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1

Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical@mit.edu Website: http://mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical Transport Model by Yu

2

Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

90 Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane (Ch4) concentrations have more than doubled. Despite the about 20o times smaller atmospheric burden of methane compared to carbon dioxide (CO2 ; IPCC 4th assessment report, 2007), because on a per molecule basis methane is a much more effective

Haak, Hein

4

Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Methane present in an extrasolar planet atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecules present in exoplanetary atmospheres are expected to strongly influence the atmospheric radiation balance, trace dynamical and chemical processes, and indicate the presence of disequilibrium effects. Since molecules have the potential to reveal the exoplanet atmospheric conditions and chemistry, searching for them is a high priority. The rotational-vibrational transition bands of water, carbon monoxide, and methane are anticipated to be the primary sources of non-continuum opacity in hot-Jovian planets. Since these bands overlap in wavelength, and the corresponding signatures from them are weak, decisive identification requires precision infrared spectroscopy. Here we report on a near-infrared transmission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b showing the presence of methane. Additionally, a resolved water-vapour band at 1.9 microns confirms the recent claim of water in this object. On thermochemical grounds, carbon-monoxide is expected to be abundant in the upper atmosphere of hot-Jovian exoplanets; thus the detection of methane rather than carbon-monoxide in such a hot planet could signal the presence of a horizontal chemical gradient away from the permanent dayside, or it may imply an ill-understood photochemical mechanisms that leads to an enhancement of methane.

Mark R. Swain; Gautam Vasisht; Giovanna Tinetti

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

6

Carbon dioxide and methane in karst systems Supervisors: Prof Dave Mattey, Dr Dave Lowry and Dr. Rebecca Fisher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide and methane in karst systems Supervisors: Prof Dave Mattey, Dr Dave Lowry and Dr in the carbon cycle and very little is known about the behavior of methane in karst systems. Methane carbon isotopic evidence for oxidation of atmospheric methane in a dynamically ventilated cave

Royal Holloway, University of London

7

Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3636, USA. Summary The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a glo- bally significant sink that regulates methane flux from sediments into the oceans and atmosphere. Here we examine

Girguis, Peter R.

8

Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide. Introduction Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per capita are released annually into the atmosphere.1a,b CarbonStorage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks

Yaghi, Omar M.

9

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

Fischlin, Andreas

10

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide Water vapor #12;Atmospheric composition (parts per million by volume) · Nitrogen (N2) 780Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0

Olver, Peter

11

Carbon dioxide adsorption and methanation on ruthenium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a ruthenium-silica catalyst were studied using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature-programmed reaction (TPR). Carbon dioxide adsorption was found to be activated; CO/sub 2/ adsorption increased significantly as the temperature increased from 298 to 435 K. During adsorption, some of the CO/sub 2/ dissociated to carbon monoxide and oxygen; upon hydrogen exposure at room temperature, the oxygen reacted to water. Methanation of adsorbed CO and of adsorbed CO/sub 2/, using TPR in flowing hydrogen, yielded a CH/sub 4/ peak with a peak temperature of 459 K for both adsorbates, indicating that both reactions follow the same mechanism after adsorption. This peak temperature did not change with initial surface coverage of CO, indicating that methanation is first order in CO coverage. The desorption and reaction spectra for Ru/SiO/sub 2/ were similar to those previously obtained for Ni/SiO/sub 2/, but both CO/sub 2/ formation and CH/sub 4/ formation proceeded faster on Ru. Also, the details of CO desorption and the changes in CO/sub 2/ and CO desorptions with initial coverage were different on the two metals. 5 figures, 3 tables.

Zagli, E.; Falconer, J.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

An Investigation of Martian Methane & Implications for Future Missions Keywords: Mars, atmosphere; Atmospheres, composition; Spectroscopy; Infrared observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Investigation of Martian Methane & Implications for Future Missions Keywords: Mars, atmosphere and Planetary Institute discussing the recent detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere. Methane requires constant renewal in the Martian atmosphere, so this discovery implies the presence of methane sources

Richardson Jr., James E.

13

Gravimetric study of adsorbed intermediates in methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to more fully elucidate the adsorbed intermediates and mechanism involved in catalytic methanation of CO on a typical nickel methanation catalyst. Rates of adsorption and desorption of surface species and of gasification of carbon were measured gravimetrically to determine their kinetics and possible roles in methanation. 19 refs.

Gardner, D.C.; Bartholomew, C.H.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Effects in Microbial Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Effects in Microbial Methane from Terrestrial Environments Jeffrey Chanton, Lia Chaser, Paul Glasser,Don Siegel Methane is the ultimate end-product of anaerobic respiration. Methane production via CO2 reduction does not consume CO2. Also, acetate can be written as 2CH20, so Eq. 6

Saleska, Scott

15

Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

Zhuang, Qianlai

16

Methane emission by termites: Impacts on the self-cleansing mechanisms of the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Termites are reported to emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and dimethyl sulfide. The emission of other trace gases, namely C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} hydrocarbons, is also documented. We have carried out, both in the field and in the laboratory, measurements of methane emissions by Macrotermes subhyalinus (Macrotermitinae), Trinervitermes bettonianus (Termitinae), and unidentified Cubitermes and Microcerotermes species. Measured CH{sub 4} field flux rates ranged from 3.66 to 98.25g per m{sup 2} of termite mound per year. Laboratory measurements gave emission rates that ranged from 14.61 to 165.05 mg CH{sub 4} per termite per year. Gaseous production in all species sampled varied both within species and from species to species. Recalculated global emission of methane from termites was found to be 14.0 x 10{sup 12} g CH{sub 4}, per year. From our study, termites contribution to atmospheric methane content is between 1.11% and 4.25% per year. This study discusses the greenhouse effects as well as photochemical disposal of methane in the lower atmosphere in the tropics and the impacts on the chemistry of HO{sub x} systems and CL{sub x} cycles.

Mugedo, J.Z.A. [Maseno Univ. College (Kenya)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

Coal companies hope to receive carbon credits for methane reductions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year, underground coal mining in the USA liberates 2.4 million tonnes of coal mine methane (CMM), of which less than 30% is recovered and used. One barrier to CMM recovery is cost. Drainage, collection, and utilization systems are complex and expensive to install. Two coal mines have improved the cost equation, however, by signing on to earn money for CMM emissions they are keeping out of the atmosphere. Jim Walter Resources and PinnOak Resources have joined a voluntary greenhouse gas reduction trading program called the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to turn their avoided emissions into carbon credits. The example they set may encourage other coal mining companies to follow suit, and may bring new projects on the line that would otherwise have not gone forward. 2 refs., 1 fig.

NONE

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

CHEMISTRY OF METHANE AND RELATED HYDROCARBONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEMISTRY OF METHANE AND RELATED HYDROCARBONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS. F. Lefèvre, LATMOS, Paris detection of methane on Mars [1,2,3,4] has revived the possibility of past or extant life on this planet of the recent observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to be locally enhanced

19

ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL recovered. Carbon sequestration, therefore, allows the utilization of unexploited mineral resources while potential of coalbed methane production using carbon dioxide sequestration in the Central Appalachian Basin

20

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

Don Augenstein

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

The impact of methane thermodynamics on seasonal convection and circulation in a model Titan atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of methane thermodynamics on seasonal convection and circulation in a model Titan mechanisms controlling the distribution of methane convection and large-scale circulation in a simplified, axisymmetric model atmosphere of Titan forced by gray radiation and moist (methane) con- vection. The large

Caballero, Rodrigo

23

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

24

Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation to seeping fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-related authigenic carbonates from the Black Sea: geochemical characterisation and relation of carbon derived from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), the oxidation of organic matter and from sea water. Methane is the dominant component among other hydrocarbon gases in these sediments. Its

Mazzini, Adriano

25

Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

Ian MacDonald

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Methane and carbon monoxide emissions from asphalt pavement: Measurements and estimates of their important to global budgets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors measured emissions of methane from asphalt surfaces used in pavement for roadways. Maximum emissions were 22 mg/m{sup 2}/hr for 1- to 4-week-old pavement during maximum sunlight intensity. Emissions were much smaller at low sunlight intensity and dropped off to negligible amounts at night. Smaller emissions were observed for asphalt pavement of 2.5 to 3 years approximate age under similar conditions. Comparison measurements of carbon monoxide emissions resulted in maximum emissions of about 2.6 mg/m{sup 2}hr for 1-week-old pavement. These findings indicate that emissions of CH{sub 4} and CO are a function of both sunlight and temperature. Based on these results, methane emissions from asphalt pavement cannot be a significant source of atmospheric methane as compared to other identified methane sources. Therefore, although asphalt methane emissions are a form of fossil fuel methane, they cannot explain the relatively high fraction of {sup 14}C-depleted methane in the atmosphere.

Tyler, S.C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Cicerone, R.J. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA)); Lowe, D.C. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand))

1990-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

27

Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

Erickson, D.C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during the past century: A retrospective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during develop and use a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4 dynamics (3309); 1890 Hydrology: Wetlands; KEYWORDS: methane emissions, methane oxidation, permafrost

McGuire, A. David

30

Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

31

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

Wehrli, Bernhard

32

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

Scherer, Norbert F.

33

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

34

Fluxes of methane between landfills and the atmosphere: Natural and engineered controls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field measurement of landfill methane emissions indicates natural variability spanning more than 2 seven orders of magnitude, from approximately 0.0004 to more than 4000 g m{sub -2} day{sup -1}. This wide range reflects net emissions resulting from production (methanogenesis), consumption (methanotrophic oxidation), and gaseous transport processes. The determination of an {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} emission rate for a given field site requires sampling designs and statistical techniques which consider spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, particularly at sites with pumped gas recovery systems, it is possible for methanotrophic microorganisms in aerated cover soils to oxidize all of the methane from landfill sources below and, additionally, to oxidize methane diffusing into cover soils from atmospheric sources above. In such cases, a reversed soil gas concentration gradient is observed in shallow cover soils, indicating bidirectional diffusional transport to the depth of optimum methane oxidation. Rates of landfill methane oxidation from field and laboratory incubation studies range up to 166 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} among the highest for any natural setting, providing an effective natural control on net emissions. Estimates of worldwide landfill methane emissions to the atmosphere have ranged from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup -1}, differing mainly in assumed methane yields from estimated quantities of landfilled refuse. At highly controlled landfill sites in developed countries, landfill methane is often collected via vertical wells or horizontal collectors. Recovery of landfill methane through engineered systems can provide both environmental and energy benefits by mitigating subsurface migration, reducing surface emissions, and providing an alternative energy resource for industrial boiler use, on-site electrical generation, or upgrading to a substitute natural gas.

Bogner, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Meadows, M. [ETSU, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Czepiel, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Planetary and Space Science 54 (2006) 11771187 Titan's methane cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Methane is key to sustaining Titan's thick nitrogen atmosphere. However, methane is destroyed and the pressure induced opacity in the infrared, particularly by CH4­N2 and H2­N2 collisions in the troposphere), whose reaction with carbon grains or carbon dioxide in the crustal pores produces methane gas

Atreya, Sushil

37

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 49214929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and uncertainty estimation in national GHG emission inventories haveAtmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 4921­4929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory May 2004 Abstract In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing

Columbia University

38

Soot formation in laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed methane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt; the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames, for reasons that still must be explained.

Xu, F.; Lin, K.C.; Faeth, G.M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Oxygen Pathways and Carbon Dioxide Utilization in Methane Partial Oxidation in Ambient Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ronmental impact. Present technology uses steam reforming to produce synthesis gas which is converted into enhance- ment of the carbon balance of methane conversion by reforming with CO2 in order to "recycle

Mallinson, Richard

40

The role of hydrogen in methane formation from carbon and water over metal catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ROLE OF HYDROGEN IN METHANE FORMATION FROM CARBON AND WATER OVER METAL CATALYSTS A Thesis by STANLEY EDWIN MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major subject: chemistry THE ROLE OF HYDROGEN IN METHANE FORMATION FROM CARBON AND WATER OVER METAL CATALYSTS A Thesis by STANLEY EDWIN MOORE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Commi ee) (Me r) (Member) ( d...

Moore, Stanley Edwin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

Trabalka, J R [ed.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effect of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on the diffusivity of methane confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microscopic diffusivity of methane (CH{sub 4}) confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel was investigated as a function of added carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) pressure using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). In the range of the external pressure of 1-2.5 MPa, the self-diffusivity of methane was found to increase with CO{sub 2} pressure and remain practically unchanged in the N{sub 2} environment. Increasing mobility of methane with CO{sub 2} pressure suggests that the adsorbed CH4 molecules become gradually replaced by CO{sub 2} on the surface of carbon aerogel pores, whereas the presence of N{sub 2} does not induce the replacement. The molecular mobility of the methane, with or without added carbon dioxide and nitrogen, is described by the unrestricted diffusion model, which is characteristic of methane compressed in small pores. On the other hand, both nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules in carbon aerogel, when studied alone, with no methane present, follow a jump diffusion process, characteristic of the molecular mobility in the densified adsorbed layers on the surface of the aerogel pores.

Mavila Chathoth, Suresh [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature-programed desorption and reaction studies showed that increasing amounts of CO/sub 2/ adsorbed on silica-supported 6.9% nickel with increasing temperature to a maximum adsorption at approx. 443/sup 0/K, i.e., that the adsorption was activated; that CO/sub 2/ desorbed partly as CO/sub 2/ with the peak at 543/sup 0/K, and partly as CO with several peaks; that in the presence of hydrogen, nearly all adsorbed CO/sub 2/ desorbed as methane, and a small amount as CO; and that the methane desorption peaks from adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ both occurred at 473/sup 0/K. These results suggested that carbon dioxide adsorbed dissociatively as a carbon monoxide and an oxygen species. An observed absence of higher hydrocarbons in the methanation products of carbon dioxide was attributed to a high hydrogen/carbon monoxide surface ratio caused by the activated carbon dioxide adsorption.

Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Abrupt changes in atmospheric methane at the MIS 5b5a transition Alexi M. Grachev,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abrupt changes in atmospheric methane at the MIS 5b­5a transition Alexi M. Grachev,1 Edward J, as was previously described for the last deglaciation. Citation: Grachev, A. M., E. J. Brook, and J. P. Severinghaus by more than 25% [Valdes et al., 2005], and the oceanic methane hydrate source appears to be stable

Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

45

Magnitude and spatio-temporal variability of methane emissions from a eutrophic freshwater lake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and it can significantly impact global climate change. Considerable amounts of methane can be released to the atmosphere from freshwater lakes, ...

Varadharajan, Charuleka, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (??Methane in the Arctic Shelf? or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (??metagenomes?). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation.

David Kirchman

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Carbon dioxide, argon, nitrogen and methane clathrate hydrates:1 thermodynamic modelling, investigation of their stability in Martian2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Carbon dioxide, argon, nitrogen and methane clathrate hydrates:1 thermodynamic modelling-4Dec2012 #12;3 Keywords: Mars, clathrate hydrate, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, methane, equilibrium and allows to simulating a Martian gas, CO2 dominated (95.3%) plus nitrogen6 (2.7%) and argon (2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst were studied using temperature-programmed desorption and temperature-programmed reaction. Carbon dioxide adsorption on nickel was found to be activated; almost no adsorption occurred at room temperature, but large coverages were obtained between 383 and 473 K. The data indicate CO/sub 2/ dissociates upon adsorption at elevated temperatures to yield carbon monoxide and oxygen atoms. These oxygen atoms react with hydrogen at room temperature, so the methane and water observed during programmed heating in flowing hydrogen are identical for adsorbed CO and adsorbed CO/sub 2/. Single CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O peaks, each with a peak temperature at 473 K, were observed. This peak temperature did not change with initial coverage, indicating methanation is first order in CO surface coverage. The activated adsorption of CO/sub 2/ allowed these coverage variation experiments to be carried out. Thus, following adsorption, CO and CO/sub 2/ methanation proceed by the same mechanism. However, the activated adsorption of CO/sub 2/ may create a higher H/sub 2/:CO surface ratio during steady-state hydrogenation, causing CO/sub 2/ hydrogenation to favor methane over higher hydrocarbons. 5 figures.

Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Synthesis and characterization of catalysts containing nickel for reforming methane with carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane with Carbon Dioxide. (August 1988) Michael Edward Sommer, B. S. , Rutgers University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ahmed M. Gadalla An industrial Ni catalyst supported on CaO-TiOq-AlqOs was characterized and used for methane reforming... reduction to 15. 6m /g after reduction to 6, 35m /g after reaction. It should be noted that reduction of NiO is accompanied by contraction. Moreover, since CAs is more dense than CAs but comparable in density to aAlsOs (Table 2), the reaction of formation...

Sommer, Michael Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

51

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to an increase in atmospheric CO2 are partly offset by the carbon uptake by the oceans and the restAnalytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes 2008; accepted 18 June 2008; published 12 September 2008. [1] Carbon perturbations leading

Follows, Mick

53

Field-project designs for carbon dioxide sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Worldwide concerns about global warming and possible contributions to it from anthropogenic carbon dioxide have become important during the past several years. Coal seams may make excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration; coal-seam sequestration could enhance methane production and improve sequestration economics. Reservoir-simulation computations are an important component of any engineering design before carbon dioxide is injected underground. We have performed such simulations for a hypothetical pilot-scale project in representative coal seams. In these simulations we assume four horizontal production wells that form a square, that is, two wells drilled at right angles to each other forming two sides of a square, with another pair of horizontal wells similarly drilled to form the other two sides. Four shorter horizontal wells are drilled from a vertical well at the center of the square, forming two straight lines orthogonal to each other. By modifying coal properties, especially sorption rate, we have approximated different types of coals. By varying operational parameters, such as injector length, injection well pressure, time to injection, and production well pressure, we can evaluate different production schemes to determine an optimum for each coal type. Any optimization requires considering a tradeoff between total CO{sub 2} sequestered and the rate of methane production. Values of total CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced are presented for multiple coal types and different operational designs. 30 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

W. Neal Sams; Grant Bromhal; Sinisha Jikich; Turgay Ertekin; Duane H. Smith [EG& amp; G Technical Services, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Carbon Dioxide Storage in Coal Seams with Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery: Geologic Evaluation, Capacity Assessment and Field Validation of the Central Appalachian Basin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane are benefits to sequestering carbon dioxide in coal seams. This is possible because (more)

Ripepi, Nino Samuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

J. Phys. I FFance 6 (1996) 771-781 JUNE 1996, PAGE 771 Measurement of the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composition of Methane Using Helicoidal Laser Eigenstates D. Jacob (~), A. Le Floch (~), F. Bretenaker intracavity measurements of the carbon isotopic composition of methane. The method is based on a double the ~~CH4/~~CH4 composition ratio of methane with an uncertainty of the order of +0.07% for a sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

A Search for Methane in the Atmosphere of GJ 1214b via GTC Narrow-Band Transmission Spectrophotometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present narrow-band photometric measurements of the exoplanet GJ 1214b using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the OSIRIS instrument. Using tuneable filters we observed a total of five transits, three of which were observed at two wavelengths nearly simultaneously, producing a total of eight individual light curves, six of these probed the possible existence of a methane absorption feature in the 8770 - 8850 {\\AA} region at high resolution. We detect no increase in the planet-to-star radius ratio across the methane feature with a change in radius ratio of $\\Delta$R = -0.0007 $\\pm$ 0.0017 corresponding to a scale height (H) change of -0.5 $\\pm$ 1.2 H across the methane feature, assuming a hydrogen dominated atmosphere. We find a variety of water and cloudy atmospheric models fit the data well, but find that cloud-free models provide poor fits. These observations support a flat transmission spectrum resulting from the presence of a high-altitude haze or a water-rich atmosphere, in agreement with ...

Wilson, P A; Sing, D K; Ballester, G E; Dsert, J -M; Ehrenreich, D; Ford, E B; Fortney, J J; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Lpez-Morales, M; Morley, C V; Pettitt, A R; Pont, F; Vidal-Madjar, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Time dependences of atmospheric Carbon dioxide fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere is critical for predictions regarding future climate changes. A simple mass conservation analysis presented here generates tight estimations for the atmosphere's retention time constant. The analysis uses a leaky integrator model that combines the observed deficit (only less than 40% of CO2 produced from combustion of fossil fuels is actually retained in the atmosphere, while more than 60% is continuously shed) with the exponential growth of fossil fuel burning. It reveals a maximum characteristic time of less than 23 year for the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to a segregation sink. This time constant is further constrained by the rapid disappearance of 14C after the ban of atmospheric atomic bomb tests, which provides a lower limit of 18 years for this transfer. The study also generates evaluations of other CO2 fluxes, exchange time constants and volumes exchanged. Analysis of large harmonic oscillations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, often neglected in th...

DeSalvo, Riccardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

A Process-based Analysis of Methane Exchanges Between Alaskan Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed and used a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in Alaskan soils have changed over the past century in response to observed changes ...

Zhuang, Qianlai.

60

U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

Heath, G.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Modeling Coal Matrix Shrinkage and Differential Swelling with CO2 Injection for Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery and Carbon Sequestration Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Matrix shrinkage and swelling can cause profound changes in porosity and permeability of coalbed methane reservoirs during depletion or when under CO{sub 2} injection processes, with significant implication for primary or enhanced methane recovery. Two models that are used to describe these effects are discussed. The first was developed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and published in 1990 by Sawyer, et al. The second model was published by Palmer and Mansoori in 1996. This paper shows that the two provide equivalent results for most applications. However, their differences in formulation cause each to have relative advantages and disadvantages under certain circumstances. Specifically, the former appears superior for undersaturated coalbed methane reservoirs while the latter would be better if a case is found where matrix swelling is strongly disproportional to gas concentration. Since its presentation in 1996, the Palmer and Mansoori model has justifiably received much critical praise. However, the model developed by ARI for the COMET reservoir simulation program has been in use since 1990, and has significant advantages in certain settings. A review of data published by Levine in 1996 reveals that carbon dioxide causes a greater degree of coal matrix swelling compared to methane, even when measured on a unit of concentration basis. This effect is described in this report as differential swelling. Differential swelling may have important consequences for enhanced coalbed methane and carbon sequestration projects. To handle the effects of differential swelling, an extension to the matrix shrinkage and swelling model used by the COMET simulator is presented and shown to replicate the data of Levine. Preliminary field results from a carbon dioxide injection project are also presented in support of the extended model. The field evidence supports that considerable changes to coal permeability occur with CO{sub 2} injection, with significant implication for the design, implementation and performance of enhanced coalbed methane recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration projects.

L. J. Pekot; S. R. Reeves

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposal for continuation of research on net ecosystem carbon dioxide and methane flux and sampling and analysis of soil samples from arctic tundra regions is presented.

Oechel, W.

1990-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effects of carbon dioxide injection on the displacement of methane and carbonate dissolution in sandstone cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs appears to be a feasible way to dispose of industrial quantities of carbon dioxide generated by fossil fired power plants. Depleted gas reservoirs amongst others (oil reservoirs, saline aquifers) is a very... from the Sleipner Vest field is separated from the produced natural gas and is injected each year into the underlying Utsira aquifer. 1, 7, 8 A combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) scheme and CO2 sequestration project has been undertaken in which CO2...

Maduakor, Ekene Obioma

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

65

The Role of the Ocean in the Atmospheric Budgets of Methyl Bromide, Methyl Chloride and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which was 700 (490 to 920) Gg yr^-1 and -370 (-440 to -280) Gg yr^-1, respectively. The ocean accounts for 10 - 19 % in the global CH3Cl emission and 6 - 9 % in its global sinks. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas, which has a warming potential...

Hu, Lei

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

66

Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

Stallinga, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and/or production of methane (CH{sub 4}) from natural hydrate deposits. This replacement strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of binary mixtures of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} hydrate (CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates), as well as thermophysical property changes during gas exchange. This study explores the thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates. We prepared CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate samples from two different, well-defined gas mixtures. During thermal dissociation of a CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate sample, gas samples from the head space were periodically collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. The changes in CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} compositions in both the vapor phase and hydrate phase during dissociation were estimated based on the gas chromatography measurements. It was found that the CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase became richer during dissociation because the initial hydrate composition contained relatively more CO{sub 2} than the vapor phase. The composition change in the vapor phase during hydrate dissociation affected the dissociation pressure and temperature; the richer CO{sub 2} in the vapor phase led to a lower dissociation pressure. Furthermore, the increase in CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase enriched the hydrate in CO{sub 2}. The dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate was computed by fitting the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the pressure-temperature (PT) trace of a dissociation test. It was observed that the dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate lays between the limiting values of pure CH{sub 4} hydrate and CO{sub 2} hydrate, increasing with the CO{sub 2} fraction in the hydrate phase.

Kwon, T.H.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dissociation heat of mixed-gas hydrate composed of methaneInternational Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2008), 2008,and specific heats of gas hydrates under submarine and

Kwon, T.H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Mechanistic Studies on the Hydroxylation of Methane by Methane Monooxygenase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanistic Studies on the Hydroxylation of Methane by Methane Monooxygenase Mu-Hyun Baik, Martin 2393 3.1. KIE in Methane Oxidations 2394 3.2. Primary and Secondary KIEs 2396 3.3. Other KIEs 2396 3 are bacteria that live on methane as their only source of carbon.1 The first step in their utilization

Baik, Mu-Hyun

70

Total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalysts. I. Catalyst composition and activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane was prepared by combining fluorite oxides with active transition metals. The fluorite oxides, such as ceria and zirconia, are oxygen-ion-conducting materials having catalytic properties usually at high temperatures. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of these oxides. The contact of the two types of materials gave rise to a high active oxidation catalyst. At a space velocity of about 42,000 h{sup {minus}1}, complete carbon monoxide oxidation in air occurred at room temperature on the Au{sub 0.05}[Ce(La)]{sub 0.95}L{sub x} catalyst and at ca. 100{degrees}C on Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts. At the same space velocity, total oxidation of methane on the Cu-Ce-O catalyst doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SrO took place at ca. 550{degrees}C. The specific carbon monoxide oxidation activity of the Cu-Ce-O catalyst was several orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional copper-based catalysts and comparable or superior to platinum catalysts. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water vapor poisoning. The enhanced catalyst activity and stability resulted from strong interaction of the transition metal and fluorite oxide materials. 44 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, F. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

A conduit dilation model of methane venting from lake sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, but its effects on Earth's climate remain poorly constrained, in part due to uncertainties in global methane fluxes to the atmosphere. An important source of atmospheric methane is the ...

Ruppel, Carolyn

72

ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

73

Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic measurements during the last deglaciation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Click Here for Full Article Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) during the last glacialinterglacial climatic transition remain debated. We analyzed the parallel evolution of CO2 and its stable carbon isotopic ratio (d13 CO2

Chappellaz, Jérôme

74

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aspects of atmospheric methane, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 2,Budeus, Fate of vent derived methane in seawater above theHanfland, Pathways of methane in seawater: Plume spreading

Elliott, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Seaweeds and halophytes to remove carbon from the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utility industry and other interested parties have investigated strategies to mitigate the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. One option that has been considered is the planting of trees on a massive scale to absorb carbon through photosynthesis. A dilemma of using tree plantations, however, is that they might occupy land that will be needed for food production or other needs for an expected doubling of human population in the tropical regions. We evaluated seaweeds and salt-tolerant terrestrial plants (halophytes) to be grown on the coastal shelves and salt deserts of the world as possible alternatives to tree plantations. An estimated 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of continental shelf and 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of salt desert may be usable for seaweed and halophyte plantations. The production rates of managed seaweed and halophyte plantings are similar to managed tree plantations. Seaweeds and halophytes could conceivably absorb 10--20% of annual fossil fuel carbon emissions through biomass production, similar to estimates made for tree plantations. Present costs of halophyte biomass production are similar to costs of tree biomass production, whereas seaweed biomass is much more expensive to produce using existing technologies. Storage of seaweed carbon might be accomplished by allowing it to enter the sediment detritus chain whereas halophyte carbon might be sequestered in the soil, or used as biomass fuel. As has been concluded for reforestation, these saline biomass crops could at best help delay rather than solve the carbon dioxide build-up problem. 1 fig., 13 tabs.

Glenn, E.P.; Kent, K.J.; Thompson, T.L.; Frye, R.J. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Environmental Research Lab.)

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric black carbon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 32 (1997) 401--407 Carbon blackhigh density polyethylene Summary: . The carbon black was then heated to 900 C in a nitrogen atmosphere and...

77

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon isotope Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of terrestrial ecosystems to rising Summary: to rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and the resulting global changes,are still... from the...

78

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon monoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reservoirs (storages, especially the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans... emissions trading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon monoxide a chemical...

79

Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1 *, Dr the idea that CO2 was `scrubbed' by precipitation of carbonate minerals within the planet's crust - a reaction termed `carbonation'. This project will seek evidence for carbonation by analysis of martian

Guo, Zaoyang

80

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the importance of non-CO2 substances, and the problems of excessive focus on long-term targets. The results in low-cost mitigation policies that are effective on timescales up to three centuries. Therefore Warming Potential based trading between methane reductions and fossil CO2 reductions is flawed because

de Weck, Olivier L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

6, 36113626, 2006 Effects of methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 3611­3626, 2006 Effects of methane outgassing on the Black Sea atmosphere K. Kourtidis et a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Effects of methane outgassing Effects of methane outgassing on the Black Sea atmosphere K. Kourtidis et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Diffusion and adsorption of methane confined in nanoporous carbon aerogel: a combined quasi-elastic and small-angle neutron scattering study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diffusion of methane confined in nano-porous carbon aerogel with the average pore size 48 {angstrom} and porosity 60% was investigated as a function of pressure at T = 298 K using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). The diffusivity of methane shows a clear effect of confinement: it is about two orders of magnitude lower than in bulk at the same thermodynamic conditions and is close to the diffusivity of liquid methane at 100 K (i.e. {approx} 90 K below the liquid-gas critical temperature T{sub C} {approx} 191 K). The diffusion coefficient (D) of methane initially increases with pressure by a factor of {approx}2.5 from 3.47 {+-} 0.41 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2} s{sup -1} at 0.482 MPa to D = 8.55 {+-} 0.33 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2} s{sup -1} at 2.75 MPa and starts to decrease at higher pressures. An explanation of the observed non-monotonic behavior of the diffusivity in the confined fluid is based on the results of small-angle neutron scattering experiments of the phase behavior of methane in a similar carbon aerogel sample. The initial increase of the diffusion coefficient with pressure is explained as due to progressive filling of bigger pores in which molecular mobility in the internal pore volume is less affected by the sluggish liquid-like molecular mobility in the adsorbed phase. Subsequent decrease of D, is associated with the effect of intermolecular collisions, which result in a lower total molecular mobility with pressure, as in the bulk state. The results are compared with the available QENS data on the methane diffusivity in zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and porous silica as well as with the molecular dynamics simulations of methane in nano-porous carbons and silica zeolites.

Mavila Chathoth, Suresh [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Zamponi, Michaela M [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

METHANE OXIDATION (AEROBIC) Helmut Brgmann  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHANE OXIDATION (AEROBIC) Helmut Bürgmann Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland Synonyms Methanotrophy Definition Methane oxidation is a microbial metabolic process for energy generation and carbon assimilation from methane that is carried out by specific

Wehrli, Bernhard

84

Release of Methane from Bering Sea Sediments During the Last Glacial Period  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several lines of evidence suggest that during times of elevated methane flux the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) was positioned near the sediment-water interface. We studied two cores (from 700 m and 1457 m water depth) from the Umnak Plateau region. Anomalously low d13C and high d18O in benthic and planktonic foraminifera in these cores are the consequence of diagenetic overgrowths of authigenic carbonates. There are multiple layers of authigenic-carbonate-rich sediment in these cores, and the stable isotope compositions of the carbonates are consistent with those formed during anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The carbonate-rich layers are associated with biomarkers produced by methane-oxidizing archaea, archaeol and glyceryl dibiphytanyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT). The d13C of the archaeol and certain GDGTs are isotopically depleted. These carbonate- and AOM-biomarker-rich layers were emplaced in the SMTZ during episodes when there was a high flux of methane or methane-rich fluids upward in the sediment column. The sediment methane in the Umnak Plateau region appears to have been very dynamic during the glacial period, and interacted with the ocean-atmosphere system at millennial time scales. The upper-most carbonate-rich layers are in radiocarbon-dated sediment deposited during interstitials 2 and 3, 28-20 ka, and may be associated with the climate warming during this time.

Mea Cook; Lloyd Keigwin

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Effects of Moisture and Organic Matter Lability on Carbon Dioxide and Methane Production in an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amounts of carbon in the form of peat and other undecomposed plant matter. Global climate change al. 2003). The carbon stored in wetlands is in the form of undecayed plant matter, or peat. Peat carbon are very useful for agricultural purposes. Their peat and preserved timber has been mined

Vallino, Joseph J.

86

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

Montes-Hernandez, German

87

Review article Methane production by ruminants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review article Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming Angela R. MOSSa of methane in the global warming scenario and to examine the contribution to atmospheric methane made by enteric fermentation, mainly by rumi- nants. Agricultural emissions of methane in the EU-15 have recently

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on San Juan Basin Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objectives of this project were to (a) measure the adsorption behavior of pure methane, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and their binary and ternary mixtures on wet Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia; (b) correlate the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data using the extended Langmuir model, the Langmuir model, the loading ratio correlation and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson equation of state; and (c) establish sorption-time estimates for the pure components. Specific accomplishments are summarized below regarding the complementary tasks involving experimental work and data correlation. Representative coal samples from BP Amoco Tiffany Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 were prepared, as requested. The equilibrium moisture content and particle size distribution of each coal sample were determined. Compositional coal analyses for both samples were performed by Huffman Laboratories, Inc. Pure gas adsorption for methane on wet Tiffany coal samples from Injection Wells No.1 and No.10 was measured separately at 130 F (327.6 K) and pressures to 2000 psia (13.7 MPa). The average expected uncertainty in these data is about 3% (9 SCF/ton). Our measurements indicate that the adsorption isotherms of the two coal samples exhibit similar Langmuir-type behavior. For the samples from the two wells, a maximum variation of about 5% in the amount adsorbed is observed at 2000 psia. Gas adsorption isotherms were measured for pure methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} on a wet, mixed Tiffany coal sample. The coal sample was an equal-mass mixture of coals from Well No.1 and Well No.10. The adsorption measurements were conducted at 130 F at pressures to 2000 psia. The adsorption isotherms have average expected experimental uncertainties of 3% (9 SCF/ton), 6% (8 SCF/ton), and 7% (62 SCF/ton) for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorption isotherms were measured for methane/nitrogen, methane/CO{sub 2} and nitrogen/CO{sub 2} binary mixtures on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia. These measurements were conducted for a single molar feed composition for each mixture. The expected uncertainties in the amount adsorbed for these binary mixtures vary with pressure and composition. In general, average uncertainties are about 5% (19 SCF/ton) for the total adsorption; however, the expected uncertainties in the amount of individual-component adsorption are significantly higher for the less-adsorbed gas at lower molar feed concentrations (e.g., nitrogen in the 20/80 nitrogen/CO{sub 2} system). Adsorption isotherms were measured for a single methane/nitrogen/CO{sub 2} ternary mixture on wet, mixed Tiffany coal at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia. The nominal molar feed composition was 10/40/50. The average expected uncertainty for the total adsorption and CO{sub 2} adsorption is about 5% (16 SCF/ton). However, the low adsorption of nitrogen and methane in this ternary yield average experimental uncertainties of 14% (9 SCF/ton) and 27% (9 SCF/ton), respectively. Limited binary and ternary gas-phase compressibility factor measurements at 130 F and pressures to 2000 psia involving methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were conducted to facilitate reduction of our ternary adsorption data. These newly acquired data (and available data from the literature) were used to improve the Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) equation-of-state (EOS) compressibility factor predictions, which are used in material balance calculations for the adsorption measurements. In general, the optimized BWR EOS represents the experimental compressibility factor data within 0.5% AAD. The Langmuir/loading ratio correlation (LRC) and the Zhou-Gasem-Robinson (ZGR) two-dimensional EOS were used to analyze the newly acquired adsorption data. Model parameters were obtained for the systems studied. The LRC and ZGR EOS were used to correlate the adsorption data for methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} and their mixtures on wet Tiffany coal. The model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of squares of weighted errors in the calculated amounts of gas adsorbed. The results

K. A. M. Gasem; R. L. Robinson; S. R. Reeves

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Atmospheric chemistry impacts and feedbacks on the global carbon cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prediction. Issues to be addressed include the quantification of the impact of the atmospheric oxidation and the oxidative state of the atmosphere. The end goal is to create a model that can quantitatively predict is required to: Predict 3-D atmospheric CO2 production as a function of the CCSM3 atmospheric chemistry module

90

Methane escape from gas hydrate systems in marine environment, and methane-driven oceanic eruptions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane escape from gas hydrate systems in marine environment, and methane-driven oceanic eruptions quantities of CH4 are stored in marine sediment in the form of methane hydrate, bubbles, and dissolved CH4 in pore water. Here I discuss the various pathways for methane to enter the ocean and atmosphere

Zhang, Youxue

91

POSSIBLE ROLE OF WETLANDS, PERMAFROST, AND METHANE HYDRATES IN THE METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POSSIBLE ROLE OF WETLANDS, PERMAFROST, AND METHANE HYDRATES IN THE METHANE CYCLE UNDER FUTURE the available scientific literature on how natural sources and the atmospheric fate of methane may be affected by future climate change. We discuss how processes governing methane wetland emissions, per- mafrost thawing

Chappellaz, Jérôme

92

Responses of primary production and total carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO? concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The authors used the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM, version 4.0) to estimate global responses of annual net primary production (NPP) and total carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2, driven by the ...

Xiao, Xiangming.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; McGuire, A. David.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

93

Might Carbon-Atmosphere White Dwarfs Harbour a New Type of Pulsating Star?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the light of the recent and unexpected discovery of a brand new type of white dwarfs, those with carbon-dominated atmospheres, we examine the asteroseismological potential of such stars. The motivation behind this is based on the observation that past models of carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs have partially ionized outer layers that bear strong resemblance with those responsible for mode excitation in models of pulsating DB (helium-atmosphere) and pulsating DA (hydrogen-atmosphere) white dwarfs. Our exciting main result is that, given the right location in parameter space, some carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs are predicted to show pulsational instability against gravity modes. We are eagerly waiting the results of observational searches for luminosity variations in these stars.

G. Fontaine; P. Brassard; P. Dufour

2008-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

94

Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its ...

Wang, David T.

95

Contrasting Regional Responses to Increasing Leaf-Level Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrasting Regional Responses to Increasing Leaf-Level Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide over Australia, New South Wales, Australia JOHN L. MCGREGOR Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia JASON P. EVANS Climate Change

Evans, Jason

96

A study of carbon-14 of paleoatmospheric methane for the last glacial termination from ancient glacial ice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kastner, M. , 2001. Gas Hydrates in Convergent Margins:Significance, Natural Gas Hydrates: Occurence, Distributionof methane in natural gas hydrate. Organic Geochemistry 23,

Petrenko, Vasilii Victorovich

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Utilization of fuel cells to beneficially use coal mine methane. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has been given the responsibility to encourage industry to recover and use methane that is currently being released to the atmosphere. At this time the only method being employed at the Left Fork Mine to remove methane is the mine ventilation system. The methane content was measured at one one-hundredth of a percent. To prevent this methane from being vented to the atmosphere, degasification wells are proposed. To use the coal mine methane, it is proposed to use phosphoric-acid fuel cells to convert methane to electric power. These fuel cells contain (1) a steam reformer to convert the methane to hydrogen (and carbon dioxide), (2) the fuel cell stack, and (3) a power conditioner that provides 200 kW of 60 Hz alternating current output. The environmental impacts and benefits of using this technology ware summarized in the report. The study indicates the methane emission reduction that could be achieved on a national and Global level. The important point being that this technology is economically viable as is demonstrated in the report.

Brown, J.T.; O`Brien, D.G.; Miller, A.R.; Atkins, R.; Sanders, M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Summary Much attention is focused today on predicting how plants will respond to anticipated changes in atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as methane, became oxidized to form an early CO2-rich atmosphere. Over time, the concentration of carbon the atmosphere. Burial and lithification of carbonates and organic matter to limestone, coal or keragen the detailed history of CO2 is not well known for the whole of earth's history, some periods are reasonably

Ehleringer, Jim

99

Studies on the sulfur poisoning of Ru-RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for the adsorption and methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of sulfur poisoning on the chemisorption and on the methanation of carbon monoxide over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalyst were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and volumetric gas adsorption measurements. The CS{sub 2} molecules are {eta}` bonded to Ru sites through one of the sulfur atoms and decompose to the constituent elements on thermal activation. Each S atom may deactivate 3 to 10 metal sites even at low coverages, the effect being more pronounced on the chemisorption of hydrogen. The deposited sulfur (and possibly carbon also) sterically hinders the formation of certain multicarbonyl and monocarbonyl species (vCO in 2055-2140 cm{sup -1} region), which otherwise transform to methane via surface methylene groups in the presence of chemisorbed hydrogen and are found to play an important role in the low-temperature methanation activity of the studied catalyst. The Ru-CO species giving rise to lower frequency vibrational bands are affected to a lesser extent. The presence of sulfur also results in the development of some new CO binding states which are weak and are identified with the CO and S coadsorbed at Ru sites of different oxidation states or of varying crystallographic nature. The CO adsorbed in these states is not reactive to hydrogen. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Kamble, V.S.; Londhe, V.P.; Gupta, N.M. [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India)] [and others] [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India); and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Variability of the methane trapping in martian subsurface clathrate hydrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent observations have evidenced traces of methane CH4 heterogeneously distributed in the martian atmosphere. However, because the lifetime of CH4 in the atmosphere of Mars is estimated to be around 300-600 years on the basis of photochemistry, its release from a subsurface reservoir or an active primary source of methane have been invoked in the recent literature. Among the existing scenarios, it has been proposed that clathrate hydrates located in the near subsurface of Mars could be at the origin of the small quantities of the detected CH4. Here, we accurately determine the composition of these clathrate hydrates, as a function of temperature and gas phase composition, by using a hybrid statistical thermodynamic model based on experimental data. Compared to other recent works, our model allows us to calculate the composition of clathrate hydrates formed from a more plausible composition of the martian atmosphere by considering its main compounds, i.e. carbon dioxyde, nitrogen and argon, together with methane. Besides, because there is no low temperature restriction in our model, we are able to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates formed at temperatures corresponding to the extreme ones measured in the polar caps. Our results show that methane enriched clathrate hydrates could be stable in the subsurface of Mars only if a primitive CH4-rich atmosphere has existed or if a subsurface source of CH4 has been (or is still) present.

Caroline Thomas; Olivier Mousis; Sylvain Picaud; Vincent Ballenegger

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

102

Biomarker Response to Galactic Cosmic Ray-Induced NOx and the Methane Greenhouse Effect in the Atmosphere of an Earthlike Planet Orbiting an M-Dwarf Star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planets orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of M-Dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which produce nitrogen oxides in earthlike atmospheres. We investigate to what extent this NOx may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources) . Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M-star world atmospheric column by up to 20% due to the GCR NOx effects compared to an M-star run without GCR effects and can therefore survive at least the effects of galactic cosmic rays. We have not however investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher than on the Earth related to a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in UV. The increase is less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% ...

Grenfell, J L; Patzer, B; Rauer, H; Segura, A; Stadelmann, A; Stracke, B; Titz, R; Von Paris, P; Grenfell, John Lee; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Patzer, Beate; Rauer, Heike; Segura, Antigona; Stadelmann, Anja; Stracke, Barbara; Titz, Ruth; Paris, Philip von

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approac...

Roy, Mandira; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume E T H A N L . G R O S S M A N , * , L U I, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its

Grossman, Ethan L.

106

Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Production: In the United States cattle emit about 5.5 million metric tons of methane per year into the atmosphere. o Accounts for 20% of methane emissions from human sources. Globally cattle produce about 80 million metric tons of methane annually. o Accounts for 28% of global methane emissions

Toohey, Darin W.

107

Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forests indi- cates that the model representation of competition between plants and microbes for new mineral nitrogen resources is reasonable. Our results suggest a weaker dependence of net land carbon flux on soil moisture changes in tropical regions... National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335, USA 2Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1543, USA 3Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research...

Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

109

Natural gas cleanup: Evaluation of a molecular sieve carbon as a pressure swing adsorbent for the separation of methane/nitrogen mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a preliminary evaluation to determine the technical feasibility of using a molecular sieve carbon manufactured by the Takeda Chemical Company of Japan in a pressure owing adsorption cycle for upgrading natural gas (methane) contaminated with nitrogen. Adsorption tests were conducted using this adsorbent in two, four, and five-step adsorption cycles. Separation performance was evaluated in terms of product purity, product recovery, and sorbent productivity for all tests. The tests were conducted in a small, single-column adsorption apparatus that held 120 grams of the adsorbent. Test variables included adsorption pressure, pressurization rate, purge rate and volume, feed rate, and flow direction in the steps from which the product was collected. Sorbent regeneration was accomplished by purging the column with the feed gas mixture for all but one test series where a pure methane purge was used. The ratio between the volumes of the pressurization gas and the purge gas streams was found to be an important factor in determining separation performance. Flow rates in the various cycle steps had no significant effect. Countercurrent flow in the blow-down and purge steps improved separation performance. Separation performance appears to improve with increasing adsorption pressure, but because there are a number of interrelated variables that are also effected by pressure, further testing will be needed to verify this. The work demonstrates that a molecular sieve carbon can be used to separate a mixture of methane and nitrogen when used in a pressure swing cycle with regeneration by purge. Further work is needed to increase product purity and product recovery.

Grimes, R.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Henry's Law Constants of Methane, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Ethanol from 273 to 498 K: Prediction from Molecular Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

noindent Henry's law constants of the solutes methane, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the solvent ethanol are predicted by molecular simulation. The molecular models for the solutes are taken from previous work. For the solvent ethanol, a new rigid anisotropic united atom molecular model based on Lennard-Jones and Coulombic interactions is developed. It is adjusted to experimental pure component saturated liquid density and vapor pressure data. Henry's law constants are calculated by evaluating the infinite dilution residual chemical potentials of the solutes from 273 to 498K with Widom's test particle insertion. The prediction of Henry's Law constants without the use of binary experimental data on the basis of the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rule agree well with experimental data, deviations are 20%, except for carbon dioxide for which deviations of 70% are reached. Quantitative agreement is achieved by using the modified Lorentz-Berthelot combining rule which is adjusted to one experimental mixture ...

Schnabel, T; Hasse, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Biomarker Response to Galactic Cosmic Ray-Induced NOx and the Methane Greenhouse Effect in the Atmosphere of an Earthlike Planet Orbiting an M-Dwarf Star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planets orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of M-Dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which produce nitrogen oxides in earthlike atmospheres. We investigate to what extent this NOx may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources) . Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M-star world atmospheric column by up to 20% due to the GCR NOx effects compared to an M-star run without GCR effects and can therefore survive at least the effects of galactic cosmic rays. We have not however investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher than on the Earth related to a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in UV. The increase is less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% lower CH4 fluxes compared to those studies. Unlike on the Earth, relatively modest changes in these fluxes can lead to larger changes in the concentrations of biomarker and related species on the M-star world. We calculate a CH4 greenhouse heating effect of up to 4K. O3 photochemistry in terms of the smog mechanism and the catalytic loss cycles on the M-star world differs considerably compared with the Earth.

John Lee Grenfell; Jean-Mathias Griessmeier; Beate Patzer; Heike Rauer; Antigona Segura; Anja Stadelmann; Barbara Stracke; Ruth Titz; Philip von Paris

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

112

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emissions. We used TransCom3 annual mean simulations from three transport models to evaluate carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation

Krakauer, Nir Y.

113

Spatiotemporal dynamics of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from agricultural and restored wetlands in the California Delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon! loss! due! to! peat! oxidation,! and! continuing!carbon! by! reducing! peat! oxidation! in! the! shortCterm,!which! are! located! on! peat! soils! that! experience!

Hatala, Jaclyn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Enhanced coalbed methane recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by injecting CO{sub 2} in the coal seam at supercritical conditions. Through an in situ adsorption/desorption process the displaced methane is produced and the adsorbed CO{sub 2} is permanently stored. This is called enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) and it is a technique under investigation as a possible approach to the geological storage of CO{sub 2} in a carbon dioxide capture and storage system. This work reviews the state of the art on fundamental and practical aspects of the technology and summarizes the results of ECBM field tests. These prove the feasibility of ECBM recovery and highlight substantial opportunities for interdisciplinary research at the interface between earth sciences and chemical engineering.

Mazzotti, M.; Pini, R.; Storti, G. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Process Engineering

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liebner, Susanne [University of Tromso, Norway; Wilhelm, Ronald [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Wagner, Dirk [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

RESEARCH ARTICLE -BASED ON MIR INVESTIGATIONS IN LAKE GENEVA Spatial heterogeneity of benthic methane dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methane dynamics in the subaquatic canyons of the Rhone River Delta (Lake Geneva) S. Sollberger · J. P methane (CH4) dynam- ics from river deltas with important organic matter accumulation have been recently Methane emission Á Methane production Introduction Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration has dramati

Wehrli, Bernhard

117

RESEARCH ARTICLE -BASED ON MIR INVESTIGATIONS IN LAKE GENEVA Spatial heterogeneity of benthic methane dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methane dynamics in the subaquatic canyons of the Rhone River Delta (Lake Geneva) S. Sollberger · J. P Abstract Heterogeneous benthic methane (CH4) dynam- ics from river deltas with important organic matter Particle size Á Methane emission Á Methane production Introduction Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration

Wehrli, Bernhard

118

Numerical modeling of methane venting from lake sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics of methane transport in lake sediments control the release of methane into the water column above, and the portion that reaches the atmosphere may contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. The observed ...

Scandella, Benjamin P. (Benjamin Paul)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Quasielastic electron scattering from methane, methane-d4, methane-d2, ethylene, and 2-methylpropane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quasielastic electron scattering from methane, methane-d4, methane-d2, ethylene, and 2-methylpropane, ethylene, methane, and two isotopically substituted methanes, CH2D2 and CD4, at a momentum constituent. For example, Fig. 1 of Ref. 2 shows that, for gaseous methane, above a certain momentum transfer

Hitchcock, Adam P.

120

Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 ...

Xiao, X.

122

Methane Fluxes Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere at Northern High Latitudes During the Past Century: A retrospective analysis with a process-based biogeochemistry model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop and use a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in high-latitude soils of the Northern Hemisphere have changed over the past century ...

Zhuang, Qianlai.

123

Implications of Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 Methane Emissions to Stabilize Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increases in the abundance of methane (CH4) in the Earths atmosphere are responsible for significant radiative forcing of climate change (Forster et al., 2007; Wuebbles and Hayhoe, 2002). Since 1750, a 2.5 fold increase in atmospheric CH4 contributed 0.5 W/m2 to direct radiative forcing and an additional 0.2 W/m2 indirectly through changes in atmospheric chemistry. Next to water and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Additionally, CH4 is significantly more effective as a greenhouse gas on a per molecule basis than is CO2, and increasing atmospheric CH4 has been second only to CO2 in radiative forcing (Forster et al., 2007). The chemical reactivity of CH4 is important to both tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Along with carbon monoxide, methane helps control the amount of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere where oxidation of CH4 by OH leads to the formation of formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and ozone.

Emanuel, William R.; Janetos, Anthony C.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle, and Climate (AC4): Observational Constraints on Sources and Sinks of Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gas extraction can also inform future energy choices. In FY 2014, Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle anthropogenic-biogenic emission intense regions 3. Deposition processes controlling atmospheric concentrations of aerosols and greenhouse gases Projects that quantify sources and sinks via new measurements and/or modeling

125

Time-series analysis for the episodic production and transport of methane from the Glacial Lake Agassiz peatlands, northern Minnesota. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The large peat basins of North America are an important reservoir in the global carbon cycle and a significant source of atmospheric methane. The authors investigated carbon cycling in the Glacial Lake Agassiz peatlands (GLAP) of Minnesota. Initially in 1990, they identified a dramatic change in the concentration of methane in the pore-waters of the raised bogs in the GLAP during an extreme drought. This methane dissipated when the drought broke in 1991 and the occurrence of deep methane is related to changes in the direction of groundwater flow in the peat column. The production of methane and its diffusive loss to the atmosphere was modeled and was about 10 times less than that measured directly in chambers at the land surface. It is clear from the reversals in hydraulic heat, changes in pore-water chemical composition over time, and paleostratigraphic markers, that regional ground water flow systems that are controlled by climate change are unexpectedly a major control over methanogenesis and carbon cycling in GLAP. Seismic profiles made showed that buried bedrock ridges particularly deflect regional groundwater flow upwards towards the land surface and towards raised bog landforms. In addition, high-resolution GPS measurements from data stations funded by this DOE project have shown this year that the peakland land surface elevation changes daily on a scale of cms, and seasonally on a scale of 10s of cm. This most recent observation is exciting because it may reflect episodic degassing of free phase methane from the peat column to the atmosphere, a source for methane previously unaccounted for by methane researchers.

Siegel, D.I.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009 P. E. Thornton et al. : Carbon-nitrogen interactionsregulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks Monfray, P. ,T. H. : A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Limits Soil Storage | U.S. DOE Office  

Office of Science (SC) Website

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial CarbonArticlesHumanJuneDocumentingFermiGeorgeHerbert J.Impactof Science

128

Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-assisted combustion synthesis of nanocomposite tin dioxide materials S.D. Bakrania *, C and flow conditions using methane as a supplemental fuel. The experiments were carried out at atmospheric-phase precursor for metal additives. In the methane-assisted (MA) system, the inert carrier gas was replaced

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

129

Methane in lakes and wetlands Microbiological production, ecosystem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane in lakes and wetlands Microbiological production, ecosystem uptake, climatological significance LAKES AND WETLANDS ­ A RELEVANT METHANE SOURCE Lakes and other wetlands are an important source of methane, the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. However, the absolute contribution

Mühlemann, Oliver

130

Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The role of methane in tropospheric chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While methane is chemically quite inert to reactions with atmospheric molecular species, it does react with atomic species and molecular radicals. Because of its relatively large abundance in the global troposphere and ...

Golomb, D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Methane for Power Generation in Muaro Jambi: A Green Prosperity Model Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates electricity generation from the organic content of wastewater at a palm oil mill in Muaro Jambi, Sumatra. Palm mills use vast amounts of water in the production process resulting in problematic waste water called palm oil mill effluent (POME). The POME releases methane to the atmosphere in open ponds which could be covered to capture the methane to produce renewable electricity for rural villages. The study uses average Indonesia data to determine the economic viability of methane capture at a palm oil mill and also evaluates technology as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Carbon monoxide in the solar atmosphere I. Numerical method and two-dimensional models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radiation hydrodynamic code CO5BOLD has been supplemented with the time-dependent treatment of chemical reaction networks. Advection of particle densities due to the hydrodynamic flow field is also included. The radiative transfer is treated frequency-independently, i.e. grey, so far. The upgraded code has been applied to two-dimensional simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the non-magnetic solar photosphere and low chromosphere. For this purpose a reaction network has been constructed, taking into account the reactions which are most important for the formation and dissociation of CO under the physical conditions of the solar atmosphere. The network has been strongly reduced to 27 reactions, involving the chemical species H, H2, C, O, CO, CH, OH, and a representative metal. The resulting CO number density is highest in the cool regions of the reversed granulation pattern at mid-photospheric heights and decreases strongly above. There, the CO abundance stays close to a value of 8.3 on the usual logarithmic abundance scale with [H]=12 but is reduced in hot shock waves which are a ubiquitous phenomenon of the model atmosphere. For comparison, the corresponding equilibrium densities have been calculated, based on the reaction network but also under assumption of instantaneous chemical equilibrium by applying the Rybicki & Hummer (RH) code by Uitenbroek (2001). Owing to the short chemical timescales, the assumption holds for a large fraction of the atmosphere, in particular the photosphere. In contrast, the CO number density deviates strongly from the corresponding equilibrium value in the vicinity of chromospheric shock waves. Simulations with altered reaction network clearly show that the formation channel via hydroxide (OH) is the most important one under the conditions of the solar atmosphere.

S. Wedemeyer-Boehm; I. Kamp; J. Bruls; B. Freytag

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

136

Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution, suggesting hysteresis and a possible rearrangement of coal structure due to CO2 sorption.

Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2010 A331 Biogenic methane potential for Surat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methane when native Walloon coal was provided as the sole organic carbon source. Methane generation rates]. This is the first direct evidence of real-time biogenic coal-to-methane potential for an Australian coal seam sample not produce methane from a non-native coal. Pathway and Bioavailability Results Six of the eight Surat Basin

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon diooxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

it in a form unable to influence the climate. Carbon storage in trees... is a form of carbon sequestration. During photosynthesis, trees remove carbon dioxide from the...

139

Methane production by attached film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

Jewell, William J. (202 Eastwood Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide and its isotopic composition in an urban atmosphere: Anthropogenic and biogenic effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and summer. The effects of gasoline combustion, natural gas combustion, and biogenic respiration of plants isotopic tracers. The calculations showed large contributions of natural gas combustion in the winter burning, and fossil fuel combustion impart carbon and oxygen isotope signals to the atmosphere that can

Ehleringer, Jim

142

Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Variability of the methane trapping in martian subsurface clathrate hydrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent observations have evidenced traces of methane CH4 heterogeneously distributed in the martian atmosphere. However, because the lifetime of CH4 in the atmosphere of Mars is estimated to be around 300-600 years on the basis of photochemistry, its release from a subsurface reservoir or an active primary source of methane have been invoked in the recent literature. Among the existing scenarios, it has been proposed that clathrate hydrates located in the near subsurface of Mars could be at the origin of the small quantities of the detected CH4. Here, we accurately determine the composition of these clathrate hydrates, as a function of temperature and gas phase composition, by using a hybrid statistical thermodynamic model based on experimental data. Compared to other recent works, our model allows us to calculate the composition of clathrate hydrates formed from a more plausible composition of the martian atmosphere by considering its main compounds, i.e. carbon dioxyde, nitrogen and argon, together with met...

Thomas, Caroline; Picaud, Sylvain; Ballenegger, Vincent

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere fromCarbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the Environmental Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Hole Research Center Woods Hole, Massachusetts Prepared by Robert M. Cushman Carbon Dioxide Information Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0 Prepared by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental

145

Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere fromCarbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy Budget Activity Number KP 12 04 01 0 Prepared by the Carbon. Cushman Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 5054 Date Published: February 2001 Prepared for the Environmental Sciences Division Office of Biological

146

Biogeochemical modelling of anaerobic vs. aerobic methane oxidation in a meromictic crater lake (Lake Pavin, France)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Géosciences, 1A rue de la Férolerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France Abstract Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its concentration in the atmosphere has increased over the past decades. Methane produced

Boyer, Edmond

147

Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model ...

Locatelli, R.

148

Carbon Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystems in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Altered Nutrients Availability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Our results show that elevated CO2 led to enhanced photosynthetic carbon uptake and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production. DOC occupied larger percentage in total organic carbon production in high CO2 environment. N addition stimulated biomass...

Song, Chao

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

149

Response of tundra ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. [Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our past research shows that arctic tussock tundra responds to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with marked increases in net ecosystem carbon flux and photosynthetic rates. However, at ambient temperatures and nutrient availabilities, homeostatic adjustments result in net ecosystem flux rates dropping to those found a contemporary CO{sub 2} levels within three years. Evidence for ecosystem-level acclimation in the first season of elevated CO{sub 2} exposure was found in 1987. Photosynthetic rates of Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant species, adjusts to elevated CO{sub 2} within three weeks. Past research also indicates other changes potentially important to ecosystem structure and function. Elevated CO{sub 2} treatment apparently delays senescence and increases the period of positive photosynthetic activity. Recent results from the 1987 field season verify the results obtained in the 1983--1986 field seasons: Elevated CO{sub 2} resulted in increased ecosystem-level flux rates. Regressions fitted to the seasonal flux rates indicate an apparent 10 d extension of positive CO{sub 2} uptake reflecting a delay of the onset of plant dormancy. This delay in senescence could increase the frost sensitivity of the system. Major end points proposed for this research include the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and the interaction of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with elevated soil temperature and increased nutrient availability on: (1) Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (2) Net photosynthetic rates; (3) Patterns and resource controls on homeostatic adjustment in the above processes to elevated CO{sub 2}; (4) Plant-nutrient status, litter quality, and forage quality; (5) Soil-nutrient status; (6) Plant-growth pattern and shoot demography.

Oechel, W.C.; Grulke, N.E.

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - air methane vam Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reagents Methane (99.99 v.%, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.) and propane (99.0 v.%, Praxair) were used... of carbon catalyst activation on the rate of methane decomposition...

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon exchange Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

200802055 Enhancing Cation-Exchange Capacity of Biochar for Soil Amendment... and Global Carbon Sequestration Technology Summary Photosynthesis captures more carbon dioxide...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sunday, June 10, 2007 Ecofocus: Even older forests help control CO2 Summary: is a form of carbon sequestration. During photosynthesis, trees remove carbon dioxide from the...

153

SAES ST 909 PILOT SCALE METHANE CRACKING TESTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.

Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

154

Methane Emissions from a Small Wind Shielded Lake Determined by Eddy Covariance, Flux Chambers, Anchored Funnels, and Boundary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Emissions from a Small Wind Shielded Lake Determined by Eddy Covariance, Flux Chambers of methane, held to be responsible for 18% of the radiative forcing, to the atmosphere. Periods of lake but potentially one of the most important periods for methane emissions. We studied methane emissions using four

Wehrli, Bernhard

155

Nickel crystallite thermometry during methanation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A magnetic method to measure the average temperature of superparamagnetic nickel crystallites has been applied during CO methanation. The method takes advantage of the temperature dependence of the low field magnetization of such catalysts; however, the adsorption of carbon monoxide and the formation of surface carbon species complicate the interpretation of results. Calibrations to account for temperature change and the adsorption of reactants are described. The calibration for the effects of CO is based on the assumption that the interaction of CO with nickel is the same for methanation and disproportionation. Interphase heat transfer calculations based on the thermometric data compare favorably with previous results from ethane hyrogenolysis, and give no indication of microscopic temperature differences between the nickel crystallites and support.

Ludlow, D.K.; Cale, T.S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

Kisholoy Goswami

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

157

Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO2 levels: The added value of the isotope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH4 is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH4 oxidation., 1998). The main com- ponents of biogas are CH4 (50­60%) and carbon dioxide (CO2; 40­50%). A major

159

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) using the Community Earth System Model­Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC). CO2

Hoffman, Forrest M.

160

A Three-Dimensional Ocean-Seaice-Carbon Cycle Model and its Coupling to a Two-Dimensional Atmospheric Model: Uses in Climate Change Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the coupling of a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, with explicit thermodynamic seaice and ocean carbon cycle representations, to a two-dimensional atmospheric/land model. This coupled system has been ...

Dutkiewicz, Stephanie.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

Anna Lee Tonkovich

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Photofragment imaging of methane Albert J. R. Heck  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on CH4. © 1996 American Institute of Physics. S0021-9606 96 03810-3 INTRODUCTION Knowledge about the photo dissociation pathways of the methane molecule is of fundamental importance as it is of central, the photochemistry of methane in the atmosphere is mostly driven by intense solar atomic emission lines

Zare, Richard N.

163

4370 J. Phys. Chem. 1003, 87, 4378-4387 Methanation of Carbon Dioxide on Ni(100) and the Effects of Surface Modifiers?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of CHIand CO production, but no change in activation energy. Results showed that the effects of K(a) can Laboratffles, Albuquerque,New Mexico 87185 and J. M. White Depamnt of Chemlsby, Unlverslty of Texas,Austln, Texas 78712 (Recehd: February 10, 1983) The methanation of COzover Ni(100)was studied with H2/C02ratios

Goodman, Wayne

164

Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR?¢????s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument?¢????s robustness in a real-world situation.

Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Microbes Turn Electricity Directly To Methane Without Hydrogen Generation March 30, 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalysts and at a lower energy level than converting carbon dioxide to methane using conventional, non Park, Pa. -- A tiny microbe can take electricity and directly convert carbon dioxide and water to methane, producing a portable energy source with a potentially neutral carbon footprint, according

166

Upgrading drained coal mine methane to pipeline quality: a report on the commercial status of system suppliers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In today's scenario of growing energy demand worldwide and rising natural gas prices, any methane emitted into the atmosphere is an untapped resource of energy and potentially a lost opportunity for additional revenue. In 2005, 9.7% of the total US anthropogenic emissions of methane were attributed to coal production. In recent years, many gassy coal mines have seized the opportunity to recover coal mine methane (CMM) and supply it to natural gas pipeline systems. With natural gas prices in the US exceeding $7.00 per million Btu, CMM pipeline sales brought in an annual revenue topping $97 million in 2005. However, significant opportunity still exists for tapping into this resource as 22% of the drained CMM remains unutilized as of 2005, primarily because its quality does not meet the requirements of natural gas pipeline systems. Recent advances in technologies now offer off-the-shelf options in the US that can upgrade the drained CMM to pipeline quality. These gas upgrading technologies are not only opening up the market to lower-quality methane resources but also providing significant means for reducing emissions, since methane is over 20 times a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This report reviews current gas upgrading technologies available in the market for removal of typical CMM contaminants, provides examples of their successful commercial implementation and compiles a list of vendors specific to nitrogen rejection systems, since nitrogen exposes the biggest challenge to upgrading CMM. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 9 apps.

Carothers, F.P.; Schultz, M.L.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

On how to calculate methane lifetime from OH concentrations (FORTRAN): Integer I, J, L ! counters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On how to calculate methane lifetime from OH concentrations (FORTRAN): Integer I, J, L ! counters_ch4 ! methane lifetime (years) C Initialize: ch4_sum=0. yield=0. C Calculate sums: Do J = 1 , JM Do I in tropospheric ozone and methane; global 3D model studies, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 961-977, 1999

Haak, Hein

168

Alternations of Structure and Functional Activity of Below Ground Microbial Communities at Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by more than 30percent since the industrial revolution. Although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity have been well studied, its influences on belowground microbial communities are poorly understood and controversial. In this study, we showed a significant change in the structure and functional potential of soil microbial communities at eCO2 in a grassland ecosystem, the BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and Nitrogen) experimental site (http://www.biocon.umn.edu/) using a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 3.0, which contains about 28,0000 probes and covers approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles as well as other functional processes. GeoChip data indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different between ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all 5001 detected functional gene probes although no significant differences were detected in the overall microbial diversity. A further analysis of 1503 detected functional genes involved in C, N, P, and S cycles showed that a considerable portion (39percent) of them were only detected under either aCO2 (14percent) or eCO2 (25percent), indicating that the functional characteristics of the microbial community were significantly altered by eCO2. Also, for those shared genes (61percent) detected, some significantly (p<0.05) changed their abundance at eCO2. Especially, genes involved in labile C degradation, such as amyA, egl, and ara for starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses, respectively, C fixation (e.g., rbcL, pcc/acc), N fixation (nifH), and phosphorus utilization (ppx) were significantly increased under eCO2, while those involved in decomposing recalcitrant C, such as glx, lip, and mnp for lignin degradation remained unchanged. This study provides insights into our understanding of belowground microbial communities and their feedbacks to terrestrial ecosystems at eCO2.

He, Zhili; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Ye; Kang, Sanghoon; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

169

Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black CarbonReference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous AtmosphericAerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The carbon-to-oxygen ratios and graphitic nature of a rangeof black carbon standard reference materials (BC SRMs), high molecularmass humic-like substances (HULIS) and atmospheric particles are examinedusing scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with nearedge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. UsingSTXM/NEXAFS, individual particles with diameter>100 nm are studied,thus the diversity of atmospheric particles collected during a variety offield missions is assessed. Applying a semi-quantitative peak fittingmethod to the NEXAFS spectra enables a comparison of BC SRMs and HULIS toparticles originating from anthropogenic combustion and biomass burns,thus allowing determination of the suitability of these materials forrepresenting atmospheric particles. Anthropogenic combustion and biomassburn particles can be distinguished from one another using both chemicalbonding and structural ordering information. While anthropogeniccombustion particles are characterized by a high proportion ofaromatic-C, the presence of benzoquinone and are highly structurallyordered, biomass burn particles exhibit lower structural ordering, asmaller proportion of aromatic-C and contain a much higher proportion ofoxygenated functional groups.

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration is being considered as a way to offset fossil-fuel-related CO{sub 2} emissions to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The accumulation of vast quantities of injected carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic sequestration sites may entail health and environmental risks from potential leakage and seepage of CO{sub 2} into the near-surface environment. We are developing and applying a coupled subsurface and atmospheric surface-layer modeling capability built within the framework of the integral finite difference reservoir simulator TOUGH2. The overall purpose of modeling studies is to predict CO{sub 2} concentration distributions under a variety of seepage scenarios and geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric conditions. These concentration distributions will provide the basis for determining above-ground and near-surface instrumentation needs for carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, as well as for assessing health, safety, and environmental risks. A key feature of CO{sub 2} is its large density ({rho} = 1.8 kg m{sup -3}) relative to air ({rho} = 1.2 kg m{sup -3}), a property that may allow small leaks to cause concentrations in air above the occupational exposure limit of 4 percent in low-lying and enclosed areas such as valleys and basements where dilution rates are low. The approach we take to coupled modeling involves development of T2CA, a TOUGH2 module for modeling the multicomponent transport of water, brine, CO{sub 2}, gas tracer, and air in the subsurface. For the atmospheric surface-layer advection and dispersion, we use a logarithmic vertical velocity profile to specify constant time-averaged ambient winds, and atmospheric dispersion approaches to model mixing due to eddies and turbulence. Initial simulations with the coupled model suggest that atmospheric dispersion quickly dilutes diffuse CO{sub 2} seepage fluxes to negligible concentrations, and that rainfall infiltration causes CO{sub 2} to return to the subsurface as a dissolved component in infiltrating rainwater.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

171

Is methane venting at the seafloor recorded by D13 of benthic foraminifera shells?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is methane venting at the seafloor recorded by D13 C of benthic foraminifera shells? M. E. Torres,1] The isotopic composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) collected at sites of active methane discharge on Hydrate Ridge, Oregon, reveals anaerobic methane oxidation mediated by bacteria, with d13 CDIC reaching

Kurapov, Alexander

172

Production of methane-rich syngas from hydrocarbon fuels using multi-functional catalyst/capture agent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides a gasification process for the production of a methane-rich syngas at temperatures exceeding 700.degree. C. through the use of an alkali hydroxide MOH, using a gasification mixture comprised of at least 0.25 moles and less than 2 moles of water for each mole of carbon, and at least 0.15 moles and less than 2 moles of alkali hydroxide MOH for each mole of carbon. These relative amounts allow the production of a methane-rich syngas at temperatures exceeding 700.degree. C. by enabling a series of reactions which generate H.sub.2 and CH.sub.4, and mitigate the reforming of methane. The process provides a methane-rich syngas comprised of roughly 20% (dry molar percentage) CH.sub.4 at temperatures above 700.degree. C., and may effectively operate within an IGFC cycle at reactor temperatures between 700-900.degree. C. and pressures in excess of 10 atmospheres.

Siefert, Nicholas S; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A; Surdoval, Wayne A

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

Song Jin

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Modification of Glassy Carbon Surfaces by an Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma H. Mortensen 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at optimising the strength of carbon fibre reinforced composite materials. In order to form a strong and durable adhesive bond between any two objects, e.g., a fibre and the matrix in a composite material, pretreatment be used to increase the strength of fibre/matrix adhesion in carbon fibre composites. We have studied

175

High Temperature Solar Splitting of Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-term commercialization opportunities #12;Why Use Solar Energy?Why Use Solar Energy? · High concentrations possible (>1000High Temperature Solar Splitting of Methane to Hydrogen and Carbon High Temperature Solar Splitting and worldwide) ­ Sufficient to power the world (if we choose to) · Advantages tradeoff against collection area

176

The tropical cyclone-induced flux of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical cyclones are known to cause phytoplankton blooms in regions of the ocean that would otherwise support very little life; it is also known that these storms entrain carbon-rich deep water, which can cause ...

Zimmerman, Neil L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Methane Hydrate Field Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report Methane Hydrate Workshop Report Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan Final Scientific/Technical Report

None

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Methane Digester Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Established in 1998, the Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture Methane Digester Loan Program helps livestock producers install on-farm anaerobic digesters used for the production of electricity by...

179

Enhanced transfer of terrestrially derived carbon to the atmosphere in a flooding event  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

November 2012; revised 14 October 2012; accepted 21 November 2012. [1] Rising CO2 concentration the adjacent shelf contributed to northern Gulf shelf waters changing from a net sink to a net source of CO2 in the water can be exchanged with the atmosphere with approximately ~100 Tg of CO2 degassed from U.S. streams

Grossman, Ethan L.

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric source observations Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Wien Collection: Geosciences 2 PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES Winter 2003 (ATMS 555ASTR 555, ESS 581) Summary: in planetary atmospheres (Earth, Venus; Mars as a case study). Methane on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Methanation assembly using multiple reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

182

Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1999. Reichle, D. et al. , Carbon sequestration research andfrom geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneof CO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites Curtis M.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO 2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zoneleakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites Fotini K.assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have

Chow, Fotini K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO 2 : Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on thedescription of reduced carbon emission and oxidationInfluence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the

Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Randerson, James T; Krakauer, Nir; Logan, Jennifer A; Jacob, Daniel J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Development of an Implementation Plan for Atmospheric Carbon Monitoring in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the design of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration measurements that, in combination with other measurements and models, would be used to quantify regionally distributed CO{sub 2} exchanges from California's terrestrial ecosystems and CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Using models of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (NEE), fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions, and regional meteorology, we predict CO{sub 2} concentration ''signals'' in the atmosphere. The predictions of NEE exhibit spatial and temporal variations that are controlled by land cover and climate. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions from metropolitan areas are the strongest localized sources of CO{sub 2} while weaker but spatially extensive fossil emissions are present throughout the Central Valley. We subdivide the CO{sub 2} sources into four components: NEE inside and outside CA, and fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inside and outside CA. Maps of predicted atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration signals from these four sources largely mirror the instantaneous emissions near strong sources but plumes of CO{sub 2} enriched or depleted air are predicted to advect far from their sources. We then identify a baseline set of observing stations from existing and possible future sites that could be used to characterize in-state and out-of-state ecosystem and fossil fuel contributions to atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. For each of the stations we calculate mean midday concentration signals with standard deviation for each month and source. We also calculate the covariance of the signal due to NEE inside CA with each of the other signals to quantify how much of the signal from NEE inside CA might be readily separable from the other signals. On the basis of these predictions, we identify new observing stations and a measurement protocol that, in combination with existing stations, would provide data to estimate NEE within CA. Although beyond the scope of this project, future work should estimate the uncertainties in estimating California's NEE that would be obtained using atmospheric concentration data from the stations identified herein.

Fischer, Marc L.; Riley, William J.; Tonse, Shaheen

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Constraints on Asian and European sources of methane from CH4 -C2H6-CO correlations in Asian outflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of emissions from coal mining and landfills. 2 #12;1. Introduction Atmospheric methane (CH4) is an importantConstraints on Asian and European sources of methane from CH4 - C2H6-CO correlations in Asian and European methane sources Submitted to J. Geophys. Res.: 22 December 2003 Revised: 9 April 2004 1 #12

Jacob, Daniel J.

187

Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies during 19802000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies; accepted 1 July 2002; published 24 October 2002. [1] Decreased methane emissions from paddy rice may have contributed to the decline in the rate of increase of global atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration over

188

EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2...

189

Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

190

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ?15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

192

EXTRACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE THROUGH ENGINEERED CHEMICAL SINKAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the case for CO{sub 2} extraction from air as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport CO{sub 2} to sites where the CO{sub 2} is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH){sub 2} solution efficiently converts CO{sub 2} to a CaCO{sub 3} solid that can be heated to obtain pure CO{sub 2} and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs, CO{sub 2} extraction from air blown by wind through a 1 m{sup 2} aperture could eliminate the greenhouse gas impact of 100 kW gasoline engine, making it more favorable than renewable sources as solar, wind, or bio-mass. In addition it collects CO{sub 2} from dispersed sources, preserves the energy infrastructure, can yield negative emissions, and provide free CO{sub 2} transport to sequestration sites. We report economic and scaling arguments, atmospheric simulations and experiments that support pursuing air-extraction as an advanced CO{sub 2} capture technology. This method could process today's world output of CO{sub 2} with many collection units with a net area of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} km{sup 2} at costs of {approx} 5{cents}/liter of gasoline, a manageable scale for this massive undertaking.

M. K. DUBEY; H. ZIOCK; ET AL

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

EXTRACTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE THROUGH ENGINEERED CHEMICAL SINKAGE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the case for C02 extraction from air as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport C02 to sites where the C02 is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution efficiently converts C02 to a CaC03 solid that can be heated to obtain pure C02 and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs, C02 extraction from air blown by wind through a 1 m2 aperture could eliminate the greenhouse gas impact of 100 kW gasoline engine, making it more favorable than renewable sources as solar, wind, or bio-mass. In addition it collects C02 from dispersed sources, preserves the energy infrastructure, can yield negative emissions, and provide free C02 transport to sequestration sites. We report economic and scaling arguments, atmospheric simulations and experiments that support pursuing air-extraction as an advanced C02 capture technology. This method could process today's world output of C02 with many collection units with a net area of 103-104 km2 at costs of -5/liter of gasoline, a manageable scale for this massive undertaking.

Dubey, M. K. (Manvendra K.); Ziock, H. J. (Hans-Joachim); Rueff, G. (Gordon); Elliott, S. M. (Scott M.); Smith, W. S. (William S.); Lackner, K. S. (Klaus S.); Johnston, N. A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in nitrogen atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser irradiation of randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG UV laser in nitrogen gas environment. The evolution of the MWCNT morphology and structure as a function of laser fluence and number of accumulated laser pulses has been studied using electron microscopies and Raman spectroscopy. The observed changes are discussed and correlated with thermal simulations. The obtained results indicate that laser irradiation induces very fast, high temperature thermal cycles in MWCNTs which produce the formation of different nanocarbon forms, such as nanodiamonds. Premelting processes have been observed in localized sites by irradiation at low number of laser pulses and low fluence values. The accumulation of laser pulses and the increase in the fluence cause the full melting and amorphization of MWCNTs. The observed structural changes differ from that of conventional high temperature annealing treatments of MWCNTs.

Prez del Pino, ngel, E-mail: aperez@icmab.es; Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gyrgy, Enik [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Ballesteros, Beln [ICN2Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

195

The thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction rate of methane decomposition using a tubular reactor having a 1 inch inside diameter with an 8 foot long heated zone was investigated in the temperature range of 700 to 900 C with pressures ranging from 28.2 to 56.1 atm. Representing the rate by a conventional model, {minus}dC{sub CH4}/dt= k1 C{sub CH4} {minus}k2 C{sub H2}{sup 2}, the rate constant k1 for methane decomposition was determined. The activation energy, 31.3 kcal/mol, calculated by an Arrhenius Plot was lower than for previously published results for methane decomposition. This result indicates that submicron particles found in the reactor adhere to the inside of the reactor and these submicron high surface area carbon particles tend to catalyze the methane decomposition. The rate constant has been found to be approximately constant at 900 C with pressure range cited above. The rate of methane decomposition increases with methane partial pressure in first-order. The rate of the methane decomposition is favored by higher temperatures and pressures while the thermochemical equilibrium of methane decomposition is favored by lower pressures. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

Lokhandwala, K.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Electrochemical methane sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

1984-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

199

Kinetics of methanation on nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive steady-state and transient measurements of the disproportionation of carbon monoxide, the hydrogenation of deposited carbon, and methanation of carbon monoxide were performed over 2 and 10% nickel on silica support. The results indicated that the methanation of carbon monoxide involves competitively adsorbed species; that the reaction is nearly zero order in carbon monoxide at 0.1-0.5 atm CO and 1 atm H/sub 2/, but negative at higher CO partial pressures and that it becomes less negative with increasing temperature or increasing hydrogen pressure; and that the reaction order with respect to hydrogen changes from 0.5 to 1.0 with increasing CO pressure and decreasing H/sub 2/ pressure. A reaction mechanism is proposed which consists of the molecular adsorption of CO, the dissociative adsorption of H/sub 2/, dissociation of the surface CO species, and reaction of two adsorbed hydrogen atoms with the oxygen; and a multistep hydrogenation and desorption process for the adsorbed carbon. The dissociation and reaction of adsorbed CO is probably the rate-limiting step. The kinetic behavior is best represented with the assumption of a heterogeneous catalyst surface, containing three types of sites of widely varying activity.

Ho, S.V.; Harriott, P.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 155 (2007) 2834 Electron Compton scattering from methane and methane-d4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from methane and methane-d4 G. Coopera, A.P. Hitchcocka,, C.A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismannb, M. Vosc]. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Quasi-elastic electron scattering; Methane; CD4

Hitchcock, Adam P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

FINAL REPORT: A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the GCC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. The program also included the development of methods for measuring radiocarbon content in the collected CO2 samples and carrying out radiocarbon measurements in collaboration with Tom Guilderson of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LLNL). The radiocarbon measurements can provide complementary information on carbon exchange rates with the land and oceans and emissions from fossil-fuel burning. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to establish estimates of the spatial and temporal variations in the net CO2 exchange with the atmosphere, the storage of carbon in the land and oceans, and variable isotopic discrimination of land plants.

Keeling, R. F.; Piper, S. C.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

202

Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

203

Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-Lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

IMPROVEMENT OF METHANE STORAGE IN ACTIVATED CARBON USING METHANE HYDRATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and particles. As the natural gas resources are enormous, it represents a good alternative to oil in term natural gas distribution network. Secondly, at low pressure, the tank geometry can adopt various shapes, gas storage INTRODUCTION. With the massive increase of the urban traffic, coupled with its large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Northern ecosystems contain up to 455 Gt of C in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The soil carbon in these layers is equivalent to approximately 60% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Much of this carbon is stored in the soil as dead organic matter. Its fate is subject to the net effects of global change on the plant and soil systems of northern ecosystems. The arctic alone contains about 60 Gt C, 90% of which is present in the soil active layer and upper permafrost. The arctic is assumed to have been a sink for CO{sub 2} during the historic and recent geologic past. The arctic has the potential to be a very large, long-term source or sink of CO{sub 2} with respect to the atmosphere. In situ experimental manipulations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, indicated that there is little effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on leaf level photosynthesis or whole-ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux over the course of weeks to years, respectively. However, there may be longer- term ecosystem responses to elevated CO{sub 2} that could ultimately affect ecosystem CO{sub 2} balance. In addition to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate may affect net ecosystem carbon balance. Recent results indicate that the arctic has become a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. This change coincides with recent climatic variation in the arctic, and suggests a positive feedback of arctic ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global change. The research proposed in this application has four principal aspects: (A) Long-term response of arctic plants and ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (B) Circumpolar patterns of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (C) In situ controls by temperature and moisture on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (D) Scaling of CO{sub 2} flux from plot, to landscape, to regional scales (In conjunction with research proposed for NSF support).

Oechel, W.C.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Methane production from ozonated pulp mill effluent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was made of the production of methane from desugared spent sulfite liquor (SSL) reacted with ozone. The ozonated SSL was fed continuously to three anaerobic fermenters for three months as the sole source of carbon and energy. The fermenters were inoculated with anaerobic bacteria obtained from sewage sludge and acclimated for 1 month in ozonated SSL prior to continuous fermentation. Chemical and biological parameters such as COD, BOD, total sulfur content, redox potential, pH, fatty acid composition, and methane bacteria populations were monitored to determine changes in the SSL during fermentation. Methane production from ozone-treated SSL averaged 1.7 liters/ liter or 17 ml of CH/sub 4/ produced/gram of volatile solids fed. Fatty acis analysis of fermenter effluent indicated a net production of 58 mM/ liter of acetate during ozonated SSL fermentation. This acetic acid production shows future potential for further fermentation by protein-producing yeast. Although the rate of conversion of volatile solids to CH/sub 4/ in this process was not competitive with domestic or agricultural waste digesters, this study did indicate the potential benefits of ozonating organic wastes for increased methane fermentation yields.

Bremmon, C.E.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE;2 #12;MODELING THE EMISSIONS OF NITROUS OXIDE (N 20) AND METHANE (CH 4) FROM THE TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE cli- mate has on natural emissions of N2 0 and CH4 from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere

208

Mars long has been considered a cold, dead planet.However,recent reports of methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

currently is being produced,since its calculated atmo- spheric lifetime of 400 years or less [Nair et al of the processes producing Martian atmospheric methane, and the places on Mars from which it arises, will have wide to form methane and water, and by the fermentation of a variety of organic substrates,including methanol

Manning, Craig

209

The basics of coalbed methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report is an overview of coalbed methane (CBM), also known as coal seam gas. It provides an overview of what coalbed methane is and the current status of global coalbed methane exploration and production. Topics covered in the report include: An analysis of the natural gas industry, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; A detailed description of coalbed methane, its characteristics, and future potential; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coalbed methane; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of coalbed methane; An overview of the technologies used for coalbed methane production and water treatment; and Profiles of key coalbed methane producing countries. 25 figs., 5 tabs., 1 app.

NONE

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

ISSUE PAPER METHANE AVOIDANCE FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSUE PAPER METHANE AVOIDANCE FROM COMPOSTING An Issue Paper for the: Climate Action Reserve...........................................................................................................39 6.2. Standard Methods for Quantifying Methane from Organic Waste in Landfills...40 6.3. GHG

Brown, Sally

211

Matrix Shrinkage and Swelling Effects on Economics of Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production and CO2 Sequestration in Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increases in CO2 levels in the atmosphere and their contributions to global climate change have been a major concern. It has been shown that CO2 injection can enhance the methane recovery from coal. Accordingly, sequestration costs can be partially offset by the value added product. Indeed, coal seam sequestration may be profitable, particularly with the introduction of incentives for CO2 sequestration. Hence, carbon dioxide sequestration in unmineable coals is a very attractive option, not only for environmental reasons, but also for possible economic benefits. Darcy flow through cleats is an important transport mechanism in coal. Cleat compression and permeability changes due to gas sorption desorption, changes of effective stress, and matrix swelling and shrinkage introduce a high level of complexity into the feasibility of a coal sequestration project. The economic effects of carbon dioxide-induced swelling on permeabilities and injectivities has received little (if any) detailed attention. Carbon dioxide and methane have different swelling effects on coal. In this work, the Palmer-Mansoori model for coal shrinkage and permeability increases during primary methane production was re-written to also account for coal swelling caused by carbon dioxide sorption. The generalized model was added to PSU-COALCOMP, a dual porosity reservoir simulator for primary and enhanced coalbed methane production. A standard five-spot of vertical wells and representative coal properties for Appalachian coals were used.[1] Simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed with the modified simulator for nine different parameters, including coal seam and operational parameters and economic criteria. The coal properties and operating parameters that were varied included Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, the cleat porosity, and the injection pressure. The economic variables included CH4 price, CO2 cost, CO2 credit, water disposal cost, and interest rate. Net present value analyses of the simulation results included profits due to methane production, and potential incentives for CO2 sequestered. This work shows that for some coal-property values, the compressibility and cleat porosity of coal may be more important than more purely economic criteria.

Gorucu, F.B.; Jikich, S.A.; Bromhal, G.S.; Sams, W.N.; Ertekin, T.; Smith, D.H.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

5, 94059445, 2005 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title and Physics Discussions Sensitivity analysis of methane emissions derived from SCIAMACHY observations through, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

4, 9931057, 2007 Methane hydrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 4, 993­1057, 2007 Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change D. Archer Title Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Methane 2007 Correspondence to: D. Archer (d-archer@uchicago.edu) 993 #12;BGD 4, 993­1057, 2007 Methane hydrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

5, 243270, 2008 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract and temperature on the emission of methane from plant biomass and structural components I. Vigano 1 , H. van.roeckmann@phys.uu.nl) 243 #12;BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

The Tri--Methane Rearrangement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Tri--Methane Rearrangement #12;Cirkva, Vladimir; Zuraw, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Howard E.* Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 #12;INTRODUCTION The tri--methane of a cyclopentene 5a, but only in crystalline medium. However, in the solution photochemistry of tri--methane system

Cirkva, Vladimir

216

6, 68416852, 2006 Methane emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses E. Sanhueza;ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

217

The Tri--Methane Rearrangement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Tri--Methane Rearrangement #12;Církva, Vladimír; Zuraw, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Howard E.* Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 #12;INTRODUCTION The tri--methane of a cyclopentene 5a, but only in crystalline medium. However, in the solution photochemistry of tri--methane system

Cirkva, Vladimir

218

5, 23052341, 2008 Anaerobic methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 5, 2305­2341, 2008 Anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments N. J. Knab et al. Title of Biogeosciences Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea N. J. Knab1 , B. A. Cragg2­2341, 2008 Anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments N. J. Knab et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of oxy-coal combustion for carbon capture at atmospheric and elevated pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels, often performed in a mixture of oxygen and wet or dry recycled carbon dioxide, has gained significant interest in the last two decades as one of the leading carbon capture technologies ...

Chen, Lei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

Stephen C. Piper; Ralph F. Keeling

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2 , E are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emis- sions from streams could also contribute methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble

Stanley, Emily

222

THE CARBON-LAND MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT (C-LAMP): A PROTOTYPE FOR COUPLED BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE MODEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models

Hoffman, Forrest M.

223

The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH[subscript 4]), nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF[subscript 6]) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH[subscript 4])/March ...

Chatterjee, A.

224

Determining the Fate of Methane Released from the Seafloor in Deep and Shallow Water Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marine gas seeps and accidental marine oil spills are sources of methane (CH_(4)) to the ocean, and potentially to the atmosphere, though the magnitude of the fluxes and dynamics of these systems are poorly defined. For example, the ultimate...

Du, Mengran

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, Jim [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench-scale. Natural gas upgrading systems have six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration has been initiated. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study. The project is on schedule and on budget. Task 4, a bench-scale demonstration of the ultra-fast TSA system is complete. Rapid thermal swing of an adsorbent bed using microchannels has been successfully demonstrated and the separation of a 70% methane and 30% nitrogen was purified to 92% methane. The bench-scale demonstration unit was small relative to the system dead volume for the initial phase of experiments and a purge step was added to sweep the dead volume prior to desorbing the bed and measuring purity. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement.

Anna Lee Tonkovich

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wells ranging in depth from 1.3 to 11 m that were oriented parallel to the flow path. The center of the leachate plume was characterized by (1) high alkalinity and elevated concentrations of total dissolved organic carbon, reduced iron, and methane...

Grossman, E. L.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

ARM - Methane Background Information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room News

229

ARM - Methane Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room

230

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

231

Black Carbons Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Annual technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Northern ecosystems contain up to 455 Gt of C in the soil active layer and upper permafrost, which is equivalent to approximately 60% of the carbon currently in the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Much of this carbon is stored in the soil as dead organic matter. Its fate is subject to the net effects of global change on the plant and soil systems of northern ecosystems. The arctic alone contains about 60 Gt C, 90% of which is present in the soil active layer and upper permafrost, and is assumed to have been a sink for CO{sub 2} during the historic and recent geologic past. Depending on the nature, rate, and magnitude of global environmental change, the arctic may have a positive or negative feedback on global change. Results from the DOE- funded research efforts of 1990 and 1991 indicate that the arctic has become a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Measurements made in the Barrow, Alaska region during 1992 support these results. This change coincides with recent climatic variation in the arctic, and suggests a positive feedback of arctic ecosystems on atmospheric CO{sub 2} and global change. There are obvious potential errors in scaling plot level measurements to landscape, mesoscale, and global spatial scales. In light of the results from the recent DOE-funded research, and the remaining uncertainties regarding the change in arctic ecosystem function due to high latitude warming, a revised set of research goals is proposed for the 1993--94 year. The research proposed in this application has four principal aspects: (A) Long- term response of arctic plants and ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. (B) Circumpolar patterns of net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. (C) In situ controls by temperature and moisture on net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux. (D) Scaling of CO{sub 2} flux from plot, to landscape, to regional scales.

Oechel, W.C.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Bioconversion of biomass to methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of biomass to methane is described. The biomethane potentials of various biomass feedstocks from our laboratory and literature is summarized.

Hashimoto, A.G. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

VIBRATION->VIBRATION ENERGY TRANSFER IN METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VIBRATION ENERGY TRANSFER IN METHANE Peter Hess, A. H. Kung,Rotation Spectra of Methane, U.S. Nat'L Tech. Inform.tret t tllll. I. INTRODUCTION Methane is a relatively simple

Hess, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and...

239

Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion-fuel and- biofuel combustion sources in North America, Europe, Asia (including Indonesia and the Middle

Palmer, Paul

240

RESPONSES OF PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND TOTAL CARBON STORAGE TO CHANGES IN CLIMATE AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model (TEM, version 4.0) to estimate global responses of annual net primary production (NPP) and total. For contemporary climate with 315 ppmv CO2, TEM estimated that global NPP is 47.9 PgC/yr and global total carbon-q climate and +20.6% (9.9 PgC/yr) for the GISS climate. The responses of global total carbon storage are +17

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

methane hydrate science plan-final.indd  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013 Principal Authors: Consor um for Ocean Leadership and the Methane Hydrate Project Science Team December 2013 DOE Award Number: DE-FE0010195 Project Title: Methane Hydrate...

242

Cyclic process for producing methane with catalyst regeneration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. For practical commercial operations utilizing the two-step process of the invention of a cyclic basis, nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, thenium and alloys thereof are especially prepared for use in a metal state, with CO disproportionation being carried out at temperatures up to about 350.degree. C. and with the conversion of active surface carbon to methane being carried out by reaction with steam. The catalyst is employed in such cyclic operations without the necessity for employing a regeneration step as part of each processing cycle. Inactive carbon or coke that tends to form on the catalyst over the course of continuous operations utilizing such cyclic process is effectively and advantageously removed, on a periodic basis, in place of conventional burn off with an inert stream containing a low concentration of oxygen.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Risch, Alan P. (New Fairfield, CT)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Coalbed Methane Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil andMCKEESPORTfor the 2012Methane

244

The identification of HCN and HNC in Carbon Stars: Model Atmospheres, Synthetic Spectra and Fits to Observations in the 2.7-4.0 micron Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model carbon star atmospheres and synthetic spectra have been calculated using the recent HCN/HNC vibration rotation linelist of Harris et al. (2002) ApJ, 578, 657. The calculations are repeated using only HCN lines and show that HNC has a significant effect upon the temperature, density and optical depth of a stellar atmosphere. We fit synthetic spectra in the 2.7-4.0 micron region to observed ISO spectra of the carbon stars WZ Cas and TX Psc obtained by Aoki et al. (1998), A&A, 340, 222. These fits allow us to identify absorption by HNC in the spectrum of WZ Cas at 2.8-2.9 microns, and to determine new independent estimates of effective temperature and log(Nc)/log(No). The findings reported here indicate that absorption by both HCN and HNC is needed to fully explain the observed stellar spectra and represent the first identification of HNC in a star. Q branch absorption by the HCN $\\Delta v_2=1$, $\\Delta v_3=1$ and $\\Delta v_1=1$, $\\Delta v_2=-1$ bands at 3.55 and 3.86 microns respectively, are identified in the spectrum of WZ Cas.

G. J. Harris; Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; J. Tennyson

2003-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

245

Integrated process for coalbed brine and methane disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a technology and project to demonstrate and commercialize a brine disposal process for converting the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process also utilizes coalbed methane (CBM) released from coal mining for the combustion process thereby substantially reducing the potential for methane emissions to the atmosphere. The technology is ideally suited for the treatment and disposal of produced brines generated from the development of coal mines and coalbed methane resources worldwide. Over the next 10 to 15 years, market potential for brine elimination equipment and services is estimated to be in the range of $1 billion.

Byam, J.W. Jr.; Tait, J.H.; Brandt, H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Preparation, characterization and applications of novel carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles from annealing TiN under CO atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were firstly fabricated by calcining TiN powder under CO atmosphere at different temperatures between 400 and 600 C, both the improved photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue and enhanced photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized solar cells were demonstrated. - Highlights: CN-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by calcining TiN under CO atmosphere. More visible light response was confirmed by UVvis DRS and photocatalytic results. Enhanced conversion efficiency was observed for the DSSCs from CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanode. CN-codoping played an important role to improve the photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped titania (CN-TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were fabricated by calcining titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles under carbon monoxide (CO) atmosphere at four different temperatures in a range of 400600 C. The as-prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Enhanced light absorption in both the UV and visible light region was observed for the resulted CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UVvis DRS). Improved photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of methylene blue by the CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was demonstrated under UV and visible light, respectively. The highest degradation rate was achieved for CN-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (13%) compared to N-TiO{sub 2} (10%) and the commercial P25 (5%) under visible light illumination for 40 min. Furthermore, the improved photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO{sub 2} was also confirmed by the degradation of colorless resorcinol under UVvis light irradiation. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using P25, N-TiO{sub 2} and CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanodes, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.31% was achieved by the DSSCs based on the CN-TiO{sub 2} photoanodes in comparison with the commercial P25 (1.61%) and N-TiO{sub 2} (2.44%) photoanodes. This work demonstrates that thermal treatment of TiN nanoparticles under CO atmosphere has shown to be a rapid, direct and clean approach to synthesize photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance.

Sun, Mingxuan; Song, Peng; Li, Jing; Cui, Xiaoli, E-mail: xiaolicui@fudan.edu.cn

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Financing coal mine, methane recovery and utilization projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes types and sources of funding that may be available to project developers and investors that are interested in pursuing coal mine methane (CMM) project opportunities particularly in developing countries or economies in transition. It briefly summarizes prefeasibility and feasibility studies and technology demonstrations. It provides a guide to key parties involved in project financing (equity, debt or carbon financing) as well as project risk reduction support. This article provides an update to the information contained in two previous guides - Catalogue of Coal Mine Methane Project Finance Sources (2002) and A Guide to Financing Coalbed Methane Projects (1997) - both available on the CMOP web site http://www.epa.gov/cmop/resources/reports/finance.html.

NONE

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Coal mine methane global review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench scale. The project is on schedule and on budget. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement. The system has six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration will be initiated in the next fiscal year. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study.

Anna Lee Tonkovich

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Rising methane emissions in response to climate change in Northern Eurasia during the 21st This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rising methane emissions in response to climate change in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century) 045211 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045211 Rising methane emissions in response to climate change the methane (CH4) exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere in Northern Eurasia from 1971

251

13, 90179049, 2013 Stable atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 13, 9017­9049, 2013 Stable atmospheric methane in the 2000s I. Pison et al. Title Page Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands 3 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands 4 Vrije Universiteit, Department of Systems Ecology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

Dickerson, Russell R.

253

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ppm in the pre-industrial revolution to 37942 ppm in 2005, rising faster in the last 10 years (average atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles the pre-industrial revolution concentration (IPCC,49 2007a 36 insu-00351929,version1-12Jan2009 #12;1. Introduction37 38 Coal caused the first industrial

Boyer, Edmond

254

Summary Human activities are increasing the concentra-tions of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to forest soils. Because the quality and quantity of labile and recalcitrant carbon (C) com- pounds, soluble phenolics and condensed tannins. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased lit- ter biomass] and tropospheric [O3] that we observed, combined with changes in litter biomass production, could significantly

255

Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H. [and others

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Sulfonation of Methane Direct Liquid-Phase Sulfonation of Methane to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfonation of Methane Direct Liquid-Phase Sulfonation of Methane to Methanesulfonic Acid by SO3 of methane to value-added prod- ucts is a significant contemporary challenge.[1] Methane is a very unreactive, consider- able effort has been devoted to the oxidation and oxidative carbonylation of methane.[2

Bell, Alexis T.

257

Reduction of titania by methane-hydrogen-argon gas mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduction of titania using methane-containing gas was investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range 1,373 to 1,773 K. The reduction production product is titanium oxycarbide, which is a solid solution of TiC and TiO. At 1,373 K, the formation rate of TiC is very slow. The rate and extent of reaction increase with increasing temperature to 1,723 K. A further increase in temperature to 1,773 K does not affect the reaction rate and extent. An increase in methane concentration to 8 vol pct favors the reduction process. A further increase in methane concentration above 8 vol pct causes excessive carbon deposition, which has a negative effect on the reaction rate. Hydrogen partial pressure should be maintained above 35 vol pct to depress the cracking of methane. Addition of water vapor to the reducing gas strongly retards the reduction reaction, even at low concentrations of 1 to 2 vol pct. Carbon monoxide also depresses the reduction process, but its effect is significant only at higher concentrations, above 10 vol pct.

Zhang, G.; Ostrovski, O.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The economic feasibility of enhanced coalbed methane recovery using CO2 sequestration in the San Juan Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, due to the chemical and physical properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 sequestration is a potential option for substantially enhancing coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). The San Juan Fruitland coal has the most prolific coal seams in the United States...

Agrawal, Angeni

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

259

Method of coalbed methane production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a method for producing coalbed methane from a coal seam containing coalbed methane and penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one producing well. It comprises: injecting an inert gas through the injection well and into the coal seam. The inert gas being a gas that does not react with the coal under conditions of use and that does not significantly adsorb to the coal; and producing a gas from the production well which consists essentially of the inert gas, coalbed methane, or mixtures thereof.

Puri, R.; Stein, M.H.

1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

260

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1 distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Lin, Haiqing (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Scott (Brecksville, OH); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

262

Microbe-Metazoan interactions at Pacific Ocean methane seeps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B) and those present within methane seep Euryarchaea ( PMI,margin: the influence of methane seeps and oxygen minimumisotope signatures and methane use by New Zealand cold seep

Thurber, Andrew R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE Lawrence Berkeley LaboratoryDIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE Kendall F. Haven MarkArrangement Kelp to Methane Processing Plant Schematic.

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Microbe-metazoan interactions at Pacific Ocean methane seeps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B) and those present within methane seep Euryarchaea ( PMI,margin: the influence of methane seeps and oxygen minimumisotope signatures and methane use by New Zealand cold seep

Thurber, Andrew Reichmann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low levels of 14C-labeled methane and accelerator mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Environ. Microbiol. 10(Field observations of methane concentra- tions and oxidationAnaerobic oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

Deborah Kosmack

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Measurements and interpretation of delta C sup 13 of methane from termites, rice paddies, and wetlands in Kenya  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ratios of C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} have been measured in methane from a variety of sources in tropical Kenya. Ranges of delta-C{sup 13} in CH{sub 4} for termites (most values range from {minus}56 to {minus}64{per thousand}, one is at {minus}44{per thousand}), one is at approximately {minus}73{per thousand}, rice paddies (range {minus}57 to {minus}63{per thousand}), and wetlands (range-45 to {minus}50{per thousand} for Lake Baringo, approximately {minus}55{per thousand} in the Moloi River, approximately {minus}62{per thousand} and approximately {minus}31{per thousand} in two swamp areas) are presented. The data are interpreted with the help of additional measurements of delta-C{sup 13} of CO{sub 2} gas, and organic carbon in plant material, termite bodies, and termite fungus combs. The implications of these findings are related to the problem of studying the atmospheric methane budget. 40 refs., 2 figs. 5 tabs.

Tyler, S.C.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Cumberbatch, C.; Greenberg, J.P.; Westberg, C. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA))

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Methane/CO{sub 2} sorption modeling for coalbed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thorough study of the sorption behavior of coals to methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is critical for carbon sequestration in coal seams and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. This paper discusses the results of an ad/de-sorption study of methane and CO{sub 2}, in single gas environment, on a set of coal samples taken from the San Juan and Illinois Basins. The results indicate that, under similar temperature and pressure conditions, coals exhibit higher affinity to CO{sub 2} as compared to methane and that the preferential sorption ratio varies between 2:1 and 4:1. Furthermore, the experimental data were modeled using Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Polanyi equations. The accuracy of the models in quantifying coal-gas sorption was compared using an error analysis technique. The Dubinin-Radushkevich equation failed to model the coal-gas sorption behavior satisfactorily. For methane, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) equations all performed satisfactorily within comparable accuracy. However, for CO{sub 2}, the performance of the D-A equation was found to be significantly better than the other two. Overall, the D-A equation fitted the experimental sorption data the best, followed by the Langmuir and BET equations. Since the D-A equation is capable of deriving isotherms for any temperature using a single isotherm, thus providing added flexibility to model the temperature variation due to injection/depletion, this is the recommended model to use. 49 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Satya Harpalani; Basanta K. Prusty; Pratik Dutta [Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Partial oxidation of methane to syngas in different reactor types  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Rh/ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for partial oxidation of methane to syngas was compared in fixed and fluidised bed reactors. Catalyst activity was found not to be a limiting factor under any experimental conditions and complete oxygen conversions were observed in all tests. In the fixed bed reactor both methane conversion and syngas selectivity were increasing with space velocity as the result of an autothermal effect. Satisfactory control of the catalyst temperature at high space velocities could only be achieved with addition of inert diluent or steam to the feed. Different conversion and selectivity patterns were observed in fluidised bed reactor. Methane conversion and carbon monoxide selectivity were decreasing with increasing gas flow. By contrast, hydrogen selectivity showed distinct maximum at medium space velocities. These results are interpreted in terms of catalyst backmixing and its effect on primary and secondary reactions. Improved temperature control was also achieved in fluidised bed reactor. Several experiments using fluidised bed reactor were carried out at elevated pressures. To eliminate the occurrence of non-catalytic gas phase reactions between methane and oxygen very short feed mixing times (< 1 ms) were employed. Despite these measures the reactor could not be successfully operated at pressures above 0.7 MPa. The implications of these findings for process development are discussed.

Lapszewicz, J.A.; Campbell, I.; Charlton, B.G.; Foulds, G.A. [CSIRO Division of Coal and Energy Technology, Menai (Australia)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Activation of the C-H Bond of Methane by Intermediate Q of Methane Monooxygenase: A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Activation of the C-H Bond of Methane by Intermediate Q of Methane Monooxygenase: A Theoretical component (MMOH) of the multicomponent soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) system catalyzes the oxidation of methane by dioxygen to form methanol and water at non-heme, dinuclear iron active sites. The catalytic

Gherman, Benjamin F.

272

Methane oxidation associated with submerged brown mosses reduces methane emissions from Siberian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane oxidation associated with submerged brown mosses reduces methane emissions from Siberian, University of Hamburg, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg, Germany Summary 1. Methane (CH4) oxidation to Sphagnum species and low-pH peatlands. 2. Moss-associated methane oxidation (MAMO) can be an effective

Wehrli, Bernhard

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon carbon dioxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Geosciences 22 ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL Summary: dioxide emissions from power plants, while...

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - arteriovenous carbon dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Materials Science 6 ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL Summary: dioxide emissions from power plants, while...

275

Activation of methane by transition metal-substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aluminophosphate molecular sieves substituted with cobalt, manganese or iron and having the AlPO.sub.4 -34 or AlPO.sub.4 -5, or related AlPO.sub.4 structure activate methane starting at approximately 350.degree. C. Between 400.degree. and 500.degree. C. and at methane pressures .ltoreq.1 atmosphere the rate of methane conversion increases steadily with typical conversion efficiencies at 500.degree. C. approaching 50% and selectivity to the production of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons approaching 100%. The activation mechanism is based on reduction of the transition metal(III) form of the molecular sieve to the transition metal(II) form with accompanying oxidative dehydrogenation of the methane. Reoxidation of the - transition metal(II) form to the transition metal(III) form can be done either chemically (e.g., using O.sub.2) or electrochemically.

Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time. 3 figs.

Noceti, R.P.; Taylor, C.E.; D`Este, J.R.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

277

Method for the photocatalytic conversion of methane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for converting methane to methanol is provided comprising subjecting the methane to visible light in the presence of a catalyst and an electron transfer agent. Another embodiment of the invention provides for a method for reacting methane and water to produce methanol and hydrogen comprising preparing a fluid containing methane, an electron transfer agent and a photolysis catalyst, and subjecting said fluid to visible light for an effective period of time.

Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); D'Este, Joseph R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Coalbed methane production case histories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of methane gas from coal and coal-bearing rocks is one of the prime objectives of the Department of Energy's Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project. This report contains brief description of wells that are presently producing gas from coal or coal-bearing rocks. Data from three gob gas production areas in Illinois, an in-mine horizontal borehole degasification, and eleven vertical boreholes are presented. Production charts and electric logs of the producing zones are included for some of the wells. Additional information on dry gas production from the San Juan Basin, Colorado/New Mexico and the Greater Green River Coal Region, Colorado/Wyoming is also included.

Not Available

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Methane adsorption on Devonian shales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis by FAN-CHANG LI Submitted to thc Office of Graclua4e Sturiics of texas AgiM Ulllvel'sliy in pari, ial fulfilhuent of t, hc requirements I'or t, hc degree of ii IAS'I'Elf OF SCIL'NCE December... 1992 Major Subject, : Chemical Engineering METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis l&y I'AN-CHANC LI Approved as to style and contcut by: A. T. 'vtratson (Chair of Commitl. ee) John C. Slattery (Member) Bruce . Hcrhcrt (Memhcr...

Li, Fan-Chang

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

Macalady, Jenn

282

2, 11971241, 2005 Control of methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 2, 1197­1241, 2005 Control of methane efflux at the Tommeliten seep area H. Niemann et al Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Methane emission;BGD 2, 1197­1241, 2005 Control of methane efflux at the Tommeliten seep area H. Niemann et al. Title

Boyer, Edmond

283

Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

Valentine, David

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Coalbed Methane Estimated Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 47 62CarbonCubic1,966 1,914 1,886

285

Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating global climate, implicating global oceanic deposits of methane gas hydrate as the main culprit in instances of rapid climate change that have occurred in the past. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those predicted under future climate change scenarios, is poorly understood. To determine the fate of the carbon stored in these hydrates, we performed simulations of oceanic gas hydrate accumulations subjected to temperature changes at the seafloor and assessed the potential for methane release into the ocean. Our modeling analysis considered the properties of benthic sediments, the saturation and distribution of the hydrates, the ocean depth, the initial seafloor temperature, and for the first time, estimated the effect of benthic biogeochemical activity. The results show that shallow deposits--such as those found in arctic regions or in the Gulf of Mexico--can undergo rapid dissociation and produce significant methane fluxes of 2 to 13 mol/yr/m{sup 2} over a period of decades, and release up to 1,100 mol of methane per m{sup 2} of seafloor in a century. These fluxes may exceed the ability of the seafloor environment (via anaerobic oxidation of methane) to consume the released methane or sequester the carbon. These results will provide a source term to regional or global climate models in order to assess the coupling of gas hydrate deposits to changes in the global climate.

Reagan, Matthew; Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Methane generation from waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

Samani, Zohrab A. (Las Cruces, NM); Hanson, Adrian T. (Las Cruces, NM); Macias-Corral, Maritza (Las Cruces, NM)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

287

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE2011] METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY methane, and 64%

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

atmospheric administration key: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

warming, ocean chemistry, carbon cycle Abstract CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere Matsumoto,...

289

atmospheric sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

290

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

291

Incentives for Methane Mitigation and Energy-Efficiency Improvements in Case of Ukraines Natural Gas Transmission System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine. The Ukrainian transmission company, Ukrtransgaz, reduced its own systems natural gas consumption by 68 percent in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraines transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraines natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of steep increases in the price of imported natural gas, and comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, regional integration policy, and international environmental agreements has created conditions for successful methane emission and combustion reductions. Learning about such case studies can help us design better policies elsewhere.

Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Sulfur pollution suppression of the wetland methane source in the 20th and 21st centuries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Emission of this powerful greenhouse gas from wet- lands is known to depend on climate, with increasing are likely due to factors other than the global warming of wetlands. Atmospheric methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) that is responsible for an estimated 22% of the present anthropogenically enhanced

293

The Methane to Markets Coal Mine Methane Subcommittee meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) include: a report from the Administrative Support Group; strategy updates from Australia, India, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland and the USA; coal mine methane update and IEA's strategy and activities; the power of VAM - technology application update; the emissions trading market; the voluntary emissions reduction market - creating profitable CMM projects in the USA; an Italian perspective towards a zero emission strategies; and the wrap-up and summary.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Studies of mechanisms and kinetics of methane and ethane steam reforming on nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane and ethane adsorption/desorption and reaction on steam-reforming catalysts, Ni(INCO), Ni/ZrO{sub 2}, and Ni/CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, were studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR), and thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques. The data show that only a fraction of the methane adsorbed (determined by TPSR with H{sub 2}) on nickel catalysts is desorbed during TPD experiments. The results of TPD indicate supports and promoters affect the adsorption of methane and ethane, and transformation of adsorbed carbon species. Several carbon types formed during methane and ethane adsorptions including {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, vermicular (v), and graphitic (c) carbon can be identified by TPSR. These data indicate that the distribution of these carbon forms is also strongly a function of adsorption temperature and catalyst. The results show that there are significant quantities of CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2} desorbed during TPSR reaction of H{sub 2}O with preadsorbed CH{sub 4}, CD{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The agreement between previously reported steady-state and the unsteady-state steam reforming reforming rates of this study indicates that the steam-reforming kinetic data can be quantitatively measured by TPSR experiments.

Hsieh, H.Y.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Comparison of Nonprecious Metal Cathode Materials for Methane Production by Electromethanogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a methanogenic biofilm on the cathode by either direct electron transfer or evolved hydrogen. To optimize methane, Microbial electrolysis cell, Power-to-gas, Microbially influenced corrosion, Carbon black, Graphite, hydro- gen gas production by water electrolysis often requires expensive precious metals to reduce

296

atmospheric methane removal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 28, 1980. The purposes of this meeting were: to synthesize our knowledge of the Norton Sound Lease Area (Sale No. 57) in order to facilitate the preparation of BLM's...

297

atmospheric methane extracted: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 28, 1980. The purposes of this meeting were: to synthesize our knowledge of the Norton Sound Lease Area (Sale No. 57) in order to facilitate the preparation of BLM's...

298

atmospheric methane sources: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 28, 1980. The purposes of this meeting were: to synthesize our knowledge of the Norton Sound Lease Area (Sale No. 57) in order to facilitate the preparation of BLM's...

299

atmospheric methane consumption: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 28, 1980. The purposes of this meeting were: to synthesize our knowledge of the Norton Sound Lease Area (Sale No. 57) in order to facilitate the preparation of BLM's...

300

ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC :ProductsSCM Forcing DataScience QuestionsInactiveInstruments TWPSources of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

ARM - Destination of Atmospheric Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcal Documentation DataDatastreamswacrspeccmaskcopolDatastreamsxsacrslrAlaskaDefensive Shotgun - RemingtonDestination

302

Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the results that were obtained.

Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

303

Method for in situ biological conversion of coal to methane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for the in situ biological conversion of coal to methane comprising culturing on a coal-containing substrate a consortium of microorganisms capable of degrading the coal into methane under suitable conditions. This consortium of microorganisms can be obtained from an underground cavity such as an abandoned mine which underwent a change from being supplied with sewage to where no sewage was present, since these conditions have favored the development of microorganisms capable of using coal as a carbon source and converting coal to methane. The consortium of microorganisms obtained from such abandoned coal mines can be isolated and introduced to hard-to-reach coal-containing substrates which lack such microorganisms and which would otherwise remain unrecoverable. The present invention comprises a significant advantage in that useable energy can be obtained from a number of abandoned mine sites or other areas wherein coal is no longer being recovered, and such energy can be obtained in a safe, efficient, and inexpensive manner.

Volkwein, Jon C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

305

,"Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

306

,"Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

307

,"Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

308

A guide to coalbed methane operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A guide to coalbed methane production is presented. The guide provides practical information on siting, drilling, completing, and producing coalbed methane wells. Information is presented for experienced coalbed methane producers and coalbed methane operations. The information will assist in making informed decisions about producing this resource. The information is presented in nine chapters on selecting and preparing of field site, drilling and casing the wellbore, wireline logging, completing the well, fracturing coal seams, selecting production equipment and facilities, operating wells and production equipment, treating and disposing of produced water, and testing the well.

Hollub, V.A.; Schafer, P.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

,"Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

310

,"Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

311

,"Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

312

CO2 Sequestration Enhances Coalbed Methane Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Since 1980s, petroleum engineers and geologists have conducted researches on Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery (ECBM). During this period, many methods are introduced to enhance the (more)

Pang, Yu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

,"Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

314

,"Miscellaneous Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

315

,"Alabama Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

316

2005 international coalbed methane symposium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Papers are under the following topics: well completions; diversity; geology/resource assessment; reservoirs; and carbon dioxide sequestration.

NONE

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16.............................................................................................21 Coal and Methane Production

Maxwell, Bruce D.

318

Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure Henrik B. Mller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure Henrik B. Mller Danish Institute This thesis, entitled "Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure" is presented in partial of digested and separated products.................... 13 3. Methane productivity and greenhouse gas emissions

319

Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The permafrost carbon climate feedback is one of the major mechanisms in controlling the climate ecosystem interactions in northern high latitudes. Of this feedback, methane (CH4) emission from natural wetlands is critically important due to its high warming potential. The freeze thaw transition has been confirmed to play an important role in annual CH4 budget, yet the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. An intensive field campaign was carried out in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China to estimate the CH4 emission in the spring freeze thaw transition period. The observation concluded that a large CH4 source was caused by spring thaw; the maximum hourly emission rate was 48.6 g C m 2 h 1, more than three orders of the regularly observed CH4 emission rate in the growing season. In some sporadically observed 'hot spots', the spring thawing effect contributed to a large CH4 source of 31.3 10.1 g C m 2, which is approximately 80% of the previously calculated annual CH4 emission in the same study area. If our results are typical for natural wetlands in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region, we estimate a global CH4 source strength of 0.5 1.0 Tg C (1 Tg =1012 g) caused by spring thaw in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region in the year 2011. Combining with available satellite and flask data, a regional extrapolation reaches a temporal pattern of CH4 emission during 2003 2009 which is consistent with recently observed changes in atmospheric CH4 concentration in the high latitudes. This suggests that the CH4 emission upon spring thaw in the high latitudes might be enhanced by the projected climate warming. These findings indicate that the spring thawing effect is an important mechanism in the permafrost carbon climate feedback and needs to be incorporated in Earth system models.

Song, Changchun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoxin [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Sun, Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Miao, Yuqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, Xianwei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Guo, Yuedong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere are an inherent part of electricity generation, transportation, and industrial processes that rely on fossil fuels. These energy-related activities are responsible for more than 80 percent of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and most of these emissions are CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coalbed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, potentially reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the US DOE, has embarked on a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through two overlying coal seams. Once completed, all of the wells will be used initially to drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and recovered CBM, the program includes additional monitoring wells to further examine horizontal and vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. This is the fifth Technical Progress report for the project. Progress this period was focused on reclamation of the north access road and north well site, and development of revised drilling methods. This report provides a concise overview of project activities this period and plans for future work.

William A. Williams

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Carbon abundances of early B-type stars in the solar vicinity. Non-LTE line-formation for C II/III/IV and self-consistent atmospheric parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precise determinations of the chemical composition in early B-type stars consitute fundamental observational constraints on stellar and galactochemical evolution. Carbon is one of the most abundant metals in the Universe but analyses in early-type stars show inconclusive results, like large discrepancies between analyses of different lines in C II, a failure to establish the C II/III ionization balance and the derivation of systematically lower abundances than from other objects. We present a comprehensive and robust C II/III/IV model for non-LTE line-formation calculations based on carefully selected atomic data. The model is calibrated with high-S/N spectra of six apparently slow-rotating early B-type dwarfs and giants, which cover a wide parameter range and are randomly distributed in the solar neighbourhood. A self-consistent quantitative spectrum analysis is performed using an extensive iteration scheme to determine stellar atmospheric parameters and to select the appropriate atomic data used for the derivation of chemical abundances. We establish the carbon ionization balance for all sample stars based on a unique set of input atomic data, achieving consistency for all modelled lines. Highly accurate atmospheric parameters and a homogeneous carbon abundance with reduced systematic errors are derived. This results in a present-day stellar carbon abundance in the solar neighbourhood, which is in good agreement with recent determinations of the solar value and with the gas-phase abundance of the Orion H II region. The homogeneous present-day carbon abundance also conforms with predictions of chemical-evolution models for the Galaxy. The present approach allows us to constrain the effects of systematic errors on fundamental parameters and abundances. (abridged)

M. F. Nieva; N. Przybilla

2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

323

Three-dimensional model synthesis of the global methane cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

39, Ehhalt, D. H. , The atmoheric cycle of methane, Tellugworld-wide increase in theric methane, 1978-1987, Science,

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Prediction of coalbed methane reservoir performance with type curves.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coalbed methane is an unconventional gas resource that consists of methane production from the coal seams. CBM reservoirs are dual-porosity systems that are characterized by (more)

Bhavsar, Amol Bhaskar.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Optimization of Well Spacing in a Coalbed Methane Reservoir.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Numerical reservoir simulation has been used to describe mechanism of methane gas desorption process, diffusion process, and fluid flow in a coalbed methane reservoir. The (more)

Sinurat, Pahala Dominicus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Diffusion Characterization of Coal for Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis explores the concept of displacement of sorbed methane and enhancement of methane recovery by injection of CO2 into coal, while sequestering CO2. The (more)

Chhajed, Pawan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Development of gas production type curves for coalbed methane reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coalbed methane is an unconventional gas resource that consists on methane production from the coal seams. The unique coal characteristic results in a dual-porosity system. (more)

Garcia Arenas, Anangela.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Direct Observation of the Active Center for Methane Dehydroaromatizati...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Active Center for Methane Dehydroaromatization Using an Ultrahigh Field 95Mo NMR Spectroscopy. Direct Observation of the Active Center for Methane Dehydroaromatization Using an...

329

Studies of the Active Sites for Methane Dehydroaromatization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Active Sites for Methane Dehydroaromatization Using Ultrahigh-Field Solid-State Mo95 NMR Spectroscopy. Studies of the Active Sites for Methane Dehydroaromatization Using...

330

Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

methane that actually preceded recent concerns about potential emissions from fracking," Dubey said. Scientists detect methane levels three times larger than expected over...

331

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

332

Carbon and carbon monoxide hydrogenation on nickel: support effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of carbon, deposited on nickel catalysts by CO disproportionation, was investigated by temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) for four oxide supports, alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), silica (SiO/sub 2/), titanium oxide (TiO/sub 2/), and SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was measured by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) for comparison. The rate of carbon hydrogenation to methane was found to be independent of the support and an average activation energy of 42 kJ/mol was estimated. In contrast, the rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was very sensitive to the catalyst support. Nickel (Ni) supported on TiO/sub 2/ exhibited the highest specific activity, and two distinct sites for methanation were observed on Ni/TiO/sub 2/ and Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The lowest specific activities were observed for Ni/SiO/sub 2/ and Ni/SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. For all catalysts, carbon hydrogenation occurred at a lower temperature than carbon monoxide hydrogenation. For both TPR and TPSR, small amounts of ethane were formed and at a lower temperature than methane. The amount of less-active, ..beta..-carbon observed in TPSR experiments was very small on all catalysts. These results indicate that at high coverages, carbon hydrogenation does not depend on the support, and thus it is not rate-determining for CO hydrogenation in excess hydrogen. The support is also shown to change the specific rate of carbon monoxide methanation; activity differences seen in steady-state experiments are not just due to differences in site densities. 5 figures, 5 tables.

Ozdogan, S.Z.; Gochis, P.D.; Falconer, J.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuelsDepartmentPolicyClean,Coalbed Methane (CBM)

334

amorphous diamond-like carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, Materials Science Websites Summary: Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon...

335

adherent diamond-like carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, Materials Science Websites Summary: Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon...

336

The 1991 coalbed methane symposium proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings of the 1991 coalbed methane symposium are presented. The proceedings contains 50 papers on environmental aspects of recovering methane from coal seams, reservoir characterization and testing mine safety and productivity, coalbed stimulation, geology and resource assessment, well completion and production technologies, reservoir modeling and case histories, and resources and technology.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

338

Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle. Carbon is one is without carbon. Where else is carbon on our Earth? In rocks, living organisms, the atmosphere, oceans Does carbon stay in one place? What processes include moving carbon? Introduce residence time: How long does

Carrington, Emily

339

Carbon sequestration and carbon management policy effects on production agriculture in the Texas High Plains.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially of carbon dioxide, has led to attempts to implement carbon policies in order to limit and (more)

Zivkovic, Sanja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

Johnson, Robert E.

342

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. Image by Joshua Schrier, Haverford...

343

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

345

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Department of Energy Advance Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Descriptions for Energy Department Methane Hydrates Science and Technology Projects, August 31, 2012

348

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, School of Engineering, Ocean .. Engineel'ing-and nutrition, ocean engineering and methane generation. In

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART I: ALLENE Full-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY ALLENE OR PROPYNE * E investigated: a pure methane flame and two methane flames doped by allene and propyne, respectively. The gases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Determination of Methane Concentration Methane will be measured on the gas chromatogram using a FID (flame ionization)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of Methane Concentration Methane will be measured on the gas chromatogram using a FID to equilibrate the methane between the air and water. · With the syringe pointing down, eject all the water fromL of gas in the syringe · We will now move to the GC lab in Starr 332 to measure methane. · Repeat

Vallino, Joseph J.

351

Formation of Liquid Methane-Water Mixture during Combustion of a Laminar Methane Jet at Supercritical Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of Liquid Methane-Water Mixture during Combustion of a Laminar Methane Jet in laminar jet flames of methane at elevated pressures in a high-pressure combustion chamber, we have MPa, after the laminar methane jet flame had been stabilized on a co-flow circular nozzle-type burner

Gülder, ?mer L.

352

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated carbon felts Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sible strategy also means actively withdrawing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2 . Such carbon... sequestration faces multi-faceted chal- lenges: the net withdrawal of carbon...

353

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionscontribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest2008), Fire-related carbon emissions from land use

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decreaseImpacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean R. A. Duce,1 * J. LaRoche,2 K quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about

Ward, Bess

355

Hydraulic fracturing accelerates coalbed methane recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane production from deep coal seams that never will be mined requires hydraulic fracturing for faster, optimal recovery. Since this can be a complex process, proper formation evaluation beforehand is essential, according to this paper.

Holditch, S.A. (Texas A and M Univ. (US)); Ely, J.W.; Semmelbeck, M.E.; Carter, R.H. (S.A. Holditch and Associates (US)); Hinkel, J.J.; Jeffrey, R.G. Jr. (Dowell Schlumberger (US))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

357

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

358

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

359

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

360

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

362

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

363

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

364

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

365

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

366

Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

367

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

368

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

369

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

370

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

371

Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

372

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

373

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

374

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

375

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

376

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

377

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

378

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

379

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

380

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

382

Transient Supersonic Methane-Air Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermochemical properties of a transient supersonic flame. Creation of the transient flame was controlled by pulsing air in 200 millisecond intervals into a combustor filled with flowing methane...

Richards, John L.

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

383

Development of water production type curves for horizontal wells in coalbed methane reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coalbed methane is an unconventional gas resource that consists of methane production from the coal seams. The key parameters for the evaluation of coalbed methane (more)

Burka Narayana, Praveen Kumar.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Tool to predict the production performance of vertical wells in a coalbed methane reservoir.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coalbed Methane (CBM) is an unconventional gas resource that consists of methane production from coal seams. Coalbed Methane gas production is controlled be interactions of (more)

Enoh, Michael E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THEEVEN BEYOND MANURE-ASSOCIATED METHANE EMISSIONS, INDUSTRIAL

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Diffusional methane fluxes within continental margin sediments and depositional constraints on formation factor estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Goldberg, E.D. , 1976. Methane production and consumption inanaerobic oxidation of methane. Nature, 407 , 623-626.profiles indicate in situ methane flux from underlying gas

Berg, Richard D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues with Methane and Propane Michael A. Green LawrenceSAFETY ISSUES WITH METHANE AND PROPANE M. A. Green Lawrencehydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary

Green, Michael A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

Mahowald, Natalie

389

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmosphere part ii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particles (Duce, 2005). Atmospheric... and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide con- centrations and climate. As a result, studies of aerosol... in surface waters of...

390

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure cvd Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

atmospheric pressure cvd Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst Summary: at atmospheric...

391

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric lead fall-out Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of decades, adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere will lead... to an enhanced greenhouse effect by trapping additional heat in the lower atmosphere, leading to increases... and...

392

Estimates of Biogenic Methane Production Rates in Deep Marine Sediments at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane hydrate found in marine sediments is thought to contain gigaton quantities of methane and is considered an important potential fuel source and climate-forcing agent. Much of the methane in hydrates is biogenic, so models that predict the presence and distribution of hydrates require accurate rates of in situ methanogenesis. We estimated the in situ methanogenesis rates in Hydrate Ridge (HR) sediments by coupling experimentally derived minimal rates of methanogenesis to methanogen biomass determinations for discrete locations in the sediment column. When starved in a biomass recycle reactor Methanoculleus submarinus produced ca. 0.017 fmol methane/cell/day. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) directed at the methyl coenzyme M reductase subunit A (mcrA) gene indicated that 75% of the HR sediments analyzed contained <1000 methanogens/g. The highest methanogen numbers were mostly from sediments <10 meters below seafloor. By combining methanogenesis rates for starved methanogens (adjusted to account for in situ temperatures) and the numbers of methanogens at selected depths we derived an upper estimate of <4.25 fmol methane produced/g sediment/day for the samples with fewer methanogens than the QPCR method could detect. The actual rates could vary depending on the real number of methanogens and various seafloor parameters that influence microbial activity. However, our calculated rate is lower than rates previously reported from such sediments and close to the rate derived using geochemical modeling of the sediments. These data will help to improve models that predict microbial gas generation in marine sediments and determine the potential influence of this source of methane on the global carbon cycle.

F. S. Colwell; S. Boyd; M. E. Delwiche; D. W. Reed; T. J. Phelps; D. T. Newby

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Methane Hydrates: Major Energy Source for the Future or Wishful Thinking?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane hydrates are methane bearing, ice-like materials that occur in abundance in permafrost areas such as on the North Slope of Alaska and Canada and as well as in offshore continental margin environments throughout the world including the Gulf of Mexico and the East and West Coasts of the United States. Methane hydrate accumulations in the United States are currently estimated to be about 200,000 Tcf, which is enormous when compared to the conventional recoverable resource estimate of 2300 Tcf. On a worldwide basis, the estimate is 700,000 Tcf or about two times the total carbon in coal, oil and conventional gas in the world. The enormous size of this resource, if producible to any degree, has significant implications for U.S. and worldwide clean energy supplies and global environmental issues. Historically the petroleum industry's interests in methane hydrates have primarily been related to safety issues such as wellbore stability while drilling, seafloor stability, platform subsidence, and pipeline plugging. Many questions remain to be answered to determine if any of this potential energy resource is technically and economically viable to produce. Major technical hurdles include: 1) methods to find, characterize, and evaluate the resource; 2) technology to safely and economically produce natural gas from methane hydrate deposits; and 3) safety and seafloor stability issues related to drilling through gas hydrate accumulations to produce conventional oil and gas. The petroleum engineering profession currently deals with gas hydrates in drilling and production operations and will be key to solving the technical and economic problems that must be overcome for methane hydrates to be part of the future energy mix in the world.

Thomas, Charles Phillip

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

Keeling, Ralph [UCSD-SIO

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

396

The 2MASS Wide-Field T Dwarf Search. V. Discovery of a T Dwarf via Methane Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the discovery of a T dwarf, 2M2151-4853, via differential imaging through methane filters. The filters are designed to highlight the strong absorption in the H band, due to methane found in the atmospheres of T dwarfs, and provide a very efficient means of searching for them. Subsequent J and H band spectroscopy confirms 2M2151-4853 as a T dwarf of type T4.5. It has an estimated spectrophotometric distance of 18 +/- 3 pc, and an estimated tangential velocity of v=50 +/- 10 km/s.

S. C. Ellis; C. G. Tinney; Adam J. Burgasser; J. Davy Kirkpatrick; Michael W. McElwain

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

397

GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and reactivity of supercritical CO{sub 2} in coal-bearing strata is unknown, and potential exists for supercritical conditions to develop below a depth of 2,480 feet following abandonment of the coalbed methane fields. High-pressure adsorption isotherms confirm that coal sorbs approximately twice as much CO{sub 2} as CH{sub 4} and approximately four times as much CO{sub 2} as N{sub 2}. Analysis of isotherm data reveals that the sorption performance of each gas can vary by a factor of two depending on rank and ash content. Gas content data exhibit extreme vertical and lateral variability that is the product of a complex burial history involving an early phase of thermogenic gas generation and an ongoing stage of late biogenic gas generation. Production characteristics of coalbed methane wells are helpful for identifying areas that are candidates for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Many geologic and engineering factors, including well construction, well spacing, and regional structure influence well performance. Close fault spacing limits areas where five-spot patterns may be developed for enhanced gas recovery, but large structural panels lacking normal faults are in several gas fields and can be given priority as areas to demonstrate and commercialize carbon sequestration technology in coalbed methane reservoirs.

Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

Thomas K. Gaisser

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

399

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

"Carbon Isotope Anomaly in the major Plant C1 Pool and its Biogeochemical Implications"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Jena 2005 #12;C4-cycle Higher plants Coal C4 plants -130 - 120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 13C () Crude oil Abiogenic methane Thermogenic natural gas Pedosphere Earthcrust Acetone Marine Plankton PDB standard Biomass Carbonate reduction Bacterial methane Methyl fermentation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

E-Print Network 3.0 - active methane weather Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry 48 Universitt Stuttgart Auslandsorientierter Studiengang Summary: Potential of Coalbed Methane Recovery during Active Coalmin- ing... Methane Recovery from Active...

402

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere are an inherent part of energy-related activities, such as electricity generation, transportation, and building systems. These energy-related activities are responsible for roughly 85% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and 95% of these emissions are dominated by CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils, and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coal bed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy, with support from the U.S. DOE, is conducting a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through overlying coal seams in the subsurface. Once completed, the wells will be used to initially drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and CBM produced, the program includes a plan to monitor horizontal migration of CO{sub 2} within the lower seam. This is the second Technical Progress report for the project. Progress to date has been focused on pre-construction activities; in particular, attaining site approvals and securing property rights for the project. This report provides a concise overview of project activity this period and plans for future work. This is the second semi-annual Technical Progress report under the subject agreement. During this report period, progress was made in completing the environmental assessment report, securing land and coal rights, and evaluating drilling strategies. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

Gary L. Cairns

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! amp powered by a Hamamaisu poccer upply. One beam was directed into a flow-through cel], and then onto a quartz phatodiode. Another beam was projected directly onto a reference photodiode, A potential of approximately 185 volts DC wns applied... CARRIFR PURIFICATION Y ~mce 6 PORT VALVE INJECT63N PORT HEATED Hqo COLUMN SAMPLE LOOP CHROhlATOGRAPI. IIC COLUMN REFERFNCE PHOTODIODE hlERCURY LAMP SIGNAL PHOTQDIODE ~~1 CT flow throuah cell RCA 935 HAAIAMATSU L927 RCA 935 Fig. la...

Bullister, John Logan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Methane Decomposition: Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Filaments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for hydrogen is to power fuel cells. Major automobile manufac- turers are currently working towards developing ppm in the preferential oxidation reactor (PROX). The hydrogen can be introduced in the fuel cell only for the performance of PEM fuel cells.6 Other conventional process of hydrogen production such as partial oxidation

Goodman, Wayne

406

Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of methane and acetylene to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5) was studied The reaction between methane and acetylene successfully produced high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzene...

Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop November 12, 2014 11:00AM EST to...

408

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and Reaction with CO on Pd Nanoparticles on MgO(100) and on Pd(111). Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen...

409

Diurnal variations in methane emission from rice plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms causing diurnal variations in methane emission from rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Methane emission was measured using a closed chamber system on individual rice plants at five stages...

Laskowski, Nicholas Aaron

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

New Methane Hydrate Research: Investing in Our Energy Future...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Investing in Our Energy Future August 31, 2012 - 1:37pm Addthis Methane hydrates are 3D ice-lattice structures with natural gas locked inside. If methane hydrate is either warmed...

411

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

2007-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

413

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

415

Formation of Carbon Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

416

Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic in assumptions in estimating emissions · Measured data for some sources of methane emissions during natural gas

Lightsey, Glenn

417

METHANE IN SUBSURFACE: MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advanced models of adsorption occuring in coalbed methane recovery processes, and discuss the underlying methods, hysteresis, coalbed methane, mean-field equi- librium models AMS(MOS) subject classifications. 76 applications important for global climate and energy studies, namely Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM) recovery

Peszynska, Malgorzata

418

An improved third order dipole moment surface for methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An improved third order dipole moment surface for methane P. Cassam-Chena¨i Laboratoire J and used to calculate the rotational spectrum of methane vibrational ground state, by means. Keywords: Dipole moment surface; methane; generalized mean field configuration interaction. Suggested

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

ESTIMATING METHANE EMISSION AND OXIDATION FROM TWO TEMPORARY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESTIMATING METHANE EMISSION AND OXIDATION FROM TWO TEMPORARY COVERS ON LANDFILLED MBT TREATED WASTE to oxidize the methane flux coming from the residual organic fraction. The first plant was operated without recovery of organic fraction and with concentration of the fine fraction in a cell. The methane fluxes were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

PYROLYSIS OF METHANE IN A SUPERSONIC, ARC-HEATED FLOW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 PYROLYSIS OF METHANE IN A SUPERSONIC, ARC-HEATED FLOW F.K. Lu,* C.M. Roseberry, J.M. Meyers and D arc pyrolysis of methane at supersonic conditions, representative of conditions in the reformer- cate the feasibility of arc pyrolysis of methane. Introduction he high specific enthalpy of combustion

Texas at Arlington, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands Jason M. Gonzales, Jonas, California 90089 ReceiVed July 31, 2006 Trends in methane activation have been explored for rhenium complexes proceeds with methane activation through a barrier of less than 35 kcal mol-1 . Study

Goddard III, William A.

422

Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir: Contribution from Bubbling Sediments manuscript received February 3, 2010. Accepted February 15, 2010. Methane emission pathways.Methanediffusionfromthesediment was generally low and seasonally stable and did not account for the high concentration of dissolved methane

Wehrli, Bernhard

423

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research A robotic sub samples the methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute A robotic sub samples the methane content of the seafloor.263 News Seafloor probe taps methane reservoir Greenhouse gas found in high abundance but risk of mass release uncertain. Nicola Jones A robotic submarine has been used to measure the amount of methane lurking

Tian, Weidong

424

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART III: CYCLOPENTENE-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY CYCLOPENTENE * E-mail : pierre with the studies presented in the parts I and II of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

The Tri--methane Rearrangement: Mechanistic and Exploratory Organic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Tri--methane Rearrangement: Mechanistic and Exploratory Organic Photochemistry1 Howard E zimmerman@bert.chem.wisc.edu Received May 31, 2000 ABSTRACT The di--methane rearrangement is firmly established as a mode of synthesizing three-membered-ring compounds. We now report the tri-- methane

Cirkva, Vladimir

426

METHANE SOURCES AND SINKS IN UPPER OCEAN WATERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHANE SOURCES AND SINKS IN UPPER OCEAN WATERS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION the distribution of dissolved methane in ocean surface waters were investigated. Water column and sediment trap and Antarctic waters to the oliogotrophic ocean off Hawaii. The methane concentrations in most of the surface

Luther, Douglas S.

427

Dissociation of methane under high pressure Guoying Gao,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dissociation of methane under high pressure Guoying Gao,1,a Artem R. Oganov,2,a Yanming Ma,1,b Hui Received 15 May 2010; accepted 18 August 2010; published online 12 October 2010 Methane is an extremely of methane under extreme conditions are of great fundamental interest. Using the ab initio evolutionary

Oganov, Artem R.

428

Tropical methane emissions: A revised view from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical methane emissions: A revised view from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT Christian Frankenberg,1; accepted 26 June 2008; published 12 August 2008. [1] Methane retrievals from near-infrared spectra recorded spectroscopic parameters, causing a substantial overestimation of methane correlated with high water vapor

Haak, Hein

429

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART II: 1,3-BUTADIENE-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY 1,3-BUTADIENE * E-mail : Pierre of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

atmospheric emissions produced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

431

New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico brine pool via in situ mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico Keywords: Methane flux Mass spectrometer Brine pool Methane oxidation Gulf of Mexico a b s t r a c t Deep heterogeneity. In particular, biogeochemical fluxes of volatiles such as methane remain largely unconstrained

Girguis, Peter R.

432

RMOTC - News - Methane Test 2013  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 K.OfficeNote: This is a2 MSA2WrayAs

433

A method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low levels of 14C-labeled methane and accelerator mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NEsediment from a marine gas hydrate area. Environ. Microbiol.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael R. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

435

Synthesis and Characterization of Rationally Designed Porous Materials for Energy Storage and Carbon Capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two of the hottest areas in porous materials research in the last decade have been in energy storage, mainly hydrogen and methane, and in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Although these topics are intricately linked in terms of our future...

Sculley, Julian Patrick

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

436

INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

Komar, C.A. (ed.)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

439

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Generating power with drained coal mine methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

NONE

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Technical Note Methane gas migration through geomembranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coefficient of PVC, LLDPE, and HDPE geomembranes by performing the standard gas transport test (ASTM D1434). The measured methane gas permeability coefficient through a PVC geomembrane is 7.55 3 104 ml(STP).mil/m2.day thicknesses is proposed using the measured permeability coefficients for PVC, LLDPE, and HDPE geomembranes

442

Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Future climate trends from a first-difference atmospheric carbon dioxide regression model involving emissions scenarios for business as usual and for peak fossil fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper investigates the implications of the future continuation of the demonstrated past (1960-2012) strong correlation between first-difference atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature. It does this, for the period from the present to 2050, for a comprehensive range of future global fossil fuel energy use scenarios. The results show that even for a business-as-usual (the mid-level IPCC) fossil fuel use estimate, global surface temperature will rise at a slower rate than for the recent period 1960-2000. Concerning peak fossil fuel, for the most common scenario the currently observed (1998-2013)temperature plateau will turn into a decrease. The observed trend to date for temperature is compared with that for global climate disasters: these peaked in 2005 and are notably decreasing. The temperature and disaster results taken together are consistent with either a reduced business-as-usual fossil fuel use scenario into the future, or a peak fossil fuel scenario, but not with the standard business-as-usu...

Leggett, L M W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Mechanism of Methane Chemical Looping Combustion with Hematite Promoted with CeO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion that produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream, reducing the energy penalty of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gases. An effective oxygen carrier for CLC will readily react with the fuel gas and will be reoxidized upon contact with oxygen. This study investigated the development of a CeO{sub 2}-promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?hematite oxygen carrier suitable for the methane CLC process. Composition of CeO{sub 2} is between 5 and 25 wt % and is lower than what is generally used for supports in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier preparations. The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} to the natural ore hematite strongly modifies the reduction behavior in comparison to that of CeO{sub 2} and hematite alone. Temperature-programmed reaction studies revealed that the addition of even 5 wt % CeO{sub 2} enhances the reaction capacity of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier by promoting the decomposition and partial oxidation of methane. Fixed-bed reactor data showed that the 5 wt % cerium oxides with 95 wt % iron oxide produce 2 times as much carbon dioxide in comparison to the sum of carbon dioxide produced when the oxides were tested separately. This effect is likely due to the reaction of CeO{sub 2} with methane forming intermediates, which are reactive for extracting oxygen from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a considerably faster rate than the rate of the direct reaction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. These studies reveal that 5 wt % CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives stable conversions over 15 reduction/oxidation cycles. Lab-scale reactor studies (pulsed mode) suggest the methane reacts initially with CeO{sub 2} lattice oxygen to form partial oxidation products (CO + H{sub 2}), which continue to react with oxygen from neighboring Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, leading to its complete oxidation to form CO{sub 2}. The reduced cerium oxide promotes the methane decomposition reaction to form C + H{sub 2}, which continue to react with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to form CO/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. This mechanism is supported by the characterization studies, which also suggest that the formation of carbonaceous intermediates may affect the reaction rate and selectivity of the oxygen carrier.

Miller, Duane D.; Siriwardane, Ranjani

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic oxidation of methane to partial oxidation products, primarily formaldehyde and C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, was found to be directed by the catalyst used. In this project, it was discovered that a moderate oxidative coupling catalyst for C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, zinc oxide, is modified by addition of small amounts of Cu and Fe dopants to yield fair yields of formaldehyde. A similar effect was observed with Cu/Sn/ZnO catalysts, and the presence of a redox Lewis acid, Fe[sup III] or Sn[sup IV], was found to be essential for the selectivity switch from C[sub 2] coupling products to formaldehyde. The principle of double doping with an oxygen activator (Cu) and the redox Lewis acid (Fe, Sn) was pursued further by synthesizing and testing the CuFe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The Cu[sup II](ion exchanged) Fe[sup III](framework)-ZSM-5 also displayed activity for formaldehyde synthesis, with space time yields exceeding 100 g/h-kg catalyst. However, the selectivity was low and earlier claims in the literature of selective oxidation of methane to methanol over CuFe-ZSM-5 were not reproduced. A new active and selective catalytic system (M=Sb,Bi,Sn)/SrO/La[sub 2]O[sub 3] has been discovered for potentially commercially attractive process for the conversion of methane to C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, (ii) a new principle has been demonstrated for selectivity switching from C[sub 2] hydrocarbon products to formaldehyde in methane oxidations over Cu,Fe-doped zinc oxide and ZSM-5, and (iii) a new approach has been initiated for using ultrafine metal dispersions for low temperature activation of methane for selective conversions. Item (iii) continues being supported by AMOCO while further developments related to items (i) and (ii) are the objective of our continued effort under the METC-AMOCO proposed joint program.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.; DiCosimo, J.I.; DeTavernier, S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Deep oxidation of methane on particles derived from YSZ-supported Pd-Pt-(O) coatings synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009) Deep oxidation of methane on particles derived fromAbstract Methane conversion tests were performed on Pd, PdOFigure captions Figure 1: Methane conversion a), methane

Horwat, D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Fractal and Multifractal Analysis of the Rise of Oxygen in Earth's Early Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere that occurred 2.4 to 2.2 billion years ago is known as the Earth's Great Oxidation, and its impact on the development of life on Earth has been profound. Thereafter, the increase in Earth's oxygen level persisted, though at a more gradual pace. The proposed underlying mathematical models for these processes are based on physical parameters whose values are currently not well-established owing to uncertainties in geological and biological data. In this paper, a previously developed model of Earth's atmosphere is modified by adding different strengths of noise to account for the parameters' uncertainties. The effects of the noise on the time variations of oxygen, carbon and methane for the early Earth are investigated by using fractal and multifractal analysis. We show that the time variations following the Great Oxidation cannot properly be described by a single fractal dimension because they exhibit multifractal characteristics. The obtained results demonstrate that the time series as obtained exhibit multifractality caused by long-range time correlations.

Satish Kumar; Manfred Cuntz; Zdzislaw E. Musielak

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

448

Consequences of Considering Carbon/Nitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of observational studies indicate that carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems in a world with an atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide and a warmer climate depends on the interactions between the carbon and ...

Sokolov, Andrei P.

449

A nanochemomechanical investigation of carbonated cement paste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concrete, and in particular its principal component, cement paste, has an interesting relation with carbon dioxide. Concrete is a carbon dioxide generator-- it is estimated that 5-10% of atmospheric CO? comes from this ...

Vanzo, James (James F.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in Alabama emit approximately 31 MMst (2.4 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} annually. The total sequestration capacity of the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway at 350 psi is about 189 MMst (14.9 Tcf), which is equivalent to 6.1 years of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal-fired power plants. Applying the geologic screening model indicates that significant parts of the coalbed methane fairway are not accessible because of fault zones, coal mines, coal reserves, and formation water with TDS content less than 3,000 mg/L. Excluding these areas leaves a sequestration potential of 60 MMst (4.7 Tcf), which is equivalent to 1.9 years of emissions. Therefore, if about10 percent of the flue gas stream from nearby power plants is dedicated to enhanced coalbed methane recovery, a meaningful reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions can be realized for nearly two decades. If the fresh-water restriction were removed for the purposes of CO{sub 2} sequestration, an additional 10 MMst (0.9 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} could feasibly be sequestered. The amount of unswept coalbed methane in the fairway is estimated to be 1.49 Tcf at a pressure of 50 psi. Applying the screening model results in an accessible unswept gas resource of 0.44 Tcf. Removal of the fresh-water restriction would elevate this number to 0.57 Tcf. If a recovery factor of 80 percent can be realized, then enhanced recovery activities can result in an 18 percent expansion of coalbed methane reserves in the Black Warrior basin.

Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

452

The oxidation of soot and carbon monoxide in hydrocarbon diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative hydroxyl radical concentrations and primary soot particle sizes have been determined in the soot oxidation regions of axisymmetric diffusion flames burning methane, methane/butane, and methane/1-butene in air at atmospheric pressure. The total carbon flow rate was held constant in these flames while the maximum amount of soot varied by a factor of seven along the centerline. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of OH were placed on an absolute basis by calibration against earlier absorption results. The primary size measurements of the soot particles were made using thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscopy. OH concentrations are greatly reduced in the presence of soot particles. Whereas large super-equilibrium ratios are observed in the high-temperature reaction zones in the absence of soot, the OH concentrations approach equilibrium values when the soot loading is high. The diminished OH concentrations are found to arise from reactions with the soot particles and only to a minor degree from lower temperatures due to soot radiation losses. Analysis of the soot oxidation rates computed from the primary particle size profiles as a function of time along the flame centerlines shows that OH is the dominant oxidizer of soot, with O[sub 2] making only a small contribution. Higher collision efficiencies of OH reactions with soot particles are found for the flames containing larger soot concentrations at lower temperatures. A comparison of the soot and CO oxidation rates shows that although CO is inherently more reactive than soot, the soot successfully competes with CO for OH and hence suppresses CO oxidation for large soot concentrations.

Puri, R.; Santoro, R.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Smyth, K.C. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Methane Sulfonation A High-Yield Approach to the Sulfonation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Sulfonation A High-Yield Approach to the Sulfonation of Methane to Methanesulfonic Acid Initiated by H2O2 and a Metal Chloride** Sudip Mukhopadhyay and Alexis T. Bell* Methane is abundant reactivity of methane makes it difficult to develop commercially viable processes for methane conversion.[1

Bell, Alexis T.

454

METHANE AND ETHANE ON THE BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECT 2005 FY9 M. E. Brown,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHANE AND ETHANE ON THE BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECT 2005 FY9 M. E. Brown,1 K. M. Barkume,1 G. A regime and by absorption due to methane in the near-infrared. The solid methane absorption lines through the methane. These long path lengths can be parameterized as a methane grain size of approximately

Brown, Michael E.

455

Methane Hydrate Field Studies | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport0.pdf5 OPAM SEMIANNUAL REPORTMAMay 20Field Studies Methane Hydrate Field

456

Methane Hydrate Production Feasibility | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport0.pdf5 OPAM SEMIANNUAL REPORTMAMay 20Field Studies Methane Hydrate

457

Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well design?? an injection well and three monitoring wells??was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A ??continuous? injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6??0.7 tonne/day (0.66??0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at wellheads, and changes in several shallow groundwater characteristics (e.g., alkalinity, pH, oxygen content, dissolved solids, mineral saturation indices, and isotopic distribution). Results showed that there was no CO{sub 2} leakage into groundwater or CO{sub 2} escape at the surface. Post-injection cased hole well log analyses supported this conclusion. Numerical and analytical modeling achieved a relatively good match with observed field data. Based on the model results the plume was estimated to extend 152 m (500 ft) in the face cleat direction and 54.9 m (180 ft) in the butt cleat direction. Using the calibrated model, additional injection scenarios??injection and production with an inverted five-spot pattern and a line drive pattern??could yield CH{sub 4} recovery of up to 70%.

Scott Frailey; Thomas Parris; James Damico; Roland Okwen; Ray McKaskle; Charles Monson; Jonathan Goodwin; E. Beck; Peter Berger; Robert Butsch; Damon Garner; John Grube; Keith Hackley; Jessica Hinton; Abbas Iranmanesh; Christopher Korose; Edward Mehnert; Charles Monson; William Roy; Steven Sargent; Bracken Wimmer

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

459

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts. Quarterly report, March--May 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is the selective oxidative coupling of methane to C{sub 2}H{sub 4} hydrocarbons and oxygenates, in particular formaldehyde and methanol. Air, oxygen or carbon dioxide, rather than nitrous oxide will be utilized as the oxidizing gas at high gas hourly space velocity, but mild reaction conditions (500-700 {degrees}C, 1 atm total pressure). All the investigated processes are catalytic, aiming at minimizing gas phase reactions that are difficult to control. The research is divided into the following three tasks: (1) maximizing selective methane oxidation to C{sub 2}H{sub 4} products over promoted Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}; (2) selective methane oxidation to oxygenates; and (3) catalyst characterization and optimization. Task 1 dealt with the preparation, testing, and optimization of acidic promoted lanthana-based catalysts for the synthesis of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} hydrocarbons and is essentially completed. Task 2 aims at the formation and optimization of promoted catalysts for the synthesis of oxygenates, in particular formaldehyde and methanol. Task 3 involves characterization of the most promising catalysts so that optimization can be achieved under Task 2. Accomplishments for this period are presented.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Wang, Chaun-Bao; Shi, Chunlei; Sun, Qun

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Review of Novel Catalysts for Biomass Tar Cracking and Methane Reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of the literature was conducted to examine the performance of catalysts other than conventional nickel catalysts, and alkaline earth and olivine based catalysts for treating hot raw product gas from a biomass gasifier to convert methane and tars into synthesis gas. Metal catalysts other than Ni included precious metals Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd, as well as Cu, Co, and Fe in limited testing. Nickel catalysts promoted with Rh, Zr, Mn, Mo, Ti, Ag, or Sn were also examined, as were Ni catalysts on Ce2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, and La2O3. In general, Rh stood out as a consistently superior metal catalyst for methane reforming, tar cracking, and minimizing carbon buildup on the catalyst. Ru and Ir also showed significant improvement over Ni for methane reforming. Ceria stood out as good support material and particularly good promoter material when added in small quantities to another support material such as alumina, zirconia, or olivine. Other promising supports were lanthana, zirconia, and titania.

Gerber, Mark A.

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

462

A review on recent advances in the numerical simulation for coalbed-methane-recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent advances in numerical simulation for primary coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and enhanced coalbed-methane recovery (ECBMR) processes are reviewed, primarily focusing on the progress that has occurred since the late 1980s. Two major issues regarding the numerical modeling will be discussed in this review: first, multicomponent gas transport in in-situ bulk coal and, second, changes of coal properties during methane (CH{sub 4}) production. For the former issues, a detailed review of more recent advances in modeling gas and water transport within a coal matrix is presented. Further, various factors influencing gas diffusion through the coal matrix will be highlighted as well, such as pore structure, concentration and pressure, and water effects. An ongoing bottleneck for evaluating total mass transport rate is developing a reasonable representation of multiscale pore space that considers coal type and rank. Moreover, few efforts have been concerned with modeling water-flow behavior in the coal matrix and its effects on CH{sub 4} production and on the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and CH{sub 4}. As for the second issue, theoretical coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical models have been proposed to describe the evolution of pore structure during CH{sub 4} production, instead of traditional empirical equations. However, there is currently no effective coupled model for engineering applications. Finally, perspectives on developing suitable simulation models for CBM production and for predicting CO{sub 2}-sequestration ECBMR are suggested.

Wei, X.R.; Wang, G.X.; Massarotto, P.; Golding, S.D.; Rudolph, V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Energy Department Expands Research into Methane Hydrates, a Vast...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

separate project funded by the EU through Universities of Bremen (Germany) and Tromso (Norway), will assess the response of methane hydrates to environmental changes at the...

464

Biomass Gasification and Methane Digester Property Tax Exemption  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Michigan exempts certain energy production related farm facilities from real and personal property taxes. Among exempted property are certain methane digesters, biomass gasification equipment,...

465

,"North Louisiana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

466

,"Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2010,"630...

467

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

468

Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1242014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Revision Increases...

469

Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Available; W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1242014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments...

470

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",201...

471

,"Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

472

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

473

,"NM, West Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

474

WATERJETTING: A NEW DRILLING TECHNIQUE IN COALBED METHANE RESERVOIRS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??WATERJETTING: A NEW DRILLING TECHNIQUE IN COALBED METHANE RESERVOIRS Applications of waterjeting to drill horizontal wells for the purpose of degassing coalbeds prior to mining (more)

Funmilayo, Gbenga M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","124...

476

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

477

,"West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

478

,"New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

479

,"TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

480

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "methane atmospheric carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

482

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

483

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

484

,"Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2013,"630...

485

,"TX, RRC District 10 Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

486

,"TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

487

,"NM, East Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

488

,"TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

489

,"Texas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

490

,"U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

491

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

492

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

None

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

493

Relative Permeability Experiments of Carbon Dioxide Displacing Brine and Their Implications for Carbon Sequestration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??To continue running our civilization on fossil fuels while avoiding global warming and ocean acidification, anthropogenic carbon dioxide must be diverted from atmospheric release. For (more)

Levine, Jonathan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Litter-Carbon Dynamics: The Importance of Decomposition, Accretion, and Sequestration in Understanding Ecosystem Carbon Cycling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing since the industrial revolution. A proposed mitigation strategy is sequestering carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems, either in plant (more)

Kochsiek, Amy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Microbially induced magnesium carbonation reactions as a strategy for carbon sequestration in ultramafic mine tailings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion, causing higher global temperatures and other negative environmental effects. CO2 sequestration (more)

McCutcheon, Jenine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER CATASTROPHIC RISK AND PRICE UNCERTAINTY IN KENTUCKY.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Internalizing carbon value for forest landowners has the potential to increase carbon supply in forest and mitigate CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, we (more)

Hu, Lijiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Methane production during the anaerobic decomposition of composted and raw organic refuse in simulated landfill cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane contributes 20% annually to increases in global warming, and is explosive at concentrations of 5-15% in air. Landfills contribute 15% to total methane emissions. This study was conducted to determine the potential decrease in methane...

West, Margrit Evelyn

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Analysis of a direct methane conversion to high molecular weight hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane conversion to heavier hydrocarbons was studied using electrical furnaces and a plasma apparatus. The experiments were performed with pure methane for the electrical furnace experiments while pure methane and additions such as hydrogen...

Al-Ghafran, Moh'd. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential distribution of methane hydrate in the world'sisotopic evidence for methane hydrate instability duringHendy, L.L. , and R.J. Behl, Methane hydrates in quaternary

Reagan, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z