National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for methane atmospheric carbon

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

  2. Pan-Arctic land–atmospheric fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide in response to climate change over the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xudong

    Future changes of pan-Arctic land–atmospheric methane (CH[subscript 4]) and carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) depend on how terrestrial ecosystems respond to warming climate. Here, we used a coupled hydrology–biogeochemistry ...

  3. Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

  4. Methane present in an extrasolar planet atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark R. Swain; Gautam Vasisht; Giovanna Tinetti

    2008-02-07

    Molecules present in exoplanetary atmospheres are expected to strongly influence the atmospheric radiation balance, trace dynamical and chemical processes, and indicate the presence of disequilibrium effects. Since molecules have the potential to reveal the exoplanet atmospheric conditions and chemistry, searching for them is a high priority. The rotational-vibrational transition bands of water, carbon monoxide, and methane are anticipated to be the primary sources of non-continuum opacity in hot-Jovian planets. Since these bands overlap in wavelength, and the corresponding signatures from them are weak, decisive identification requires precision infrared spectroscopy. Here we report on a near-infrared transmission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b showing the presence of methane. Additionally, a resolved water-vapour band at 1.9 microns confirms the recent claim of water in this object. On thermochemical grounds, carbon-monoxide is expected to be abundant in the upper atmosphere of hot-Jovian exoplanets; thus the detection of methane rather than carbon-monoxide in such a hot planet could signal the presence of a horizontal chemical gradient away from the permanent dayside, or it may imply an ill-understood photochemical mechanisms that leads to an enhancement of methane.

  5. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Hsu, J

    2010-01-01

    supported by NSF’s Atmospheric Chemistry program (grant ATM-Methane by Global Atmospheric Chemistry Michael J. Prathergas, through atmospheric chemistry that en- hances the

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER The influence of plants on atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ORIGINAL PAPER The influence of plants on atmospheric methane in an agriculture-dominated landscape on atmospheric methane (CH4) in an agriculture-dominated landscape in the Upper Mid- west of the United States role in the landscape-scale CH4 budget. Keywords Methane . Corn . Soybean . Agriculture . Land surface

  7. Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    of methane in the atmosphere is controlled by oxidation, mainly in chemical reaction with the hydroxyl by the combination of pre-industrial methane concentration levels from ice cores and bottom-up estimates based important terms in the global methane budget. Anthropogenic source estimates are mainly based on socio

  8. Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

  9. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH?)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH? emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH?-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH? uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH? sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore »cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH? feedback.« less

  10. Renewed growth of atmospheric methane R. G. Prinn,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    use these data, along with an inverse method applied to a simple model of atmospheric chemistry this observation further using a simple model of atmospheric transport and chemistry to attempt to quantifyRenewed growth of atmospheric methane M. Rigby,1 R. G. Prinn,1 P. J. Fraser,2 P. G. Simmonds,3 R. L

  11. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    of the world econ- omy and demand for aviation and its emissions are expected to increase in the future from aviation (mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), VOCsComparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

  12. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Soil respiration; methane; carbon dioxide; oxygen;response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygenof carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gas

  13. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  14. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  15. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Effects in Microbial Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    6 Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Effects in Microbial Methane from Terrestrial Environments Jeffrey Chanton, Lia Chaser, Paul Glasser,Don Siegel Methane is the ultimate end-product of anaerobic respiration. Methane production via CO2 reduction does not consume CO2. Also, acetate can be written as 2CH20, so Eq. 6

  16. Coal companies hope to receive carbon credits for methane reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-30

    Each year, underground coal mining in the USA liberates 2.4 million tonnes of coal mine methane (CMM), of which less than 30% is recovered and used. One barrier to CMM recovery is cost. Drainage, collection, and utilization systems are complex and expensive to install. Two coal mines have improved the cost equation, however, by signing on to earn money for CMM emissions they are keeping out of the atmosphere. Jim Walter Resources and PinnOak Resources have joined a voluntary greenhouse gas reduction trading program called the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to turn their avoided emissions into carbon credits. The example they set may encourage other coal mining companies to follow suit, and may bring new projects on the line that would otherwise have not gone forward. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Atmospheric methane during the last four glacial-interglacial cycles: Rapid changes and their link with Antarctic temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Atmospheric methane during the last four glacial-interglacial cycles: Rapid changes and their link; published 24 June 2004. [1] Atmospheric methane (CH4) recorded in Antarctic ice cores represents the closest and Atmospheric Dynamics: Ocean/atmosphere interactions (0312, 4504); KEYWORDS: climate, atmospheric methane, ice

  18. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  19. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  20. ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    potential of coalbed methane production using carbon dioxide sequestration in the Central Appalachian BasinANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL dioxide emissions from power plants, while enhancing the recovery of coalbed methane. Injected carbon

  1. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31

    A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation to seeping fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation of carbon derived from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), the oxidation of organic matter and from sea water. Methane is the dominant component among other hydrocarbon gases in these sediments. Its

  3. Net ecosystem methane and carbon dioxide exchanges in a Lake Erie coastal marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Net ecosystem methane and carbon dioxide exchanges in a Lake Erie coastal marsh and a nearby ecosystem carbon dioxide (FCO2) and methane (FCH4) exchanges were measured by using the eddy covariance ) at the cropland. At the seasonal scale, soil temperature associated with methane (CH4) production provided

  4. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  5. The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950; implications for the CO budget Supplementary Material2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950 as a supplement to `The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere23 atmospheric carbon monoxide since 1950 combustion, methane oxidation, NMHC oxidation, biofuel burning, biomass burning, direct57 biogenic

  6. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  7. Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during the past century: A retrospective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, A. David

    Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during develop and use a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4 dynamics (3309); 1890 Hydrology: Wetlands; KEYWORDS: methane emissions, methane oxidation, permafrost

  8. Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Alexander Laskin,*, Julia Laskin,*, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate of radiation through Earth's atmosphere. The cloud albedo effect, Special Issue: 2015 Chemistry in Climate

  9. Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

    2008-11-21

    Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

  10. Mapping pan-Arctic methane emissions at high spatial resolution using an adjoint atmospheric transport and inversion method and process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Z.; Zhuang, Q.; Henze, D. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Sweeney, C.; Turner, A. J.

    2015-11-18

    Understanding methane emissions from the Arctic, a fast warming carbon reservoir, is important for projecting changes in the global methane cycle under future climate scenarios. Here we optimize Arctic methane emissions with a nested-grid high-resolution inverse model by assimilating both high-precision surface measurements and column-average SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals of methane mole fraction. For the first time, methane emissions from lakes are integrated into an atmospheric transport and inversion estimate, together with prior wetland emissions estimated by six different biogeochemical models. We find that, the global methane emissions during July 2004–June 2005 ranged from 496.4 to 511.5 Tg yr?1, with wetlandmore »methane emissions ranging from 130.0 to 203.3 Tg yr?1. The Arctic methane emissions during July 2004–June 2005 were in the range of 14.6–30.4 Tg yr?1, with wetland and lake emissions ranging from 8.8 to 20.4 Tg yr?1 and from 5.4 to 7.9 Tg yr?1 respectively. Canadian and Siberian lakes contributed most of the estimated lake emissions. Due to insufficient measurements in the region, Arctic methane emissions are less constrained in northern Russia than in Alaska, northern Canada and Scandinavia. Comparison of different inversions indicates that the distribution of global and Arctic methane emissions is sensitive to prior wetland emissions. Evaluation with independent datasets shows that the global and Arctic inversions improve estimates of methane mixing ratios in boundary layer and free troposphere. The high-resolution inversions provide more details about the spatial distribution of methane emissions in the Arctic.« less

  11. Control of substrate access to the active site in methane monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Jae

    Methanotrophs consume methane as their major carbon source and have an essential role in the global carbon cycle by limiting escape of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. These bacteria oxidize methane to methanol by ...

  12. METHANE IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE TRANSITING HOT NEPTUNE GJ436B?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, J.-P.; Batista, V. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095, CNRS, Universite Paris VI, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Tinetti, G.; Kipping, D. M.; Barber, R. J.; Tennyson, J.; Waldmann, I.; Miller, S.; Fossey, S. J.; Aylward, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ribas, I. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cho, J. Y.-K.; Polichtchouk, I. [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Yurchenko, S. N. [Institut fur Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Technische Universitat Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Griffith, C. A. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Carey, S. [IPAC-Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mousis, O., E-mail: beaulieu@iap.fr [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2011-04-10

    We present an analysis of seven primary transit observations of the hot Neptune GJ436b at 3.6, 4.5, and 8 {mu}m obtained with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. After correcting for systematic effects, we fitted the light curves using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Combining these new data with the EPOXI, Hubble Space Telescope, and ground-based V, I, H, and K{sub s} published observations, the range 0.5-10 {mu}m can be covered. Due to the low level of activity of GJ436, the effect of starspots on the combination of transits at different epochs is negligible at the accuracy of the data set. Representative climate models were calculated by using a three-dimensional, pseudospectral general circulation model with idealized thermal forcing. Simulated transit spectra of GJ436b were generated using line-by-line radiative transfer models including the opacities of the molecular species expected to be present in such a planetary atmosphere. A new, ab-initio-calculated, line list for hot ammonia has been used for the first time. The photometric data observed at multiple wavelengths can be interpreted with methane being the dominant absorption after molecular hydrogen, possibly with minor contributions from ammonia, water, and other molecules. No clear evidence of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is found from transit photometry. We discuss this result in the light of a recent paper where photochemical disequilibrium is hypothesized to interpret secondary transit photometric data. We show that the emission photometric data are not incompatible with the presence of abundant methane, but further spectroscopic data are desirable to confirm this scenario.

  13. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  14. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  15. China's grazed temperate grasslands are a net source of atmospheric methane Zhi-Ping Wang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qiang

    China's grazed temperate grasslands are a net source of atmospheric methane Zhi-Ping Wang a , Yang Song a , Jay Gulledge b,c , Qiang Yu a , Hong-Sheng Liu d , Xing-Guo Han a,* a State Key Laboratory

  16. Arctic methane sources: Isotopic evidence for atmospheric inputs R. E. Fisher,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Arctic methane sources: Isotopic evidence for atmospheric inputs R. E. Fisher,1 S. Sriskantharajah,1 D. Lowry,1 M. Lanoisellé,1 C. M. R. Fowler,1 R. H. James,2 O. Hermansen,3 C. Lund Myhre,3 A. Stohl,3 J. Greinert,4 P. B. R. NisbetJones,5 J. Mienert,6 and E. G. Nisbet1 Received 16 August 2011

  17. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  18. Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Fundamental Understanding of Methane-Carbon Dioxide-Water (CH4-CO2-H2O) Interactions in Shale Nanopores under Reservoir Conditions. Citation Details In-Document...

  19. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks efficient systems to capture carbon dioxide. Additionally, we have a long-standing collaboration with BASF, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms

  20. Effect of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on the diffusivity of methane confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavila Chathoth, Suresh; He, Lilin; Mamontov, Eugene; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic diffusivity of methane (CH{sub 4}) confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel was investigated as a function of added carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) pressure using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). In the range of the external pressure of 1-2.5 MPa, the self-diffusivity of methane was found to increase with CO{sub 2} pressure and remain practically unchanged in the N{sub 2} environment. Increasing mobility of methane with CO{sub 2} pressure suggests that the adsorbed CH4 molecules become gradually replaced by CO{sub 2} on the surface of carbon aerogel pores, whereas the presence of N{sub 2} does not induce the replacement. The molecular mobility of the methane, with or without added carbon dioxide and nitrogen, is described by the unrestricted diffusion model, which is characteristic of methane compressed in small pores. On the other hand, both nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules in carbon aerogel, when studied alone, with no methane present, follow a jump diffusion process, characteristic of the molecular mobility in the densified adsorbed layers on the surface of the aerogel pores.

  1. DIRECT IMAGING DETECTION OF METHANE IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF GJ 504 b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy D.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Spiegel, David S.; Thalmann, Christian; Currie, Thayne; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Zimmerman, Neil; Schlieder, Joshua; Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus; Sorahana, Satoko; Kotani, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, Sebastian; Abe, Lyu; Carson, Joseph C.; Goto, Miwa; and others

    2013-11-20

    Most exoplanets detected by direct imaging thus far have been characterized by relatively hot (?1000 K) and cloudy atmospheres. A surprising feature in some of their atmospheres has been a distinct lack of methane, possibly implying non-equilibrium chemistry. Recently, we reported the discovery of a planetary companion to the Sun-like star GJ 504 using Subaru/HiCIAO within the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru survey. The planet is substantially colder (<600 K) than previously imaged planets, and has indications of fewer clouds, which implies that it represents a new class of planetary atmospheres with expected similarities to late T-type brown dwarfs in the same temperature range. If so, one might also expect the presence of significant methane absorption, which is characteristic of such objects. Here, we report the detection of deep methane absorption in the atmosphere of GJ 504 b, using the Spectral Differential Imaging mode of HiCIAO to distinguish the absorption features around 1.6 ?m. We also report updated JHK photometry based on new K {sub s}-band data and a re-analysis of the existing data. The results support the notion that GJ 504 b has atmospheric properties distinct from other imaged exoplanets, and will become a useful reference object for future planets in the same temperature range.

  2. Impact of methane seeps on the local carbon-isotope record: a case study from a Late Jurassic hemipelagic section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Impact of methane seeps on the local carbon-isotope record: a case study from a Late Jurassic dis- sociation of methane hydrates, used to explain e.g. the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM excursions also occur in modern methane-bearing sedimentary succes- sions. These are caused when anae- robic

  3. Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature and lower environmental impacts make this the carbon-based fuel of choice well into the twenty-first century chemicals.1 There is additional need for new technologies which can also allow recovery of the many remote

  4. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kirchman

    2011-12-31

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (â??Methane in the Arctic Shelfâ?ť or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (â??metagenomesâ?ť). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation.

  5. Atmospheric Modelling for Neptune's Methane D/H Ratio - Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotton, Daniel V; Bott, Kimberly; Bailey, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H ratio) of Solar System bodies is an important clue to their formation histories. Here we fit a Neptunian atmospheric model to Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) high spectral resolution observations and determine the D/H ratio in methane absorption in the infrared H-band ($\\sim$ 1.6 {\\mu}m). The model was derived using our radiative transfer software VSTAR (Versatile Software for the Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation) and atmospheric fitting software ATMOF (ATMOspheric Fitting). The methane line list used for this work has only become available in the last few years, enabling a refinement of earlier estimates. We identify a bright region on the planetary disc and find it to correspond to an optically thick lower cloud. Our preliminary determination of CH$_{\\rm 3}$D/CH$_{\\rm 4}$ is 3.0$\\times10^{-4}$, which is in line with the recent determination of Irwin et al. (2014) of 3.0$^{+1.0}_{-0.9}\\sim\\times10^{-4}$, made using the same model parameters and line list but...

  6. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  7. Development of Atmospheric Tracer Methods To Measure Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Facilities and Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1995-01-01

    an urban area is used with crosswind integrated tracerCWI,) and the average crosswind concen- tration of methane (directly, and the crosswind average methane concentration

  8. The role of hydrogen in methane formation from carbon and water over metal catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley Edwin

    1982-01-01

    an extremely fast reaction. Two experiments to determine the effect of carbon on the rate of reaction were carried out and the results are summarized in Figure 11. The quantity of carbon on the nickel-zirconia catalyst in the second experiment was twice...THE ROLE OF HYDROGEN IN METHANE FORMATION FROM CARBON AND WATER OVER METAL CATALYSTS A Thesis by STANLEY EDWIN MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree MASTER...

  9. Transient simulations of Holocene atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrestrial carbon since the Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Transient simulations of Holocene atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrestrial carbon since the Last ppm between 8 ka BP and pre-industrial time. The carbon component of the Bern Carbon Cycle Climate. Terrestrial carbon inventory changes related to climate and CO2 forcing, the greening of the Sahara, peat

  10. Prediction of the Three-Phase Coexistence Conditions of Pure Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costandy, Joseph GN

    2015-06-12

    different molecules can form hydrates when mixed with water at relatively low temperatures and high pressures, including methane, ethane, propane, iso-butane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen. The accurate prediction of thermodynamic properties...

  11. EOS7C Version 1.0: TOUGH2 Module for Carbon Dioxide or Nitrogen in Natural Gas (Methane) Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Moridis, George J.; Spycher, Nicholas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy&Fuels ,of CO 2 injection into natural gas reservoirs for carbonDioxide or Nitrogen in Natural Gas (Methane) Reservoirs

  12. Transport of oxygen in soil pore-water systems: implications for modeling emissions of carbon dioxide and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    andaresignificantsourcesofgreenhousegases,including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The traditional approachTransport of oxygen in soil pore-water systems: implications for modeling emissions of carbon of CH4 is 24 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over a 100-year time scale (Ramaswamy et al

  13. Title: Functioning of wetlands as a source of atmospheric methane: a multi-scale and multi-disciplinary approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is to determine how climate change affects the interacting processes that determine net CH4 and CO2 emissions from Laboratory Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2 climate-sensitive ecosystems release both CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) and it is unknown how these systems

  14. Pore accessibility of methane and carbon dioxide in coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun-Seok Bae; Suresh K. Bhatia; Victor Rudolph; Paul Massarotto [University of Queensland, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

    2009-05-15

    Two Australian coals were heat-treated, and the accessibility of the pore space to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} was investigated. Samples heat-treated at 573 and 673 K exhibit larger adsorption/desorption hysteresis and smaller surface areas (measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 273 K) than untreated samples. For samples heat-treated at 773 K, however, the surface area increased by 50% and the hysteresis was lower, compared to untreated samples. These results demonstrate that volatile hydrocarbons at pore mouths are the cause of energy barriers that prevent adsorbing molecules from passing through. A conceptual model is proposed to illustrate changes in activation energy at constricted pore mouths. Also, the results suggest that both adsorption and desorption isotherms should be measured to determine kinetically inaccessible pore spaces in order to correctly estimate CH{sub 4} recovery and CO{sub 2} storage capacity. The results have importance to the problem of estimating CH{sub 4} recovery and CO{sub 2} storage capacity for CO{sub 2} geosequestration as part of a CO{sub 2}-enhanced coal bed methane recovery operation. 28 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b, , Lilin inorganic and organic solutes (including 56 hydrocarbons) and gaseous species (e.g. carbon dioxide, CO2, the chemical and physical properties of the solid and fluid phases collectively dictate how fluid 35molecules

  16. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  17. Impact of Emissions, Chemistry, and Climate on Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide: 100-year Predictions from a Global Chemistry-Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of methane and the production of CO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosols and thus affects climate, while, producing formaldehyde (CH2O) and then carbon monoxide. This methane reaction, in combination with R1

  18. A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere-atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere, carbon dioxide, biosphere, regional-scale modeling, missing sink, carbon dioxide fluxes Citation), A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere

  19. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements on Black Sea water-column methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeburgh, WS; Tyler, SC; Carroll, J

    2006-01-01

    M.A. , Lee, C. , 1994. Methane production during zooplanktonDickens, G.R. , 2003. A methane trigger for global warming?Quinby-Hunt, M.S. , 1994. Methane stability in seawater.

  20. A Process-based Analysis of Methane Exchanges Between Alaskan Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai.

    We developed and used a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in Alaskan soils have changed over the past century in response to observed changes ...

  1. U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2014-04-01

    Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

  2. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  3. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2014-09-12

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4more »emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  4. Microstructure-Dependent Gas Adsorption: Accurate Predictions of Methane Uptake in Nanoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ihm, Yungok; Cooper, Valentino R; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Morris, James R

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a successful, efficient framework for predicting gas adsorption properties in real materials based on first-principles calculations, with a specific comparison of experiment and theory for methane adsorption in activated carbons. These carbon materials have different pore size distributions, leading to a variety of uptake characteristics. Utilizing these distributions, we accurately predict experimental uptakes and heats of adsorption without empirical potentials or lengthy simulations. We demonstrate that materials with smaller pores have higher heats of adsorption, leading to a higher gas density in these pores. This pore-size dependence must be accounted for, in order to predict and understand the adsorption behavior. The theoretical approach combines: (1) ab initio calculations with a van der Waals density functional to determine adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and (2) a thermodynamic method that predicts equilibrium adsorption densities by directly incorporating the calculated potential energy surface in a slit pore model. The predicted uptake at P=20 bar and T=298 K is in excellent agreement for all five activated carbon materials used. This approach uses only the pore-size distribution as an input, with no fitting parameters or empirical adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and thus can be easily applied to other adsorbent-adsorbate combinations.

  5. Methane emissions from upland forest soils and vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megonigal, ABB

    2008-01-01

    Crill. 2006. A source of methane from upland forests in thecontrolling atmospheric methane con- sumption by temperateand T.B. Parkin. 2001. Methane oxidation and produc- tion

  6. Dynamics and Disequilibrium Carbon Chemistry in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres, With Application to HD 209458b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis S. Cooper; Adam P. Showman

    2006-05-30

    Chemical equilibrium considerations suggest that, assuming solar elemental abundances, carbon on HD 209458b is sequestered primarily as carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The relative mole fractions of CO(g) and CH4(g) in chemical equilibrium are expected to vary greatly according to variations in local temperature and pressure. We show, however, that in the p = 1--1000 mbar range, chemical equilibrium does not hold. To explore disequilibrium effects, we couple the chemical kinetics of CO and CH4 to a three-dimensional numerical model of HD 209458b's atmospheric circulation. These simulations show that vigorous dynamics caused by uneven heating of this tidally locked planet homogenize the CO and CH4 concentrations at p < 1 bar, even in the presence of lateral temperature variations of ~500--1000 K. In the 1--1000 mbar pressure range, we find that over 98% of the carbon is in CO. This is true even in cool regions where CH4 is much more stable thermodynamically. Our work shows furthermore that planets 300--500 K cooler than HD 209458b can also have abundant CO in their upper layers due to disequilibrium effects. We demonstrate several interesting observational consequences of these results.

  7. Reduced methane growth rate explained by decreased Northern Hemisphere microbial sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, FM; Kai, FM; Tyler, SC; Tyler, SC; Randerson, JT; Blake, DR

    2011-01-01

    rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature 393, 447–of global tropospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33,M. J. in Atmospheric Methane: its Role in the Global

  8. Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia in brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S. E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov

    2014-12-10

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH{sub 4} over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH{sub 4} when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 ± 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH{sub 4}/CO, the NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH{sub 3} a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH{sub 4} reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and CO{sub 2} abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  9. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff

    A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results Andrew atmospheric CO2 gradients and transport simulations are combined with observations of ocean interior carbon (2007), A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results

  10. The Role of the Ocean in the Atmospheric Budgets of Methyl Bromide, Methyl Chloride and Methane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lei

    2012-10-19

    , which was 700 (490 to 920) Gg yr^-1 and -370 (-440 to -280) Gg yr^-1, respectively. The ocean accounts for 10 - 19 % in the global CH3Cl emission and 6 - 9 % in its global sinks. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas, which has a warming potential...

  11. Effects of carbon dioxide injection on the displacement of methane and carbonate dissolution in sandstone cores 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maduakor, Ekene Obioma

    2006-10-30

    Previous coreflood experiments show that CO2 sequestration in carbonate rocks is a win-win technology. Injecting CO2 into a depleted gas reservoir for storage also produces hitherto unrecoverable gas. This in turn helps to defray the cost of CO2...

  12. Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, T.H.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2011-02-15

    Replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and/or production of methane (CH{sub 4}) from natural hydrate deposits. This replacement strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of binary mixtures of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} hydrate (CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates), as well as thermophysical property changes during gas exchange. This study explores the thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates. We prepared CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate samples from two different, well-defined gas mixtures. During thermal dissociation of a CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate sample, gas samples from the head space were periodically collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. The changes in CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} compositions in both the vapor phase and hydrate phase during dissociation were estimated based on the gas chromatography measurements. It was found that the CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase became richer during dissociation because the initial hydrate composition contained relatively more CO{sub 2} than the vapor phase. The composition change in the vapor phase during hydrate dissociation affected the dissociation pressure and temperature; the richer CO{sub 2} in the vapor phase led to a lower dissociation pressure. Furthermore, the increase in CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase enriched the hydrate in CO{sub 2}. The dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate was computed by fitting the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the pressure-temperature (PT) trace of a dissociation test. It was observed that the dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate lays between the limiting values of pure CH{sub 4} hydrate and CO{sub 2} hydrate, increasing with the CO{sub 2} fraction in the hydrate phase.

  13. Coupling convectively driven atmospheric circulation to surface rotation: Evidence for active methane weather in the observed spin rate drift of Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan L. Mitchell

    2009-02-16

    A large drift in the rotation rate of Titan observed by Cassini provided the first evidence of a subsurface ocean isolating the massive core from the icy crust. Seasonal exchange of angular momentum between the surface and atmosphere accounts for the magnitude of the effect, but observations lag the expected signal by a few years. We argue that this time lag is due to the presence of an active methane weather cycle in the atmosphere. An analytic model of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric angular momentum is developed and compared with time-dependent simulations of Titan's atmosphere with and without methane thermodynamics. The disappearance of clouds at the summer pole suggests the drift rate has already switched direction, signaling the change in season from solstice to equinox.

  14. Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated ...

  15. Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Abstract Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy that can contribute to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to maintain adsorbed methane in the coalbed formation. But now carbon dioxide will replace the methane

  16. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2015-06-02

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to lakes' physicochemical properties and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included direct ebullition, diffusion, storage flux, and a newly identified ice-bubble storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lakemore »CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. IBS, ~10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, mixotrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. The relationship between CO2 emissions and geographic parameters was weak, suggesting high variability among sources and sinks that regulate CO2 emissions (e.g., catchment waters, pH equilibrium). Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth, and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  17. Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales Philip-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure carbon dioxide on centennial timescales, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2006GB002810

  18. October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 BioScience 895 Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 · BioScience 895 Articles Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 reduce the concen- tration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes of the 21st century (IPCC 2001a). Management of vegetation and soils for terrestrial carbon sequestration

  19. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff

    interprets in situ observations of carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean and atmosphere with transportA joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 1. Methods and global March 2007. [1] We have constructed an inverse estimate of surface fluxes of carbon dioxide using both

  20. Estuaries Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 381-390 June 1997 Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    should be net sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or should transport excess CO, (as either COEstuaries Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 381-390 June 1997 Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Atmospheric Hudson, or total dissolved inorganic carbon [DIG] ) into the coastal zone. Exchanges of CO, between the water

  1. Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using and Structure: Instruments and techniques; KEYWORDS: carbon dioxide, column mean, column integral, COBRA, flask, Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete

  2. Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic measurements during the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Click Here for Full Article Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) during the last glacialinterglacial climatic transition remain debated. We analyzed the parallel evolution of CO2 and its stable carbon isotopic ratio (d13 CO2

  3. Mechanistic Studies on the Hydroxylation of Methane by Methane Monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baik, Mu-Hyun

    of formaldehyde to carbon dioxide provides energy that is stored for later use as NADH.2 The conversion of methane are bacteria that live on methane as their only source of carbon.1 The first step in their utilization gas (it is currently not economical17 to transport and store methane gas from remote sites

  4. Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Kevin

    Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE USING OPTIMALITY...............................................................................................1 I. A REVIEW OF REMOTE SENSING MODELS........................................................7...............................................................7 Remote Sensing Models

  5. Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1 *, Dr the idea that CO2 was `scrubbed' by precipitation of carbonate minerals within the planet's crust - a reaction termed `carbonation'. This project will seek evidence for carbonation by analysis of martian

  6. Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    composed of methane and ethane”; The 6th InternationalGupta et al. (2008) 24 Ethane hydrate (h ? l + g) Nakagawamol gas. 12 On the contrary, ethane (C 2 H 6 ) hydrate (sI

  7. A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the ...

  8. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, S.

    2011-01-01

    aspects of atmospheric methane, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 2,Budeus, Fate of vent derived methane in seawater above theHanfland, Pathways of methane in seawater: Plume spreading

  9. Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Robert F.

    include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasmaAtmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, , Ronald D Available online xxxx Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma Diamond-like carbon deposition DLC PECVD

  10. Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world P. Parekh,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty world P. Parekh,1,2 S. Dutkiewicz,1 M. J. Follows,1, P., S. Dutkiewicz, M. J. Follows, and T. Ito (2006), Atmospheric carbon dioxide in a less dusty would favor reduced dust transport and lower iron supply to the oceans. Near-future climate change

  11. Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    al. : Changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methaneal. : Changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methaneal. : Changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane

  12. INEL 6069, Sandra L. Cruz Pol 4/6/14 Microwave Interactions with Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    .93 Ni O2 Ar Other components: Carbon dioxide (CO2), Neon (Ne), Helium (He), Methane (CH4), Krypton (Kr Microwave Interactions with the Atmosphere Dr. Sandra Cruz Pol Microwave Remote Sensing INEL 6669 Dept

  13. Interpretation of observed atmospheric variations of CO2 and CH4. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlow, James Mathew

    2015-06-30

    The overarching theme of my thesis is understanding observed variations of northern hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. I focus my analysis on high-latitude observations of these gases, as there are large...

  14. Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog covariance measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE) were taken at an ombrotrophic covariance, carbon dioxide Citation: Lafleur, P. M., N. T. Roulet, J. L. Bubier, S. Frolking, and T. R. Moore

  15. NaturallyProduced CarbonSources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (e.g., methane) to generate electricity, drive a petroleum-powered car, or cut down a forest, CO2 element in our universe. Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is the most abundant car- bon bearing gas, and plays a special role in Earth's carbon cycle. From an atmospheric perspective, sources emit or release carbon

  16. Carbon Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystems in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Altered Nutrients Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Chao

    2011-04-26

    Aquatic ecosystems will experience altered inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous availability in the future due to elevated atmospheric CO2, stronger stratification and anthropogenic activities. Despite its importance in modulating global...

  17. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-04-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m/sup -3/, in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r<0.5 mm). The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d/sup 13/C = 26 +- 2/sup 0///sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols (<20% of the total concentration) is likely to have a direct marine origin since its carbon isotopic composition is close to the expected value (d/sup 13/C = -21 +- 2/sup 0///sub 00/) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere.

  18. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    1960 through 2001, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , OakAtmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide models, Science, 282,Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , Oak

  19. Forest Sensitivity to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and its Relevance to Carbon Management Richard J. Norby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the airborne fraction of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, and, therefore, the rate of increase of CO2Forest Sensitivity to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and its Relevance to Carbon Management Richard J the responses of forest trees to rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 has for the past two decades been

  20. Atomic Structures of Graphene, Benzene and Methane with Bond Lengths as Sums of the Single, Double and Resonance Bond Radii of Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raji Heyrovska

    2008-04-25

    Two dimensional layers of graphene are currently drawing a great attention in fundamental and applied nanoscience. Graphene consists of interconnected hexagons of carbon atoms as in graphite. This article presents for the first time the structures of graphene at the atomic level and shows how it differs from that of benzene, due to the difference in the double bond and resonance bond based radii of carbon. The carbon atom of an aliphatic compound such as methane has a longer covalent single bond radius as in diamond. All the atomic structures presented here have been drawn to scale.

  1. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a...

  2. Back to Exploration 2008 CSPG CSEG CWLS Convention 1 A Computational Model of Catalyzed Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiteri, Raymond J.

    techniques. In capture-and-storage methods, atmospheric carbon, usually carbon dioxide, is captured, often to help find the most cost effective methods possible. Most carbon sequestration methods are capture-and-storage. Introduction Growing international concern over the role of greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide and methane

  3. Pore accessibility by methane and carbon dioxide in coal as determined by neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Contrast-matching ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques were used for the first time to determine both the total pore volume and the fraction of the pore volume that is inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, in four bituminous coals in the range of pore sizes between {approx}10 {angstrom} and {approx}5 {micro}m. Two samples originated from the Illinois Basin in the U.S.A., and the other two samples were commercial Australian bituminous coals from the Bowen Basin. The total and inaccessible porosity were determined in each coal using both Porod invariant and the polydisperse spherical particle (PDSP) model analysis of the scattering data acquired from coals both in vacuum and at the pressure of CD{sub 4}, at which the scattering length density of the pore-saturating fluid is equal to that of the solid coal matrix (zero average contrast pressure). The total porosity of the coals studied ranged from 7 to 13%, and the volume of pores inaccessible to CD{sub 4} varied from {approx}13 to {approx}36% of the total pore volume. The volume fraction of inaccessible pores shows no correlation with the maceral composition; however, it increases with a decreasing total pore volume. In situ measurements of the structure of one coal saturated with CO{sub 2} and CD{sub 4} were conducted as a function of the pressure in the range of 1-400 bar. The neutron scattering intensity from small pores with radii less than 35 {angstrom} in this coal increased sharply immediately after the fluid injection for both gases, which demonstrates strong condensation and densification of the invading subcritical CO{sub 2} and supercritical methane in small pores.

  4. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29

  5. Methane escape from gas hydrate systems in marine environment, and methane-driven oceanic eruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    Methane escape from gas hydrate systems in marine environment, and methane-driven oceanic eruptions quantities of CH4 are stored in marine sediment in the form of methane hydrate, bubbles, and dissolved CH4 in pore water. Here I discuss the various pathways for methane to enter the ocean and atmosphere

  6. POSSIBLE ROLE OF WETLANDS, PERMAFROST, AND METHANE HYDRATES IN THE METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    POSSIBLE ROLE OF WETLANDS, PERMAFROST, AND METHANE HYDRATES IN THE METHANE CYCLE UNDER FUTURE the available scientific literature on how natural sources and the atmospheric fate of methane may be affected by future climate change. We discuss how processes governing methane wetland emissions, per- mafrost thawing

  7. Methane Planets and their Mass-Radius Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helled, Ravit; Vos, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of both the mass and radius of an exoplanet allows us to estimate its mean density, and therefore, its composition. Exoplanets seem to fill a very large parameter space in terms of mass and composition, and unlike the solar-system's planets, exoplanets also have intermediate masses (~5-50 M_Earth) with various densities. In this letter, we investigate the behavior of the Mass-Radius relation for methane (CH_4) planets and show that when methane planets are massive enough (M_planet > ~15 M_Earth) the methane can dissociate and lead to a differentiated planet with a carbon core, a methane envelope, and a hydrogen atmosphere. The contribution of a rocky core to the behavior of CH_4 planet is considered as well. We also develop interior models for several detected intermediate-mass planets that could, in principle, be methane/methane-rich planets. The example of methane planets emphasizes the complexity of the Mass-Radius relation and the challenge in inferring the planetary composition uniquely.

  8. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  9. Oxidation of atmospheric organic carbon : interconnecting volatile organic compounds, intermediate-volatility organic compounds, and organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, James Freeman

    2015-01-01

    .Organic molecules have many important roles in the atmosphere, acting as climate and biogeochemical forcers, and in some cases as toxic pollutants. The lifecycle of atmospheric organic carbon is extremely complex, with ...

  10. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David T.

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its ...

  11. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; et al

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhousemore »gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial communities that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage.« less

  12. A survey of methane isotope abundance (14C, 13C, 2H) from five nearshore marine basins that reveals unusual radiocarbon levels in subsurface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Carbon pool analysis of methane hydrate regions in theAerobic production of methane in the sea, Nat. Geosci. , 1(R. Varela (2005), Fossil methane source dominates Cariaco

  13. Variability of the methane trapping in martian subsurface clathrate hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caroline Thomas; Olivier Mousis; Sylvain Picaud; Vincent Ballenegger

    2008-10-23

    Recent observations have evidenced traces of methane CH4 heterogeneously distributed in the martian atmosphere. However, because the lifetime of CH4 in the atmosphere of Mars is estimated to be around 300-600 years on the basis of photochemistry, its release from a subsurface reservoir or an active primary source of methane have been invoked in the recent literature. Among the existing scenarios, it has been proposed that clathrate hydrates located in the near subsurface of Mars could be at the origin of the small quantities of the detected CH4. Here, we accurately determine the composition of these clathrate hydrates, as a function of temperature and gas phase composition, by using a hybrid statistical thermodynamic model based on experimental data. Compared to other recent works, our model allows us to calculate the composition of clathrate hydrates formed from a more plausible composition of the martian atmosphere by considering its main compounds, i.e. carbon dioxyde, nitrogen and argon, together with methane. Besides, because there is no low temperature restriction in our model, we are able to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates formed at temperatures corresponding to the extreme ones measured in the polar caps. Our results show that methane enriched clathrate hydrates could be stable in the subsurface of Mars only if a primitive CH4-rich atmosphere has existed or if a subsurface source of CH4 has been (or is still) present.

  14. Preparation of nanodiamonds from carbon nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Fray, Derek J.

    2015-01-23

    lithium batteries in which lithium has been inserted into and extracted from the graphite over many cycles16. There have, therefore, been many attempts to convert CNTs into diamond using laser irradiation, shock waves, spark plasma sintering and radio... ’yanov found that the required time for diamonds to nucleate and grow was 2 hours4. Nanostructured diamond particles have been known since the 1960s and have been produced by shock wave compression of graphite and carbon black mixed with a catalyst12...

  15. Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, N.

    Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks this with the response to a 4% increase in solar irradiance. Our simulations show that significant climate effects occur

  16. Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the poten-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3 gases (greenhouse gases) altered by human activities (IPCC 2007), only carbon dioxide (CO2 vegeta- tion properties affect local and regional climate, as well as how atmospheric forcing

  17. Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere P. J circulation models used for climate simulation and weather fore- casting require the fluxes of radiation, heat incorporate bio- geochemical and ecological knowledge and, when coupled with advanced climate and ocean models

  18. Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Mandira; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approac...

  19. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  20. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  1. Annals of Botany 81: 185193, 1998 The Interactive Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Light on Stem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reekie, Ed

    Annals of Botany 81: 185­193, 1998 The Interactive Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Light min d-") and high light (120 µmol m-# s-" for 12 h d-") and four levels of carbon dioxide: 0, 350, 700 and 1400p50 µl l-". Germination was not affected by any of the treatments. The effects of carbon dioxide

  2. North America's net terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Woodall, Chris W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America over the period (1990-2009). This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North America land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the atmospheric inversion estimate forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land-sink) and the inventory-based estimate the upper (a smaller land sink). Integrating across estimates, a “best” estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil-fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. The continent’s CO2 source to sink ratio for this time period was likely in the range of 4:1 to 3:1.

  3. ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Temelso, B.; Vinatier, S.; Bezard, B.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Mandt, K. E.; Sherrill, C. D.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-04-20

    The existence of methane in Titan's atmosphere ({approx}6% level at the surface) presents a unique enigma, as photochemical models predict that the current inventory will be entirely depleted by photochemistry in a timescale of {approx}20 Myr. In this paper, we examine the clues available from isotopic ratios ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H) in Titan's methane as to the past atmosphere history of this species. We first analyze recent infrared spectra of CH{sub 4} collected by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer, measuring simultaneously for the first time the abundances of all three detected minor isotopologues: {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D, and {sup 13}CH{sub 3}D. From these we compute estimates of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 86.5 {+-} 8.2 and D/H = (1.59 {+-} 0.33) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, in agreement with recent results from the Huygens GCMS and Cassini INMS instruments. We also use the transition state theory to estimate the fractionation that occurs in carbon and hydrogen during a critical reaction that plays a key role in the chemical depletion of Titan's methane: CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. Using these new measurements and predictions we proceed to model the time evolution of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H in Titan's methane under several prototypical replenishment scenarios. In our Model 1 (no resupply of CH{sub 4}), we find that the present-day {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C implies that the CH{sub 4} entered the atmosphere 60-1600 Myr ago if methane is depleted by chemistry and photolysis alone, but much more recently-most likely less than 10 Myr ago-if hydrodynamic escape is also occurring. On the other hand, if methane has been continuously supplied at the replenishment rate then the isotopic ratios provide no constraints, and likewise for the case where atmospheric methane is increasing. We conclude by discussing how these findings may be combined with other evidence to constrain the overall history of the atmospheric methane.

  4. An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Net terrestrial summer flux (NEP plus fires for weeks 20 –terrestrial and oceanic flux (NEP plus fires; no fossil fuelof Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) derived from CarbonTracker

  5. Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the atmosphere. o Accounts for 20% of methane emissions from human sources. Globally cattle produce about 80 million metric tons of methane annually. o Accounts for 28% of global methane emissions

  6. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

    2014-01-01

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

  7. A new chemical scheme to study carbon-rich exoplanet atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venot, Olivia; Agúndez, Marcelino; Decin, Leen; Bounaceur, Roda

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheres with a high C/O ratio are expected to contain an important quantity of hydrocarbons, including heavy molecules (with more than 2 carbon atoms). To study correctly these C-rich atmospheres, a chemical scheme adapted to this composition is necessary. We have implemented a chemical scheme that can describe the kinetics of species with up to 6 carbon atoms. This chemical scheme has been developed with specialists of combustion and validated through experiments on a wide range of T and P. This chemical network is available on the online database KIDA. We have created a grid of 12 models to explore different thermal profiles and C/O ratios. For each of them, we have compared the chemical composition determined with a C0-C2 chemical scheme (species with up to 2 carbon atoms) and with the C0-C6 scheme. We found no difference in the results obtained with the two schemes when photolyses are not included in the model, whatever the temperature of the atmosphere. In contrast, when there is photochemistry, diff...

  8. Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, T.; Liebner, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ronald; Wagner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

  9. Plants, Weathering, and the Evolution of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berner, Robert A

    2008-02-05

    Over the past six years we have published 24 papers that can be divided into three sections: (1) Study of plants and weathering, (2) modeling the evolution of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time (past 550 million years). (3) Modeling of atmospheric O2 over Phanerozoic time. References to papers published acknowledging this grant can be found at the end of this report and almost all are supplied in pdf form. (1) In the temperate forests of the Cascade Mountains, USA, calcium and magnesium meet vastly different fates beneath angiosperms vs gymnosperms. Calcium is leached beneath both groves of trees, but leached 20-40% more beneath the angiosperms. Magnesium is retained in the forest system beneath the angiosperms and leached from beneath the gymnosperms. (2) We have shown that climate and CO2, based on both carbon cycle modeling and hundreds of independent proxies for paleo-CO2, correlate very well over the past 550 million year. In a recent paper we use this correlation to deduce the sensitivity of global mean temperature to a doubling of atmospheric CO2, and results are in excellent agreement with the results of climatologists based on the historical record and on theoretical climate models (GCM’s).(3) We have shown that concentrations of atmospheric oxygen, calculated by a combined carbon-sulfur cycle model, over the past 550 million years have varied with and influenced biological evolution.

  10. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01

    X. Zheng, Intern. J. Hydro. Energy, 2013, 38, 10012-10018Haneda, R. Kikuchi, J. Hydro. Energy, 2012, 37, 69. G. Zhi,

  11. Methane clathrates in the Solar System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousis, Olivier; Holm, Nils G; Bouquet, Alexis; Waite, Jack Hunter; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Picaud, Sylvain; Aikawa, Yuri; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Rousselot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We review the reservoirs of methane clathrates that may exist in the different bodies of the Solar System. Methane was formed in the interstellar medium prior to having been embedded in the protosolar nebula gas phase. This molecule was subsequently trapped in clathrates that formed from crystalline water ice during the cooling of the disk and incorporated in this form in the building blocks of comets, icy bodies, and giant planets. Methane clathrates may play an important role in the evolution of planetary atmospheres. On Earth, the production of methane in clathrates is essentially biological, and these compounds are mostly found in permafrost regions or in the sediments of continental shelves. On Mars, methane would more likely derive from hydrothermal reactions with olivine-rich material. If they do exist, martian methane clathrates would be stable only at depth in the cryosphere and sporadically release some methane into the atmosphere via mechanisms that remain to be determined.

  12. Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO[subscript 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.

    The effect of idealized wind-driven circulation changes in the Southern Ocean on atmospheric CO[subscript 2] and the ocean carbon inventory is investigated using a suite of coarse-resolution, global coupled ocean circulation ...

  13. Statistical mechanics problem sheet 7 1. The main component of Venus's atmosphere, carbon dioxide, is a linear molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettmann, Carl

    Statistical mechanics problem sheet 7 1. The main component of Venus's atmosphere, carbon dioxide and energy. Show that the system is non-extensive, and find the chemical potential at which system properties

  14. Numerical modeling of methane venting from lake sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scandella, Benjamin P. (Benjamin Paul)

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of methane transport in lake sediments control the release of methane into the water column above, and the portion that reaches the atmosphere may contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. The observed ...

  15. Exposure to an enriched CO2 atmosphere alters carbon assimilation and allocation in a pine forest ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    to reduce the rate at which atmospheric CO2 increases, the Kyoto Protocol has transformed CO2 emissions in a future CO2-enriched world is even greater (Houghton, 1997). For example, despite some downExposure to an enriched CO2 atmosphere alters carbon assimilation and allocation in a pine forest

  16. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-05-15

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm{sup -3}, reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of atmospheric air. For one material with elevated levels of fine particles and high organic matter content, methane production impeded the quantification of methane oxidation potentials. Regarding the design of landfill cover layers it was concluded that the magnitude of the expected methane load, the texture and expected compaction of the cover material are key variables that need to be known. Based on these, a column study can serve as an appropriate testing system to determine the methane oxidation capacity of a soil intended as landfill cover material.

  17. Enhanced coalbed methane recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzotti, M.; Pini, R.; Storti, G. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Process Engineering

    2009-01-15

    The recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by injecting CO{sub 2} in the coal seam at supercritical conditions. Through an in situ adsorption/desorption process the displaced methane is produced and the adsorbed CO{sub 2} is permanently stored. This is called enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) and it is a technique under investigation as a possible approach to the geological storage of CO{sub 2} in a carbon dioxide capture and storage system. This work reviews the state of the art on fundamental and practical aspects of the technology and summarizes the results of ECBM field tests. These prove the feasibility of ECBM recovery and highlight substantial opportunities for interdisciplinary research at the interface between earth sciences and chemical engineering.

  18. The Effect of Local Atmospheric Circulations on Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over a Pinus elliottii Canopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    The Effect of Local Atmospheric Circulations on Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over canopy, have been used to provide estimates of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) (Black et" transported from the below-canopy environment associated with cold-air drainage. Since then, advection has

  19. Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    hindcasts of atmospheric chemistry: the role of meteorology,J. : Introduction to atmospheric chemistry, Princeton Uni-and Zeng, G. : The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model

  20. Implications of Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 Methane Emissions to Stabilize Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, William R.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2013-02-01

    Increases in the abundance of methane (CH4) in the Earth’s atmosphere are responsible for significant radiative forcing of climate change (Forster et al., 2007; Wuebbles and Hayhoe, 2002). Since 1750, a 2.5 fold increase in atmospheric CH4 contributed 0.5 W/m2 to direct radiative forcing and an additional 0.2 W/m2 indirectly through changes in atmospheric chemistry. Next to water and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Additionally, CH4 is significantly more effective as a greenhouse gas on a per molecule basis than is CO2, and increasing atmospheric CH4 has been second only to CO2 in radiative forcing (Forster et al., 2007). The chemical reactivity of CH4 is important to both tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Along with carbon monoxide, methane helps control the amount of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere where oxidation of CH4 by OH leads to the formation of formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and ozone.

  1. Quasielastic electron scattering from methane, methane-d4, methane-d2, ethylene, and 2-methylpropane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Quasielastic electron scattering from methane, methane-d4, methane-d2, ethylene, and 2-methylpropane, ethylene, methane, and two isotopically substituted methanes, CH2D2 and CD4, at a momentum constituent. For example, Fig. 1 of Ref. 2 shows that, for gaseous methane, above a certain momentum transfer

  2. Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    2009 P. E. Thornton et al. : Carbon-nitrogen interactionsregulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks Monfray, P. ,T. H. : A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from

  3. Methane Fluxes Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere at Northern High Latitudes During the Past Century: A retrospective analysis with a process-based biogeochemistry model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai.

    We develop and use a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in high-latitude soils of the Northern Hemisphere have changed over the past century ...

  4. Energy Policy Seminar Series: Climate impacts of methane-emitting energy technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    of greenhouse gases, most notably methane and carbon dioxide, and these gases have dissimilar properties. This research finds that methane-emitting energy such as natural gas becomes significantly more carbon dioxide

  5. Future methane, hydroxyl, and their uncertainties: key climate and emission parameters for future predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, C. D; Prather, M. J; Sovde, O. A; Myhre, G.

    2013-01-01

    changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane life-of Global Atmospheric Hydroxyl, Science, 331, 67–69, doi:variability of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals over the past

  6. Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.

    2011-06-01

    Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

  7. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  8. Methane for Power Generation in Muaro Jambi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-07-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates electricity generation from the organic content of wastewater at a palm oil mill in Muaro Jambi, Sumatra. Palm mills use vast amounts of water in the production process resulting in problematic waste water called palm oil mill effluent (POME). The POME releases methane to the atmosphere in open ponds which could be covered to capture the methane to produce renewable electricity for rural villages. The study uses average Indonesia data to determine the economic viability of methane capture at a palm oil mill and also evaluates technology as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  9. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  10. Variations in carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere due to CO{sub 2} evaluation and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, M.; Woodward, F.I.

    1997-12-31

    The global carbon budget for atmospheric CO{sub 2} can`t been balanced, a sink of 1 to 3 Gt C yr{sup -1} has not yet been clearly identified. Without a good account for the fate of the miss carbon, prediction of future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and climate change will remain uncertain. It is suggested that terrestrial ecosystems may take up the miss carbon. To validate this hypothesis and to improve the estimates of the carbon sink or source strength requires a direct investigation of the carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems and its response to atmospheric CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change at the global scale. In this study, a highly aggregated model was developed on the basis of photosynthesis, plant growth, litter production and soil organic carbon decomposition. And the model was use to predict the variations in carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from 1860 to 2020. In our estimates, climate change alone does not cause a significant variation in net primary production (NPP), but results in a reduction in net ecosystem production (NEP) by 50% thus, a decrease in the total carbon storage, since 1960s. Climate change happened undercuts the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems taking up atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Without climate change, CO{sub 2} elevation enhances NPP and NEP steadily. NPP is enhanced by 26% and NEP is increased from about 1.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1860s to 4.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2020s. The combined CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change increase the global annual NPP from 46.0 Gt C in 1860s to 57.0 Gt C in 2010s. NEP is increased to 2.1 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1980s and about 3.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2010s. The increase occurs in both the northern middle-high latitudes and tropical regions. Taking land use change into account, terrestrial ecosystems are nearly carbon-balanced before 1950s, but afterwards they become a significant sink of about 1.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} for atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  11. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R. A.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-15

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ?mol mol-1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of themore »optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for 8 months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of a commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of reference gas cylinders.« less

  12. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-08-05

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and moremore »accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for eight months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of another commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of calibration cylinders.« less

  13. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archer, D.

    2015-05-21

    A two-dimensional model of a sediment column, with Darcy fluid flow, biological and thermal methane production, and permafrost and methane hydrate formation, is subjected to glacial–interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to the cold atmosphere during glacial times and immersing it in the ocean in interglacial times. The glacial cycles are followed by a "long-tail" 100 kyr warming due to fossil fuel combustion. The salinity of the sediment column in the interior of the shelf can be decreased by hydrological forcing to depths well below sea level when the sediment is exposed to the atmosphere.more »There is no analogous advective seawater-injecting mechanism upon resubmergence, only slower diffusive mechanisms. This hydrological ratchet is consistent with the existence of freshwater beneath the sea floor on continental shelves around the world, left over from the last glacial period. The salt content of the sediment column affects the relative proportions of the solid and fluid H2O-containing phases, but in the permafrost zone the salinity in the pore fluid brine is a function of temperature only, controlled by equilibrium with ice. Ice can tolerate a higher salinity in the pore fluid than methane hydrate can at low pressure and temperature, excluding methane hydrate from thermodynamic stability in the permafrost zone. The implication is that any methane hydrate existing today will be insulated from anthropogenic climate change by hundreds of meters of sediment, resulting in a response time of thousands of years. The strongest impact of the glacial–interglacial cycles on the atmospheric methane flux is due to bubbles dissolving in the ocean when sea level is high. When sea level is low and the sediment surface is exposed to the atmosphere, the atmospheric flux is sensitive to whether permafrost inhibits bubble migration in the model. If it does, the atmospheric flux is highest during the glaciating, sea level regression (soil-freezing) part of the cycle rather than during deglacial transgression (warming and thawing). The atmospheric flux response to a warming climate is small, relative to the rest of the methane sources to the atmosphere in the global budget, because of the ongoing flooding of the continental shelf. The increased methane flux due to ocean warming could be completely counteracted by a sea level rise of tens of meters on millennial timescales due to the loss of ice sheets, decreasing the efficiency of bubble transit through the water column. The model results give no indication of a mechanism by which methane emissions from the Siberian continental shelf could have a significant impact on the near-term evolution of Earth's climate, but on millennial timescales the release of carbon from hydrate and permafrost could contribute significantly to the fossil fuel carbon burden in the atmosphere–ocean–terrestrial carbon cycle.« less

  14. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  15. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  16. A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical wetlands M E R R I of atmospheric methane. Here, we assess controls on methane flux using a database of approximately 19 000 latitude regions. Our analyses confirm general controls on wetland methane emissions from soil temperature

  17. CO2 sequestration by methanogens in activated sludge for methane Nazlina Haiza Mohd Yasin a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    CO2 sequestration by methanogens in activated sludge for methane production Nazlina Haiza Mohd WAS have significant potential for converting the greenhouse gas CO2 into the fuel methane. Methane biofuel (methane) or other valuable products using this single carbon atom. Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Uncertainty in atmospheric CO? predictions from a parametric uncertainty analysis of a global carbon cycle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holian, Gary L.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Key uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are explored with a 2-D model for the oceanic carbon sink. By calibrating the key parameters of this ocean carbon sink model to widely referenced values, it produces an average ...

  19. Whitings as a Potential Mechanism for Controlling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations – Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady D. Lee; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-03-01

    Species of cyanobacteria in the genera Synechococcus and Synechocystis are known to be the catalysts of a phenomenon called "whitings", which is the formation and precipitation of fine-grained CaCO3 particles. Whitings occur when the cyanobacteria fix atmospheric CO2 through the formation of CaCO3 on their cell surfaces which leads to precipitation to the ocean floor and subsequent entombment in mud. Whitings represent one potential mechanism for CO2 sequestration. Research was performed to determine the ability of various strains of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to calcify when grown in microcosms amended with 2.5 mM HCO3- and 3.4 mM Ca2+. Results indicated that while all strains tested have the ability to calcify, only two, Synechococcus species, strains PCC 8806 and PCC 8807, were able to calcify to the extent that CaCO3 was precipitated. Enumeration of the cyanobacterial cultures during testing indicated that cell density did not appear to have an effect on calcification. Factors that had the greatest effect on calcification were CO2 removal and subsequent generation of alkaline pH. As CO2 was removed, growth medium pH increased and soluble Ca2+ was removed from solution. The largest increases in growth medium pH occurred when CO2 levels dropped below 400 ppmv. Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of atmospheric CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested in microcosm experiments for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment producing approximately 18.6 mg of solid-phase calcium. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of solid phase calcium was produced. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. These research results demonstrate the potential of using cyanobacterial catalyzed “whitings” as a method to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere.

  20. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, J. M.; Univ. of Toronto, ON; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, T. O.

    2015-01-19

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated usingmore »a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 2002–2007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 ± 0.03 to 0.42 ± 0.13 Pg C yr?ą, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 ± 0.12 to 0.29 ± 0.12 Pg C yr?ą. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 ± 0.04 to 0.040 ± 0.02 Pg C yr?ą because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.« less

  1. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M.; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, T. O.

    2015-01-19

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 2002–2007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 ± 0.03 to 0.42 ± 0.13 Pg C yr?ą, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 ± 0.12 to 0.29 ± 0.12 Pg C yr?ą. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 ± 0.04 to 0.040 ± 0.02 Pg C yr?ą because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.

  2. Atmospheric inversion of the surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distributions of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M.; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, Tristram O.

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous USA, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with consideration of the spatial information of crop production and consumption. Spatially distributed 5 county-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous USA are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon 10 fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 2002–2007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 ± 0.03 Pg C yr?ą to 0.42 ± 0.13 Pg C yr?ą, whereas the large sink in the US Southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41±0.12 Pg C yr?ą 15 to 0.29 ±0.12 Pg C yr?ą. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the West region from 0.066 ± 0.04 Pg C yr?ą to 0.040 ± 0.02 Pg C yr?1 because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increase in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop 20 products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides an atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance of a region.

  3. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M. [Nanjing Univ., Jiangsu (China); Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Fung, J. W. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Mo, G. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Deng, F. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); West, T. O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 2002–2007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 ± 0.03 to 0.42 ± 0.13 Pg C yr?ą, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 ± 0.12 to 0.29 ± 0.12 Pg C yr?ą. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 ± 0.04 to 0.040 ± 0.02 Pg C yr?ą because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.

  4. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  5. Methane production by attached film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jewell, William J. (202 Eastwood Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850)

    1981-01-01

    A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

  6. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Locatelli, R.

    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model ...

  7. Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane of tables relating to national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (principally carbon dioxide, methane, 1

  8. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  9. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  10. Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White

    2012-12-17

    During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

  11. A Three-Dimensional Ocean-Seaice-Carbon Cycle Model and its Coupling to a Two-Dimensional Atmospheric Model: Uses in Climate Change Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutkiewicz, Stephanie.

    We describe the coupling of a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, with explicit thermodynamic seaice and ocean carbon cycle representations, to a two-dimensional atmospheric/land model. This coupled system has been ...

  12. 2, 11971241, 2005 Control of methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of giant sulphide- oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Au- thigenic Carbonates

  13. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2001-11-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

  14. Formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in interstellar analogous methane (CH{sub 4})-carbon monoxide (CO) ices: A combined FTIR and reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jones, Brant M.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in methane-carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}-CO) ices was investigated upon its exposure to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons at 5.5 K. The radiation-induced nonthermal equilibrium processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via infrared spectroscopy complimented with post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption studies exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ReTOF) coupled with single photon fragment-free photo ionization (PI) at 10.49 eV. The detection of ketene in irradiated (isotopically labeled) methane-carbon monoxide ices was confirmed via the ?{sub 2} infrared absorption band and substantiated during the warm-up phase based on sublimation profiles obtained from the ReTOF-PI spectra of the corresponding isotopic masses. The experiments conducted with the mixed isotopic ices of {sup 12}CD{sub 4}-{sup 13}CO provide clear evidence of the formation of at least two ketene isotopomers (D{sub 2} {sup 12}C{sup 13}CO and D{sub 2} {sup 13}C{sup 13}CO), allowing for the derivation of two competing formation pathways. We have also proposed underlying reaction mechanisms to the formation of ketene based on kinetic fitting of the temporal evolution of the ketene isotopomers.

  15. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO2 levels: The added value of the isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH4 is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH4 oxidation., 1998). The main com- ponents of biogas are CH4 (50­60%) and carbon dioxide (CO2; 40­50%). A major

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  17. North America's forests are thought to be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    reflects the frequency of disturbance. In fact, one explanation for the forest sink in the eastern United carbon flux reflect a lack of detailed knowledge about the effects of forest disturbance and recovery highlighted forest disturbance as a critical factor constraining carbon dynamics [Wofsy and Harris, 2002

  18. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  19. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  20. Changing boreal methane sources and constant biomass burning during the last termination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    LETTERS Changing boreal methane sources and constant biomass burning during the last termination. Stocker3 Past atmospheric methane concentrations show strong fluctua- tions in parallel to rapid glacial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere1,2 superimposed on a glacial­interglacial doubling of methane

  1. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  2. The tropical cyclone-induced flux of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmerman, Neil L

    2012-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are known to cause phytoplankton blooms in regions of the ocean that would otherwise support very little life; it is also known that these storms entrain carbon-rich deep water, which can cause ...

  3. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y; Randerson, JT; Morton, DC

    2015-01-01

    19), 7888–7892. CHEN ET AL. HURRICANES AND AMAZON FIRES AREand G. C. Hurtt (2007), Hurricane Katrina’s carbon footprintThe 2013 Atlantic basin hurricane season: Blip or ?ip? ,

  4. Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    M. Volodin, and T. Wu (2014), Causes and implica- tions of2013 Published online 15 FEB 2014 Causes and implications ofand S. D. Allison (2013), Causes of variation in soil carbon

  5. Ocean chemistry and atmospheric CO2 sensitivity to carbon perturbations throughout the Cenozoic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir) model (for details, see Zeebe and Zachos [2007], Uchikawa and Zeebe [2008, the maximum decline of the calcite saturation state in the Atlantic surface box (the pH and saturation state

  6. Production of methane-rich syngas from hydrocarbon fuels using multi-functional catalyst/capture agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siefert, Nicholas S; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A; Surdoval, Wayne A

    2014-12-30

    The disclosure provides a gasification process for the production of a methane-rich syngas at temperatures exceeding 700.degree. C. through the use of an alkali hydroxide MOH, using a gasification mixture comprised of at least 0.25 moles and less than 2 moles of water for each mole of carbon, and at least 0.15 moles and less than 2 moles of alkali hydroxide MOH for each mole of carbon. These relative amounts allow the production of a methane-rich syngas at temperatures exceeding 700.degree. C. by enabling a series of reactions which generate H.sub.2 and CH.sub.4, and mitigate the reforming of methane. The process provides a methane-rich syngas comprised of roughly 20% (dry molar percentage) CH.sub.4 at temperatures above 700.degree. C., and may effectively operate within an IGFC cycle at reactor temperatures between 700-900.degree. C. and pressures in excess of 10 atmospheres.

  7. Methane storage capabilities of diamond analogues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haranczyk, M; Lin, LC; Lee, K; Martin, RL; Neaton, JB; Smit, B

    2013-01-01

    Methane can be an alternative fuel for vehicular usage provided that new porous materials are developed for its efficient adsorption-based storage. Herein, we search for materials for this application within the family of diamond analogues. We used density functional theory to investigate structures in which tetrahedral C atoms of diamond are separated by-CC-or-BN-groups, as well as ones involving substitution of tetrahedral C atoms with Si and Ge atoms. The adsorptive and diffusive properties of methane are studied using classical molecular simulations. Our results suggest that the all-carbon structure has the highest volumetric methane uptake of 280 VSTP/V at p = 35 bar and T = 298 K. However, it suffers from limited methane diffusion. Alternatively, the considered Si and Ge-containing analogies have fast diffusive properties but their adsorption is lower, ca. 172-179 VSTP/V, at the same conditions.

  8. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production to the methane potential alone indicated that at a C:N ratio of 17, the energy output was greater for the ADBH is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, and organic nitrogen is converted to ammonia. Generally, ammonia

  9. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  10. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels: The added value of the isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D CH{sub 4}) approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widory, D.; Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G.; Bour, O.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2}; {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D of CH{sub 4}) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH{sub 4} oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH{sub 4} is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH{sub 4} oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  11. A combined crossed-beam, ab initio, and RiceRamspergerKassel Marcus investigation of the reaction of carbon atoms C,,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    as in oxygen-poor combustion flames. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1418744 I of carbon stars,1 hydrocarbon-rich planetary atmospheres,2 combustion processes,3 and environmental science. Benzene has been detected in oxygen-poor methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane flames,4 and has

  12. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  13. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 41554163 Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly-dependent ``technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great. Soot is a particle-phase product of incomplete combus- tion of carbon containing fuels. Its main

  14. A study of the abundance and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oceanic carbon in relation to the global carbon cycle. Final technical report, February 15, 1990--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge can be gained about the fluxes and storage of carbon in natural systems and their relation to climate by detecting temporal and spatial patterns in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. When patterns in its {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotopic ratio are included in the analysis, there is also a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. The authors systematically measured the concentration and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to produce time series data essential to reveal these temporal and spatial patterns. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, the result also involved measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water and of CO{sub 2} in air near growing land plants. The study was coordinated with a study of the same title concurrently funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The study called for continued atmospheric measurements at an array of ten stations from the Arctic Basin to the South Pole. Air was collected in flasks brought back to the laboratory for analysis, except at Mauna Loa. Observatory, Hawaii, where continuous measurements were also carried out.

  15. Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini K.

    2009-01-01

    CO 2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zoneleakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites Fotini K.assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have

  16. Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

    2004-01-01

    1999. Reichle, D. et al. , Carbon sequestration research andfrom geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneof CO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites Curtis M.

  17. Changes in greenhouse gas emissions such as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from high-latitude wetlands in a warming climate may have important implications for projections of global warming, due to the large amounts of carbon stored in high-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    potential of methane. As much as 1/3 of global natural methane emissions come from high latitudes. Efforts and Heimann (2000) with modifications described in Walter et al (2001a ) · soil methane production, and transport of methane by diffusion, ebullition, and through plants modeled explicitly · methane production

  18. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  19. Effect of long duration UV irradiation on diamondlike carbon surfaces in the presence of a hydrocarbon gaseous atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedo, A.; Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of the effect of long duration UV irradiation (up to 2905 min) of flight quality diamondlike carbon charge state conversion surfaces for application in space research in the presence of a hydrocarbon atmosphere were done. An isopropanol atmosphere was used for simulating the hydrocarbon gaseous environment for an instrument on a satellite in space. Charge state conversion surfaces are used in neutral particle sensing instruments where neutral atoms have to be ionized prior to the analysis. A narrow-band (126{+-}5 nm) discharge lamp and a broad-band deuterium lamp (112-370 nm) were used as sources of UV radiation. The UV irradiation of a surface results in the desorption of some volatiles present on the surface and the decomposition of others. Desorption of volatiles, mostly water, is observed for both UV sources. The decomposition of the hydrocarbons and the subsequent build-up of a hydrocarbonaceous layer is only observed for the broad-band UV lamp, which is more representative for the space environment. Unfortunately, the hydrocarbonaceous layer cannot be removed thermally, i.e., it is permanent, and causes a degradation of the performance of the charge state conversion surfaces. With the present measurements we can quantify the UV influence at which the degradation of the conversion surfaces becomes noticeable.

  20. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-09-02

    Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ?15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W. |

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  2. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    - house gas, but also the hydroperoxide radical (HO2). HO2 converts nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxideContribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide. Chen, K. Carmody, S. Vutukuru, and D. Dabdub (2007), Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile

  3. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  4. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2002-10-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made up of three groups: Data Systems, Information Services, and Computer Systems, with nineteen full-time or part-time staff. The following section provides details on CDIAC's staff and organization. The Data Systems Group identifies and obtains databases important to global-change research; analyzes data; compiles needed databases; provides data management and support to specific programs [e.g., NARSTO, Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE), AmeriFlux, Oceans]; and prepares documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Information Services Group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; analyzes user statistics; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter (CDIAC Communications), the fiscal year annual reports, and various information materials. The Computer Systems Group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities; designs and maintains CDIAC's computing system network; ensures compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensures long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluates, develops, and implements software; ensures standards compliance; generates user statistics; provides Web design, development, and oversight; and provides systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects.

  5. Ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in nitrogen atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pérez del Pino, Ángel, E-mail: aperez@icmab.es; Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); György, Enikö [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Ballesteros, Belén [ICN2—Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-07

    Laser irradiation of randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG UV laser in nitrogen gas environment. The evolution of the MWCNT morphology and structure as a function of laser fluence and number of accumulated laser pulses has been studied using electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The observed changes are discussed and correlated with thermal simulations. The obtained results indicate that laser irradiation induces very fast, high temperature thermal cycles in MWCNTs which produce the formation of different nanocarbon forms, such as nanodiamonds. Premelting processes have been observed in localized sites by irradiation at low number of laser pulses and low fluence values. The accumulation of laser pulses and the increase in the fluence cause the full melting and amorphization of MWCNTs. The observed structural changes differ from that of conventional high temperature annealing treatments of MWCNTs.

  6. Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies during 19802000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies; accepted 1 July 2002; published 24 October 2002. [1] Decreased methane emissions from paddy rice may have contributed to the decline in the rate of increase of global atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration over

  7. Methane efflux from boreal wetlands: Theory and testing of the ecosystem model Ecosys with chamber and tower flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    Methane efflux from boreal wetlands: Theory and testing of the ecosystem model Ecosys with chamber and Structure: Biosphere/atmosphere interactions; 1890 Hydrology: Wetlands; KEYWORDS: Ecosys, methane emissions, wetlands, modeling Citation: Grant, R. F., and N. T. Roulet, Methane efflux from boreal wetlands: Theory

  8. Formation of methane on Mars by fluid-rock interaction in the crust James R. Lyons,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    Formation of methane on Mars by fluid-rock interaction in the crust James R. Lyons,1 Craig Manning by magmatic degassing from a dike with only 50 ppm C. Atmospheric methane strongly suggests ongoing magmatism and hydrothermal alteration on Mars. Citation: Lyons, J. R., C. Manning, and F. Nimmo (2005), Formation of methane

  9. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  10. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  11. On the coupled evolution of inflation, wealth and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    In a prior study (Garrett, 2009), a thermodynamically-based economic growth model was introduced that was based on the finding that the rate of consumption of energy by civilization has been related to its historical accumulation of inflation-adjusted Gross World Product (GWP), or its ``wealth'', through a constant value {\\lambda} of 9.7 {\\pm} 0.3 milliwatts per 1990 US dollar. Here, this simple model is extended to describe, first, a thermodynamically-based theory for economic inflation and, second, a prognostic model for the coupled multi-decadal evolution of CO2 concentrations and GWP. Multi-decadal hindcasts of GWP and CO2 concentrations made with this model are shown to be accurate. Applied to coming decades, the model implies that, like a long-term natural disaster, future greenhouse warming will accelerate economic inflation. Such inflation will slow growth of not just inflation-adjusted economic wealth, but also CO2 emission rates because the two are coupled through {\\lambda}. Maintaining atmospheric ...

  12. EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2...

  13. TITAN'S TRANSPORT-DRIVEN METHANE CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2012-09-10

    The mechanisms behind the occurrence of large cloud outbursts and precipitation on Titan have been disputed. A global- and annual-mean estimate of surface fluxes indicated only 1% of the insolation, or {approx}0.04 W m{sup -2}, is exchanged as sensible and/or latent fluxes. Since these fluxes are responsible for driving atmospheric convection, it has been argued that moist convection should be quite rare and precipitation even rarer, even if evaporation globally dominates the surface-atmosphere energy exchange. In contrast, climate simulations indicate substantial cloud formation and/or precipitation. We argue that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative imbalance is diagnostic of horizontal heat transport by Titan's atmosphere, and thus constrains the strength of the methane cycle. Simple calculations show the TOA radiative imbalance is {approx}0.5-1 W m{sup -2} in Titan's equatorial region, which implies 2-3 MW of latitudinal heat transport by the atmosphere. Our simulation of Titan's climate suggests this transport may occur primarily as latent heat, with net evaporation at the equator and net accumulation at higher latitudes. Thus, the methane cycle could be 10-20 times previous estimates. Opposing seasonal transport at solstices, compensation by sensible heat transport, and focusing of precipitation by large-scale dynamics could further enhance the local, instantaneous strength of Titan's methane cycle by a factor of several. A limited supply of surface liquids in regions of large surface radiative imbalance may throttle the methane cycle, and if so, we predict more frequent large storms over the lakes district during Titan's northern summer.

  14. Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

  15. Friday, March 16, 2007 MARS SEDIMENTS AND GEOCHEMISTRY: ATMOSPHERE, SOILS, BRINES, AND MINERALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    explains the existence of ancient glacial melt morphology. 10:00 a.m. Zolotov M. Yu. * Origin of Acid. S. * McGill G. E. Martian Glacial Morphology, Geomorphology, and Atmospheric Methane [#1161] Methane clathrate hydrate in martian glacial ice is the major reservoir for modern atmospheric methane, and also

  16. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  17. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

  18. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-07-15

    A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

  19. Methane sources and sinks in Lake Kivu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    and G. T. Harvey (1973), Methane in Lake Kivu: New datagenes associated with methane? oxidizing archaea, Appl.Pace, and L. Tranvik (2004), Methane emissions from lakes:

  20. Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Ralph F

    2012-01-03

    The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

  1. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of oxy-coal combustion for carbon capture at atmospheric and elevated pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels, often performed in a mixture of oxygen and wet or dry recycled carbon dioxide, has gained significant interest in the last two decades as one of the leading carbon capture technologies ...

  3. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  4. THE CARBON-LAND MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT (C-LAMP): A PROTOTYPE FOR COUPLED BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models

  5. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    carbon and sulfur dioxide from India Gazala Habib,1 Chandra Venkataraman,1 Manish Shrivastava,2 Rangan a narrower bound than in previous works. From this new activity data and currently used black carbon emission factors, the black carbon (BC) emissions from biofuel combustion were estimated as 220 (65­760) Gg yrŔ1

  6. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  7. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 155 (2007) 2834 Electron Compton scattering from methane and methane-d4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    2007-01-01

    from methane and methane-d4 G. Coopera, A.P. Hitchcocka,, C.A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismannb, M. Vosc]. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Quasi-elastic electron scattering; Methane; CD4

  8. MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

  9. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

  10. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

  11. Determining the Fate of Methane Released from the Seafloor in Deep and Shallow Water Environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Mengran

    2014-08-12

    Marine gas seeps and accidental marine oil spills are sources of methane (CH_(4)) to the ocean, and potentially to the atmosphere, though the magnitude of the fluxes and dynamics of these systems are poorly defined. For example, the ultimate...

  12. The Young Planet-mass Ob ject 2M1207b: A cool, cloudy, and methane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Young Planet-mass Ob ject 2M1207b: A cool, cloudy, and methane-poor atmosphere Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Young Planet-mass Ob ject 2M1207b: A cool, cloudy, and...

  13. Methane cycling in upland soils of the Peruvian Andes and Amazon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Samuel Peter

    2015-06-30

    Significant discrepancies exist in global estimates of the atmospheric methane (CH4) budget. This is particularly true for tropical South America where bottom-up approaches, rooted in field observation, tend to under ...

  14. ISSUE PAPER METHANE AVOIDANCE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    ISSUE PAPER METHANE AVOIDANCE FROM COMPOSTING An Issue Paper for the: Climate Action Reserve...........................................................................................................39 6.2. Standard Methods for Quantifying Methane from Organic Waste in Landfills...40 6.3. GHG

  15. Change in atmospheric mineral aerosols in response to climate: Last glacial period, preindustrial, modern, and doubled carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    Change in atmospheric mineral aerosols in response to climate: Last glacial period, preindustrial generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate System Model for the current climate are shown to be consistent with present day satellite and deposition data. The response

  16. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach HomepolarizationMeasurementsWarmingMethane BackgroundMethane

  17. The Tri--Methane Rearrangement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Tri--Methane Rearrangement #12;Církva, Vladimír; Zuraw, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Howard E.* Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 #12;INTRODUCTION The tri--methane of a cyclopentene 5a, but only in crystalline medium. However, in the solution photochemistry of tri--methane system

  18. The Tri--Methane Rearrangement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Tri--Methane Rearrangement #12;Cirkva, Vladimir; Zuraw, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Howard E.* Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 #12;INTRODUCTION The tri--methane of a cyclopentene 5a, but only in crystalline medium. However, in the solution photochemistry of tri--methane system

  19. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-05-04

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA andmore »West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  20. Quantifying sources of black carbon in western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source–receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over northwestern USA and westernmore »Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  1. The composition of Titan's lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini-Huygens probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    of evaporating methane, ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). ± The methane remote sensing instruments had already identified the major and several minor constituents above Titan

  2. Composition of Titan's lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the CassiniHuygens probe gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    ), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The methane data showed evidence that methane sensor and more detailed analysis of the flight data. [3] Voyager remote sensing instruments had already

  3. Direct Biological Conversion of Electrical Current into Methane by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 Received December 12, 2008 to a plain carbon cathode where only small amounts of hydrogen gas could be produced. Both produced from renewable energy sources (such as wind, solar, or biomass) into a biofuel (methane) as well

  4. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore »Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr?ą (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  5. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavrodiev, S Cht; Vachev, B

    2008-01-01

    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  6. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  7. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  8. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  9. Dissolved methane distributions and air-sea flux in the plume of a massive seep field, Coal Oil Point, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Libe

    Dissolved methane distributions and air-sea flux in the plume of a massive seep field, Coal Oil coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California. Methane was quantified in the down originating from Coal Oil Point enters the atmosphere within the study area. Most of it appears

  10. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  11. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  12. VIBRATION->VIBRATION ENERGY TRANSFER IN METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, Peter

    2012-01-01

    VIBRATION ENERGY TRANSFER IN METHANE Peter Hess, A. H. Kung,Rotation Spectra of Methane, U.S. Nat'L· Tech. Inform.tret t tllll. I. INTRODUCTION Methane is a relatively simple

  13. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

  14. Measurement Analysis of GC-FID Methane Network in East Anglia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    for monitoring urban air quality in low-cost, high-density networks, Atmospheric Environment 70 (2013) 186e203 inventory. Atmospheric measurements of methane are used in an Inversion model to achieve this. A measurement monoxide were measured along with the meteorological variables wind speed, wind direction and temperature

  15. ARM - Methane Background Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach HomepolarizationMeasurementsWarmingMethane Background

  16. Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    ) and methane (CH4) from renewable biomass has the potential to con- tribute to reducing dependence on fossilBiofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and Hydrogen Michael J McAnulty, Pennsylvania State, USA James G Ferry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA The production

  17. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  18. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  19. The economic feasibility of enhanced coalbed methane recovery using CO2 sequestration in the San Juan Basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Angeni

    2007-09-17

    , due to the chemical and physical properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 sequestration is a potential option for substantially enhancing coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). The San Juan Fruitland coal has the most prolific coal seams in the United States...

  20. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  1. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  2. 7.4 Landfill Methane Utilization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A chapter on Landfill Methane Utilization from the Clean Energy Strategies for Local Governments publication.

  3. Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    emissions and climate forcing. Abbreviations Pg Petagrams C Carbon Carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide (CO 2 ) or methane (CH 4 ) will determine the ultimate radiative-forcing potential of these emissions.

  4. Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Lin, Haiqing (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Scott (Brecksville, OH); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA)

    2012-03-06

    A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

  5. Processes for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons via sulfur-containing intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S.; Palermo, R.E.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a process for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. The process comprising the steps of contacting methane with carbonyl sulfide in the presence of UV light under conditions sufficient to generate Ch/sub 3/SH; and contacting CH/sub 3/SH with a catalyst under conditions sufficient to produce hydrogen sulfide and a mixture of hydrocarbons having at least two carbon atoms.

  6. New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution |of Energy New Methane Hydrate

  7. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01

    AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE Lawrence Berkeley LaboratoryDIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE Kendall F. Haven MarkArrangement Kelp to Methane Processing Plant Schematic.

  8. Microbe-Metazoan interactions at Pacific Ocean methane seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurber, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    B) and those present within methane seep Euryarchaea ( PMI,margin: the influence of methane seeps and oxygen minimumisotope signatures and methane use by New Zealand cold seep

  9. Microbe-metazoan interactions at Pacific Ocean methane seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurber, Andrew Reichmann

    2010-01-01

    B) and those present within methane seep Euryarchaea ( PMI,margin: the influence of methane seeps and oxygen minimumisotope signatures and methane use by New Zealand cold seep

  10. Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuels from methane: a sustainable, abundant resource that does not compete with the human food chain 3 Sustainable Methane * Methane can be captured from anaerobic digestion of...

  11. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archer, D.

    2014-06-03

    A two-dimensional model of a passive continental margin was adapted to the simulation of the methane cycle on Siberian continental shelf and slope, attempting to account for the impacts of glacial/interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to freezing conditions with deep permafrost formation during glacial times, and immersion in the ocean in interglacial times. The model is used to gauge the impact of the glacial cycles, and potential anthropogenic warming in the deep future, on the atmospheric methane emission flux, and the sensitivities of that flux to processes such as permafrost formation and terrestrial organic carbonmore »(Yedoma) deposition. Hydrological forcing drives a freshening and ventilation of pore waters in areas exposed to the atmosphere, which is not quickly reversed by invasion of seawater upon submergence, since there is no analogous saltwater pump. This hydrological pump changes the salinity enough to affect the stability of permafrost and methane hydrates on the shelf. Permafrost formation inhibits bubble transport through the sediment column, by construction in the model. The impact of permafrost on the methane budget is to replace the bubble flux by offshore groundwater flow containing dissolved methane, rather than accumulating methane for catastrophic release when the permafrost seal fails during warming. By far the largest impact of the glacial/interglacial cycles on the atmospheric methane flux is attenuation by dissolution of bubbles in the ocean when sea level is high. Methane emissions are highest during the regression (soil freezing) part of the cycle, rather than during transgression (thawing). The model-predicted methane flux to the atmosphere in response to a warming climate is small, relative to the global methane production rate, because of the ongoing flooding of the continental shelf. A slight increase due to warming could be completely counteracted by sea level rise on geologic time scales, decreasing the efficiency of bubble transit through the water column. The methane cycle on the shelf responds to climate change on a long time constant of thousands of years, because hydrate is excluded thermodynamically from the permafrost zone by water limitation, leaving the hydrate stability zone at least 300 m below the sediment surface.« less

  12. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000–135,000 t CO{sub 2-eq.}/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied. It is therefore necessary to generate more data in the future in order to calculate more precise methane emission rates from MBT landfills. This is important for the overall calculation of the climate gas production in Germany which is required once a year by the German Government.

  13. A method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low levels of 14C-labeled methane and accelerator mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Environ. Microbiol. 10(Field observations of methane concentra- tions and oxidationAnaerobic oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate

  14. METHANE GAS STABILIZES SUPERCOOLED ETHANE DROPLETS IN TITAN'S CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chia C.; Lang, E. Kathrin; Signorell, Ruth

    2010-03-20

    Strong evidence for ethane clouds in various regions of Titan's atmosphere has recently been found. Ethane is usually assumed to exist as ice particles in these clouds, although the possible role of liquid and supercooled liquid ethane droplets has been recognized. Here, we report on infrared spectroscopic measurements of ethane aerosols performed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking Titan's lower atmosphere. The results clearly show that liquid ethane droplets are significantly stabilized by methane gas which is ubiquitous in Titan's nitrogen atmosphere-a phenomenon that does not have a counterpart for water droplets in Earth's atmosphere. Our data imply that supercooled ethane droplets are much more abundant in Titan's clouds than previously anticipated. Possibly, these liquid droplets are even more important for cloud processes and the formation of lakes than ethane ice particles.

  15. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  16. Atmospheric Environment ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    that the influence of the urban region on wind patterns and atmospheric stability could be studied. HeightAtmospheric Environment ] (

  17. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  18. Activation of methane by transition metal-substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL)

    1991-01-01

    Aluminophosphate molecular sieves substituted with cobalt, manganese or iron and having the AlPO.sub.4 -34 or AlPO.sub.4 -5, or related AlPO.sub.4 structure activate methane starting at approximately 350.degree. C. Between 400.degree. and 500.degree. C. and at methane pressures .ltoreq.1 atmosphere the rate of methane conversion increases steadily with typical conversion efficiencies at 500.degree. C. approaching 50% and selectivity to the production of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons approaching 100%. The activation mechanism is based on reduction of the transition metal(III) form of the molecular sieve to the transition metal(II) form with accompanying oxidative dehydrogenation of the methane. Reoxidation of the - transition metal(II) form to the transition metal(III) form can be done either chemically (e.g., using O.sub.2) or electrochemically.

  19. Tellus 000, 000000 (0000) Printed 14 March 2009 (Tellus LATEX style file v2.2) Modeling the Atmospheric Airborne Fraction in a Simple Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khatiwala, Samar

    of anthropogenic CO2 emissions remaining in the atmosphere, known as the air- borne fraction (AF), has remained as the "airborne fraction", AF, defined as the ratio of the annual increase of atmospheric CO2 to total emissions atmospheric CO2 levels and hence climate are often justified on this basis. On the other hand, recent

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9...

  1. VIBRATION->VIBRATION ENERGY TRANSFER IN METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Submitted to the Journal of Chemical Physics VIBRATIONVIBRATION ENERGY TRANSFER IN METHANE Peter Hess, A. H. Kung,L K. Fox, Analysis of Vibration-Rotation Spectra of Methane,

  2. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Tilmes, S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Liu, Xiaohong; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-28

    Current climate models generally under-predict the surface concentration of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic due to the uncertainties associated with emissions, transport, and removal. This bias is also present in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1 (CAM5). In this study, we investigate the uncertainty of Arctic BC due to transport processes simulated by CAM5 by configuring the model to run in an “offline mode” in which the large-scale circulations are prescribed. We compare the simulated BC transport when the offline model is driven by the meteorology predicted by the standard free-running CAM5 with simulations where the meteorology is constrained to agree with reanalysis products. Some circulation biases are apparent: the free-running CAM5 produces about 50% less transient eddy transport of BC than the reanalysis-driven simulations, which may be attributed to the coarse model resolution insufficient to represent eddies. Our analysis shows that the free-running CAM5 reasonably captures the essence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), but some discernable differences in the spatial pattern of the AO between the free-running CAM5 and the reanalysis-driven simulations result in significantly different AO modulation of BC transport over Northeast Asia and Eastern Europe. Nevertheless, we find that the overall climatological circulation patterns simulated by the free-running CAM5 generally resembles those from the reanalysis products, and BC transport is very similar in both simulation sets. Therefore, the simulated circulation features regulating the long-range BC transport is unlikely the most important cause of the large under-prediction of surface BC concentration in the Arctic.

  3. Evaluation of Preindustrial to Present-day Black Carbon and its Albedo Forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, Drew; Berntsen, T.; Bisiauxs, M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; McConnell, J.R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-03-05

    As a part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against the observations including 12 ice core records, a long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using the NCAR Community Land and Sea-Ice model 4 with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000, which includes the SNICAR BC-snow model. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations to using recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to the differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology among models; 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However,models agree well on 2.5~3 times increase in the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day, which matches with the 2.5 times increase in BC emissions. We find a large model diversity at both NH and SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfrauch and Ispra. However, the models fail to capture the Arctic BC seasonality due tosevere underestimations during winter and spring. Compared to recent snowpack measurements, the simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of observations except for Greenland and Arctic Ocean. However, model and observation differ widely due to missing interannual variations in emissions and possibly due to the choice of the prescribed meteorology period (i.e., 1996-2000).

  4. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); D'Este, Joseph R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time.

  5. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, R.P.; Taylor, C.E.; D`Este, J.R.

    1998-02-24

    A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time. 3 figs.

  6. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions · Mean molecular mass (µ) -> Chemical composition · How did Titan form? · Current reservoirs of volatiles · Ethane/methane puddles/ocean · Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc ­ T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable · Is it possible to know µ based on simple

  7. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    methane chemical losses. INMS Data T-GITM Bell et al. [2010b] #12;Constraints on Escape · Parameter Sweep-Thermosphere Model (GITM) · 3-D, non-hydrostatic, altitude-based atmospheric model ­ Compressible Navier (TVD) MUSCL Scheme. ­ Block-based Massively Parallel Framework ­ Updating with 4th order Runge

  8. Methane storms as a driver of Titan's dune orientation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charnay, Benjamin; Rafkin, Scot; Narteau, Clément; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Pont, Sylvain Courrech du; Lucas, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Titan's equatorial regions are covered by eastward propagating linear dunes. This direction is opposite to mean surface winds simulated by Global Climate Models (GCMs), which are oriented westward at these latitudes, similar to trade winds on Earth. Different hypotheses have been proposed to address this apparent contradiction, involving Saturn's gravitational tides, large scale topography or wind statistics, but none of them can explain a global eastward dune propagation in the equatorial band. Here we analyse the impact of equinoctial tropical methane storms developing in the superrotating atmosphere (i.e. the eastward winds at high altitude) on Titan's dune orientation. Using mesoscale simulations of convective methane clouds with a GCM wind profile featuring superrotation, we show that Titan's storms should produce fast eastward gust fronts above the surface. Such gusts dominate the aeolian transport, allowing dunes to extend eastward. This analysis therefore suggests a coupling between superrotation, tro...

  9. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30

    In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

  10. Methane adsorption on Devonian shales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Fan-Chang

    1992-01-01

    METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis by FAN-CHANG LI Submitted to thc Office of Graclua4e Sturiics of texas AgiM Ulllvel'sliy in pari, ial fulfilhuent of t, hc requirements I'or t, hc degree of ii IAS'I'Elf OF SCIL'NCE December... 1992 Major Subject, : Chemical Engineering METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis l&y I'AN-CHANC LI Approved as to style and contcut by: A. T. 'vtratson (Chair of Commitl. ee) John C. Slattery (Member) Bruce . Hcrhcrt (Memhcr...

  11. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macalady, Jenn

    Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

  12. Technical Note Methane gas migration through geomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROOFS Technical Note Methane gas migration through geomembranes T. D. Stark1 and H. Choi2 1 flexible geomembranes, and to measure the methane gas transmission rate, permeance, and permeability). The measured methane gas permeability coefficient through a PVC geomembrane is 7.55 3 104 ml(STP).mil/m2.day

  13. Methane Activation Structural and Mechanistic Requirements for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Methane Activation Structural and Mechanistic Requirements for Methane Activation and Chemical and petrochemical processes and in fuel cells. The strong bonds in CH4 (439 kJmolŔ1 [1] ) and the endothermic nature by BP as part of the Methane Conversion Cooperative Research Program at the University of California

  14. Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew; Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.

    2008-04-15

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating global climate, implicating global oceanic deposits of methane gas hydrate as the main culprit in instances of rapid climate change that have occurred in the past. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those predicted under future climate change scenarios, is poorly understood. To determine the fate of the carbon stored in these hydrates, we performed simulations of oceanic gas hydrate accumulations subjected to temperature changes at the seafloor and assessed the potential for methane release into the ocean. Our modeling analysis considered the properties of benthic sediments, the saturation and distribution of the hydrates, the ocean depth, the initial seafloor temperature, and for the first time, estimated the effect of benthic biogeochemical activity. The results show that shallow deposits--such as those found in arctic regions or in the Gulf of Mexico--can undergo rapid dissociation and produce significant methane fluxes of 2 to 13 mol/yr/m{sup 2} over a period of decades, and release up to 1,100 mol of methane per m{sup 2} of seafloor in a century. These fluxes may exceed the ability of the seafloor environment (via anaerobic oxidation of methane) to consume the released methane or sequester the carbon. These results will provide a source term to regional or global climate models in order to assess the coupling of gas hydrate deposits to changes in the global climate.

  15. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendarPressExtended Facility8PlainsInstrumentsSources of

  16. ARM - Destination of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps Documentation DataDatastreamsxsacrcwrhiDatastreamsxsaprrhiAlaskaDefensive

  17. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samani, Zohrab A. (Las Cruces, NM); Hanson, Adrian T. (Las Cruces, NM); Macias-Corral, Maritza (Las Cruces, NM)

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  18. Incentives for Methane Mitigation and Energy-Efficiency Improvements in Case of Ukraine’s Natural Gas Transmission System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine. The Ukrainian transmission company, Ukrtransgaz, reduced its own system’s natural gas consumption by 68 percent in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine’s transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine’s natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of steep increases in the price of imported natural gas, and comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, regional integration policy, and international environmental agreements has created conditions for successful methane emission and combustion reductions. Learning about such case studies can help us design better policies elsewhere.

  19. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    south and west of California), transport within and acrossCalifornia and their relationships with atmospheric transportfossil fuel CO 2 transport out of California. The figure

  20. Carbon abundances of early B-type stars in the solar vicinity. Non-LTE line-formation for C II/III/IV and self-consistent atmospheric parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. F. Nieva; N. Przybilla

    2007-11-23

    Precise determinations of the chemical composition in early B-type stars consitute fundamental observational constraints on stellar and galactochemical evolution. Carbon is one of the most abundant metals in the Universe but analyses in early-type stars show inconclusive results, like large discrepancies between analyses of different lines in C II, a failure to establish the C II/III ionization balance and the derivation of systematically lower abundances than from other objects. We present a comprehensive and robust C II/III/IV model for non-LTE line-formation calculations based on carefully selected atomic data. The model is calibrated with high-S/N spectra of six apparently slow-rotating early B-type dwarfs and giants, which cover a wide parameter range and are randomly distributed in the solar neighbourhood. A self-consistent quantitative spectrum analysis is performed using an extensive iteration scheme to determine stellar atmospheric parameters and to select the appropriate atomic data used for the derivation of chemical abundances. We establish the carbon ionization balance for all sample stars based on a unique set of input atomic data, achieving consistency for all modelled lines. Highly accurate atmospheric parameters and a homogeneous carbon abundance with reduced systematic errors are derived. This results in a present-day stellar carbon abundance in the solar neighbourhood, which is in good agreement with recent determinations of the solar value and with the gas-phase abundance of the Orion H II region. The homogeneous present-day carbon abundance also conforms with predictions of chemical-evolution models for the Galaxy. The present approach allows us to constrain the effects of systematic errors on fundamental parameters and abundances. (abridged)

  1. Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Camillo, Nicole G.

    2011-01-01

    Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE2011] METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY methane, and 64%

  2. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  3. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging components of the atmosphere, nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, and the noble gases. In the late

  4. SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOLAR UPGRADE OF METHANE USING DRY REFORMING IN DIRECT CONTACT BUBBLE REACTOR Khalid Al-Ali 1 , Kodama S. 1 , Kaneko H. 1 , Sekiguchi H. 1 , Tamaura Y. 1 and Chiesa M. 2 1 Department of Chemical, in an alkali carbonate based molten salt system containing suspended Ni-Al2O3 catalyst. A thermodynamical

  5. Microbes Turn Electricity Directly To Methane Without Hydrogen Generation March 30, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microbes Turn Electricity Directly To Methane Without Hydrogen Generation March 30, 2009 University Park, Pa. -- A tiny microbe can take electricity and directly convert carbon dioxide and water. They report their findings in this week's issue of Environmental Science and Technology. "We have a microbe

  6. Improving the Methane Production in the Co-Digestion of Microalgae and Cattle Manure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantu, Matthew Scott

    2014-04-28

    on the microalgae sludge, and the balancing of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. The results of this experiment would give a viable estimate on the possible methane production from co-digestion of these resources. At the conclusion of the experiment, it was found...

  7. New materials for methane capture from dilute and medium-concentration sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J; Maiti, A; Lin, LC; Stolaroff, JK; Smit, B; Aines, RD

    2013-04-16

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, second only to CO2, and is emitted into the atmosphere at different concentrations from a variety of sources. However, unlike CO2, which has a quadrupole moment and can be captured both physically and chemically in a variety of solvents and porous solids, methane is completely non-polar and interacts very weakly with most materials. Thus, methane capture poses a challenge that can only be addressed through extensive material screening and ingenious molecular-level designs. Here we report systematic in silico studies on the methane capture effectiveness of two different materials systems, that is, liquid solvents (including ionic liquids) and nanoporous zeolites. Although none of the liquid solvents appears effective as methane sorbents, systematic screening of over 87,000 zeolite structures led to the discovery of a handful of candidates that have sufficient methane sorption capacity as well as appropriate CH4/CO2 and/or CH4/N-2 selectivity to be technologically promising.

  8. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  9. The Methane to Markets Coal Mine Methane Subcommittee meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: a report from the Administrative Support Group; strategy updates from Australia, India, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland and the USA; coal mine methane update and IEA's strategy and activities; the power of VAM - technology application update; the emissions trading market; the voluntary emissions reduction market - creating profitable CMM projects in the USA; an Italian perspective towards a zero emission strategies; and the wrap-up and summary.

  10. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

  11. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  12. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  13. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently usedmore »for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a?1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a?1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a?1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a?1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29–44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11–15% to coal with an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a?1 source from wetlands.« less

  14. THE GREAT OXIDATION OF EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE: CONTESTING THE YOYO MODEL VIA TRANSITION STABILITY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuntz, M.; Roy, D.; Musielak, Z. E., E-mail: cuntz@uta.ed, E-mail: dipanjan.roy@etumel.univmed.f, E-mail: zmusielak@uta.ed [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2009-11-20

    A significant controversy regarding the climate history of the Earth and its relationship to the development of complex life forms concerns the rise of oxygen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geological records show that this rise occurred about 2.4 Gyr ago, when the atmospheric oxygen increased from less than 10{sup -5} present atmospheric level (PAL) to more than 0.01 PAL and possibly above 0.1 PAL. However, there is a debate whether this rise happened relatively smoothly or with well-pronounced ups and downs (the Yoyo model). In our study, we explore a simplified atmospheric chemical system consisting of oxygen, methane, and carbon that is driven by the sudden decline of the net input of reductants to the surface as previously considered by Goldblatt et al. Based on the transition stability analysis for the system equations, constituting a set of non-autonomous and non-linear differential equations, as well as the inspection of the Lyapunov exponents, it is found that the equations do not exhibit chaotic behavior. In addition, the rise of oxygen occurs relative smoothly, possibly with minor bumps (within a factor of 1.2), but without major jumps. This result clearly argues against the Yoyo model in agreement with recent geological findings.

  15. The Tri--methane Rearrangement: Mechanistic and Exploratory Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    counterpart. Scheme 1 shows the mechanism of the di--methane rearrangement and its potential diversion allylic diradical 4, closure to tri--methane product 6 may compete with 1,3-closure to di--methane product rearrangement. On direct irradiation, tris-diphenylvinyl methane 9 led to 52% of tri--methane product 11

  16. Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

    2013-11-22

    Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the results that were obtained.

  17. Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Changchun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoxin [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Sun, Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Miao, Yuqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, Xianwei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Guo, Yuedong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2012-01-01

    The permafrost carbon climate feedback is one of the major mechanisms in controlling the climate ecosystem interactions in northern high latitudes. Of this feedback, methane (CH4) emission from natural wetlands is critically important due to its high warming potential. The freeze thaw transition has been confirmed to play an important role in annual CH4 budget, yet the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. An intensive field campaign was carried out in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China to estimate the CH4 emission in the spring freeze thaw transition period. The observation concluded that a large CH4 source was caused by spring thaw; the maximum hourly emission rate was 48.6 g C m 2 h 1, more than three orders of the regularly observed CH4 emission rate in the growing season. In some sporadically observed 'hot spots', the spring thawing effect contributed to a large CH4 source of 31.3 10.1 g C m 2, which is approximately 80% of the previously calculated annual CH4 emission in the same study area. If our results are typical for natural wetlands in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region, we estimate a global CH4 source strength of 0.5 1.0 Tg C (1 Tg =1012 g) caused by spring thaw in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region in the year 2011. Combining with available satellite and flask data, a regional extrapolation reaches a temporal pattern of CH4 emission during 2003 2009 which is consistent with recently observed changes in atmospheric CH4 concentration in the high latitudes. This suggests that the CH4 emission upon spring thaw in the high latitudes might be enhanced by the projected climate warming. These findings indicate that the spring thawing effect is an important mechanism in the permafrost carbon climate feedback and needs to be incorporated in Earth system models.

  18. Method for in situ biological conversion of coal to methane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Volkwein, Jon C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the in situ biological conversion of coal to methane comprising culturing on a coal-containing substrate a consortium of microorganisms capable of degrading the coal into methane under suitable conditions. This consortium of microorganisms can be obtained from an underground cavity such as an abandoned mine which underwent a change from being supplied with sewage to where no sewage was present, since these conditions have favored the development of microorganisms capable of using coal as a carbon source and converting coal to methane. The consortium of microorganisms obtained from such abandoned coal mines can be isolated and introduced to hard-to-reach coal-containing substrates which lack such microorganisms and which would otherwise remain unrecoverable. The present invention comprises a significant advantage in that useable energy can be obtained from a number of abandoned mine sites or other areas wherein coal is no longer being recovered, and such energy can be obtained in a safe, efficient, and inexpensive manner.

  19. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons...

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

  1. Green Goals: Carbon Sequestration Grade Levels: 6 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Green Goals: Carbon Sequestration Grade Levels: 6 ­ 12 type of carbon sequestration. All plants sequester carbon; however, the larger Objective: To investigate the role of trees in atmospheric carbon dioxide reduction

  2. Towards quantifying the reaction network around the sulfate–methane-transition-zone in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, with a kinetic modeling approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Torres, Marta E.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Bahk, Jang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    We present a kinetic model based upon pore water data collected from eight sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin gas hydrate drilling expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Three sites were drilled at locations where acoustic chimneys were identified in seismic data, and the rest were drilled on non-chimney (i.e. background) environments. Our model, coupled a comprehensive compositional and isotopic data set, is used to illustrate the different biogeochemical processes at play in those two environments, in terms of reactions around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). Organic matter decomposition is an important process for production of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and consumption of sulfate in the non-chimney sites, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) dominates both carbon and sulfur cycles in the chimney environment. Different sources of methane mediate AOM in the two settings. Internally produced methane through CO? reduction (CR) and methanogenesis fuels AOM in the non-chimney sites, whereas AOM is sustained by methane from external sources in the chimney sites. We also simulate the system evolution from non-chimney to chimney conditions by increasing the bottom methane supply to a non-chimney setting. We show that the higher CH? flux leads to a higher microbial activity of AOM, and more organic matter decomposition through methanogenesis. A higher methanogenesis rate and a smaller CR contribution relative to AOM in the chimney sites is responsible for the isotopically light DIC and heavy methane in this environment, relative to the non-chimney sites.

  3. As carbon dioxide rises, food quality will decline without careful nitrogen management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Arnold J

    2009-01-01

    exposed to elevated carbon dioxide. Mean of 285 studies (and ambient (365 ppm) carbon dioxide atmospheres, in freeand ambient (366 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations under

  4. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

  5. Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria as a Biotechnological Platform Breakout Session 2-B: NewEmerging Pathways...

  6. Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methane that actually preceded recent concerns about potential emissions from fracking," Dubey said. Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected over...

  7. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop The Advanced Manufacturing Office...

  8. New Zealand's 70 million sheep create 350 million methane gallons daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    If you could hook up a sheep to the carburetor of a car, you could run it for several kilometers a day. To power the same vehicle by people, you'd need a whole football team and a couple of kegs of beer. That observation is made by David Lowe, a geophysicist with the New Zealand Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Wellington. Scientists are studying the methane output because of its potential serious threat by contributing to global warming via the greenhouse effect. According to a report in the Wall Street Journal, analysis of ancient air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice shows that 30,000 years ago methane concentration in the Earth's atmosphere was only a third as much as it is today. Radioactive dating can distinguish ages of different types of methane in the air, and researchers hope to quantify sources from sheep, swamps, people or industry. Sheep methane is collected at a local agricultural university from sheep with tubes protruding from their intestines. Sample collector Lowe alternates specimens from the university and the digester tank at the sewage treatment plant. The cleanest air samples, by contrast, are collected by Lowe at Baring Head, the first outcrop of land Antarctic winds hit after crossing thousands of miles of open sea. So far, Lowe and his colleagues have found that 75% of methane in the atmosphere is biological and of very recent origin. While the research goes on, New Zealand's sheep population continue to churn out 2.5 billion gallons of methane every week.

  9. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore »methane source of 539 Tg a?1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a-1.« less

  10. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore »methane source of 539 Tg a?1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a?1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a?1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a?1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a?1.« less

  11. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof EnergyPresentation:DaisStatesEMCHIEFMeltingMethane

  12. Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of Energyof the CleanClient educationCoalbed Methane

  13. Exploring the Limits of Methane Storage and Delivery in Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Wilmer, CE; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2014-04-03

    The physical limits for methane storage and delivery in nanoporous materials were investigated, with a focus on whether it is possible to reach a methane deliverable capacity of 315 cm(3)(STP)/cm(3) in line with the adsorption target established by the ARPA-E agency. Our efforts focused on how both geometric and chemical properties, such as void fraction (V-f), volumetric surface area (S-v), and heat of adsorption (Q(st)), impact methane deliverable capacity, i.e., the amount of methane adsorbed at some storage pressure minus the amount adsorbed at the delivery pressure. With the aid of grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, we studied methane adsorption and delivery properties in a population of 122 835 hypothetical pcu metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and 39 idealized carbon-based porous materials. From the simulation results, we developed an analytical equation that helped us delimit the necessary material properties to reach specific methane deliverable capacity targets. The maximum deliverable capacity between 65 and 5.8 bar among the hypothetical MOFs was 206 cm(3)(STP)/cm(3) at 298 K. We found that artificially increasing the methane MOF interaction strength by increasing the Lennard-Jones e parameters of the MOF atoms by 2- and 4-fold only improved the maximum deliverable capacity up to 223 and 228 cm(3)(STP)/cm(3), respectively. However, the effect on the amount stored at 65 bar was more significant, which suggested another strategy; raising the temperature of the system by 100 K can recover 70% of the methane stranded at the delivery pressure. By increasing the delivery temperature to 398 K, the ARPA-E target was reached by a few hypothetical MOFs with quadrupled e values. This work shows the difficulty in reaching the ARPA-E target but also suggests that a strategy that combines a material with a large volumetric density of sites that interact strongly with methane and raising the delivery temperature can greatly improve the performance of nanoporous materials for methane storage and delivery. The optimal heat of adsorption in an isothermal storage and delivery scenario is approximately 10.5-14.5 kJ/mol, whereas in the nonisothermal storage and delivery scenario the optimal heats of adsorption fell within a range of 11.8-19.8 kEmol.

  14. Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

  15. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) using the Community Earth System Model­Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC). CO2 fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon exchange. In the RCP8.5 simulation, where CO2 increased to 1150 emitted by human activities is taken up by the ocean or terrestrial ecosystems, with 45% remaining

  16. Constraints on Asian and European sources of methane from CH4 -C2H6-CO correlations in Asian outflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    of emissions from coal mining and landfills. 2 #12;1. Introduction Atmospheric methane (CH4) is an important, landfills, fossil fuel production and consumption (natural gas venting, leakage and coal mining a global CH4 source inventory constrained with NOAA/CMDL surface observations [Wang et al., 2003]. We find

  17. ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office provides funding to Charles D. Keeling to begin monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) at the South Pole and Mauna-seasonal data on carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases in a region where rapid climate

  18. Page 1 of 38 Estimating the permafrost-carbon feedback on2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    , the proportion of soil carbon that might be emitted as carbon dioxide via aerobic25 decomposition or as methane characterized regional heterogeneities in soil properties, carbon28 content, and hydrology. Here, we couple triggers a reaction from land biomass and soils49 that leads to carbon dioxide emissions, which in turn

  19. Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration and separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration ions resulting from dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxid e to weakly disrupt isotachophoretic the hydration and carbamation reaction of dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide, respectively. The width

  20. Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, Ralph

    2014-12-12

    The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

  1. Department of Energy Advance Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Descriptions for Energy Department Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects, August 31, 2012

  2. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  3. ATMOS 5000: Intro to Atmospheric Science Fall Term 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    allows: · Atmospheric boundary layer · Carbon cycle, CO2 · Ozone hole, stratospheric chemistry · Air on the atmospheric controls on the weather (beach volleyball versus a rainy day indoors, skiing on a sunny day

  4. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; et al

    2015-01-21

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North Americanmore »land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.« less

  5. Formation of Liquid Methane-Water Mixture during Combustion of a Laminar Methane Jet at Supercritical Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Formation of Liquid Methane-Water Mixture during Combustion of a Laminar Methane Jet in laminar jet flames of methane at elevated pressures in a high-pressure combustion chamber, we have MPa, after the laminar methane jet flame had been stabilized on a co-flow circular nozzle-type burner

  6. Determination of Methane Concentration Methane will be measured on the gas chromatogram using a FID (flame ionization)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Determination of Methane Concentration Methane will be measured on the gas chromatogram using a FID the methane between the air and water. With the syringe pointing down, eject all the water from the syringe in the syringe We will now move to the GC lab in Starr 332 to measure methane. Repeat the above procedure

  7. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  8. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakov, T.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Chemistry Catalytic Oxidation of ,S02 on Carbonand S.G. Chang, "Catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbonCHEMISTRY LBL-6819 Catalytic Oxidation of S02 on Carbon in

  9. Earth is warm because of "greenhouse gases" in atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    " properties of carbon dioxide, water. #12;Early 20th century, scientists realized that if CO2 content changed "Calculation shows that doubling or tripling the amount of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases

  10. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma in Polymer and Composite Adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    oxidation of selected polymers using an atmospheric pressuremorphological modification of polymers under a helium-oxygenand dicyclopentadiene polymer, Submitted to Carbon for

  11. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  12. Diffusional methane fluxes within continental margin sediments and depositional constraints on formation factor estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Goldberg, E.D. , 1976. Methane production and consumption inanaerobic oxidation of methane. Nature, 407 , 623-626.profiles indicate in situ methane flux from underlying gas

  13. Methane oxidation in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean water column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    PACK ET AL. EASTERN PACIFIC METHANE OXIDATIONA method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low-levels of C-labeled methane and accelerator mass

  14. Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Camillo, Nicole G.

    2011-01-01

    Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THEEVEN BEYOND MANURE-ASSOCIATED METHANE EMISSIONS, INDUSTRIAL

  15. Distinguishing and understanding thermogenic and biogenic sources of methane using multiply substituted isotopologues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of thermogenic and biogenic methane. Science 344, 1500-1503.2014c. Clumped isotopes of methane: applications to both lowEmerging topics in marine methane biogeochemistry. Annu.

  16. Environmental impacts on the diversity of methane-cycling microbes and their resultant function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aronson, Emma L; Allison, Steven D; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-01-01

    on methane- consuming microbes in rice field and forestof methane- cycling microbes and their resultant function.diversity of methane-cycling microbes and their resultant

  17. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Issues with Methane and Propane Michael A. Green LawrenceSAFETY ISSUES WITH METHANE AND PROPANE M. A. Green Lawrencehydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary

  18. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (MHAC) Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to establish the resource potential of methane hydrates via a sustained, long-term production test in the Arctic. DFO Gant reminded the Committee that on May 1, the MHAC members...

  19. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

    2008-05-01

    Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

  20. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heat exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6˘/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.

  1. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heatmore »exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6˘/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.« less

  2. Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

  3. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain segments provide the greatest opportunities for low cost abatement.

  4. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

  5. Hard carbon nitride and method for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E. (Berkeley, CA); Cohen, Marvin L. (Berkeley, CA); Hansen, William L. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Novel crystalline .alpha. (silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride and .beta. (silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride are formed by sputtering carbon in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere onto a single crystal germanium or silicon, respectively, substrate.

  6. Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate of Oman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    carbon reservoir in seawater, release of methane from sediment-hosted clathrates, or water column of the observed time-series trends. We report carbon isotope data from bulk organic carbon, extracted bitumenCarbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate

  7. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  8. Discovery of Young Methane Dwarfs in the Rho Ophiuchi L 1688 Dark Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Poshih

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of two methane dwarfs in the dark cloud L 1688 of the Rho Oph star-forming region. The two objects were among the T dwarf candidates with possible methane absorption and cool atmospheres, as diagnosed by infrared colors using deep WIRCam/CFHT HK plus CH4ON images, and IRAC/Spitzer c2d data. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the FLAMINGOS-2/Gemini South confirmed the methane absorption at 1.6 micron. Compared with spectral templates of known T dwarfs in the field, i.e., of the old populations, Oph J162738-245240 (Oph-T3) is a T0/T1 type, whereas Oph J162645-241949 (Oph-T17) is consistent with a T3/T4 type in the H band but an L8/T1 in the K band. Compared with the BT-Settl model, both Oph-T3 and Oph-T17 are consistent with being cool, ~ 1000 K and ~ 900 K, respectively, and of low surface gravity, log(g) = 3.5. With an age no more than a couple Myr, these two methane dwarfs thereby represent the youngest T dwarfs ever confirmed. A young late L dwarf, OphJ162651-242110, was found...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  10. Consequences of Considering Carbon/Nitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.

    A number of observational studies indicate that carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems in a world with an atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide and a warmer climate depends on the interactions between the carbon and ...

  11. A nanochemomechanical investigation of carbonated cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanzo, James (James F.)

    2009-01-01

    Concrete, and in particular its principal component, cement paste, has an interesting relation with carbon dioxide. Concrete is a carbon dioxide generator-- it is estimated that 5-10% of atmospheric CO? comes from this ...

  12. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  13. 1 JOURNALOF NANOSCIENCEAND NANCYECHNOLOGY New Hetero Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayres, Virginia

    by electron microscopies and micro Raman spectroscopies. The potential of this method for large-scale controlled production of nano heterostructures without the requirement of a common catalyst is explored wafer in methane-hydrogen-argon plasma. The carbon nanostructures were shown to be multi-walled carbon

  14. What product might a renewal of Heavy Ion Fusion development offer that competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs? Grantknown. The economics of microbe methane and HTGR hydrogen

  15. Microbial ecology and carbon cycling in Texas aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chuanlun; Grossman, E.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology); MacRae, M.; Ammerman, J.W. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between microbial activity and carbon cycling in the subsurface, the authors performed geochemical and microbiological analyses on ground-waters from 15 wells in three aquifers in Texas--the Edwards (Ed), the Wilcox-Carrizo (WC), and the Sparta-Queen City (SQC). Samples were collected from 128 to 976 m depth. Total bacteria enumerated by direct count methodology range from 1.6 [times] 10[sup 3] to 4.0 [times] 10[sup 4] cells/ml. In both the (SQC) and (WC) aquifers, total bacterial counts decrease with depth. Total counts in (SQC) waters decrease from 6 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 217 m to 2 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 616 m; total counts in (WC) waters decrease from 32 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 369 m to [approximately]5 [times] 10[sup 3] cells/ml at 907 m. Except for two wells, all of the waters contained trace to large amounts of methane. Carbon isotopic analyses of dissolved and head-gas methane range from [minus]80 to [minus]9[per thousand]. Light [delta] C-13 values for methane indicate methane production by bacteria without secondary alteration while heavy [delta] C-13 values for methane strongly suggest methane oxidation, probably by sulfate reduction. delta C-13 values of DIC for high bicarbonate waters indicate a source of CO[sub 2] associated with methanogenesis through fermentation reactions and CO[sub 2] reduction. No correlation is found between the response to the archaebacterial probe and methane content in water, probably due to the limited sensitivity of the archaebacterial probe. However, anaerobic laboratory incubations of water samples in nutrient media showed significant production of methane for all cultured samples except those showing isotopic evidence for methane oxidation. This suggests that methanogens may be present in all waters except those in which methane oxidation has occurred.

  16. Future climate trends from a first-difference atmospheric carbon dioxide regression model involving emissions scenarios for business as usual and for peak fossil fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leggett, L M W

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications of the future continuation of the demonstrated past (1960-2012) strong correlation between first-difference atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature. It does this, for the period from the present to 2050, for a comprehensive range of future global fossil fuel energy use scenarios. The results show that even for a business-as-usual (the mid-level IPCC) fossil fuel use estimate, global surface temperature will rise at a slower rate than for the recent period 1960-2000. Concerning peak fossil fuel, for the most common scenario the currently observed (1998-2013)temperature plateau will turn into a decrease. The observed trend to date for temperature is compared with that for global climate disasters: these peaked in 2005 and are notably decreasing. The temperature and disaster results taken together are consistent with either a reduced business-as-usual fossil fuel use scenario into the future, or a peak fossil fuel scenario, but not with the standard business-as-usu...

  17. Methane Decomposition: Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    .W. GOODMANb a ConocoPhillips Company, Bartlesville Technology Centre, Bartlesville 74004, USA b Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX- 77843, USA 1 Introduction Hydrogen, presently, finds and electricity not only to single homes but also to provide a large amount of electricity to a large grid network

  18. CO2 vs Methane Clash of the Carbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biasutti, Michela

    75 · Recovery enhancement 120 · Unconventional 55 · Total 345 left to go Nehring 2009 #12;Gas · Burned so far 40 Gt C · Reserves 90 · Ultimate 235 Nehring 2009 #12;Total ultimately recoverable · Coal 500 - 5000 Gt C · Oil 100 - 350 · Gas 100

  19. Reducing a Companies Carbon Footprint through Energy Saving Best Practices at a Dairy Manufacturing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortan, Michael J.

    2010-12-17

    these companies with increased sales. These global warming gasses are made up of both naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring gasses. Naturally occurring gasses are carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone gasses while non...

  20. NAST-I remote sensing and carbon monoxide Daniel K. Zhoua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (CH2O), with those of the hydroxyl radical (OH) often show elevated CO and O3, the latter resulting from photochemical production.2 The importance

  1. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  2. Fractal and Multifractal Analysis of the Rise of Oxygen in Earth's Early Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satish Kumar; Manfred Cuntz; Zdzislaw E. Musielak

    2015-06-09

    The rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere that occurred 2.4 to 2.2 billion years ago is known as the Earth's Great Oxidation, and its impact on the development of life on Earth has been profound. Thereafter, the increase in Earth's oxygen level persisted, though at a more gradual pace. The proposed underlying mathematical models for these processes are based on physical parameters whose values are currently not well-established owing to uncertainties in geological and biological data. In this paper, a previously developed model of Earth's atmosphere is modified by adding different strengths of noise to account for the parameters' uncertainties. The effects of the noise on the time variations of oxygen, carbon and methane for the early Earth are investigated by using fractal and multifractal analysis. We show that the time variations following the Great Oxidation cannot properly be described by a single fractal dimension because they exhibit multifractal characteristics. The obtained results demonstrate that the time series as obtained exhibit multifractality caused by long-range time correlations.

  3. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Oregon Subduction Zone: Venting, Fauna, and Carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldfinger, Chris

    . The animals use meth- ane as an energy and food source in symbiosis with microorganisms. Oxidized methane, are associated with venting sites of cool fluids located on a fault-bend antidline at a water depth of2036 meters. The distribution of animals and carbonates suggests up-dip migration of fluids from both shallow and deep sources

  5. The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate investigated the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on hypolimnetic metabolism (accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and methane (CH4)) in 21 lakes across a gradient of DOC concentrations (308 to 1540

  6. Linkage of MIKE SHE to Wetland-DNDC for carbon budgeting and anaerobic biogeochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Increasing emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) are believed 2004 Key words: Biogeochemical modeling, Carbon dynamics, Forest wetland, Greenhouse gases emission and forest management practices on GHGs emissions and carbon dynamics to test the capabilities of the models

  7. Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectrometer for Detection of Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Photonic Crystal Slot Waveguide Spectrometer for Detection of Methane 1 Funded by Environmental-infrared absorption spectrum of methane at 1665.5nm. · Guided mode design in SOI wafer #12;9 Device Fabrication Steps

  8. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01

    Conversion of methane and acetylene to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5) was studied The reaction between methane and acetylene successfully produced high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzene...

  9. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methane hydrate-bearing sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis, George J.

    2006-01-01

    through methane hydrate-bearing sand. X-ray CT was usedin partially saturated sand, 229th ACS National Meeting, SanOF METHANE HYDRATE- BEARING SAND Yongkoo Seol, Timothy J.

  10. METHANE IN SUBSURFACE: MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peszynska, Malgorzata

    hydrates in subsea sediments where the major challenge comes from implemen- tation of solubility, and mod- eling methane hydrate evolution in subsea sediments (MH). Coalbed methane is a form of natural

  11. ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart.........................................................................................8 Coal and Metabolite Enrichment Studies ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16

  12. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

  13. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

    1985-06-19

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

  14. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, David; Warner, Ethan; Curley, Christina

    2015-04-23

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that is released from the natural gas supply chain into the atmosphere as a result of fugitive emissions1 and venting2 . We assess five potential CH4 reduction scenarios from transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of CH4 reduced. We utilize cost and methane inventory data from ICF (2014) and Warner et al. (forthcoming) as well as data from Barrett and McCulloch (2014) and the American Gas Association (AGA) (2013) to estimate that the implementation of these measures could support approximately 85,000 jobs annually from 2015 to 2019 and reduce CH4 emissions from natural gas TS&D by over 40%. Based on standard input/output analysis methodology, measures are estimated to support over $8 billion in GDP annually over the same time period and allow producers to recover approximately $912 million annually in captured gas.

  15. Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sattler, Klaus

    applications including heating systems and gas turbines for electric power generation.62­64 The combustion of natural gas methane is a clean and efficient process. While gas turbines operating with methane pollution than other hydrocarbon fuels. Therefore, gas turbines pow- ered by methane are promising

  16. Snowball Earth termination by destabilization of equatorial permafrost methane clathrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Martin J.

    LETTERS Snowball Earth termination by destabilization of equatorial permafrost methane clathrate-gassing during post-glacial oceanic overturn7 or methane hydrate destabilization8­10 . Here we report the broadest range of oxygen isotope values yet measured in mar- ine sediments (225% to 112%) in methane seeps

  17. Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands Jason M. Gonzales, Jonas, California 90089 ReceiVed July 31, 2006 Trends in methane activation have been explored for rhenium complexes proceeds with methane activation through a barrier of less than 35 kcal mol-1 . Study

  18. The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton Stephanie Lyn Shaw Center for Global://web.mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Production of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons by Marine Plankton by Stephanie Lyn Shaw Submitted to the Department of Earth

  19. Physical Controls on Methane Ebullition from Reservoirs and Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    of methane production and flux in aquatic sediments has important geochemical, geotechnical, and global; Anselmann and Crutzen, 1989; and Reeburgh et al., 1993). Because methane has the potential to con- tributePhysical Controls on Methane Ebullition from Reservoirs and Lakes JENNIFER JOYCE PAUL W. JEWELL

  20. Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why to estimates based on this work (Gg/yr) Production emissions reported in 2011 greenhouse gas inventory (annual is methane important? The role of methane in the national greenhouse gas inventory · Most recent national

  1. Towards quantifying the reaction network around the sulfate–methane-transition-zone in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, with a kinetic modeling approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Torres, Marta E.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Bahk, Jang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    We present a kinetic model based upon pore water data collected from eight sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin gas hydrate drilling expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Three sites were drilled at locations where acoustic chimneys were identified in seismic data, and the rest were drilled on non-chimney (i.e. background) environments. Our model, coupled a comprehensive compositional and isotopic data set, is used to illustrate the different biogeochemical processes at play in those two environments, in terms of reactions around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). Organic matter decomposition is an important process for production of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and consumptionmore »of sulfate in the non-chimney sites, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) dominates both carbon and sulfur cycles in the chimney environment. Different sources of methane mediate AOM in the two settings. Internally produced methane through CO? reduction (CR) and methanogenesis fuels AOM in the non-chimney sites, whereas AOM is sustained by methane from external sources in the chimney sites. We also simulate the system evolution from non-chimney to chimney conditions by increasing the bottom methane supply to a non-chimney setting. We show that the higher CH? flux leads to a higher microbial activity of AOM, and more organic matter decomposition through methanogenesis. A higher methanogenesis rate and a smaller CR contribution relative to AOM in the chimney sites is responsible for the isotopically light DIC and heavy methane in this environment, relative to the non-chimney sites.« less

  2. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

  3. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, A. J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jacob, D. J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wecht, K. J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Maasakkers, J. D. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lundgren, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Andrews, A. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)] (ORCID:000000017697933X); Boesch, H. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom); Bowman, K. W. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Deutscher, N. M. [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Dubey, M. K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griffith, D. W. T. [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Hase, F. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany). IMK-ASF; Kuze, A. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba (Japan)] (ORCID:0000000154153377); Notholt, J. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany); Ohyama, H. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba (Japan); Parker, R. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom); Payne, V. H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Sussmann, R. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany). IMK-IFU; Sweeney, C. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany). IMK-IFU; Velazco, V. A. [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia)] (ORCID:000000021376438X); Warneke, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wennberg, P. O. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Wunch, D. [Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    2015-01-01

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a?1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a-1.

  4. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

  5. Reaction dynamics of atomic chlorine with methane: Importance of methane bending and torsional excitation in controlling reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reaction dynamics of atomic chlorine with methane: Importance of methane bending and torsional with methane vibrationally excited in trace quantities into low-energy bending and torsional modes­7 and detailed the effect on reactivity of C­H stretch vibrational excitation.5­7 This paper concerns our most

  6. Factors influencing methane distribution in Texas ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, C.; Grossman, E.L.; Ammerman, J.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-01-01

    To determine the factors that influence the distribution of methane in Texas ground water, water samples were collected from 40 wells in east-central and central Texas aquifers. Among the chemical parameters examined, sulfate is most important in controlling methane distribution. Methane occurs in high concentration in east-central Texas only where sulfate concentration is low, supporting the hypothesis that abundant microbial methane production does not begin until sulfate is depleted. Because water samples from central Texas are high in either oxygen or sulfate, methane concentrations are low in these waters. A positive correlation between methane and sulfate in these waters indicates a different, perhaps thermogenic, origin for the trace methane. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of dissolved methane ranged from {minus}80{per_thousand} to {minus}21{per_thousand} in east-central Texas and {minus}41.2{per_thousand} to {minus}8.5{per_thousand} in central Texas. Low values of < {minus}50{per_thousand} in the east-central Texas ground water indicate a microbial origin for methane and are consistent with the observed sulfate-methane relationship; high {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of > {minus}31{per_thousand} likely result from bacterial methane oxidation. Similarly, methane with high {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios in central Texas may reflect partial oxidation of the methane pool. Overall, water samples from both regions show a positive correlation between sulfate concentration and the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of methane, suggesting that methane oxidation may be associated with sulfate reduction in Texas ground water.

  7. Mechanism of Methane Chemical Looping Combustion with Hematite Promoted with CeO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Duane D.; Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion that produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream, reducing the energy penalty of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gases. An effective oxygen carrier for CLC will readily react with the fuel gas and will be reoxidized upon contact with oxygen. This study investigated the development of a CeO{sub 2}-promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?hematite oxygen carrier suitable for the methane CLC process. Composition of CeO{sub 2} is between 5 and 25 wt % and is lower than what is generally used for supports in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier preparations. The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} to the natural ore hematite strongly modifies the reduction behavior in comparison to that of CeO{sub 2} and hematite alone. Temperature-programmed reaction studies revealed that the addition of even 5 wt % CeO{sub 2} enhances the reaction capacity of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier by promoting the decomposition and partial oxidation of methane. Fixed-bed reactor data showed that the 5 wt % cerium oxides with 95 wt % iron oxide produce 2 times as much carbon dioxide in comparison to the sum of carbon dioxide produced when the oxides were tested separately. This effect is likely due to the reaction of CeO{sub 2} with methane forming intermediates, which are reactive for extracting oxygen from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a considerably faster rate than the rate of the direct reaction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. These studies reveal that 5 wt % CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives stable conversions over 15 reduction/oxidation cycles. Lab-scale reactor studies (pulsed mode) suggest the methane reacts initially with CeO{sub 2} lattice oxygen to form partial oxidation products (CO + H{sub 2}), which continue to react with oxygen from neighboring Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, leading to its complete oxidation to form CO{sub 2}. The reduced cerium oxide promotes the methane decomposition reaction to form C + H{sub 2}, which continue to react with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to form CO/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. This mechanism is supported by the characterization studies, which also suggest that the formation of carbonaceous intermediates may affect the reaction rate and selectivity of the oxygen carrier.

  8. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  9. Generating power with drained coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

  10. Deep oxidation of methane on particles derived from YSZ-supported Pd-Pt-(O) coatings synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horwat, D.

    2009-01-01

    2009) Deep oxidation of methane on particles derived fromAbstract Methane conversion tests were performed on Pd, PdOFigure captions Figure 1: Methane conversion a), methane

  11. Thermodynamic properties and diffusion of water + methane binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2014-03-14

    Thermodynamic and diffusion properties of water + methane mixtures in a single liquid phase are studied using NVT molecular dynamics. An extensive comparison is reported for the thermal pressure coefficient, compressibilities, expansion coefficients, heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, zero frequency speed of sound, and diffusion coefficient at methane concentrations up to 15% in the temperature range of 298–650 K. The simulations reveal a complex concentration dependence of the thermodynamic properties of water + methane mixtures. The compressibilities, heat capacities, and diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing methane concentration, whereas values of the thermal expansion coefficients and speed of sound increase. Increasing methane concentration considerably retards the self-diffusion of both water and methane in the mixture. These effects are caused by changes in hydrogen bond network, solvation shell structure, and dynamics of water molecules induced by the solvation of methane at constant volume conditions.

  12. Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, J.; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a growing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a pyrolysis-gasification reactor system was designed and assembled. Four carbon samples were produced from a {minus}20+100 mesh size fraction of an Illinois Basin Coal (IBC-106) using a three-step process. The three steps were: coal oxidation in air at 250 C, oxicoal (oxidized coal) devolatilization in nitrogen at 425 C and char gasification in 50% steam-50% nitrogen at 860 C. These initial tests were designed to evaluate the effects of pre-oxidation on the surface properties of carbon products, and to determine optimum reaction time and process conditions to produce an activated carbon with high surface area. Nitrogen-BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 700--800 m{sup 2}/g. Work is in progress to further optimize reaction conditions in order to produce carbons with higher surface areas. A few screening tests were made with a pressurized thermogravimetric (PTGA) to evaluate the suitability of this instrument for obtaining methane adsorption isotherms at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from one to 30 atmospheres. The preliminary results indicate that PTGA can be used for both the adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies.

  13. Methane and Ammonia in the near-infrared spectra of late T dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canty, J I; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan; Leggett, S K; Tinney, C G; Jones, H R A; Burningham, Ben; Pinfield, D J; Smart, R L

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of T dwarfs using model atmospheres has been hampered by the absence of reliable line lists for methane and ammonia. Newly computed high temperature line lists for both of these important molecules are now available, so it is timely to investigate the appearance of the various absorption features in T dwarfs in order to better understand their atmospheres and validate the new line lists. We present high quality R~5000 Gemini/NIFS 1.0-2.4 microns spectra of the T8 standard 2MASS 0415-0935 and the T9 standard UGPS 0722-0540. We use these spectra to identify numerous methane and ammonia features not previously seen and we discuss the implications for our understanding of T dwarf atmospheres. Among our results, we find that ammonia is the dominant opacity source between ~1.233-1.266 microns in UGPS 0722-0540, and we tentatively identify several absorption features in this wavelength range in the T9's spectrum which may be due entirely to ammonia opacity. Our results also suggest that water rather than me...

  14. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, Emily

    (CO2) emissions are recognized as an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle (Cole et al of emissions, particularly in wet- lands, with a potential `missing' wetland CH4 source of ~87 Tg C yrŔ1Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2 , E

  15. Applied Catalysis A: General 192 (2000) 227234 Hydrogen production via the direct cracking of methane over Ni/SiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2000-01-01

    Applied Catalysis A: General 192 (2000) 227­234 Hydrogen production via the direct cracking is a potential route to the production of CO-free hydrogen and filamentous carbon. Eventually, however. ©2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Methane cracking; Hydrogen production

  16. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Quantification and Reduction of Uncertainties Associated with Carbon CycleClimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models 9 2.1 Introduction

  17. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Frailey; Thomas Parris; James Damico; Roland Okwen; Ray McKaskle; Charles Monson; Jonathan Goodwin; E. Beck; Peter Berger; Robert Butsch; Damon Garner; John Grube; Keith Hackley; Jessica Hinton; Abbas Iranmanesh; Christopher Korose; Edward Mehnert; Charles Monson; William Roy; Steven Sargent; Bracken Wimmer

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well designâ?? an injection well and three monitoring wellsâ??was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A â??continuousâ?ť injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6â??0.7 tonne/day (0.66â??0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at wellheads, and changes in several shallow groundwater characteristics (e.g., alkalinity, pH, oxygen content, dissolved solids, mineral saturation indices, and isotopic distribution). Results showed that there was no CO{sub 2} leakage into groundwater or CO{sub 2} escape at the surface. Post-injection cased hole well log analyses supported this conclusion. Numerical and analytical modeling achieved a relatively good match with observed field data. Based on the model results the plume was estimated to extend 152 m (500 ft) in the face cleat direction and 54.9 m (180 ft) in the butt cleat direction. Using the calibrated model, additional injection scenariosâ??injection and production with an inverted five-spot pattern and a line drive patternâ??could yield CH{sub 4} recovery of up to 70%.

  18. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in Alabama emit approximately 31 MMst (2.4 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} annually. The total sequestration capacity of the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway at 350 psi is about 189 MMst (14.9 Tcf), which is equivalent to 6.1 years of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal-fired power plants. Applying the geologic screening model indicates that significant parts of the coalbed methane fairway are not accessible because of fault zones, coal mines, coal reserves, and formation water with TDS content less than 3,000 mg/L. Excluding these areas leaves a sequestration potential of 60 MMst (4.7 Tcf), which is equivalent to 1.9 years of emissions. Therefore, if about10 percent of the flue gas stream from nearby power plants is dedicated to enhanced coalbed methane recovery, a meaningful reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions can be realized for nearly two decades. If the fresh-water restriction were removed for the purposes of CO{sub 2} sequestration, an additional 10 MMst (0.9 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} could feasibly be sequestered. The amount of unswept coalbed methane in the fairway is estimated to be 1.49 Tcf at a pressure of 50 psi. Applying the screening model results in an accessible unswept gas resource of 0.44 Tcf. Removal of the fresh-water restriction would elevate this number to 0.57 Tcf. If a recovery factor of 80 percent can be realized, then enhanced recovery activities can result in an 18 percent expansion of coalbed methane reserves in the Black Warrior basin.

  19. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  20. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  1. Effect of bubble size and density on methane conversion to hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leske, J.; Taylor, C.E.; Ladner, E.P.

    2007-03-01

    Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. One area of investigation is the storage of methane as methane hydrates. An economical and efficient means of storing methane in hydrates opens many commercial opportunities such as transport of stranded gas, off-peak storage of line gas, etc.We have observed during our investigations that the ability to convert methane to methane hydrate is enhanced by foaming of the methane–water solution using a surfactant. The density of the foam, along with the bubble size, is important in the conversion of methane to methane hydrate.

  2. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  3. Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR in homogeneous mixtures of methane + hexane, ethane + hexane, methane + octane, ethane + octan, methane + decane, ethane + decane, and methane + hexane + benzene over the whole concentration range, at 303.2 K and 333

  4. Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    * , Andrew Lacis* , Reto Ruedy*§ , Oleg Dubovik¶ , Brent Holben¶ , Mian Chin¶ , and Tica Novakov *National

  5. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Albanese, A S

    1980-01-01

    The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

  6. Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy May 28 WebinarProtectMessageFY 2010 Methane Hydrate

  7. A review on recent advances in the numerical simulation for coalbed-methane-recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, X.R.; Wang, G.X.; Massarotto, P.; Golding, S.D.; Rudolph, V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    The recent advances in numerical simulation for primary coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and enhanced coalbed-methane recovery (ECBMR) processes are reviewed, primarily focusing on the progress that has occurred since the late 1980s. Two major issues regarding the numerical modeling will be discussed in this review: first, multicomponent gas transport in in-situ bulk coal and, second, changes of coal properties during methane (CH{sub 4}) production. For the former issues, a detailed review of more recent advances in modeling gas and water transport within a coal matrix is presented. Further, various factors influencing gas diffusion through the coal matrix will be highlighted as well, such as pore structure, concentration and pressure, and water effects. An ongoing bottleneck for evaluating total mass transport rate is developing a reasonable representation of multiscale pore space that considers coal type and rank. Moreover, few efforts have been concerned with modeling water-flow behavior in the coal matrix and its effects on CH{sub 4} production and on the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and CH{sub 4}. As for the second issue, theoretical coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical models have been proposed to describe the evolution of pore structure during CH{sub 4} production, instead of traditional empirical equations. However, there is currently no effective coupled model for engineering applications. Finally, perspectives on developing suitable simulation models for CBM production and for predicting CO{sub 2}-sequestration ECBMR are suggested.

  8. Nonlinearity of Carbon Cycle Feedbacks KIRSTEN ZICKFELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittner, Andreas

    properties and anthropogenic CO2. These findings suggest that metrics of carbon cycle feedback that pos, human activities have emitted large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere (490 PgC fromNonlinearity of Carbon Cycle Feedbacks KIRSTEN ZICKFELD Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling

  9. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2007-07-31

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  10. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  11. Monte Carlo model for electron degradation in methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Anil

    2015-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for degradation of 1-10,000 eV electrons in an atmosphere of methane. The electron impact cross sections for CH4 are compiled and analytical representations of these cross sections are used as input to the model.model.Yield spectra, which provides information about the number of inelastic events that have taken place in each energy bin, is used to calculate the yield (or population) of various inelastic processes. The numerical yield spectra, obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations, is represented analytically, thus generating the Analytical Yield Spectra (AYS). AYS is employed to obtain the mean energy per ion pair and efficiencies of various inelastic processes.Mean energy per ion pair for neutral CH4 is found to be 26 (27.8) eV at 10 (0.1) keV. Efficiency calculation showed that ionization is the dominant process at energies >50 eV, for which more than 50% of the incident electron energy is used. Above 25 eV, dissociation has an efficiency of 27%. Below 10 eV, vibrational e...

  12. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  13. ,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"06301989"...

  14. ,"New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2014,"0...

  15. Microbe-metazoan interactions at Pacific Ocean methane seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurber, Andrew Reichmann

    2010-01-01

    lipid biomarkers for microbes with chemoautotrophicOF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Microbe-Metazoan Interactions atxiv xvii xviii Chapter 3. Microbes, Macrofauna, and Methane:

  16. Microbe-Metazoan interactions at Pacific Ocean methane seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurber, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    lipid biomarkers for microbes with chemoautotrophicOF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Microbe-Metazoan Interactions atxiv xvii xviii Chapter 3. Microbes, Macrofauna, and Methane:

  17. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources. Authors: Tonkovich, Anna Lee 1 ;...

  18. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution Controlling Methane Emissions in the...

  19. Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in Cu-3(btc)(2) Previous Next List Hulvey, Zeric; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Mason, Jarad A.; Tsivion, Ehud; Dougherty,...

  20. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  1. Methane production during the anaerobic decomposition of composted and raw organic refuse in simulated landfill cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Margrit Evelyn

    1995-01-01

    Methane contributes 20% annually to increases in global warming, and is explosive at concentrations of 5-15% in air. Landfills contribute 15% to total methane emissions. This study was conducted to determine the potential decrease in methane...

  2. Future methane, hydroxyl, and their uncertainties: key climate and emission parameters for future predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, C. D; Prather, M. J; Sovde, O. A; Myhre, G.

    2013-01-01

    in tropospheric ozone and methane; global 3-D model studies,hydroxyl radical and methane life- time from the Atmosphericof meteorology and emissions on methane trends, 1990–2004,

  3. Methane Hydrate Dissociation by Depressurization in a Mount Elbert Sandstone Sample: Experimental Observations and Numerical Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kneafsey, T.

    2012-01-01

    S.S.H. , 1987. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Decomposition,T. J. , et al. (2007), Methane Hydrate Formation andCharting the future of methane hydrate research in the

  4. Methane from UV-irradiated carbonaceous chondrites under simulated Martian conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuerger, Andrew C.

    Methane from UV-irradiated carbonaceous chondrites under simulated Martian conditions Andrew C process was studied for the production of methane from carbonaceous chondrites under simulated Martian conditions. Methane evolution rates from carbonaceous chondrites were found to be positively correlated

  5. Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reagan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Potential distribution of methane hydrate in the world'sisotopic evidence for methane hydrate instability duringHendy, L.L. , and R.J. Behl, Methane hydrates in quaternary

  6. Analysis of a direct methane conversion to high molecular weight hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Ghafran, Moh'd. J.

    2000-01-01

    Methane conversion to heavier hydrocarbons was studied using electrical furnaces and a plasma apparatus. The experiments were performed with pure methane for the electrical furnace experiments while pure methane and additions such as hydrogen...

  7. Mechanistic studies of electron transfer, complex formation, C-H bond activation, and product binding in soluble methane monooxygenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopp, Daniel Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Chapter 1. Soluble Methane Monooxygenase: Activation of Dioxygen and Methane The mechanisms by which soluble methane monooxygenase uses dioxygen to convert methane selectively to methanol have come into sharp focus. Diverse ...

  8. SUESS ET AL.: SEA FLOOR METHANE HYDRATES AT HYDRATE RIDGE, CASCADIA MARGIN Sea Floor Methane Hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldfinger, Chris

    SUESS ET AL.: SEA FLOOR METHANE HYDRATES AT HYDRATE RIDGE, CASCADIA MARGIN 1 Sea Floor Methane are exposed at the sea floor. A methane-oxidizing bacterial consortium populates the exposures of hydrate; colonies of vent macro-fauna are abundant as well. Discharge of methane from destabilized hydrate

  9. Diffusive Evolution of Gaseous and Diffusive Evolution of Gaseous and Hydrate Horizons of Methane in SeabedHydrate Horizons of Methane in Seabed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    Diffusive Evolution of Gaseous and Diffusive Evolution of Gaseous and Hydrate Horizons of Methane in SeabedHydrate Horizons of Methane in Seabed Denis S. Goldobin (University of Leicester),Denis S. Goldobin"")) MethaneNetMethaneNet Early Career Workshop Early Career Workshop MiltonMilton KeynesKeynes 2929

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of formation process of single-walled carbon nanotubes by CCVD method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method [4-7] has been contrived for a scalable, large-scale production of SWNTs, with various carbon-source molecules tested such as carbon monoxide [4, 7], methane [5 simulations [10, 11] with the Brenner potential [12] or tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) simulation [13

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF CENTRAL APPALACHIAN BASIN CBM DEVELOPMENT: POTENTIAL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including those areas where CBM production has previously been developed. The enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM0625 CHARACTERIZATION OF CENTRAL APPALACHIAN BASIN CBM DEVELOPMENT: POTENTIAL FOR CARBON of the carbon sequestration potential of the Pennsylvanian-age coalbeds in the Central Appalachian Basin

  12. Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations from the March 27th - 28th Methane Hydrates Advisory Committee Meeting International Gas Hydrate...

  13. 1870 Organometallics 1994,13,1870-1877 Mechanism and Energetics for Dehydrogenation of Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    1870 Organometallics 1994,13,1870-1877 Mechanism and Energetics for Dehydrogenation of Methane also activate CHI. 1. Introduction Becauseof the enormousworldwidereservesof methane (CH4)andthe

  14. Kinetic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms during Methane Oxidation on Group VIII Metal Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Ya Huei

    2011-01-01

    Chin, Y-H. ; Resasco, D.E. Catalytic Oxidation of methane onreactions in catalytic partial oxidation, reforming, andoccurrence of direct catalytic partial oxidation of methane

  15. Future methane, hydroxyl, and their uncertainties: key climate and emission parameters for future predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, C. D; Prather, M. J; Sovde, O. A; Myhre, G.

    2013-01-01

    of present-day and future OH and methane lifetime, Atmos.Chemistry and Physics Future methane, hydroxyl, and theirand emission parameters for future predictions C. D. Holmes

  16. Comparison of structures of laminar methaneoxygen and methaneair diffusion flames from atmospheric to 60 atm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    gradient. The main reactions in this zone were shown to be the oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide Accepted 30 April 2013 Available online 5 June 2013 Keywords: Oxy-fuel combustion Methane­oxygen flames, also promotes the oxidation of soot. Ó 2013 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The conventional reformers allowing syngas production are based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons (3) following was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon (1) The steam reforming of hydrocarbons is strongly endothermic (H0 =498 kJ.mol-1 for C3H8

  18. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  19. Atmosphere-soil-stream greenhouse gas fluxes from peatlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.

    2009-01-01

    Peatlands cover approximately 2-3% of the world’s land area yet represent approximately a third of the worlds estimated total soil carbon pool. They therefore play an important role in regulating global atmospheric CO2 and ...

  20. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide1,2 . The role of tropical forests is critical dioxide concentrations, may be the cause of the increase in carbon stocks13 , as some theory14 and models2 with estimates of fossil fuel emissions, ocean carbon fluxes and carbon released from land-use change, indicate

  1. Methane Stakeholder Roundtables | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing Swimming PoolCommercial IndustrialDepartment of68Methane

  2. Kentucky Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWellsMillionReservesReserves (BillionCoalbed Methane

  3. File:Methane.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpA JumpGmbHFerris State UniversityMethane.pdf Jump

  4. MethaneHydrateRD_FC.indd

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report to Congress

  5. The HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) study of the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases measured meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol constituents along transects from approximately pole-to-pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) · Ancillary flight information, field catalogs, data quality reports, software, and documentation · Pole products and user documentation. Files are in ASCII text format. Products include: · A comprehensive merged structure data: 1) greenhouse gases and carbon cycle gases, 2) ozone and water vapor, 3) black carbon

  6. PERMAFROST CARBON NETWORK: 4th Annual Meeting 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olefeldt · Vonk: Circum-arctic lability of dissolved organic carbon · Wik: Methane emission potential/Overview: Ted Schuur (30 min): Introduction to the network for newcomers, update on finished products and CO2 production from anoxic soil incubations · Jastrow: Utility of fractionation approaches

  7. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  8. PYROLYSIS OF METHANE IN A SUPERSONIC, ARC-HEATED FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    1 PYROLYSIS OF METHANE IN A SUPERSONIC, ARC-HEATED FLOW F.K. Lu,* C.M. Roseberry, J.M. Meyers and D arc pyrolysis of methane at supersonic conditions, representative of conditions in the reformer location of an aibreathing hypersonic vehicle. The rationale for arc pyrolysis is provided. Major

  9. Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol Catalyzed, with CŔH Activation (generated by dissolution[6] of Au2O3) react with methane at 1808C to selectively generate methanol (as a mixture of the ester and methanol) in high yield (Table 1, entries 1 and 2). As expected, the irreversible

  10. Engineering Methane is a major component of shale gas. Recent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical Engineering Methane is a major component of shale gas. Recent oversupply of shale gas has 30% of electricity from natural and shale gas, increasing from 15% in 2010. US chemical industries have begun using ethane from shale gas as a feedstock. The low methane price is expected to push its

  11. Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BC Technologies

    2009-12-30

    Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL confirmed the feasibility of the process. However, researchers at BCT were unable to develop equipment suitable for continuous operation and demonstration of the process in the field was not attempted. The significant achievements of the research area: Bench-scale batch results using carbon dioxide indicate >40% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor was converted to hydrate in a single pass; The batch results also indicate >23% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor (>50% of the hydrate formed) was converted to purified water of a quality suitable for discharge; Continuous discharge and collection of hydrates was achieved at atmospheric pressure. Continuous hydrate formation and collection at atmospheric conditions was the most significant achievement and preliminary economics indicate that if the unit could be made operable, it is potentially economic. However, the inability to continuously separate the hydrate melt fraction left the concept not ready for field demonstration and the project was terminated after Phase Two research.

  12. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  13. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  14. METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z.; Grundy, W. M.; Romanishin, W.; Vilas, F. E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

  15. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  16. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabayashi, Susumu Otsuji, Taiichi; Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Ješko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2014-09-07

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the “sp{sup 2} cluster model” for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-? DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-? DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-? DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-? film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  17. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  18. Large-eddy simulation of lean hydrogenemethane turbulent premixed flames in the methane-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Large-eddy simulation of lean hydrogenemethane turbulent premixed flames in the methane- dominated to available experimental data. The enriched flame has 20% H2 in terms of mole fraction and lies in the methane methane flame in the methane- dominated regime. Copyright Ş 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  19. Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory-phase transition metal oxide cations can convert methane to methanol. Methane activation by MO+ is discussed reaction are also presented. Introduction The direct oxidation of methane to an easily transportable liquid

  20. DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300401 New Insights into the Oxidative Coupling of Methane from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201300401 New Insights into the Oxidative Coupling of Methane from Spatially coupling of methane (OCM) is a high-temperature process involving the transformation of methane into ethane oxidation of methane to produce CO and H2 in a Pt- and Rh-coated a-Al2O3 foam.[11­13] Experiments were

  1. Controls on soil methane fluxes: Tests of biophysical mechanisms using stable isotope tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Controls on soil methane fluxes: Tests of biophysical mechanisms using stable isotope tracers November 2006; published 4 May 2007. [1] Understanding factors that control methane exchange between soils-scale variations in soil methane emissions: (1) consumption of methane by methanotrophic bacteria, (2) quantity

  2. Global inventory of methane clathrate: sensitivity to changes in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global inventory of methane clathrate: sensitivity to changes in the deep ocean Bruce Buffett of methane clathrate in marine sediments, and use it to predict the sensitivity of the steady-state methane inventory to changes in the deep ocean. The methane inventory is determined by binning the seafloor area

  3. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with emphasis; (6) detailed study of CH4-CO2 exchange as a unique alternative to recover CH4 gas while sequestering CO2; (7) the relevance of fines in otherwise clean sand sediments on gas recovery and related phenomena such as fines migration and clogging, vuggy structure formation, and gas-driven fracture formation during gas production by depressurization.

  4. Methane coupling by membrane reactor. First quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yi Hua

    1997-05-01

    The Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was studied by running the methane coupling reactions at different methane to oxygen ratios, temperatures and dilution gas flow rates. For methane to oxygen ratios less than 3, the C{sub 2} yield was almost the same; and C{sub 2} yield began to decrease as the methane to oxygen ratio was further increased. The optimal temperature observed was around 800{degrees}C, where the C{sub 2} yield reached a maximum value. Increasing the dilution gas (helium) flow rate resulted in higher C{sub 2} selectivity; however, after a certain dilution gas flow rate the C{sub 2} yield began to decrease due to a decrease in methane conversion as a result of the reduced contact time. The stability study of the catalyst showed that, after five successive run cycles, the C{sub 2} yield obtained decreased from 24% to 19% at 780 {degrees}C, and methane, oxygen and helium flow rates of 12.2, 4.1, and 44. 3 mm/min, respectively. XRD analysis showed that, after the reaction, the XRD peaks of the cristabolite and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} phases in the catalyst became smaller than those in the fresh catalyst, and that at least one new, unidentified phase was observed. Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was used as the methane oxidative coupling catalyst in a porous membrane reactor and its performance was compared with a packed reactor operated at similar conditions. Although the membrane reactor showed lower methane conversion at the same reaction conditions, it gave higher C{sub 2} selectivity and C{sub 2} yield at similar methane conversions.

  5. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  6. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  7. Paleoreconstruction of Particulate Organic Carbon Inputs to the High-Arctic Colville River Delta, Beaufort Sea, Alaska 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiner, Kathryn 1983-

    2013-01-09

    High Arctic permafrosted soils represent a massive sink in the global carbon cycle, accounting for twice as much carbon as what is currently stored as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, with current warming trends this sink is in danger...

  8. Velocity of sound in solid methane near melting temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John Martin

    1968-01-01

    . At this point, the bellows valve, E, was closed and the thermocouple pressure elements monitored for an increase in pressure; and if after several hours no increase in pressure was registered, the system was considered thoroughly out-gassed and free of leaks... PPM 0. 5 PPM Figure 3 is a block diagram of the system into which methane was admitted. From the storage cylinder the methane passed through a Hoke-Phoenix gas-ballast high purity regulator. From needle valve, A, the integrity of the methane...

  9. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  10. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  11. Activated carbon to the rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, S.

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the response to pipeline spill of ethylene dichloride (EDC) on the property of an oil company. Activated carbon cleanup proceedure was used. During delivery, changeout, transport, storage, thermal reactivation, and return delivery to the site, the carbon never came into direct contact with operating personnel or the atmosphere. More than 10,000 tones of dredge soil and 50 million gallons of surface water were processed during the emergency response.

  12. The electronic spectra and structure of bis(2,2'biphenylene) methane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofer, Owen Charles

    1965-01-01

    Transit ion Sysssetries ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 12 Theuretioal Calculation uf Fluorene and Bis(2iiR bipheuyleme) Methane . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 13 Theoretioal Caloulatiun and Experimental Beta Sf Flugrene and Bis(2 2 bkpMenylsne) Methane ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ e... Calouiation of Fluorene ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ 22 P Matrix of Bis(2~2 biphemyleue) Methane ~ ~ ~ 23 P Matrix of Bis(2, 2 biphewylene) Methane (Continued) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 P Matrix of Fluorene ~ ~ 25 Gesssa Matrix of Bis(2, 2 biphenyleue) Methane ~ ~ 26...

  13. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  14. Novel strategies for the synthesis of methane adsorbents with controlled porosity and high surface area. Annual report, January 1, 1994-December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ventura, S.C.; Kumar, S.K.; Yokoi, S.I.

    1995-04-01

    Natural gas is an attractive alternative to gasoline as fuel for cars because of its desirable emission characteristics, good cold starting characteristics, and high octane number. A major factor that limits widespread use of NGV`s is the low energy density of natural gas. The authors have developed low-cost gel precursors that are excellent binders of high surface area carbon and produce monoliths with piece density of 0.64 g/mL, carbon packing density of 0.62 g/mL and methane volumetric storage capacity of 140 V/V (based on volume of gas delivered) at 500 psia. The authors` preliminary experiments show that piece density may be further increased under suitable processing conditions and that even higher methane volumetric capacities will be attainable.

  15. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  16. White Paper: Airborne Observations in Western North Dakota to Obtain Baseline Measurements for Qualification of Important Atmospheric Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    and aerosols. The production, transportation and storage of crude oil and natural gas can result in methane atoms) vapors from crude oil production form aerosols within the atmosphere. The research objective determine the magnitude of emission rates from the region's oil and gas production (Karion et al. 2013

  17. Modeling pure methane hydrate dissociation using a numerical simulator from a novel combination of X-ray computed tomography and macroscopic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    of predicted and measured methane gas production data within the heterogeneous porous methane hydrate sample.Global Distribution of Methane Hydrate in Ocean Hydrate.

  18. The effects of dissolved methane upon liquid argon scintillation light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, T

    In this paper we report on measurements of the effects of dissolved methane upon argon scintillation light. We monitor the light yield from an alpha source held 20 cm from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube (PMT) assembly ...

  19. Commodity chemicals from natural gas by methane chlorination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, S.C.; Minet, R.G.; Giacobbe, F.; Mullick, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) can be produced from natural gas through methane chlorination by reacting methane and chlorine at 900/sup 0/C or higher. Experimental results indicate total ethylene equivalent yield from methane of 45%(wt) and marginal process economics. Fundamental kinetic modeling predicts improved C/sub 2/ yields of up to 70%(wt) at optimum reaction conditions. This optimum condition established the basis for the process design study to evaluate the potential for producing ethylene and VCM from natural gas. HCl by-product is recycled for economic viability. Using the Kel-Chlor process for recycling HCl, the proposed plant produces 27,200 TPA of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 383,800 TPA of VCM. The Midwest is an ethylene consumption area requiring imports of ethylene derivatives from other regions. A methane chlorination plant located on a Midwestern natural gas pipeline network has a good commercial potential.

  20. Diurnal variations in methane emission from rice plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laskowski, Nicholas Aaron

    2004-11-15

    with uncontrolled soil temperature than for plants with controlled soil temperature. Soil temperature at a 5 cm depth explained 46% of the emission variation. Soil temperature affects the source of methane in the soil while transpiration promotes the uptake...