane and methane/butane binary mixtures, were calculated using molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of the longer alkanes on uptake of natural gas in MOB. The calculated self diffusion coefficients of all four components are on the order of 10(-8) m(2)/s. The diffusion coefficients of the pure components decrease as a function of chain length in all of the MOFs studied and show different behaviour as a function of loading in different MOB. The self-diffusivities follow the trend DPCN-14 < DNU-125 approximate to DNU-1100 < DDUT-49, which is exactly the reverse order of the densities of the MOFs: PCN-14 > NU-125 approximate to NU-1100 > DUT-49. By comparing the diffusion of pure methane and methane mixtures vvith the higher alkancs, it is observed that the diffusivity of methane is unaffected by the presence of the higher alkanes in the MOFs considered, indicating that the diffusion path of methane is not blocked by the higher alkanes present in natural gas. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 2013 Propane Market Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    domestic propane prices will not fully delink from oil prices, and competition against electricity and natural gas in traditional propane markets will remain very challenging....

  20. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  1. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S.; Anh, D.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  2. A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems July 29, 2014 - 3:33pm Addthis A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Methane Emissions 3.1. Total emissions The major sources of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9 percent higher than the 2008 total of 724 MMTCO2e (Table 17). Methane emissions declined steadily from 1990 to 2001, as emissions from coal mining and landfills fell, then rose from 2002 to 2009 as a result of moderate increases in emissions related to energy,

  4. Dewatering of coalbed methane wells with hydraulic gas pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amani, M.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    The coalbed methane industry has become an important source of natural gas production. Proper dewatering of coalbed methane (CBM) wells is the key to efficient gas production from these reservoirs. This paper presents the Hydraulic Gas Pump as a new alternative dewatering system for CBM wells. The Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP) concept offers several operational advantages for CBM wells. Gas interference does not affect its operation. It resists solids damage by eliminating the lift mechanism and reducing the number of moving parts. The HGP has a flexible production rate and is suitable for all production phases of CBM wells. It can also be designed as a wireline retrievable system. We conclude that the Hydraulic Gas Pump is a suitable dewatering system for coalbed methane wells.

  5. Commodity chemicals from natural gas by methane chlorination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, S.C.; Minet, R.G.; Giacobbe, F.; Mullick, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) can be produced from natural gas through methane chlorination by reacting methane and chlorine at 900/sup 0/C or higher. Experimental results indicate total ethylene equivalent yield from methane of 45%(wt) and marginal process economics. Fundamental kinetic modeling predicts improved C/sub 2/ yields of up to 70%(wt) at optimum reaction conditions. This optimum condition established the basis for the process design study to evaluate the potential for producing ethylene and VCM from natural gas. HCl by-product is recycled for economic viability. Using the Kel-Chlor process for recycling HCl, the proposed plant produces 27,200 TPA of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 383,800 TPA of VCM. The Midwest is an ethylene consumption area requiring imports of ethylene derivatives from other regions. A methane chlorination plant located on a Midwestern natural gas pipeline network has a good commercial potential.

  6. Propane Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    2010-03-01

    Propane powers about 190,000 vehicles in the U.S. and more than 14 million worldwide. Propane vehicles are a good choice for many fleet applications including school buses, shuttle buses, taxies and light-duty trucks.

  7. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  8. Propane Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels » Propane Fuel Basics Propane Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), or autogas, is a clean-burning, high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles. Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As

  9. Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 1990's 1 3 10 18 34 47 56 70 99 130 2000's 0 -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  10. Propane update

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    update March 23,2016 | Washington, DC (Inventory data as of 31816; residential heating ... Source: EIA, Weekly Petroleum Status Report, data through March 18, 2016 *propane...

  11. Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

  12. Gettering of Hydrogen and Methane from a Helium Gas Mixture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cardenas, Rosa E.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-10-21

    In our study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H2 and CH4 can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172® getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. Moreover, the optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110°C to remove the hydrogen. Finally, this approach eliminatedmore » the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.« less

  13. Gettering of hydrogen and methane from a helium gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crdenas, Rosa Elia; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172{sup } getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. The optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650?C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110?C to remove the hydrogen. This approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  14. Gettering of Hydrogen and Methane from a Helium Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, Rosa E.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-10-21

    In our study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H2 and CH4 can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172 getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. Moreover, the optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110C to remove the hydrogen. Finally, this approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  15. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop November 12-13, 2014 Advanced Materials Manufacturing and Innovative Technologies for Natural Gas Pipeline Systems and Components Panel > November 12, 2014 > Pittsburgh, PA > By Daniel Ersoy, GTI Nat. Gas Infrastructure R&D /Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop, Nov. 2014, Pittsburgh, PA 2 Nat. Gas Infrastructure R&D /Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop, Nov. 2014, Pittsburgh, PA 2 GTI Company Overview

  16. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  17. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  18. JISEA News: Study on Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Systems Indicates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Priorities - News Releases | NREL JISEA News: Study on Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Systems Indicates New Priorities Study findings published in Policy Forum of Journal Science February 18, 2014 A new study published in the journal Science says that the total impact of switching to natural gas depends heavily on leakage of methane (CH4) during the natural gas life cycle, and suggests that more can be done to reduce methane emissions and to improve measurement tools which help

  19. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Woekshop Nov. 12-13, 2014

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop - Nov. 12-13, 2014 Improving Compressor System Operational Efficiency Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop Nov. 12-13, 2014 Improving Compressor System Operational Efficiency W. Norm Shade, PE Sr. Consultant & Pres.-Emeritus ACI Services Inc. Cambridge, OH 1 Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop - Nov. 12-13, 2014 Improving Compressor System Operational Efficiency

  20. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  1. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution | Department of Energy Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution This paper

  2. METHANE GAS STABILIZES SUPERCOOLED ETHANE DROPLETS IN TITAN'S CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chia C.; Lang, E. Kathrin; Signorell, Ruth

    2010-03-20

    Strong evidence for ethane clouds in various regions of Titan's atmosphere has recently been found. Ethane is usually assumed to exist as ice particles in these clouds, although the possible role of liquid and supercooled liquid ethane droplets has been recognized. Here, we report on infrared spectroscopic measurements of ethane aerosols performed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking Titan's lower atmosphere. The results clearly show that liquid ethane droplets are significantly stabilized by methane gas which is ubiquitous in Titan's nitrogen atmosphere-a phenomenon that does not have a counterpart for water droplets in Earth's atmosphere. Our data imply that supercooled ethane droplets are much more abundant in Titan's clouds than previously anticipated. Possibly, these liquid droplets are even more important for cloud processes and the formation of lakes than ethane ice particles.

  3. Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Lin, Haiqing (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Scott (Brecksville, OH); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA)

    2012-03-06

    A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

  4. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... migration of the imbedded resources, flows back, and when the plugs that separated ... The interhemispheric gradient and the seasonal cycle, as well as the renewed methane ...

  5. Liquefied propane carburetor modification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, D.R.; Batchelor, W.H.

    1983-01-25

    A system which can be retrofit into an existing conventional gasoline powered vehicle for enabling the vehicle to operate on either gasoline or liquefied propane fuel. The system includes a mixer in the form of an adapter to fit on the top of an existing carburetor. The mixer has a unique spring balanced metering device which controls flow of gaseous propane to the carburetor in proportion to airflow through the carburetor. The mixer is connected to a regulator assembly which receives liquid propane in a first chamber, heats the liquid propane to form a vapor, and feeds the vapor through an idle valve to control idling of the engine. The vapor is also passed to a second chamber of the regulator assembly in response to demand from the metering device which is sensed by a diaphragm actuated gas flow valve. From the second chamber, the gaseous propane is fed to a high speed inlet of the mixer. Engine manifold vacuum is also used to provide additional control for the gas flow valve to increase efficiency of the system. Other features include a special purpose fuel tank and an optional exhaust system oxygen sensor for further regulating gas flow to the engine.

  6. FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beaudoin, Y. C., Boswell, R., Dallimore, S. R., and Waite, W. (eds), 2014. Frozen Heat: A UNEP Global Outlook on Methane Gas Hydrates. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal. © United Nations Environment Programme, 2014 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the

  7. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    November 12-13, 2014 DOE's Natural Gas Modernization Initiative Christopher Freitas, Program Manager, Natural Gas Midstream Infrastructure R&D, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, U.S. Dept. of Energy 3 Summary It is critical to minimize leakage Reducing natural gas leakage has multiple wins We know enough to act Natural Gas Modernization Initiative: DOE is working to drive innovation, better characterize emissions, address market barriers, and catalyze action 4 Interagency Methane Strategy

  8. Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.

    2011-06-01

    Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

  9. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is $2.30 per gallon, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel survey. Propane prices in the Midwest region, which has the most households that use propane, averaged $1.89 a gallon. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington. The EIA has expanded its propane price survey to include 14 more states located mostly in the South and the West. The survey now looks at propane prices in 38

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles » Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on

  11. Methane storage in advanced porous materials | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Methane storage in advanced porous materials Previous Next List Trevor A. Makal, Jian-Rong Li, Weigang Lu and Hong-Cai Zhou, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012,41, 7761-7779 DOI: 10.1039/C2CS35251F Abstract: The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However,

  12. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.92 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 44.4 cents

  13. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.29 per gallon, down 3.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.80 per gallon, down 2.4 cents from last week

  14. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.32 per gallon, down 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.82 per gallon, down 2.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela Rourk,

  15. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.01 per gallon, up 1.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 44.8

  16. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 43

  17. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40.7

  18. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.43 per gallon, up 1.3 cents from last week, and down 51.7

  19. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.97 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 50.

  20. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.44 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 49.7

  1. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices available The average retail price for propane is $1.94 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.91 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.39 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, and down 55.3

  3. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  4. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop November 12-13, 2014, Sheraton Pittsburgh Airport Hotel, Coraopolis, PA 15108 FINAL AGENDA Day 1 (Wednesday, November 12) 12:00-1:00 pm REGISTRATION 1:00-1:30 pm Welcome and Overviews Mark Johnson, Director, Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Christopher J. Freitas, Senior Program Manager, Natural Gas Infrastructure, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, DOE Office of

  5. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Midwest and Northeast propane prices much higher this winter than last year Households that heat with propane will pay for that propane at prices averaging 39 percent higher in the Midwest and 14 percent higher in the Northeast this winter compared with last winter.....as much colder temperatures this winter boosts heating fuel demand. Midwest residential propane is expected to average $2.41 per gallon over the winter, while propane in the Northeast will average $3.43 per gallon, according to

  6. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  7. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) hosted a workshop, November 12-13, 2014, in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, as a follow-up to the President's Climate Action Plan and the DOE meeting series on

  8. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Napersville, IL); Kobylinski, Thadeus P. (Lisle, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  9. Analysis and Methane Gas Separations Studies for City of Marsing, Idaho An Idaho National Laboratory Technical Assistance Program Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher Orme

    2012-08-01

    Introduction and Background Large amounts of methane in well water is a wide spread problem in North America. Methane gas from decaying biomass and oil and gas deposits escape into water wells typically through cracks or faults in otherwise non-porous rock strata producing saturated water systems. This methane saturated water can pose several problems in the delivery of drinking water. The problems range from pumps vapor locking (cavitating), to pump houses exploding. The City of Marsing requested Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assist with some water analyses as well as to provide some engineering approaches to methane capture through the INL Technical Assistance Program (TAP). There are several engineering approaches to the removal of methane and natural gas from water sources that include gas stripping followed by compression and/or dehydration; membrane gas separators coupled with dehydration processes, membrane water contactors with dehydration processes.

  10. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  11. Methane

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    emissions from natural gas infrastructure and use in the urban region of Boston, Massachusetts Kathryn McKain a,b,1 , Adrian Down c,d , Steve M. Raciti e,f , John Budney a , Lucy R. Hutyra e , Cody Floerchinger g , Scott C. Herndon g , Thomas Nehrkorn h , Mark S. Zahniser g , Robert B. Jackson c,d,i,j,k , Nathan Phillips e , and Steven C. Wofsy a,b a School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and b Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138; c Nicholas

  12. GAS METHANE HYDRATES-RESEARCH STATUS, ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND ENERGY IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Sorensen; Jaroslav Solc; Bethany Bolles

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this task as originally conceived was to compile an assessment of methane hydrate deposits in Alaska from available sources and to make a very preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of producing methane from these deposits for remote power generation. Gas hydrates have recently become a target of increased scientific investigation both from the standpoint of their resource potential to the natural gas and oil industries and of their positive and negative implications for the global environment After we performed an extensive literature review and consulted with representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Canadian Geological Survey, and several oil companies, it became evident that, at the current stage of gas hydrate research, the available information on methane hydrates in Alaska does not provide sufficient grounds for reaching conclusions concerning their use for energy production. Hence, the original goals of this task could not be met, and the focus was changed to the compilation and review of published documents to serve as a baseline for possible future research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). An extensive annotated bibliography of gas hydrate publications has been completed. The EERC will reassess its future research opportunities on methane hydrates to determine where significant initial contributions could be made within the scope of limited available resources.

  13. Incentives for Methane Mitigation and Energy-Efficiency Improvements in Case of Ukraines Natural Gas Transmission System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine. The Ukrainian transmission company, Ukrtransgaz, reduced its own systems natural gas consumption by 68 percent in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraines transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraines natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of steep increases in the price of imported natural gas, and comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, regional integration policy, and international environmental agreements has created conditions for successful methane emission and combustion reductions. Learning about such case studies can help us design better policies elsewhere.

  14. Natural Gas Methane Emissions in the United States Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Sources, Uncertainties and Opportunities for Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Garvin; Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Brandt, Adam

    2015-11-19

    Presentation summarizing key findings of a Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis Report at an Environmental Protection Agency workshop: 'Stakeholder Workshop on EPA GHG Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems' on November 19, 2015. For additional information see the JISEA report, 'Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain: Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies' NREL/TP-6A50-62820.

  15. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.35 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.92 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 47.9 cents

  16. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.39 per gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.91 per gallon, down 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 63.1 cents

  17. Residential propane price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decrease The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.93 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 39.6 cents

  18. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.91 per gallon, down 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $2.29 cents

  19. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 1.4 cents from last week, and down $1.93 cents

  20. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.67 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  1. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, and down $1.43 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.35 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.88 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.18 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  3. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, down 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.86 per gallon, down 1.6 cents from last week, and down 72.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  4. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.34 per gallon, down 1.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.85 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 63.2

  5. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.48 per gallon, down 15.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.06 a gallon, down 24.8 cents from last week, but up $1.28 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    05, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $2.40 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.95 per gallon, up 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 1.9

  7. Residential propane price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.39 per gallon, down 2.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, and down 17.5 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  8. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.00 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 46.2

  9. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 43.3

  10. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 41.9

  11. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 39.8

  12. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40 cents

  13. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.03 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.47 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 41 cents

  14. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.36 per gallon, up half of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.88 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 90.5

  15. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, down 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 40 cents

  16. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane virtually unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.46 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 38.8

  17. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.96 per gallon, up 1.8 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 52.9 cents

  18. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.41 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.95 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 12.7 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  19. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.98 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 48.2

  20. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.99 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.45 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 47.6

  1. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $1.91 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon, down 1.6 cents from last week, and down 49.5 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.90 per gallon, up 2-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.38 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, and down 53 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  3. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.92 per gallon, up 1.4 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 2.6 cents from last week, and down 53.2

  4. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $1.92 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.40 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down 54.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Residential propane prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $1.94 per gallon, up 2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.42 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, and down 52.8 cents from a year ago.

  6. Residential propane prices decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2014 Residential propane prices decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.89 per gallon, that's down 11.9 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.83 a gallon, down 36.8 cents from last week, but up $2.05 from a year ago. This is Amerine Woodyard

  7. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.9 cents from a week ago to $2.80 per gallon. That's up 53.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.32 a gallon, up 3.8 cents from last week, and up 59

  8. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.5 cents from a week ago to $2.83 per gallon. That's up 56 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.36 a gallon, up 3.9 cents from last week, and up 62.3

  9. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose to $2.40 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 a gallon, up 2.9 cents from last week, and up 2.6 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  10. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 5.5 cents per gallon from last week to $2.62 per gallon; up 37.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.11 per gallon, up 3.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 39.6

  11. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 9.1 cents from a week ago to $2.71 per gallon. That's up 46.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.22 a gallon, up 11 cents from last week, and up 50.8 cents from a year ago

  12. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 4.8 cents from a week ago to $2.76 per gallon. That's up 51.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.28 a gallon, up 6.3 cents from last week, and up 56.4

  13. Residential propane prices stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices stable The average retail price for propane is $2.37 per gallon. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel survey. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.89 a gallon. Down 2-tenths of a cent from last week. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  14. Residential propane prices stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases The average retail price for propane is $2.40 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from . last week, and down 8.7 cents from a year ago This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  15. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.30 per gallon, down 17.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.78 a gallon, down 27.9 cents from last week, but up 99.3

  16. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.17 per gallon, down 13.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.60 a gallon, down 18.5 cents from last week, but up 88.1

  17. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.08 per gallon, down 8.6 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.48 a gallon, down 10.7 cents from last week, but up 69.7

  18. UNDERSTANDING METHANE EMISSIONS SOURCES AND VIABLE MITIGATION MEASURES IN THE NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: RUSSIAN AND U.S. EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishkov, A.; Akopova, Gretta; Evans, Meredydd; Yulkin, Grigory; Roshchanka, Volha; Waltzer, Suzie; Romanov, K.; Picard, David; Stepanenko, O.; Neretin, D.

    2011-10-01

    This article will compare the natural gas transmission systems in the U.S. and Russia and review experience with methane mitigation technologies in the two countries. Russia and the United States (U.S.) are the world's largest consumers and producers of natural gas, and consequently, have some of the largest natural gas infrastructure. This paper compares the natural gas transmission systems in Russia and the U.S., their methane emissions and experiences in implementing methane mitigation technologies. Given the scale of the two systems, many international oil and natural gas companies have expressed interest in better understanding the methane emission volumes and trends as well as the methane mitigation options. This paper compares the two transmission systems and documents experiences in Russia and the U.S. in implementing technologies and programs for methane mitigation. The systems are inherently different. For instance, while the U.S. natural gas transmission system is represented by many companies, which operate pipelines with various characteristics, in Russia predominately one company, Gazprom, operates the gas transmission system. However, companies in both countries found that reducing methane emissions can be feasible and profitable. Examples of technologies in use include replacing wet seals with dry seals, implementing Directed Inspection and Maintenance (DI&M) programs, performing pipeline pump-down, applying composite wrap for non-leaking pipeline defects and installing low-bleed pneumatics. The research methodology for this paper involved a review of information on methane emissions trends and mitigation measures, analytical and statistical data collection; accumulation and analysis of operational data on compressor seals and other emission sources; and analysis of technologies used in both countries to mitigate methane emissions in the transmission sector. Operators of natural gas transmission systems have many options to reduce natural gas losses. Depending on the value of gas, simple, low-cost measures, such as adjusting leaking equipment components, or larger-scale measures, such as installing dry seals on compressors, can be applied.

  19. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  20. FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of Mexico confirmed by drilling Studies links CH 4 , GH, ... Nankai field site, first offshore production test occurs in ... Evaluation of future gas hydrate development will be ...

  1. Auto propane -- Some technical considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This booklet reviews some of the facts about propane as a vehicle fuel. It describes propane fuel properties, propane vehicle fuel systems and their components, propane vehicles and engines obtainable as original equipment from the vehicle manufacturer, after-market propane fuel system installations, propane vehicle operational characteristics, propane-fueled vehicle maintenance, government regulations and safety measures related to propane vehicles, and the environmental benefits of propane and propane-fueled vehicles. The final sections discuss the economics of propane vehicle ownership and the factors to be considered when estimating annual or lifetime savings or payback periods. Appendices include a directory of information sources, a sample worksheet for calculating payback, and examples of success stories relating the positive experiences of vehicle fleets with propane fueling.

  2. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  3. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned for stranded gas reserves. The recent experiments and their results from the testing within NETL's 15-Liter Hydrate Cell Facility exhibit promising results. Introduction of water at the desired temperature and pressure through an NETL designed nozzle into a temperature controlled methane environment within the 15-Liter Hydrate Cell allowed for instantaneous formation of methane hydrates. The instantaneous and continuous hydrate formation process was repeated over several days while varying the flow rate of water, its' temperature, and the overall temperature of the methane environment. These results clearly indicated that hydrates formed immediately after the methane and water left the nozzle at temperatures above the freezing point of water throughout the range of operating conditions. [1] Oil and Gas Journal Vol. 160.48, Dec 22, 2008. [2] http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/chapter3.html and http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/pdf/tbl7.pdf [3] U.S. Geological Survey, Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle, May 2008.

  4. Hardware assembly and prototype testing for the development of a dedicated liquefied propane gas ultra low emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    On February 3, 1994, IMPCO Technologies, Inc. started the development of a dedicated LPG Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) under contract to the Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division (NREL). The objective was to develop a dedicated propane vehicle that would meet or exceed the California ULEV emissions standards. The project is broken into four phases to be performed over a two year period. The four phases of the project include: (Phase 1) system design, (Phase 2) prototype hardware assembly and testing, (Phase 3) full-scale systems testing and integration, (Phase 4) vehicle demonstration. This report describes the approach taken for the development of the vehicle and the work performed through the completion of Phase II dynamometer test results. Work was started on Phase 2 (Hardware Assembly and Prototype Testing) in May 1994 prior to completion of Phase 1 to ensure that long lead items would be available in a timely fashion for the Phase 2 work. In addition, the construction and testing of the interim electronic control module (ECM), which was used to test components, was begun prior to the formal start of Phase 2. This was done so that the shortened revised schedule for the project (24 months) could be met. In this report, a brief summary of the activities of each combined Phase 1 and 2 tasks will be presented, as well as project management activities. A technical review of the system is also given, along with test results and analysis. During the course of Phase 2 activities, IMPCO staff also had the opportunity to conduct cold start performance tests of the injectors. The additional test data was most positive and will be briefly summarized in this report.

  5. Methane Hydrate | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Methane Hydrate Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and

  6. Plasma-produced phase-pure cuprous oxide nanowires for methane gas sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Qijin Zhang, Fengyan; Yan, Wei; Randeniya, Lakshman; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-03-28

    Phase-selective synthesis of copper oxide nanowires is warranted by several applications, yet it remains challenging because of the narrow windows of the suitable temperature and precursor gas composition in thermal processes. Here, we report on the room-temperature synthesis of small-diameter, large-area, uniform, and phase-pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires by exposing copper films to a custom-designed low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density (typically, the electron number density is in the range of 10{sup 11}10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3}) inductively coupled plasmas. The mechanism of the plasma-enabled phase selectivity is proposed. The gas sensors based on the synthesized Cu{sub 2}O nanowires feature fast response and recovery for the low-temperature (?140?C) detection of methane gas in comparison with polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin film-based gas sensors. Specifically, at a methane concentration of 4%, the response and the recovery times of the Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors are 125 and 147?s, respectively. The Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors have a potential for applications in the environmental monitoring, chemical industry, mining industry, and several other emerging areas.

  7. DOE Launches Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D Program Enhancing Pipeline and Distribution System Operational Efficiency, Reducing Methane Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following the White House and the Department of Energy Capstone Methane Stakeholder Roundtable on July 29th, DOE announced a series of actions, partnerships, and stakeholder commitments to help modernize the nation’s natural gas transmission and distribution systems and reduce methane emissions. Through common-sense standards, smart investments, and innovative research, DOE seeks to advance the state of the art in natural gas system performance. DOE’s effort is part of the larger Administration’s Climate Action Plan Interagency Strategy to Reduce Methane Emissions.

  8. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.2 cents from a week ago to $2.86 per gallon. That's up 59.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.40 a gallon, up 3.2 cents from last week, and up 65.8 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  9. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to $2.96 per gallon. That's up 68.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is the largest single week increase since the heating season started in October. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 2.55 a gallon, up 14.9 cents from last week, and up 79.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in

  10. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.3 cents per gallon from last week to $2.57 per gallon; up 32.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The retail price for propane in the Midwest region averaged 2.08 per gallon, up 2.4 cents per gallon from last week, and up 36.9 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson, with EIA, in Washington.

  11. Residential propane prices surges

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices surges The average retail price for propane rose to an all-time high of $4.01 a gallon, that's up $1.05 from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is the largest weekly increase since the survey began in 1990. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 4.20 a gallon, up $1.66 from last week, and up $2.43 from a

  12. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  13. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  14. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR?¢????s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument?¢????s robustness in a real-world situation.

  16. DOE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A METHANE HYDRATE DEPOSIT AND GAS RESERVOIR, BLAKE RIDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Steven Holbrook

    2004-11-11

    This report contains a summary of work conducted and results produced under the auspices of award DE-FC26-00NT40921, ''DOE Three-Dimensional Structure and Physical Properties of a Methane Hydrate Deposit and Gas Reservoir, Blake Ridge.'' This award supported acquisition, processing, and interpretation of two- and three-dimensional seismic reflection data over a large methane hydrate reservoir on the Blake Ridge, offshore South Carolina. The work supported by this project has led to important new conclusions regarding (1) the use of seismic reflection data to directly detect methane hydrate, (2) the migration and possible escape of free gas through the hydrate stability zone, and (3) the mechanical controls on the maximum thickness of the free gas zone and gas escape.

  17. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  18. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2004-05-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  19. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  20. Residential propane price decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.93 per gallon, down one cent from last week, and down 35.5

  1. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  2. Estimating U.S. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Supply Chain. Approaches, Uncertainties, Current Estimates, and Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Garvin; Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Brandt, Adam

    2015-08-01

    A growing number of studies have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain. In particular, a number of measurement studies have suggested that actual levels of CH4 emissions may be higher than estimated by EPA" tm s U.S. GHG Emission Inventory. We reviewed the literature to identify the growing number of studies that have raised questions regarding uncertainties in our understanding of methane (CH4) emissions from fugitives and venting along the natural gas (NG) supply chain.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production &

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Related Links on Digg Find

  7. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  8. Texas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1981-2005 Refinery Gas 1981-2005 Other 1999-2005

  9. RECS Propane Usage Form_v1 (Draft).xps

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane usage for this housing unit between September 2008 and April 2010. Delivery Number Enter the Delivery Date for each delivery 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Enter the Total Dollar Amount including taxes [Exclude late fees, merchandise, repairs, and service charges] 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Form EIA 457D OMB No. 1905-0092 Expires 1/31/13 2009 RECS Propane (Bottled Gas or LPG) Usage Form Delivery Address: Account Number: $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

  10. Sorption-Enhanced Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Production from Syngas. A Novel Process Combining CO Methanation, Water-Gas Shift, and CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa M.C.; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Li, Liyu; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-07-08

    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from syngas is under investigation again due to the desire for less dependency from imports and the opportunity for increasing coal utilization and reducing green house gas emission. CO methanation is highly exothermic and substantial heat is liberated which can lead to process thermal imbalance and deactivation of the catalyst. As a result, conversion per pass is limited and substantial syngas recycle is employed in conventional processes. Furthermore, the conversion of syngas to SNG is typically performed at moderate temperatures (275 to 325C) to ensure high CH4 yields since this reaction is thermodynamically limited. In this study, the effectiveness of a novel integrated process for the SNG production from syngas at high temperature (i.e. 600?C) was investigated. This integrated process consists of combining a CO methanation nickel-based catalyst with a high temperature CO2 capture sorbent in a single reactor. Integration with CO2 separation eliminates the reverse-water-gas shift and the requirement for a separate water-gas shift (WGS) unit. Easing of thermodynamic constraint offers the opportunity of enhancing yield to CH4 at higher operating temperature (500-700C) which also favors methanation kinetics and improves the overall process efficiency due to exploitation of reaction heat at higher temperatures. Furthermore, simultaneous CO2 capture eliminates green house gas emission. In this work, sorption-enhanced CO methanation was demonstrated using a mixture of a 68% CaO/32% MgAl2O4 sorbent and a CO methanation catalyst (Ni/Al2O3, Ni/MgAl2O4, or Ni/SiC) utilizing a syngas ratio (H2/CO) of 1, gas-hour-space velocity (GHSV) of 22 000 hr-1, pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 600oC. These conditions resulted in ~90% yield to methane, which was maintained until the sorbent became saturated with CO2. By contrast, without the use of sorbent, equilibrium yield to methane is only 22%. Cyclic stability of the methanation catalyst and durability of the sorbent were also studied in the multiple carbonation-decarbonation cycle studies proving the potential of this integrated process in a practical application.

  11. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  12. Residential propane price is unchanged

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    13, 2014 Residential propane price is unchanged The average retail price for propane is $2.40 per gallon, down one-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, down 7-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 6

  13. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  14. A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B.

    2008-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

  15. Microstructure-Dependent Gas Adsorption: Accurate Predictions of Methane Uptake in Nanoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ihm, Yungok; Cooper, Valentino R; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Morris, James R

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a successful, efficient framework for predicting gas adsorption properties in real materials based on first-principles calculations, with a specific comparison of experiment and theory for methane adsorption in activated carbons. These carbon materials have different pore size distributions, leading to a variety of uptake characteristics. Utilizing these distributions, we accurately predict experimental uptakes and heats of adsorption without empirical potentials or lengthy simulations. We demonstrate that materials with smaller pores have higher heats of adsorption, leading to a higher gas density in these pores. This pore-size dependence must be accounted for, in order to predict and understand the adsorption behavior. The theoretical approach combines: (1) ab initio calculations with a van der Waals density functional to determine adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and (2) a thermodynamic method that predicts equilibrium adsorption densities by directly incorporating the calculated potential energy surface in a slit pore model. The predicted uptake at P=20 bar and T=298 K is in excellent agreement for all five activated carbon materials used. This approach uses only the pore-size distribution as an input, with no fitting parameters or empirical adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and thus can be easily applied to other adsorbent-adsorbate combinations.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Availability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Availability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Emissions on

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  2. Process for the utilization of household rubbish or garbage and other organic waste products for the production of methane gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunziker, M.; Schildknecht, A.

    1985-04-16

    Non-organic substances are separated from household garbage and the organic substances are fed in proportioned manner into a mixing tank and converted into slurry by adding liquid. The slurry is crushed for homogenization purposes in a crushing means and passed into a closed holding container. It is then fed over a heat exchanger and heated to 55/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ C. The slurry passes into a plurality of reaction vessels in which the methane gas and carbon dioxide are produced. In a separating plant, the mixture of gaseous products is broken down into its components and some of the methane gas is recycled by bubbling it through both the holding tank and the reaction tank, the remainder being stored in gasholders. The organic substances are degraded much more rapidly through increasing the degradation temperature and as a result constructional expenditure can be reduced.

  3. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Earth's Future Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations Oliver Schneising 1 , John P. Burrows 1,2,3 , Russell R. Dickerson 2 , Michael Buchwitz 1 , Maximilian Reuter 1 , and Heinrich Bovensmann 1 1 Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, 2 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA, 3 NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

  4. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Case Study … Propane School Bus Fleets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane ................................................................................................................................... 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environmental and Energy Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 6 Project-Specific

  6. Measurement of the soot concentration and soot particle sizes in propane oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockhorn, H.; Fetting, F.; Meyer, U.; Reck, R.; Wannemacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    Soot concentrations and particle sizes were measured by light scattering and probe measurements in the burnt gas region of atmospheric pressure propane-oxygen flames and propane-oxygen flames to which hydrogen or ammonia were added. The results show that the soot concentrations in propane-oxygen flames, to which hydrogen is added are lower compared to propane-oxygen flames. The decrease of soot concentration is much stronger when ammonia is added. Associated with the reduction of soot concentration is a reduction of mean particle size of the soot particles and a lower breadth of the particle size distributions. Electron micrographs of soot particles from the probe measurements showed that soot particles from flames with high soot concentrations (propane oxygen flames) are aggregates with chain or cluster structure while the structure of the particles from flames with lower soot concentration (propane oxygen flames with hydrogen or ammonia added) is more compact. 24 refs.

  7. Coalbed Methane

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coalbed methane is natural gas found in coal deposits. It was once considered a nuisance and mine safety hazard, but today has become a valuable part of the U.S. energy portfolio. A major reason for this is resource characterization and the establishment of efficient recovery methods pioneered by Office of Fossil Energy R&D.

  8. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

  9. Propane Market Assessment for Winter

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    1997-1998 Final issue of this report. This article reviews the major components of propane supply and demand in the United States and their status entering the 1997-1998 heating season.

  10. Propane Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles » Propane Vehicle Basics Propane Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:16am Addthis There are more than 147,000 on-road propane vehicles in the United States. Many are used in fleets, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, taxicabs, police cars, and rental and delivery vehicles. Compared with vehicles fueled with conventional diesel and gasoline, propane vehicles can produce fewer harmful emissions. The availability of new light- and medium-duty propane vehicles has surged in

  11. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  12. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  13. Direct production of hydrogen and aromatics from methane or natural gas: Review of recent U.S. patents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar

    2012-03-01

    Since the year 2000, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a dozen patents for inventions related to methane dehydroaromatization processes. One of them was granted to UOP LLC (Des Plaines). It relates to a catalyst composition and preparation method. Two patents were granted to Conoco Phillips Company (Houston, TX). One was aimed at securing a process and operating conditions for methane aromatization. The other was aimed at securing a process that may be integrated with separation of wellhead fluids and blending of the aromatics produced from the gas with the crude. Nine patents were granted to ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc. (Houston, TX). Most of these were aimed at securing a dehydroaromatization process where methane-containing feedstock moves counter currently to a particulate catalyst. The coked catalyst is heated or regenerated either in the reactor, by cyclic operation, or in annex equipment, and returned to the reactor. The reactor effluent stream may be separated in its main components and used or recycled as needed. A brief summary of those inventions is presented in this review.

  14. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  16. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Users Q1: Why are data not collected over the summer? The residential pricing data collected on heating oil and propane prices are for the Winter Heating Fuels Survey. The purpose of this survey is to collect prices for these fuels as they are used for heating purposes. For the purposes of the survey, the winter heating season extends from October through March. However, EIA does publish spot prices for heating oil and propane throughout the year. In addition, some State Energy Offices

  17. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAQs for Respondents Q1: What is the purpose of this survey? The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-877, "Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey," is designed to collect data on State-level stocks and residential prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane during the heating season. The data are used to monitor the prices of propane and No. 2 heating oil during the heating season, and to report to the Congress and others when requested. Q2: How does the survey work? The

  18. Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

  19. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  20. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  1. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection ...

  2. State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection Marcela Rourk April 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 2 * Overview and history of State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) * Expansion of propane data collection * What is expected of SEOs that participate? * Benefits of participation What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data

  3. Methane modeling: predicting the inflow of methane gas into coal mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1982-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, C.M. II; Hoysan, P.M.; Pavone, A.M.; Richmond, O.; Schwerer, F.C.; Smelser, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Work on Phase I of the Contract program is essentially complete and was reported in the Phase I Technical Report which has been reviewed and accepted by the Contract Technical Project Officer. Phase I work included a survey of relevant technical literature and development, demonstration and documentation of a computer model, MINE1D, for flow of methane and water in coal strata for geometries corresponding to an advancing mine face and to a mine pillar. The Phase I models are one-dimensional in the space variable but describe time-dependent (nonsteady) phenomena and include gas sorption phenomena. Some revisions have been made to input/output sections of MINE1D and the documentation has been expanded. These modifications will be reported in the next Quarterly Technical Report. Preliminary test scenarios have been formulated and reviewed with the Contract Technical Project Officer for measurement of emissions during room-and-pillar and longwall mining operations. These preliminary scenarios are described in this report. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the increased stresses on the coal seam near mine openings. The model is based on an approximate elastic/plastic treatment of the coal seam and an elastic treatment of surrounding strata. In this model, elastic compaction of the coal seam decreases porosity and permeability, whereas plastic deformation increases the porosity of the natural fracture network and thereby increases the permeability. The model takes into account the effect of changes in pore fluid pressure (in the natural fracture network of the coal seam) on the deformation of the coal seam. This model is described in this report, and will be programmed for inclusion in revised versions of MINE1D and for use in the two-dimensional computer models now under development. 8 figures.

  4. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  5. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  6. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  7. EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road | Department of Energy Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road EERE Success Story-Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program, an $8.6 million Clean Cities Recovery Act project, finished bringing 1,200 propane vehicles and 11 new stations to support them to

  8. Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane Vehicles to the Road | Department of Energy Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road Nationwide: Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program Brings 1200 Propane Vehicles to the Road February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program, an $8.6 million Clean Cities Recovery Act project, finished bringing 1,200 propane vehicles and 11 new stations to support them to the road in October 2013.

  9. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles showed that, natural gas- and propane-fueled vehicles have high emissions of NH3 and CO, compared to diesel vehicles, while meeting certification requirements PDF icon deer11_johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\FEERC Emissions

  10. methane hydrates | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methane hydrates methane-hydrates.jpg Maintaining a focused vision on what's next is one trait that makes NETL a lab of the future, and methane hydrates are one "cool" part of that vision. Found in Arctic and deep-water marine environments, methane hydrates are an untapped abundant source of natural gas. A hydrate comprises a crystal structure in which frozen water creates a cage that traps molecules of primarily methane (natural gas). NETL researchers are exploring and developing

  11. The future of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce ca. 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions steming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. Until all these aspects of methane are better understood, its future role in the world`s energy mix will remain uncertain. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity and importance of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Infrastructure

  13. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector. A Review of Federal and State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranhos, Elizabeth; Kozak, Tracy G.; Boyd, William; Bradbury, James; Steinberg, D. C.; Arent, D. J.

    2015-04-23

    This report provides an overview of the regulatory frameworks governing natural gas supply chain infrastructure siting, construction, operation, and maintenance. Information was drawn from a number of sources, including published analyses, government reports, in addition to relevant statutes, court decisions and regulatory language, as needed. The scope includes all onshore facilities that contribute to methane emissions from the natural gas sector, focusing on three areas of state and federal regulations: (1) natural gas pipeline infrastructure siting and transportation service (including gathering, transmission, and distribution pipelines), (2) natural gas pipeline safety, and (3) air emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. In addition, the report identifies the incentives under current regulatory frameworks to invest in measures to reduce leakage, as well as the barriers facing investment in infrastructure improvement to reduce leakage. Policy recommendations regarding how federal or state authorities could regulate methane emissions are not provided; rather, existing frameworks are identified and some of the options for modifying existing regulations or adopting new regulations to reduce methane leakage are discussed.

  14. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  15. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  16. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2, 2014 Residential propane price continues to decrease The average retail price for propane fell to $3.76 per gallon, down 13.4 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.54 a gallon, down 28.5 cents from last week, but up $1.76 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  17. Residential propane price continues to decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0, 2014 Residential propane price decreases The average retail price for propane fell to $3.64 per gallon, down 12.7 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged 3.31 a gallon, down 24.5 cents from last week, but up $1.53 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk,

  18. Residential propane price decreases slightly decreases slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7, 2014 Residential propane price decreases slightly The average retail price for propane is $2.38 per gallon, down 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.94 per gallon, the same price as last week, and down 28.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  19. State Heating Oil and Propane Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Marcela Rourk 2014 SHOPP Workshop October 8, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 2 * Expansion of propane data collection * EIA resources available to States * Improvements to SHOPP What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC October 8, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data collection effort between EIA and State Energy Offices (SEOs) - data used by policymakers, industry

  20. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels.

  1. Comparison of Hydrogen and Propane Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Factsheet comparing the chemical, physical, and thermal properties of hydrogen and propane, designed to facilitate an understanding of the differences and similarites of the two fuels

  2. Vertical borehole design and completion practices used to remove methane gas from mineable coalbeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, S.W.; Trevits, M.A.; Steidl, P.F.

    1980-08-01

    Coalbed gas drainage from the surface in advance of mining has long been the goal of researchers in mine safety. Bureau of Mines efforts to achieve this goal started about 1965 with the initiation of an applied research program designed to test drilling, completion, and production techniques for vertical boreholes. Under this program, over 100 boreholes were completed in 16 different coalbeds. The field methods derived from these tests, together with a basic understanding of the coalbed reservoir, represent an available technology applicable to any gas drainage program whether designed primarily for mine safety or for gas recovery, or both.

  3. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  4. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  5. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard release time and day of the week will be at 1:00 p. m. (Eastern time) on Wednesdays with the following exceptions. All times are Eastern. Data for: Alternate Release Date Release Day Release Time Holiday October 12, 2015 October 15, 2015 Thursday 1:00 p.m. Columbus November 9, 2015 November 12, 2015 Thursday 1:00 p.m.

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    which summarizes the likely demand, supply, and prices for natural gas, heating oil, propane, and electricity during the upcoming winter (October 2004 - March 2005). According to...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Airport Shuttles Run on Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Airport Shuttles Run on Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in Maine on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Shuttle Visitors in

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the Nation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tank Overfill Safety Advisory on Digg

  12. GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE:...

  13. Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    all Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March. ...

  14. Russian Policy on Methane Emissions in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Opportunities and Challenges in Reducing Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha

    2014-08-04

    This paper uses Russian policy in the oil and gas sector as a case study in assessing options and challenges for scaling-up emission reductions. We examine the challenges to achieving large-scale emission reductions, successes that companies have achieved to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.

  15. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution Elizabeth Paranhos and Tracy G. Kozak Energy Innovation Partners William Boyd Energy Innovation Partners and University of Colorado - Boulder James Bradbury U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Daniel C. Steinberg National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas J. Arent Joint

  16. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.G.; Paisley, M.A.; Appelbaum, H.R.

    1986-03-01

    A process is being developed that produces a fuel gas with a heating value of 500 Btu/SCF from diverse forms of biomass, including shredded bark, wood chips, and sawdust. The system uses a high throughput, non-oxygen gasifier that employs sand circulation to supply process heat. Results obtained with a 10-inch I.D. gasifier are presented and compared with those in a 6-inch I.D. reactor. Feed rates up to 12 tons/day (dry) have been achieved corresponding to a specific wood throughput of 2000 lbs/ft/sup 2/-hr. Gas compositions in the two reactors are in excellent agreement and performance in the larger reactor, as measured by carbon conversion, is significantly improved. Cost projections comparing this process with direct combustion are presented that indicate gasification technology should have very significant cost advantages for both generation of plant steam and cogeneration of electricity. 5 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    12-13, 2014  Overall pipeline efficiency is a complex puzzle that includes both economic efficiency and transportation efficiency.  Due to economic efficiency Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines typically do not operate at their optimum design condition.  So, most compressor/driver combinations are operated at off-design conditions.  In addition, there is a large range of installed compressor efficiencies due to installation effects. Pipeline from A to B Compressor Station A Compressor

  18. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30

    In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

  19. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas meter. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels....

  20. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Methane concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane concentration The amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  2. Propane vehicles : status, challenges, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Burnham, A.; Bertram, K.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-17

    Propane as an auto fuel has a high octane value and has key properties required for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. To operate a vehicle on propane as either a dedicated fuel or bi-fuel (i.e., switching between gasoline and propane) vehicle, only a few modifications must be made to the engine. Until recently propane vehicles have commonly used a vapor pressure system that was somewhat similar to a carburetion system, wherein the propane would be vaporized and mixed with combustion air in the intake plenum of the engine. This leads to lower efficiency as more air, rather than fuel, is inducted into the cylinder for combustion (Myers 2009). A newer liquid injection system has become available that injects propane directly into the cylinder, resulting in no mixing penalty because air is not diluted with the gaseous fuel in the intake manifold. Use of a direct propane injection system will improve engine efficiency (Gupta 2009). Other systems include the sequential multi-port fuel injection system and a bi-fuel 'hybrid' sequential propane injection system. Carbureted systems remain in use but mostly for non-road applications. In the United States a closed-loop system is used in after-market conversions. This system incorporates an electronic sensor that provides constant feedback to the fuel controller to allow it to measure precisely the proper air/fuel ratio. A complete conversion system includes a fuel controller, pressure regulator valves, fuel injectors, electronics, fuel tank, and software. A slight power loss is expected in conversion to a vapor pressure system, but power can still be optimized with vehicle modifications of such items as the air/fuel mixture and compression ratios. Cold start issues are eliminated for vapor pressure systems since the air/fuel mixture is gaseous. In light-duty propane vehicles, the fuel tank is typically mounted in the trunk; for medium- and heavy-duty vans and trucks, the tank is located under the body of the vehicle. Propane tanks add weight to a vehicle and can slightly increase the consumption of fuel. On a gallon-to-gallon basis, the energy content of propane is 73% that of gasoline, thus requiring more propane fuel to travel an equivalent distance, even in an optimized engine (EERE 2009b).

  3. QER- Comment of Propane Education & Research Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I plan to attend and ask a question of the Secretary regarding propane supply for the upcoming winter. Please do not hesitate to call or email if you have questions. Tucker Perkins

  4. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  5. This Week In Petroleum Propane Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential propane prices (dollars per gallon) Average Regional U.S. residential propane prices graph Regional residential propane prices graph Residential propane prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 03/16/15 03/14/16 03/07/16 02/29/16 02/22/16 02/15/16 02/08/16 02/01/16 Average 2.342 2.021 2.020 2.026 2.028 2.034 2.032 2.022 East Coast (PADD 1) 3.042 2.763 2.761 2.766 2.760 2.768 2.768 2.750 New England (PADD 1A) 3.094 2.811 2.799 2.793 2.770 2.771 2.760 2.746

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    out Greener Future Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Help Minnesota Schools Carve out Greener Future on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Schools Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Buses Save Money for Virginia Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Orleans Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles in New Orleans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    County Schools Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched in Gloucester County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane School Buses Launched

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Company Rolling Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vans Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renzenberger Inc Saves Money With Propane Vans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  17. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31

    A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Enzymatic Oxidation of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirajuddin, S; Rosenzweig, AC

    2015-04-14

    Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. As potential targets for new gas-to-liquid methane bioconversion processes, MMOs have attracted intense attention in recent years. There are two distinct types of MMO, a soluble, cytoplasmic MMO (sMMO) and a membrane-bound, particulate MMO (pMMO). Both oxidize methane at metal centers within a complex, multisubunit scaffold, but the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms are completely different. This Current Topic review article focuses on the overall architectures, active site structures, substrate reactivities, proteinprotein interactions, and chemical mechanisms of both MMOs, with an emphasis on fundamental aspects. In addition, recent advances, including new details of interactions between the sMMO components, characterization of sMMO intermediates, and progress toward understanding the pMMO metal centers are highlighted. The work summarized here provides a guide for those interested in exploiting MMOs for biotechnological applications.

  19. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical “LNG like” fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  20. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  1. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1997-08-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1996-97 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used in rural areas where Natural GAs is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity and its perception as a clean heating fuel has increased the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  2. Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Renewable Methane Production System Technology available for licensing: Enhanced renewable methane production system provides a low-cost process that accelerates biological methane production rates at least fivefold. Low cost Delivers near-pipeline-quality gas and eliminates carbon dioxide emissions PDF icon methane_production_system

  3. Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting PDF icon International Gas...

  4. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  5. Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Propane-induced biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene Microbial degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) has been demonstrated under aerobic conditions with propane. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing a vapor phase form of TCE in the presence of propane to batch bioreactors containing a liquid phase

  6. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specification | Department of Energy Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil PDF icon deer09_arnold.pdf More Documents & Publications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Transportation Fuels: The

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Buses to Its Fleet Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit Corporation Adds Propane Buses to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transit

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane,

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Reducing Emissions Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to Propane, Reducing Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Converts Vehicles to

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hybrid Trolleys Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Spotsylvania County Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts Vehicles to Propane in Spotsylvania County on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Converts

  11. Capping methane leaks a win-win

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capping methane leaks a win-win Capping methane leaks a win-win As special correspondent Kathleen McCleery explains, that's why both environmentalists and the energy industry are trying to find ways to capture leaks from oil and gas facilities. November 13, 2015 Capping methane leaks a win-win Methane, the primary component of natural gas, is also a potent greenhouse gas, trapping energy in the atmosphere. Last year NASA released satellite images showing a hot spot in the area where New Mexico,

  12. New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future August 31, 2012 - 1:37pm Addthis Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped natural gas. Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped

  13. New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future August 31, 2012 - 1:37pm Addthis Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the trapped natural gas. Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will release the

  14. A thermodynamic tank model for studying the effect of higher hydrocarbons on natural gas storage in metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, HD; Deria, P; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for storing natural gas in vehicular applications. Evaluation of these materials has focused on adsorption of pure methane, although commercial natural gas also contains small amounts of higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane, which adsorb more strongly than methane. There is, thus, a possibility that these higher hydrocarbons will accumulate in the MOF after multiple operating (adsorption/desorption) cycles, and reduce the storage capacity. To study the net effect of ethane and propane on the performance of an adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, we developed a mathematical model based on thermodynamics and mass balance equations that describes the state of the tank at any instant. The required inputs are the pure-component isotherms, and mixture adsorption data are calculated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). We focused on how the "deliverable energy'' provided by the ANG tank to the engine changed over 200 operating cycles for a sample of 120 MOF structures. We found that, with any MOF, the ANG tank performance monotonically declines during early operating cycles until a "cyclic steady state'' is reached. We determined that the best materials when the fuel is 100% methane are not necessarily the best when the fuel includes ethane and propane. Among the materials tested, some top MOFs are MOF-143 > NU-800 > IRMOF-14 > IRMOF-20 > MIL-100 > NU-125 > IRMOF-1 > NU-111. MOF-143 is predicted to deliver 5.43 MJ L-1 of tank to the engine once the cyclic steady state is reached. The model also provided insights that can assist in future work to discover more promising adsorbent materials for natural gas storage.

  15. Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fleet Pilot Program Texas Propane Fleet Pilot Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt058_kelly_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project Texas Propane Vehicle Pilot Project

  16. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  17. Effect of bubble size and density on methane conversion to hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leske, J.; Taylor, C.E.; Ladner, E.P.

    2007-03-01

    Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. One area of investigation is the storage of methane as methane hydrates. An economical and efficient means of storing methane in hydrates opens many commercial opportunities such as transport of stranded gas, off-peak storage of line gas, etc.We have observed during our investigations that the ability to convert methane to methane hydrate is enhanced by foaming of the methanewater solution using a surfactant. The density of the foam, along with the bubble size, is important in the conversion of methane to methane hydrate.

  18. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  19. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  20. Delaware Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 1 0 * * 6 1967-2014 Propane-Air 2 1 0 0 6 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 1999-2014

  1. Indiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 5 1 6 69 1967-2014 Propane-Air 1 1 5 1 6 69 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005

  2. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 1824 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  3. Methane sources and emissions in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, G.R.; Castagnola, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    Methane emissions in Italy were assessed in the framework of the measures taken to follow out the commitments undertaken at the 1992 U.N. Conference for Environment and Development. Methane emissions of anthropic origin were estimated to be in the range of 1.6 to 2.3 million ton of methane per year. Some of these methane sources (natural gas production, transmission and distribution; rice paddies; managed livestock enteric fermentation and waste; solid waste landfills) are given here particular care as they mainly contribute to the total methane emission budget.

  4. ARM - Methane Background Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Background Information What is Methane? Why Do We Use Methane? How is Methane Made? Where Do We Find Methane? Can Methane Be Dangerous? Does Methane Contribute to Climate Change? What is Methane?

  5. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  6. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas in a high-throughput gasifier. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Paisley, M.A.; Folsom, D.W.; Kim, B.C.

    1981-10-31

    Results of the experimental work conducted thus far have shown that wood can be readily gasified in a steam environment into a hydrocarbon rich fuel gas that can be used as a replacement for petroleum-based fuels or natural gas with minimal boiler retrofit. Further, this conversion can be achieved in a compact gasification reactor with heat supplied by a circulating entrained phase, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plant. Tars have not been found except at the lowest gasifier temperatures employed, and therefore heat recovery from the product gas should be much simpler than that from commercially available fixed-bed gasification systems where product gas contains significant quantities of tar. The data generated have been used in a preliminary conceptual design. Evaluation of this design has shown that a medium-Btu gas can be produced from wood at a cost competitive with natural gas or petroleum-based fuels.

  7. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  8. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  9. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

  10. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  11. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  12. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  13. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallurgical failure...

  14. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline

  15. Presentations from June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting Presentations from June 6-7 2013 Methane Hydrates Advisory Meeting PDF icon ConocoPhillips test results and data analysis PDF icon Methane Hydrate Workshop as part of the FY 2013 Methane Hydrate Field Program PDF icon Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting: Program Funding PDF icon Update on BOEM Lower 48 Assessment: A presentation to the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee PDF icon Gas Hydrate Program Activities in

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    which summarizes the likely demand, supply, and prices for natural gas, heating oil, propane, and electricity during the upcoming winter (October 2004 - March 2005). According to...

  17. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Rolls on as Reliable Fleet

  19. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  20. 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization A chapter on Landfill Methane Utilization from the Clean Energy Strategies for Local Governments publication. PDF icon 7.4_landfill_methane_utilization.pdf More Documents & Publications CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas, October 2002 Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White Paper, September 2007

  1. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reduction Scenarios | Department of Energy Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios This study assessed five potential methane reduction scenarios from natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) infrastructure using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of methane reduced. The results show that implementation

  2. Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural gas found in coal deposits. It was once considered a nuisance and mine safety hazard, but today has become a valuable part of the U.S. energy portfolio. A major reason for this is resource characterization and the establishment of efficient recovery methods pioneered by Office of Fossil Energy (FE) research and development. CBM proved reserves and production have grown nearly every year since 1989. Today it accounts for 9 percent of total domestic natural gas

  3. A theoretical study of the reaction paths for cobalt cation + propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, D.G.; Gordon, M.S.

    2000-03-23

    The triplet potential energy surface for the reaction of cobalt cation with propane has been studied along the two main reaction pathways leading to the formation of (1) hydrogen and propene and (2) methane and ethene. Effective core potentials for all elements have been used for all calculations. The geometries have been optimized at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory, and the final energetics have been refined at the multireference second-order perturbation theory (MRMP2) level with polarization function augmented basis sets. Reasonable agreement with the experimental energetics has been obtained, and the predicted mechanism is consistent with the experimentally determined mechanism of Haynes, Fisher, and Armentrout (J.Phys.Chem. 1996, 100, 18300).

  4. Emissions results for dedicated propane Chrysler minivans: the 1996 propane vehicle challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, C.; Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition , 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan. The University of Windsor`s minivan had the lowest emissions attaining ULEV levels with a gaseous-injected engine. The Texas A&M vehicle, which had a gaseous-fuel injection system, and the GMI Engineering and Management Institute`s vehicle, which had a liquid-injection system both reached LEV levels. Vehicles with an injection fuel system (liquid or gaseous) performed better in terms of emissions than carbureted systems. Liquid injection appeared to be the best option for fuel metering and control for propane, but more research and calibration are necessary to improve the reliability and performance of this design.

  5. Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manilla, R.D.

    1980-06-01

    Four subprograms are reported on: methane recovery from coalbeds, Eastern gas shales, Western gas sands, and methane from geopressured aquifers. (DLC)

  6. Application of gas-liquid two-phase cross-flow filtration to pilot-scale methane fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imasaka, Takuo; So, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Kohnosuke; Furukawa, Tomoya; Kanekuni, Nobuhiko )

    1993-01-01

    As part of a national project, Aqua-Renaissance '90,' by the MITI, a pilot-scale evaluation of membrane-enhanced anaerobic fermentation, has progressed for the wastewater from a pulp and paper mill. A novel membrane filtration system was newly proposed with the aim of saving energy. That is, a gas-liquid two-phase cross-flow filtration which was generated with liquid circulation by an air-lift pump effect, was combined in the anaerobic bioreactor. It was confirmed that the membrane filtration not only offered very stable and large permeate flux, but enhanced the processing efficiency by retaining the microorganisms in the bioreactor. Furthermore, the power consumption per unit permeate volume in the membrane system of 1.78 kWh/m[sup 3] was achieved, which was a very high-performance result from the viewpoint of saving energy, as compared with 3-5 kWh/m[sup 3] of conventional liquid single-phase cross-flow filtration.

  7. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  8. Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Slope | Department of Energy Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope October 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and ConocoPhillips will work together to test innovative technologies for producing methane gas from hydrate deposits on the Alaska North Slope. The collaborative testing will

  9. Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    saving on fuel costs," he said. "If these law enforcement vehicles were running great on propane autogas in such a demanding environment, then this was the fuel for my fleet."...

  10. VEE-0040- In the Matter of Western Star Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 18, 1997, Western Star Propane, Inc. (Western) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its application,...

  11. Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6/7/13

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6713 Release Date: June 19, 2013 Following the release of the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) for the week ended June 7, 2013, EIA...

  12. Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks for PADDs 4 and 5 Release Date: June 12, 2013 The U.S. Energy Information Administration issued the following...

  13. Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can propane school buses save money and provide other benefits? October 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint School districts across the country are looking for ways to save money and be more...

  14. VEE-0060- In the Matter of Blakeman Propane, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 11, 1999, Blakeman Propane, Inc. (Blakeman) of Moorcroft, Wyoming, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  15. Microsoft Word - Joe Rose - Providence remarks.propane.JUR -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the greater Northeast. These include: The critical need for additional primary storage in the Northeast New England sells 7% of the nation's propane but has only 1% of the...

  16. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane bills Lower oil prices are not only driving down gasoline costs, but U.S. consumers will also see a bigger savings in ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    County Schools Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel Buses for Dallas County Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel and Propane Fuel

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan School Buses Get Rolling on Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Columbus, Ohio Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in Columbus, Ohio on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellow Cab Converts Taxis to Propane in

  20. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  1. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) Previous Next List Stephen J. Geier, Jarad A. Mason, Eric D. Bloch, Wendy L. Queen, Matthew R. Hudson, Craig M. Brown and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Sci., 4, 2054-2061 (2013) DOI: 10.1039/c3sc00032j Abstract: A

  2. Methane Credit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Credit Jump to: navigation, search Name: Methane Credit Place: Charlotte, North Carolina Zip: 28273 Product: Specialises in utilising methane produced on municipal landfill...

  3. Field testing the Raman gas composition sensor for gas turbine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buric, M.; Chorpening, B.; Mullem, J.; Ranalli, J.; Woodruff, S.

    2012-01-01

    A gas composition sensor based on Raman spectroscopy using reflective metal lined capillary waveguides is tested under field conditions for feed-forward applications in gas turbine control. The capillary waveguide enables effective use of low powered lasers and rapid composition determination, for computation of required parameters to pre-adjust burner control based on incoming fuel. Tests on high pressure fuel streams show sub-second time response and better than one percent accuracy on natural gas fuel mixtures. Fuel composition and Wobbe constant values are provided at one second intervals or faster. The sensor, designed and constructed at NETL, is packaged for Class I Division 2 operations typical of gas turbine environments, and samples gas at up to 800 psig. Simultaneous determination of the hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and propane plus CO, CO2, H2O, H2, N2, and O2 are realized. The capillary waveguide permits use of miniature spectrometers and laser power of less than 100 mW. The capillary dimensions of 1 m length and 300 μm ID also enable a full sample exchange in 0.4 s or less at 5 psig pressure differential, which allows a fast response to changes in sample composition. Sensor operation under field operation conditions will be reported.

  4. X-ray CT Observations of Methane Hydrate Distribution Changes over Time in a Natural Sediment Core from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2010-03-01

    When maintained under hydrate-stable conditions, methane hydrate in laboratory samples is often considered a stable and immobile solid material. Currently, there do not appear to be any studies in which the long-term redistribution of hydrates in sediments has been investigated in the laboratory. These observations are important because if the location of hydrate in a sample were to change over time (e.g. by dissociating at one location and reforming at another), the properties of the sample that depend on hydrate saturation and pore space occupancy would also change. Observations of hydrate redistribution under stable conditions are also important in understanding natural hydrate deposits, as these may also change over time. The processes by which solid hydrate can move include dissociation, hydrate-former and water migration in the gas and liquid phases, and hydrate formation. Chemical potential gradients induced by temperature, pressure, and pore water or host sediment chemistry can drive these processes. A series of tests were performed on a formerly natural methane-hydrate-bearing core sample from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, in order to observe hydrate formation and morphology within this natural sediment, and changes over time using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Long-term observations (over several weeks) of methane hydrate in natural sediments were made to investigate spatial changes in hydrate saturation in the core. During the test sequence, mild buffered thermal and pressure oscillations occurred within the sample in response to laboratory temperature changes. These oscillations were small in magnitude, and conditions were maintained well within the hydrate stability zone.

  5. Unconventional Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 4.2.1.1 Shale Gas Drilling and Fracturing Fluids ......86 4.2.1.2 Coalbed Methane Drilling and Fracturing ...

  6. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress July 2012 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | July 2012 FY 2011 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report entitled U.S. Department of Energy FY 2011 Methane

  7. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fiscal Year 2013 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress October 2014 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | October 2014 Fiscal Year 2013 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary The Department of Energy is required 1 to submit to Congress an annual report on the actions taken to carry out methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed Report to Congress, Fiscal Year 2013 Methane Hydrate Program.

  8. Natural Gas Infrastructure Modernization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Modernization Natural Gas Infrastructure Modernization A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. In order to help modernize the nation's natural gas

  9. Regional analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons and meteorology of the rural southeast United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagerman, L.M.

    1996-11-01

    Measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons, as well as ozone, meteorological and trace gas data, were made at four rural sites located within the southeastern United States as a part of the Southern Oxidants Study. Fifty-six C2-C10 hydrocarbons were collected from 1200-1300 local time, once every six days from September 1992 through October 1993. The measurements were made in an effort to enhance the understanding of the behavior and trends of ozone and other photochemical oxidants in this region. The light molecular weight alkanes (ethane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane), ethene and acetylene display a seasonal variation with a winter maximum and summer minimum. Isoprene was virtually non-existent during the winter at all sites, and averaged from 9.8 ppbC (Yorkville, GA) to 21.15 ppbC (Centreville, AL) during the summer. The terpene concentration was greatest in the summer with averages ranging between 3.19 ppbC (Centreville, AL) to 6.38 ppbC (Oak Grove, MS), but was also emitted during the winter months, with a range of 1.25 to 1.9 ppbC for all sites. Propylene-equivalent concentrations were calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the hydroxyl radical and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contribution to ozone, especially in regards to the highly reactive biogenic compounds such as isoprene. It was calculated that biogenics represent at least 65% of the total non-methane hydrocarbon sum at these four sites during the summer season when considering propylene-equivalent concentrations. An ozone episode which occurred from July 20 to July 24 1993 was used as an example to show ozone profiles at each of the sites, and to show the effect of synoptic meteorology on high ozone by examining NOAA daily weather maps and climatic data.

  10. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  11. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-02-23

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resultedmore » in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels.« less

  12. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles ...

  13. Pennsylvania Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    205 4 2 2 3 20 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 205 4 2 2 3 20 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005

  14. Maryland Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    70 115 89 116 107 809 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 170 115 89 116 107 809 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 0 1980

  15. Massachusetts Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 * 0 * 3 8 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 10 0 0 3 8 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 2005...

  16. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Clusters Ligated with 1,3-Bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary study we combine chemical reduction synthesis of novel gold clusters in solution with high-resolution analytical mass spectrometry (MS) to gain insight into the composition of the gold clusters and how their size, ionic charge state and ligand substitution influences their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Ultra small cationic gold clusters ligated with 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP) were synthesized for the first time and introduced into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Mass-selected cluster ions were fragmented employing collision induced dissociation (CID) and the product ions were analysed using MS. The solutions were found to contain the multiply charged cationic gold clusters Au9L43+, Au13L53+, Au6L32+, Au8L32+ and Au10L42+ (L = DCPP). The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of these cluster ions were examined systematically employing CID combined with MS. In addition, CID experiments were performed on related gold clusters of the same size and ionic charge state but capped with 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) ligands containing phenyl functional groups at the two phosphine centers instead of cyclohexane rings. It is shown that this relatively small change in the molecular substitution of the two phosphine centers in diphosphine ligands (C6H11 versus C6H5) exerts a pronounced influence on the size of the species that are preferentially formed in solution during reduction synthesis as well as the gas-phase fragmentation channels of otherwise identical gold cluster ions. The mass spectrometry results indicate that in addition to the length of the alkyl chain between the two phosphine centers, the substituents at the phosphine centers also play a crucial role in determining the composition, size and stability of diphosphine ligated gold clusters synthesized in solution.

  18. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  19. U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methane Hydrates May Exceed the Energy Content of All Other Fossil Fuels Combined; Could Ensure Decades of Affordable Natural Gas and Cut America’s Foreign Oil Dependence

  20. New Materials for Methane Capture from Dilute and Medium-concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Materials for Methane Capture from Dilute and Medium-concentration Sources

  1. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

  2. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  3. Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Market Outlook Key Market Trends, Opportunities, and Threats Facing the Consumer Propane Industry Through 2025 Prepared for the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) by: ICF International, Inc. 9300 Lee Highway Fairfax, VA 22031 Tel (703) 218-2758 www.icfi.com Principal Author: Mr. Michael Sloan msloan@icfi.com P R E S E N T E D B Y : Propane Market Outlook at a Glance ¡ ICF projects consumer propane sales to grow by about 800 million gallons (9 percent) between 2014 and

  4. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  5. Methane Hydrate Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fiscal Year 2012 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress August 2013 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | August 2013 Fiscal Year 2012 Methane Hydrate Program Report to Congress | Page ii Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the actions taken to carry out methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report, entitled U.S.

  6. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  7. Generating power with drained coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

  8. Methane Hydrate R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Methane Hydrate R&D Natural gas is an important energy resource for the United States, providing nearly one-quarter of total energy use. The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy has played a major role in developing technologies to help tap new, unconventional sources of natural gas. PDF icon Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Methane Hydrate More Documents & Publications Idaho Operations AMWTP Fact Sheet Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System CERTIFIED REALTY SPECIALIST

  9. Oxygenates from light alkanes catalyzed by NO{sub x} in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamanaka, Ichiro

    1999-07-01

    The partial oxidations of light alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, and iso-butane) catalyzed by NO{sub x} in the gas phase have been studied at a pressure of less than 1 bar. For all the alkanes tested, the addition of NO to the mixture of alkanes and O{sub 2} enhanced the selectivities and the yields of oxygenates remarkably. It was suggested that NO{sub 2} generated from NO and O{sub 2} initiated the oxidation of alkanes and would specifically accelerate the C-C bond fission, enhancing the formation of C{sub 1}-oxygenates from ethane, propane, and iso-butane. No{sub 2} and NO would be used as a homogeneous catalyst at >600 C because nitroalkanes formed were decomposed completely, releasing the NO{sub x}. The comparison of the product distributions for the decomposition and oxidation of nitroalkanes and alkylnitrites strongly suggested that the oxygenates (HCHO, CH{sub 3}CHO, and CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}) were formed from the corresponding alkylnitrites which must be the reaction intermediates during the oxidation of alkanes with an O{sub 2} and NO mixture.

  10. CONTENTS Gas Hydrate Assessment in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Hydrate Assessment in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Preliminary Results Reveal New Prospects .........................................1 A Global Review of Gas Hydrate Resource Potential ........................5 Prospecting for Gas Hydrate Resources .........................................9 Announcements ...................... 14 * AGU Technical Sessions on Methane Hydrates * Ninth International Methane Hydrate Workshop in Hyderabad, India * Gulf of Mexico JIP Leg II Well Logs Available

  11. Methane activation using noble gases in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-08-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gasesHe, Ne, and Aras additives. The empirical results obtained clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by thy type of noble gas used. Through 0-D calculations, the discharge parameters inside the reactor, i.e., electron temperature and electron density, are estimated using experiment results. A comparison of the discharge characteristics and experimental results shows that the electron temperature is an important factor in achieving high methane activation and the mixture with Ar gas shows the highest methane conversion. These results are constructed using the mechanisms of energy and charge transfer from excited and ionized noble gas atoms to methane molecules, considering the number density of active atoms of noble gases. Finally, electron temperatures obtained for gas mixtures having different reactant compositions and concentrations are analyzed to estimate methane activation.

  12. Production of methane by anaerobic fermentation of waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitzman, D.O.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing methane by anaerobic fermentation of waste material, comprising: cavity means in the earth for holding a quantity of the waste material; means for covering a quantity of the waste material in the cavity means and thereby separating the quantity of the waste material from the atmosphere; first conduit means communicating between the waste material in the cavity means and a location remote from the cavity means for conveying gas comprising carbon dioxide and methane from the cavity means to the location; gas separation means communicating with the first conduit means at the location for separating carbon dioxide from methane, the first conduit means including at least one pipe having a plurality of apertures therein and disposed in the cavity means extending into and in fluid flow communication with the waste material for receiving gas liberated by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste material and comprising carbon dioxide and methane, through the apertures therein for conveyance via the first conduit means to the gas separation means; second conduit means communicating between the gas separation means and the waste material in the cavity means for conveying carbon dioxide from the gas separation means to the waste material; and third conduit means communicating with the gas separation means for conveying methane from the gas separation means.

  13. Washington Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  14. Wisconsin Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Synthetic 1980-1998 Propane-Air

  15. Wyoming Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  16. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-10-15

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions.

  17. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H.; Chung, K.; Lu, F.K.

    2008-08-15

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The results showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)

  18. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  19. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  20. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  1. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  2. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  3. NREL to Help Convert Methane to Liquid Diesel - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Help Convert Methane to Liquid Diesel Advanced research project could lead to lower greenhouse emissions, new life for spent gas and oil wells January 3, 2013 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will help develop microbes that convert methane found in natural gas into liquid diesel fuel, a novel approach that if successful could reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower dependence on foreign oil. The amount of natural gas simply flared or vented

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    The principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, propylene, etc. Still gas is used as a refinery fuel and a petrochemical...

  5. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane flux Vertical flux of methane near the surface due to turbulent transport. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  6. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  7. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  8. US COALBED METHANE The Past: Production The Present: Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Panel 2 of 2 US COALBED METHANE The Past: Production The Present: Reserves The Future: Resources Annual coalbed methane gas production data through 12/31/2006 was obtained from 17 state oil & gas regulatory entities or geological surv eys and one producing company. Data for 2006 were not yet av ailable for West Virginia and Pennsy lvania so the 2005 v olumes were assumed to repeat in 2006. Produced CBM gas v olumes from each state were clas sified by basin. The cumulative production pie

  9. Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on unconventional reservoirs such as coal bed methane, tight gas, tight oil, shale gas, and shale oil. Over the period of time, hydraulic fracturing technique has found...

  10. Ownership questions can stymie development of coalbed methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counts, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Although the technology exists for commercial recovery of coalbed methane, production has been hindered because of the legal quandary as to ownership. The author discusses how claims to ownership of coalbed methane can and have been made by the coal owner or lessee, the oil and gas owner or lessee, the surface owner, or any combination thereof. The federal perspective on this question of ownership is described and several state rulings are assessed.

  11. Method of determining methane and electrochemical sensor therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Otagawa, Takaaki (Westmont, IL); Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about about 1.4 volts versus R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  12. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-07-15

    A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

  13. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

  14. Energy Department Advances Research on Methane Hydrates - the World's

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Largest Untapped Fossil Energy Resource | Department of Energy News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Energy Department today announced the selection of 14 new research projects across 11 states that will be a part of an expanding portfolio of projects designed to increase our understanding of methane hydrates' potential as a future energy supply. Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside, and are found both onshore and offshore -

  15. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with emphasis; (6) detailed study of CH4-CO2 exchange as a unique alternative to recover CH4 gas while sequestering CO2; (7) the relevance of fines in otherwise clean sand sediments on gas recovery and related phenomena such as fines migration and clogging, vuggy structure formation, and gas-driven fracture formation during gas production by depressurization.

  16. Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Janice

    2001-04-01

    Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

  17. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  18. International Cooperation in Methane Hydrates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1982 the multi-national Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) recovered the first subsea substantial methane hydrate deposits, which spurred methane hydrate research in the US and other countries. ...

  19. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  20. U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Technologies | Department of Energy and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies U.S. and Japan Complete Successful Field Trial of Methane Hydrate Production Technologies May 2, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the completion of a successful, unprecedented test of technology in the North Slope of Alaska that was able to safely extract a steady flow of natural gas from methane hydrates -

  1. Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Committee Meeting | Department of Energy the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting PDF icon International Gas Hydrate Research PDF icon DOE's Natural Gas Hydrates Program PDF icon Gas Hydrates as a Geohazard: What Really Are the Issues? PDF icon Quantifying Climate-Hydrate Interactions: A Progress Report More Documents & Publications May 21, 2014 Committee Recommendations to

  2. MethaneHydrateRD_FC.indd

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    gas is an important energy resource for the United States, providing nearly one-quarter of total energy use. The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has played a major role in developing technologies to help tap new, unconventional sources of natural gas. FOSSIL ENERGY RESEARCH BENEFITS Methane Hydrate R&D "The (DOE) Program has supported and managed a high-quality research portf olio that has enabled signifi cant progress toward the (DOE) Program's long-term

  3. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  4. Definition:Digester Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    digestion is a biological process that produces a gas principally composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) otherwise known as biogas. These gases are produced...

  5. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S.

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  6. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  7. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Felipe Gándara, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Seungkyu Lee, and Omar M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136, 5271-5274 (2014) DOI: 10.1021/ja501606h Abstract Image Abstract: The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and

  8. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  9. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth Liu, Tingting Welch, Susan; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jalarvo, Niina; Mamontov, Eugene

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  10. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy gains, and overall energy savings with propane injection in a diesel engine. PDF icon p-18_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  12. Methane Hydrate Annual Reports | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrate Annual Reports Methane Hydrate Annual Reports Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of Methane Hydrate research. Listed are the Annual Reports per Fiscal Year. PDF icon FY 13 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to Congress PDF icon FY 12 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to Congress PDF icon FY 11 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to Congress PDF icon FY 10 Methane Hydrates Annual Report to

  13. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M.; Bourque, G.

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  15. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  16. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Propane has been a proven fuel for buses for decades. For the first time in 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection, which was later followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Because this new technology is much more reliable than previous designs, it is essentially reintroducing propane buses to many school districts. During this same time period, vehicle emissions standards have tightened. To meet them, diesel engine manufacturers have added diesel particulate filters (DPF) and, more recently, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. As an alternative to diesel buses with these systems, many school districts have looked to other affordable, clean alternatives, and they've found that propane fits the bill.

  17. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane (Brochure), Clean Cities, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane's School Bus History While propane has been used in buses for decades, recent technologi- cal advancements have made it more reliable than ever. Prior to 2007, all propane vehicles used vapor injection technology. In 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection for the first time, and this was followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Liquid injection technology makes propane buses a more reliable option. Since 2007, vehicle emissions standards have

  18. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working to develop codes and standards needed for the utilization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies. This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for propane. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart Vehicle Systems Safety: Vehicle Tanks and Piping: Vehicle Components: Vehicle Dispensing Systems: Vehicle Dispensing System Components: Storage Systems: Storage

  19. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Propane Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. propane vehicle and infrastructure projects. To determine which codes and standards apply to a specific project, identify the codes and standards currently in effect within the jurisdiction where the

  20. Field Exploration of Methane Seep Near Atqasuk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katey Walter, Dennis Witmer, Gwen Holdmann

    2008-12-31

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) in natural gas is a major energy source in the U.S., and is used extensively on Alaska's North Slope, including the oilfields in Prudhoe Bay, the community of Barrow, and the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA). Smaller villages, however, are dependent on imported diesel fuel for both power and heating, resulting in some of the highest energy costs in the U.S. and crippling local economies. Numerous CH{sub 4} gas seeps have been observed on wetlands near Atqasuk, Alaska (in the NPRA), and initial measurements have indicated flow rates of 3,000-5,000 ft{sup 3} day{sup -1} (60-100 kg CH{sub 4} day{sup -1}). Gas samples collected in 1996 indicated biogenic origin, although more recent sampling indicated a mixture of biogenic and thermogenic gas. In this study, we (1) quantified the amount of CH{sub 4} generated by several seeps and evaluated their potential use as an unconventional gas source for the village of Atqasuk; (2) collected gas and analyzed its composition from multiple seeps several miles apart to see if the source is the same, or if gas is being generated locally from isolated biogenic sources; and (3) assessed the potential magnitude of natural CH{sub 4} gas seeps for future use in climate change modeling.

  1. Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petru, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

  2. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee The Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee was created in response to provisions of the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000 and reauthorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Committee is to advise the Secretary of Energy on potential applications of methane hydrate; assist in developing recommendations and priorities for the methane hydrate research and development program; and submit to Congress one or more

  3. Methane Hydrate Research and Modeling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Modeling Methane Hydrate Research and Modeling Research is focused on understanding the physical and chemical nature of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. These studies advance the understanding of the in situ nature of GHBS and their potential response in terms of fluid flow and geomechanical response to destabilizing forces. The latest research results from DOE projects, both current and completed, can be found on the NETL website. These include: Gas Hydrate Characterization in the

  4. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas-fired pool heaters remain the most popular system for heating swimming pools. Today you can find new gas-fired heater models with much higher efficiencies than older models. Still, depending on your climate and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or propane. As the pump circulates the

  5. methane_hydrates | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrates Special Report: Frozen Heat: A Global Outlook on Methane Hydrates The United Nations Environmental Programme released this new, two-volume report in March 2015....

  6. Methane Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Inc Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Methane Power Inc. Name: Methane Power Inc. Address: 121 Edinburgh South Drive Place: Cary, NC Zip: 27511 Sector: Renewable Energy...

  7. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 6th - 7th, 2013 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting...

  8. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  9. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-05-15

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

  10. A study of partially premixed unconfined propane flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roekke, N.A.; Hustad, J.E.; Soenju, O.K. )

    1994-04-01

    Unconfined turbulent partially premixed propane/air flames issuing from a straight tube into quiescent air at atmospheric pressure and temperature are investigated. Experiments on lifted flames are performed. Flame height and liftoff are reported together with emission indices for oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub 3]). The degree of partially premixing has been varied between a fuel mass fraction of 1.0 to 0.15. Six different nozzle diameters, d[sub 0], of 3.2, 6, 10, 20.5, 23.3, and 29.5 mm have been used. This resulted in outlet velocities, u[sub 0], varying from 1 to 130 m/s, flame heights up to 2.5 m, Froude numbers, Fr, from 3 to 3 [times] 10[sup 5], and thermal heat releases up to 350 kW. Flame height and liftoff show a strong dependence upon the ratio of the nozzle outlet velocity to the outlet diameter, the Froude number, and the fuel mass fraction Y[sub f]. Both modified, simplified, and newly developed expressions for height, liftoff and NO[sub x] emissions are presented and discussed. All the proposed expressions scale with Y[sub f][sup a]Fr[sup b] or Y[sub r][sup a]f(u[sub 0], d[sub 0]). The emission index for NO[sub x] scales very well with a previously developed expression based on the buoyant flame volume. The agreement between predictions and experimental data is generally good and well within the underlying experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The results from this study contain new data, as very little focus has previously been directed toward lifted partially premixed free flames of this size.

  11. Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cu-3(btc)(2) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in Cu-3(btc)(2) Previous Next List Hulvey, Zeric; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Mason, Jarad A.; Tsivion, Ehud; Dougherty, Timothy P.; Bloch, Eric D.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Smit, Berend; Long, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Craig M. Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in Cu-3(btc)(2). J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 137, 10816-10825

  12. H. R. 2998: A bill to amend the Natural Gas Act to permit the development of coalbed methane gas in areas where its development has been impeded or made impossible by uncertainty and litigation over ownership rights, and for other purposes, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 23, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would direct the Secretary of Energy to compile a list of affected states which are determined to be states in which disputes, uncertainty, or litigation exist or potentially exists regarding the ownership of coalbed methane; in which the development of significant deposits of coalbed methane may be impeded by such disputes; in which statutory or regulatory procedures permitting and encouraging development of coalbed methane prior to final resolution of disputes are not in place; and in which extensive development of coalbed methane does not exist. Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Wyoming, Utah, Virginia, and Alabama are excluded from such a list since they currently have development of coalbed methane. Until the Secretary of Energy publishes a different list, the affected states are West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, Indiana, and Illinois, effective on the date of enactment of this bill.

  13. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  14. Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81 5.02 NA .27

  15. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 717% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane emissions from paddies.

  16. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  17. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    454 457 392 139 255 530 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1993-2014 Other 454 457 392 139 255 530 1980-2014...

  18. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    454 457 392 139 255 530 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1993-2014 Other 454 457 392 139 255 530 1980-2014

  19. Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    20 17 1 1 * 63 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 20 17 1 1 0 63 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1999-2014 Other 0 0 2005

  20. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.

  1. Island Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: W1J 7BU Sector: Renewable Energy Product: UK-based coal bed methane company, Island Gas was the subject of a reverse takeover by KP Renewables in...

  2. GTZ-Greenhouse Gas Calculator for Waste Management | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a great part of the national greenhouse gas production, because landfills produce methane which has a particularly strong effect on climate change. Therefore, it is essential...

  3. gas-hydrate-global-assessment | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas-hydrate-global-assessment Frozen Heat: A Global Outlook on Methane Hydrate cover of executive summary The United Nations Environmental Programme released this new, two-volume...

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide equivalent) for each facility as well as total...

  5. An Integrated Study Method For Exploration Of Gas Hydrate Reservoirs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    based on the analysis of geochemical anomalies to the main components, such as methane and hydrocarbon series, an integrated assessment of prospective gas hydrate...

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide equivalent, and biogenic carbon dioxide) for each...

  7. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  8. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platform in search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths of approximately 1200 to 2500 ft MD. A secondary objective was the gas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval at approximately 3000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis of the well are presented in this report.

  9. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  10. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  11. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  12. Coalbed Methane Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 1,914 1,886 1,763 1,655 1,466 1,404 1989-2014 Alabama 105 102 98 91 62 78 1989-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Arkansas 3 3 4 2 2 2 2005-2014 California 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Colorado 498 533 516 486 444 412 1989-2014 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Kansas 43 41 37 34 30 27

  13. Tennessee Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Synthetic 1980-2003 Propane-Air 1980-2004

  14. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main space heating fuel are still expected to have lower heating bills compared with last winter. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average household that uses heating oil will spend $1,780 this winter that's about $570 less than last winter. Those savings reflect lower crude

  15. Methane Stakeholder Roundtables | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Stakeholder Roundtables Methane Stakeholder Roundtables April 24, 2014 - 3:00pm Addthis Methane Stakeholder Roundtables Advancing the Interagency Methane Strategy As directed by President Obama in his Climate Action Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) collaborated with other Federal agencies to develop a Strategy to Reduce Methane Emissions, which was formally announced by the White House last month. To advance this strategy, DOE is now working with other Federal agencies and the White

  16. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    see even lower natural gas and heating oil bills this winter than previously expected ... said the average household heating with oil will experience a 41% drop in heating oil ...

  17. State-of-the-art in coalbed methane drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltoiu, L.V.; Warren, B.K.; Natras, T.A.

    2008-09-15

    The production of methane from wet coalbeds is often associated with the production of significant amounts of water. While producing water is necessary to desorb the methane from the coal, the damage from the drilling fluids used is difficult to assess, because the gas production follows weeks to months after the well is drilled. Commonly asked questions include the following: What are the important parameters for drilling an organic reservoir rock that is both the source and the trap for the methane? Has the drilling fluid affected the gas production? Are the cleats plugged? Does the 'filtercake' have an impact on the flow of water and gas? Are stimulation techniques compatible with the drilling fluids used? This paper describes the development of a unique drilling fluid to drill coalbed methane wells with a special emphasis on horizontal applications. The fluid design incorporates products to match the delicate surface chemistry on the coal, a matting system to provide both borehole stability and minimize fluid losses to the cleats, and a breaker method of removing the matting system once drilling is completed. This paper also discusses how coal geology impacts drilling planning, drilling practices, the choice of drilling fluid, and completion/stimulation techniques for Upper Cretaceous Mannville-type coals drilled within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A focus on horizontal coalbed methane (CBM) wells is presented. Field results from three horizontal wells are discussed, two of which were drilled with the new drilling fluid system. The wells demonstrated exceptional stability in coal for lengths to 1000 m, controlled drilling rates and ease of running slotted liners. Methods for, and results of, placing the breaker in the horizontal wells are covered in depth.

  18. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting May 15, 2014 11:00am - 12:30pm (EDT) Public Access U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building, Room 3G-043 1000 Independence Ave., SW...

  19. Methane generation from animal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    The conversion of manure to biogas via anaerobic digestion is described. The effluent resulting from the conversion retains fertilizer value and is environmentally acceptable. Discussion is presented under the headings: methane formation in the digester; the Tarleton State Poultry Waste to Methane production system; operating experience at Tarleton State; economics of biogas production from poultry waste; construction cost and biogas value; energy uses; feed and waste processing; and advantages of anaerobic digestion. (DMC)

  20. China United Coalbed Methane Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coalbed Methane Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China United Coalbed Methane Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100011 Product: Coal bed methane developer in...

  1. Metro Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Metro Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Facility Metro Methane Recovery Facility Sector Biomass...

  2. Methane Hydrates and Climate Change | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrates and Climate Change Methane Hydrates and Climate Change Methane hydrates store huge volumes of methane formed by the bacterial decay of organic matter or leaked from ...

  3. Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuels from methane: a sustainable, abundant resource that does not compete with the human food chain 3 Sustainable Methane * Methane can be captured from anaerobic digestion of...

  4. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  5. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  6. Analysis of U.S. Propane Markets Winter 1996-97, An

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This study constitutes an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends. The Energy Information Administration's approach focused on identifying the underlying reasons for the tight supply/demand balance in the fall of 1996, and on examining the potential for a recurrence of these events next year.

  7. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  8. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  9. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

  10. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  11. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T.

    2011-10-28

    Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

  12. Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fincke, J.R.; Anderson, R.P.; Hyde, T.; Wright, R.; Bewley, R.; Haggard, D.C.; Swank, W.D.

    2000-01-31

    This report describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. The process utilizes a thermal plasma heat source to dissociation products react to form a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen. The use of a supersonic expansion of the hot gas is investigated as a method of rapidly cooling (quenching) the product stream to prevent further reaction or thermal decomposition of the acetylene which can lower the overall efficiency of the process.

  13. Enhanced catalyst stability for cyclic co methanation operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Risch, Alan P. (New Fairfield, CT); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is thereafter reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Enhanced catalyst stability for long term, cyclic operation is obtained by the incorporation of an alkali or alkaline earth dopant in a silica binding agent added to the catalyst-support additive composition.

  14. Modeling Methane Adsorption in Interpenetrating Porous Polymer Networks |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Modeling Methane Adsorption in Interpenetrating Porous Polymer Networks Previous Next List Richard L. Martin, Mahdi Niknam Shahrak, Joseph A. Swisher, Cory M. Simon, Julian P. Sculley, Hong-Cai Zhou, Berend Smit, and Maciej Haranczyk, J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 20037-20042 (2013) DOI: 10.1021/jp406918d Abstract Image Abstract: Porous polymer networks (PPNs) are a class of porous materials of particular interest in a

  15. Natural Gas Modernization Clearinghouse | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modernization Clearinghouse Natural Gas Modernization Clearinghouse Overview This Natural Gas Modernization Clearinghouse provides information about the implications of natural gas infrastructure modernization, including strategies and technologies that increase public safety, improve efficiency and environmental performance and enhance natural gas deliverability. Specific topic areas include information on measuring and reducing methane emissions, technology research and development, job

  16. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kirchman

    2011-12-31

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (??Methane in the Arctic Shelf? or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (??metagenomes?). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation.

  17. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the project reports.

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - Propane_Briefing_140312.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    situation update March 12, 2014 | Washington, DC By Energy Information Administration NOAA forecast shows below normal temperatures across most of the Midwest for March 10 through March 18 U.S. Energy Information Administration 2 Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center, made March 11 6-10 day outlook 8-14 day outlook Natural gas and electricity are the major heating fuels for most of the United States U.S. Energy Information Administration 3 Source: U.S.

  19. METHANE HYDRATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE U.S. Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    METHANE HYDRATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE U.S. Department of Energy Advisory Committee Charter - - - - ---- ---- ------ 1. Committee's Official Designation. Methane Hydrate Advisory...

  20. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  1. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes May 15, 2014 Washington, DC PDF icon May 15, 2014 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011

  2. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charter Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter PDF icon Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Charter More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011

  3. File:Methane.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Methane.pdf Size of this preview: 448 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 Go next page next page ...

  4. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  5. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, R.P.; Taylor, C.E.; D`Este, J.R.

    1998-02-24

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time. 3 figs.

  6. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); D'Este, Joseph R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time.

  7. Methane Hydrate Production Feasibility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Feasibility Methane Hydrate Production Feasibility The red curves are temperature profiles for various water depths; the blue line shows methane hydrate stability relative to temperature and pressure. The area enclosed by the two curves represents the area of methane hydrate stability. The red curves are temperature profiles for various water depths; the blue line shows methane hydrate stability relative to temperature and pressure. The area enclosed by the two curves represents the

  8. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  9. Methane enrichment digestion experiments at the anaerobic experimental test unit at Walt Disney World. Final report, March 1989-August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, V.J.; Hill, A.H.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the project was to determine the technical feasibility of utilizing a novel concept in anaerobic digestion, in-situ methane enrichment digestion or MED for producing utility-grade gas from a pilot-scale anaerobic digester. MED tests conducted during this program consistently achieved digester product gas with a methane (CH4) content of greater than 90% (on a dry-, nitrogen-free basis). The MED concept, because it requires relatively simple equipment and modest energy input, has the potential to simplify gas cleanup requirements and substantially reduce the cost of converting wastes and biomass to pipeline quality gas.

  10. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; et al

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhousemore » gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial communities that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage.« less

  11. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhouse gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial communities that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage.

  12. Methane production by attached film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jewell, William J. (202 Eastwood Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850)

    1981-01-01

    A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

  13. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samani, Zohrab A. (Las Cruces, NM); Hanson, Adrian T. (Las Cruces, NM); Macias-Corral, Maritza (Las Cruces, NM)

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  14. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid ElectricTrolleys; Advanced Technology Vehicles in Service, Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    website and in print publications. TESTING ADVANCED VEHICLES KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT ◆ PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS Knoxville Area Transit PROPANE HYBRID ELECTRIC TROLLEYS NREL/PIX 13795 KNOXVILLE AREA TRANSIT (KAT) is recognized nationally for its exceptional service to the City of Knoxville, Tennessee. KAT received the American Public Transportation Associa- tion's prestigious Outstanding Achievement Award in 2004. Award-winning accomplishments included KAT's increase in annual ridership

  15. Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

  16. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain segments provide the greatest opportunities for low cost abatement.

  17. New materials for methane capture from dilute and medium-concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sources | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome New materials for methane capture from dilute and medium-concentration sources Previous Next List J. Kim, A. Maiti, L.-C. Lin, J. K. Stolaroff, B. Smit, and R. D. Aines, Nature Communications 4, 1694 (2013) DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2697 thumb Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, second only to CO2, and is emitted into the atmosphere at different concentrations from a variety of sources. However,

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

  19. Data from Innovative Methane Hydrate Test on Alaska's North Slope Now

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Available on NETL Website | Department of Energy Data from Innovative Methane Hydrate Test on Alaska's North Slope Now Available on NETL Website Data from Innovative Methane Hydrate Test on Alaska's North Slope Now Available on NETL Website March 11, 2013 - 10:07am Addthis DOE participated in gas hydrate field production trials in early 2012 in partnership with ConocoPhillips and the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp at the Iġnik Sikumi (Inupiat for “Fire in the Ice”) test

  20. Methane ignition catalyzed by in situ generated palladium nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, T.; Abid, A.D.; Poskrebyshev, G.; Wang, H. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Nabity, J.; Engel, J.; Yu, J. [TDA Research, Inc., 12345 W. 52nd Ave, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 (United States); Wickham, D. [Reaction Systems, LLC, 19039 E. Plaza Drive, Suite 290, Parker, CO 80134 (United States); Van Devener, B.; Anderson, S.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Williams, S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Mail Stop RZA, 1950 Fifth Street, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Catalytic ignition of methane over the surfaces of freely-suspended and in situ generated palladium nanoparticles was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were conducted in a laminar flow reactor. The palladium precursor was a compound (Pd(THD){sub 2}, THD: 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) dissolved in toluene and injected into the flow reactor as a fine aerosol, along with a methane-oxygen-nitrogen mixture. For experimental conditions chosen in this study, non-catalytic, homogeneous ignition was observed at a furnace temperature of {proportional_to}1123 K, whereas ignition of the same mixture with the precursor was found to be {proportional_to}973 K. In situ production of Pd/PdO nanoparticles was confirmed by scanning mobility, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of particles collected at the reactor exit. The catalyst particle size distribution was log-normal. Depending on the precursor loading, the median diameter ranged from 10 to 30 nm. The mechanism behind catalytic ignition was examined using a combined gas-phase and gas-surface reaction model. Simulation results match the experiments closely and suggest that palladium nanocatalyst significantly shortens the ignition delay times of methane-air mixtures over a wide range of conditions. (author)

  1. Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manilla, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported in research on methane recovery from coalbeds, eastern gas shales, western gas sands, and geopressured aquifers. In the methane from coalbeds project, data on information evaluation and management, resource and site assessment and characterization, model development, instrumentation, basic research, and production technology development are reported. In the methane from eastern gas shales project, data on resource characterization and inventory, extraction technology, and technology testing and verification are presented. In the western gas sands project, data on resource assessments, field tests and demonstrations and project management are reported. In the methane from geopressured aquifers project, data on resource assessment, supporting research, field tests and demonstrations, and technology transfer are reported.

  2. Volumetric and phase behavior of selected Alberta bitumens saturated with supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2} and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, B.; Chen, G.; Peng, D.Yu.

    1995-12-31

    Supercritical solvents play an important role in separation processes. In enhanced oil recovery and in the upgrading of heavy oils, CO{sub 2} and propane are two frequently used solvents. The application of supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2} and supercritical-fluid propane in in situ recovery of heavy oils and bitumens necessitates information on the volumetric properties and phase behavior of mixtures of these petroleum fluids and supercritical-fluid solvents. To develop this information, we have conducted phase equilibrium studies for selected Alberta bitumens. The systems studied are Athabasca bitumen + CO{sub 2}, Peace River + CO{sub 2}, and Athabasca bitumen + propane. For the CO{sub 2}-containing systems, the experiments were carried out at 35, 45, 55, and 65{degrees}C, and at pressures up to 14 MPa. For the Athabasca bitumen + propane system, the measurements were taken at 108.6, 113.6, and 124.9{degrees}C, and at pressures up to 8.2 MPa. The experimental data show that the solubilities of propane in Athabasca bitumen under isothermal conditions are not monotonic functions of pressure. The data also indicate that under conditions of the same reduced temperatures the supercritical-fluid propane can extract substantially more bitumen components than can supercritical-fluid CO{sub 2}.

  3. Simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas on water. Final report, December 12, 1978-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.R.; Reid, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the boiling and spreading of liquid nitrogen, liquid methane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water in a one-dimensional configuration. Primary emphasis was placed on the LPG studies. Experimental work involved the design and construction of a spill/spread/boil apparatus which permitted the measurement of spreading and local boil-off rates. With the equations of continuity and momentum transfer, a mathematical model was developed to describe the boiling-spreading phenomena of cryogens spilled on water. The model accounted for a decrease in the density of the cryogenic liquid due to bubble formation. The boiling and spreading rates of LPG were found to be the same as those of pure propane. An LPG spill was characterized by the very rapid and violent boiling initially and highly irregular ice formation on the water surface. The measured local boil-off rates of LPG agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions from a moving boundary heat transfer model. The spreading velocity of an LPG spill was found to be constant and determined by the size of the distributor opening. The maximum spreading distance was found to be unaffected by the spilling rate. These observations can be explained by assuming that the ice formation on the water surface controls the spreading of LPG spills. While the mathematical model did not predict the spreading front adequately, it predicted the maximum spreading distance reasonably well.

  4. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    The gas-phase reactivity of doubly-charged lanthanide cations, Ln2+ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), with alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) was studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The reaction products consisted of different combinations of doubly-charged organometallic ions?adducts or species formed via metal-ion-induced hydrogen, dihydrogen, alkyl, or alkane eliminations from the hydrocarbons?and singly-charged ions that resulted from electron, hydride, or methide transfers from the hydrocarbons to the metal ions. The only lanthanide cations capable of activating the hydrocarbons to form doubly-charged organometallic ions were La2+, Ce2+, Gd2+, and Tb2+, which have ground-state or low-lying d1 electronic configurations. Lu2+, with an accessible d1 electronic configuration but a rather high electron affinity, reacted only through transfer channels. The remaining Ln2+ reacted via transfer channels or adduct formation. The different accessibilities of d1 electronic configurations and the range of electron affinities of the Ln2+ cations allowed for a detailed analysis of the trends for metal(2+) reactivity and the conditions for occurrence of bond activation, adduct formation, and electron, hydride, and methide transfers.

  5. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

  6. Oil & Gas Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Oil & Gas Research Section 999 Report to Congress Section 999 Report to Congress DOE issues the 2013 annual plan for the ultra-deepwater and unconventional fuels program. Read more DOE Signs MOU with Alaska DOE Signs MOU with Alaska New accord to help develop Alaska's potentially vast and important unconventional energy resources. Read more Methane Hydrate R&amp;D Methane Hydrate R&D DOE is conducting groundbreaking research to unlock the energy potential of gas hydrates.

  7. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, David; Warner, Ethan; Curley, Christina

    2015-04-23

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that is released from the natural gas supply chain into the atmosphere as a result of fugitive emissions1 and venting2 . We assess five potential CH4 reduction scenarios from transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of CH4 reduced. We utilize cost and methane inventory data from ICF (2014) and Warner et al. (forthcoming) as well as data from Barrett and McCulloch (2014) and the American Gas Association (AGA) (2013) to estimate that the implementation of these measures could support approximately 85,000 jobs annually from 2015 to 2019 and reduce CH4 emissions from natural gas TS&D by over 40%. Based on standard input/output analysis methodology, measures are estimated to support over $8 billion in GDP annually over the same time period and allow producers to recover approximately $912 million annually in captured gas.

  8. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

  9. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models and to research teams for developing future gas-hydrate projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and has been documented by the project team. This Topical Report documents drilling and coring operations and other daily activities.

  11. The Methane to Markets Coal Mine Methane Subcommittee meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: a report from the Administrative Support Group; strategy updates from Australia, India, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland and the USA; coal mine methane update and IEA's strategy and activities; the power of VAM - technology application update; the emissions trading market; the voluntary emissions reduction market - creating profitable CMM projects in the USA; an Italian perspective towards a zero emission strategies; and the wrap-up and summary.

  12. Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Zaida (Katy, TX); Del Paggio, Alan Anthony (Spring, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX)

    2011-12-06

    A method of producing methane is described. The method includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ conversion process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. At least the olefins in the first gas stream are contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more catalysts and steam to produce a second gas stream. The second gas stream is contacted with a hydrogen source in the presence of one or more additional catalysts to produce a third gas stream. The third gas stream includes methane.

  13. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    area. * Completed columns in propane refrigeration, Dehydration Mercury removal and ... compressors area, HRU unit, propane refrigeration, inlet facilities, utilities waste ...

  14. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

    2011-12-31

    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes that control production potential of hydrates in marine settings, Mallik was included because of the extensive data collected in a producible hydrate accumulation. To date, such a location had not been studied in the oceanic environment. The project worked closely with ongoing projects (e.g. GOM JIP and offshore India) that are actively investigating potentially economic hydrate accumulations in marine settings. The overall approach was fivefold: (1) collect key data concerning hydrocarbon fluxes which is currently missing at all locations to be included in the study, (2) use this and existing data to build numerical models that can explain gas hydrate variance at all four locations, (3) simulate how natural gas could be produced from each location with different production strategies, (4) collect new sediment property data at these locations that are required for constraining fluxes, production simulations and assessing sediment stability, and (5) develop a method for remotely quantifying heterogeneities in gas hydrate and free gas distributions. While we generally restricted our efforts to the locations where key parameters can be measured or constrained, our ultimate aim was to make our efforts universally applicable to any hydrate accumulation.

  15. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy January 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes January, 2010 Atlanta, GA PDF icon Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010 More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011

  16. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes March 2010 Washington, DC PDF icon Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, October 2011 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January 2010

  17. Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann; Gerzabek, Martin H.

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Plants influence gas profile and methane oxidation in landfill covers. > Plants regulate water content and increase the availability of oxygen for methane oxidation. > Plant species with deep roots like alfalfa showed more stimulation of methane oxidation than plants with shallow root systems like grasses. - Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa + grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa + grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content.

  18. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists planning hydrate exploration and development projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this and other project reports. This Topical Report contains details describing logging operations.

  19. New materials for methane capture from dilute and medium-concentration sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J; Maiti, A; Lin, LC; Stolaroff, JK; Smit, B; Aines, RD

    2013-04-16

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, second only to CO2, and is emitted into the atmosphere at different concentrations from a variety of sources. However, unlike CO2, which has a quadrupole moment and can be captured both physically and chemically in a variety of solvents and porous solids, methane is completely non-polar and interacts very weakly with most materials. Thus, methane capture poses a challenge that can only be addressed through extensive material screening and ingenious molecular-level designs. Here we report systematic in silico studies on the methane capture effectiveness of two different materials systems, that is, liquid solvents (including ionic liquids) and nanoporous zeolites. Although none of the liquid solvents appears effective as methane sorbents, systematic screening of over 87,000 zeolite structures led to the discovery of a handful of candidates that have sufficient methane sorption capacity as well as appropriate CH4/CO2 and/or CH4/N-2 selectivity to be technologically promising.

  20. Effect of silane concentration on the supersonic combustion of a silane/methane mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Northam, G.B.; Mc Lain, A.G.; Pellett, G.L.; Diskin, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of direct connect combustor tests was conducted to determine the effect of silane concentration on the supersonic combustion characteristics of silane/methane mixtures. Shock tube ignition delay data indicated more than an order of magnitude reduction in ignition delay times for both 10 and 20 percent silane/methane mixtures as compared to methane. The ignition delay time of the 10 percent mixture was only a factor of 2.3 greater than that of the 20 percent mixture. Supersonic combustion tests were conducted with the fuel injected into a model scramjet combustor. The combustor was mounted at the exit of a Mach 2 nozzle and a hydrogen fired heater was used to provide a variation in test gas total temperature. Tests using the 20 percent silane/methane mixture indicated considerable combustion enhancement when compared to methane alone. This mixture had an autoignition total temperature of 1650 R. The addition of 20 percent silane to methane resulted in a pyrophoric fuel with good supersonic combustion performance. Reducing the silane concentration below this level, however, yielded a less pyrophoric fuel that exhibited poor supersonic combustion performance.

  1. METHANE HYDRATE STUDIES: DELINEATING PROPERTIES OF HOST SEDIMENTS TO ESTABLISH REPRODUCIBLE DECOMPOSITION KINETICS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Devinder; Jones, Keith W.; Feng, Huan; Winters, William J.

    2004-12-01

    The use of methane hydrate as an energy source requires development of a reliable method for its extraction from its highly dispersed locations in oceanic margin sediments and permafrost. The high pressure (up to 70 MPa) and low temperature (272 K to 278 K) conditions under which hydrates are stable in the marine environment can be mimicked in a laboratory setting and several kinetic studies of pure methane hydrate decomposition have been reported. However, the effect of host sediments on methane hydrate occurrence and decomposition are required to develop reliable hydrate models. In this paper, we describe methods to measure sediment properties as they relate to pore-space methane gas hydrate. Traditional geotechnical techniques are compared to the micrometer level by use of the synchrotron Computed Microtomography (CMT) technique. CMT was used to measure the porosity at the micrometer level and to show pore-space pathways through field samples. Porosities for three sediment samples: one from a site on Georges Bank and two from the known Blake Ridge methane hydrate site, from different depths below the mud line were measured by traditional drying and by the new CMT techniques and found to be in good agreement. The integration of the two analytical approaches is necessary to enable better understanding of methane hydrate interactions with the surrounding sediment particles.

  2. Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY 2010 Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress September 2011 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | September 2011 FY 2010 Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress | Page 2 Message from the Secretary Section 968 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires the Department of Energy to submit to Congress an annual report on the results of methane hydrate research. I am pleased to submit the enclosed report

  3. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  4. Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Dugan, Patrick R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for increasing the rate of oxidation of toxic vapors by methanotrophic bacteria. The toxic vapors of interest are methane and trichloroethylene. The apparatus includes a gas phase bioreactor within a closed loop pumping system or a single pass system. The methanotrophic bacteria include Methylomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and uncharacterized environmental enrichments.

  5. Clay enhancement of methane, low molecular weight hydrocarbon and halocarbon conversion by methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A.; Dugan, Patrick R.

    1995-04-04

    An apparatus and method for increasing the rate of oxidation of toxic vapors by methanotrophic bacteria. The toxic vapors of interest are methane and trichloroethylene. The apparatus includes a gas phase bioreactor within a closed loop pumping system or a single pass system. The methanotrophic bacteria include Methylomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and uncharacterized environmental enrichments.

  6. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (MHAC) Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Designated Federal Officer (DFO) for the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (MHAC). She thanked members for their continued...

  7. Ohio Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane Production

  8. Kentucky Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production Kentucky Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production Coalbed Methane

  9. Cyclic process for producing methane with catalyst regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Risch, Alan P. (New Fairfield, CT)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. For practical commercial operations utilizing the two-step process of the invention of a cyclic basis, nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, thenium and alloys thereof are especially prepared for use in a metal state, with CO disproportionation being carried out at temperatures up to about 350.degree. C. and with the conversion of active surface carbon to methane being carried out by reaction with steam. The catalyst is employed in such cyclic operations without the necessity for employing a regeneration step as part of each processing cycle. Inactive carbon or coke that tends to form on the catalyst over the course of continuous operations utilizing such cyclic process is effectively and advantageously removed, on a periodic basis, in place of conventional burn off with an inert stream containing a low concentration of oxygen.

  10. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  11. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    26, 2012 Houston, TX PDF icon July 26, 2012 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March 2010 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, January

  12. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    16, 2013 Washington, DC PDF icon July 16, 2013 Meeting Minutes More Documents & Publications Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, June 6th-7th, 2013 Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, March

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - Joe Rose.Providence.Propane Supply Infrastructure.pptx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Propane Supply & Infrastructure Prepared for Quadrennial Energy Review Home Heating Panel April 21, 2014 Crop Drying DemandGallon * Record Corn Crop - 13.9 billion bushels * Cooler than normal weather in July and August delayed the harvest. * Above-average rainfall in October * Grain drying season started late and finished late Colder than Normal Weather October to March Heating Degree Days The 2013/2014 winter was: - 7.5 percent colder than 30- year normal weather - 10.5 percent colder

  14. Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 101,809 102,880 100,283 106,269 103,071 104,629 1981-2015 PADD 1

  15. Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Natural Gas Liquids

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 6,491 6,324 6,877 6,774 5,691 4,837 1993-2015 PADD 1 260 192 186 222 215 218 1993-2015 East Coast 4 4 7 7 1993-2015 Appalachian No. 1 260 192 182 218 208 211 1993-2015

  16. Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane levels larger over Four Corners region Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected over Four Corners region Study is first to show space-based...

  17. Landfill Methane Project Development Handbook | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methane Project Development Handbook Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Landfill Methane Project Development Handbook AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  18. US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program Jump to: navigation, search Name US EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program AgencyCompany Organization United States Environmental Protection...

  19. Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Breakout Session 2-B: NewEmerging Pathways...

  20. Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koert, D.N.; Pitz, W.J.; Bozzelli, J.W.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1996-02-01

    A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. Experimental conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and a residence time of 198 ms for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results clearly indicate a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. The chemistry describing this phenomena is critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers (radicals) with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. Sensitivity analysis identified the key reaction steps that control the rate of oxidation in the NTC region. The model reasonably simulates the profiles for many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments.