National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metamaterial transparent conductor

  1. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA)

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  2. Flexible transparent conductors based on metal nanowire networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-04-01

    Few conductors are transparent and flexible. Metals have the best electrical conductivity, but they are opaque and stiff in bulk form. However, metals can be transparent and flexible when they are very thin or properly arranged on the nanoscale. This review focuses on the flexible transparent conductors based on percolating networks of metal. Specifically, we discuss the fabrication, the means to improve the electrical conductivity, the large stretchability and its mechanism, and the applications of these metal networks. We also suggest some criteria for evaluating flexible transparent conductors and propose some new research directions in this emerging field.

  3. Plasmonic Metamaterials and Nanocomposites with the Narrow Transparency Window Effect in Broad Extinction Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Plasmonic Metamaterials and Nanocomposites with the Narrow Transparency Window Effect in Broad- and metamaterials, the colloidal synthesis, and lithography. Nanocomposites proposed here can be used as optical with a simultaneous possibility of communication using a narrow transparency window. KEYWORDS: metamaterial, optical

  4. Transparent conductor-Si pillars heterojunction photodetector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong; Park, Yun Chang

    2014-08-14

    We report a high-performing heterojunction photodetector by enhanced surface effects. Periodically, patterned Si substrates were used to enlarge the photo-reactive regions and yield proportionally improved photo-responses. An optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) was deposited on a Si substrate and spontaneously formed an ITO/Si heterojunction. Due to an electrical conductive ITO film, ITO/Si heterojunction device can be operated at zero-bias, which effectively suppresses the dark current, resulting in better performances than those by a positive or a negative bias operation. This zero-bias operating heterojunction device exhibits a short response time (? 22.5?ms) due to the physical reaction to the incident light. We revealed that the location of the space charge region (SCR) is crucial for a specific photon-wavelength response. The SCR space has the highest collection efficiency of the photo-generated carriers. The photo-response can be maximized when we design the photodetector by superposing the SCR space over a corresponding photon-absorption length. The surface enhanced Si pillar devices significantly improved the photo-responses ratios from that of a planar Si device. According to this design scheme, a high photo-response ratio of 5560% was achieved at a wavelength of 600?nm. This surfaced-enhanced heterojunction design scheme would be a promising approach for various photoelectric applications.

  5. Implementation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a metamaterial controlled with auxiliary waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We performed experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observed asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.

  6. Absorption-induced transparency metamaterials in the terahertz regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to what might be expected, when an organic dye is sputtered onto an opaque holey metal film, transmission bands can be observed at the absorption energies of the molecules. This phenomenon, known as absorption-induced transparency, is aided by a strong modification of the propagation properties of light inside the holes when filled by the molecules. Despite having been initially observed in metallic structures in the optical regime, new routes for investigation and applications at different spectral regimes can be devised. Here, in order to illustrate the potential use of absorption induced transparency at terahertz, a method for molecular detection is presented, supported by a theoretical analysis.

  7. Slow-light plasmonic metamaterial based on dressed-state analog of electromagnetically-induced transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raza, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simple configuration for realizing one-dimensional slow-light metamaterials with large bandwidth-delay products using stub-shaped Fabry-Perot resonators as building blocks. Each metaatom gives rise to large group indices due to a classical analog of the dressed-state picture of electromagnetically-induced transparency. By connecting up to eight metaatoms, we find bandwidth-delay products over unity and group indices approaching 100. Our approach is quite general and can be applied to any type of Fabry-Perot resonators and tuned to different operating wavelengths.

  8. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  9. Metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David R.; Schurig, David; Starr, Anthony F.; Mock, Jack J.

    2014-09-09

    One exemplary metamaterial is formed from a plurality of individual unit cells, at least a portion of which have a different permeability than others. The plurality of individual unit cells are arranged to provide a metamaterial having a gradient index along at least one axis. Such metamaterials can be used to form lenses, for example.

  10. Transparent Conductors from Carbon Nanotubes LBL-Assembled with Polymer Dopant with ?-? Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jian; Shim, Bong Sup; Di Prima, Matthew; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and other carbon-based coatings are being considered as replacements for indium tin oxide (ITO). The problems of transparent conductors (TCs) coatings from SWNT and similar materials include poor mechanical properties, high roughness, low temperature resilience, and fast loss of conductivity. The simultaneous realization of these desirable characteristics can be achieved using high structural control of layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition, which is demonstrated by the assembly of hydroethyl cellulose (HOCS) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK)-SWNTs. A new type of SWNT doping based on electron transfer from valence bands of nanotubes to unoccupied levels of SPEEK through ?-? interactions was identified for this system. It leads to a conductivity of 1.1 × 10? S/m at 66 wt % loadings of SWNT. This is better than other polymer/SWNT composites and translates into surface conductivity of 920 ?/? and transmittance of 86.7% at 550 nm. The prepared LBL films also revealed unusually high temperature resilience up to 500 °C, and low roughness of 3.5 nm (ITO glass -2.4 nm). Tensile modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness of such coatings are 13 ± 2 GPa, 366 ± 35 MPa, and 8 ± 3 kJ/m³, respectively, and exceed corresponding parameters of all similar TCs. The cumulative figure of merit, ?TC, which included the critical failure strain relevant for flexible electronics, was ?TC = 0.022 and should be compared to ?TC = 0.006 for commercial ITO. Further optimization is possible using stratified nanoscale coatings and improved doping from the macromolecular LBL components.

  11. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Anomalous Surface Conductivity in In2O3 Transparent Conductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,Center OrganizationInfrared Metamaterials

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 205101 (2012) Nonreciprocal active metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 205101 (2012) Nonreciprocal active metamaterials Bogdan-Ioan Popa* and Steven) We show experimentally that active electromagnetic metamaterials are suitable for the implementation metamaterial slab and show that it is essentially transparent to microwaves propagating in one direction

  13. Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials were originally introduced to overcome the diffraction limit of optical imaging. Soon thereafter it was realized that hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate a number of novel phenomena resulting from the broadband singular behavior of their density of photonic states. These novel phenomena and applications include super resolution imaging, new stealth technologies, enhanced quantum-electrodynamic effects, thermal hyperconductivity, superconductivity, and interesting gravitation theory analogues. Here we briefly review typical material systems, which exhibit hyperbolic behavior and outline important applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  14. Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2015-10-24

    Hyperbolic metamaterials were originally introduced to overcome the diffraction limit of optical imaging. Soon thereafter it was realized that hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate a number of novel phenomena resulting from the broadband singular behavior of their density of photonic states. These novel phenomena and applications include super resolution imaging, new stealth technologies, enhanced quantum-electrodynamic effects, thermal hyperconductivity, superconductivity, and interesting gravitation theory analogues. Here we briefly review typical material systems, which exhibit hyperbolic behavior and outline important applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  15. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-26

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  16. Terahertz metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peralta, Xomalin Guaiuli; Brener, Igal; O'Hara, John; Azad, Abul; Smirnova, Evgenya; Williams, John D.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2014-08-12

    Terahertz metamaterials comprise a periodic array of resonator elements disposed on a dielectric substrate or thin membrane, wherein the resonator elements have a structure that provides a tunable magnetic permeability or a tunable electric permittivity for incident electromagnetic radiation at a frequency greater than about 100 GHz and the periodic array has a lattice constant that is smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Microfabricated metamaterials exhibit lower losses and can be assembled into three-dimensional structures that enable full coupling of incident electromagnetic terahertz radiation in two or three orthogonal directions. Furthermore, polarization sensitive and insensitive metamaterials at terahertz frequencies can enable new devices and applications.

  17. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  18. Optical Characterization of Plasmonic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, David Jaeyun

    2012-01-01

    V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials (Springer, 2010). L. D.Characterization of Plasmonic Metamaterials by David JaeyunCharacterization of Plasmonic Metamaterials Copyright 2012

  19. Bringing Optical Metamaterials to Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentine, Jason Gage

    2010-01-01

    refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires. ," Science ,Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photonics ,Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D

  20. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity Mikhail Lapine1,2 , Ilya V. Shadrivov1,2 , David A development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer

  1. Reconfigurable quantum metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Q. Quach; Chun-Hsu Su; Andrew M. Martin; Andrew D. Greentree; Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg

    2011-06-04

    By coupling controllable quantum systems into larger structures we introduce the concept of a quantum metamaterial. Conventional meta-materials represent one of the most important frontiers in optical design, with applications in diverse fields ranging from medicine to aerospace. Up until now however, metamaterials have themselves been classical structures and interact only with the classical properties of light. Here we describe a class of dynamic metamaterials, based on the quantum properties of coupled atom-cavity arrays, which are intrinsically lossless, reconfigurable, and operate fundamentally at the quantum level. We show how this new class of metamaterial could be used to create a reconfigurable quantum superlens possessing a negative index gradient for single photon imaging. With the inherent features of quantum superposition and entanglement of metamaterial properties, this new class of dynamic quantum metamaterial, opens a new vista for quantum science and technology.

  2. Coated Conductor Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coated Conductor Technology Development Roadmap Priority Research & Development Activities Leading for Electric Systems Program Prepared by: Energetics, Incorporated #12;Coated Conductor Development Roadmap of high-quality, low-cost coated conductors that will lead to industrial-scale commercial manufacturing

  3. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniela Dragoman; Mircea Dragoman

    2007-01-02

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  4. Anisotropic and Negative Acoustic Index Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fok, Lee Ren

    2010-01-01

    density and acoustic metamaterials. Physica B 394, 256 (resonant acoustic metamaterials. Phys. Rev. B 76, 144302 (celestial mechanics in metamaterials. Nat. Phys. 5, 687 (

  5. Light propagation and Imaging in Indefinite Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,”Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat Photon, vol. 1,refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. , vol. 30,

  6. Electromagnetic metamaterials : engineering the physics of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Tom

    2008-01-01

    al. , Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz.  refraction in optical metamaterials.  Opt.   Lett. , 2005.  nonlinear negative?index metamaterials.  Opt.  Express, 

  7. Field-effect induced tunability in planar hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadakis, Georgia T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that use of the field effect to tune the effective optical parameters of a layered hyperbolic metamaterial leads to topological transitions in its dispersion characteristics in the optical regime. Field effect gating electrically modulates the permittivity in transparent conductive oxides via changes in the carrier density. These permittivity changes lead to active extreme modulation of ~200% of the effective electromagnetic parameters along with active control of the anisotropic dispersion surface of hyperbolic metamaterials and enable the opening and closing of photonic band gaps.

  8. Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavallaee, Amir Ali

    2012-01-01

    Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . . Terahertz CRLHCRLH Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . . 112losses in negative-index metamaterials by optical parametric

  9. Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials....

  10. Surface solitons in left-handed metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. Adamashvili; A. Knorr

    2007-09-08

    A theory of self-induced transparency of surface TM-mode propagating along a interface separating conventional and left-handed metamaterials is developed. A transition layer sandwiched between connected media is described using a model of a two-dimensional gas of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for a surface optical soliton in the presence of single and biexciton transitions, depending on the magnetic permeability of the left-handed medium, are obtained with realistic parameters which can be reached in current experiments. It is shown that the sign of the total energy flow the surface mode depends on the material parameters of the quantum dots and the connected media.

  11. Superconducting metamaterials and qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. L. T. Plourde; Haozhi Wang; Francisco Rouxinol; M. D. LaHaye

    2015-05-05

    Superconducting thin-film metamaterial resonators can provide a dense microwave mode spectrum with potential applications in quantum information science. We report on the fabrication and low-temperature measurement of metamaterial transmission-line resonators patterned from Al thin films. We also describe multiple approaches for numerical simulations of the microwave properties of these structures, along with comparisons with the measured transmission spectra. The ability to predict the mode spectrum based on the chip layout provides a path towards future designs integrating metamaterial resonators with superconducting qubits.

  12. Special to SPECTRUM, February 4, 2000 Virginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech Conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    Special to SPECTRUM, February 4, 2000 Virginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech ConductorVirginia Tech Conductor In this issue: Good news, good news: AGUIDE FOR OUR accountability measures. The pilot effort may become a model for and/or adopted by the entire university. · New

  13. Casimir repulsion and metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. G. Pirozhenko; A. Lambrecht

    2008-02-01

    We analyze the conditions for getting the Casimir repulsion between two nonequal plates. The force between plates with magnetic permeability defined by Drude or Lorentz models is calculated. The short and long distance limits of the force are derived. The Casimir set-up with the hypothetical perfect matching metamaterial is discussed. We put into question the possibility of getting repulsion within the design of metamaterials based on metallic inclusions.

  14. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  15. Metamaterials Metamaterials are engineered (multiphase) materials that exhibit properties that are much

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Metamaterials Metamaterials are engineered (multiphase) materials that exhibit properties of acoustic devices operating over a broad range of frequencies and length scales. Nonlinear metamaterials functionality uniquely relies on nonlinear interactions among the metamaterial constituents. Application

  16. Gravitational Waves on Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lewis Licht

    2004-03-12

    We consider a gravitational wave of arbitrary frequency incident on a normal or a super-conductor. The gravitationally induced fields inside the conductor are derived. The outward propagating EM waves are calculated for a low frequency wave on a small sphere and for a high frequency wave incident on a large disk. We estimate for both targets the GW to EM conversion efficiencies and also the magnitude of the superconductor's phase perturbation.

  17. Colloquium: Nonlinear metamaterials Mikhail Lapine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colloquium: Nonlinear metamaterials Mikhail Lapine Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices) This Colloquium presents an overview of the research on nonlinear electromagnetic metamaterials. The developed phenomena available with nonlinear metamaterials. DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.86.1093 PACS numbers: 81.05.Xj, 78

  18. Active terahertz metamaterial devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Houtong (Los Alamos, NM); Padilla, Willie John (Newton, MA); Averitt, Richard Douglas (Newton, MA); O'Hara, John F. (Los Alamos, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-02

    Metamaterial structures are taught which provide for the modulation of terahertz frequency signals. Each element within an array of metamaterial (MM) elements comprises multiple loops and at least one gap. The MM elements may comprise resonators with conductive loops and insulated gaps, or the inverse in which insulated loops are present with conductive gaps; each providing useful transmissive control properties. The metamaterial elements are fabricated on a semiconducting substrate configured with a means of enhancing or depleting electrons from near the gaps of the MM elements. An on to off transmissivity ratio of about 0.5 is achieved with this approach. Embodiments are described in which the MM elements incorporated within a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) to provide surface emitting (SE) properties.

  19. Spatial dispersion of multilayer fishnet metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial dispersion of multilayer fishnet metamaterials Sergey S. Kruk, David A. Powell, Alexander the anisotropic properties of multilayer fishnet optical metamaterials and describe topological transitions fishnet metamaterials may have negative components not only in the effective permittivity tensor but also

  20. Seismic auxetic metamaterials as novel earthquake protections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ungureanu, Bogdan; Enoch, Stefan; Brûlé, Stéphane; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We propose that wave propagation through a class of elastodynamic metamaterials opens unprecedented avenues in seismic wave protection based on spectral properties of auxetic metamaterials. The elastic parameters of these metamaterials, like the Poisson ratio {\

  1. New Physics of Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Y. Wang

    2014-04-15

    Einstein utilized Lorentz invariance from Maxwell's equations to modify mechanical laws and establish the special theory of relativity. Similarly, we may have a different theory if there exists another covariance of Maxwell's equations. In this paper, we find such a new transformation where Maxwell's equations are still unchanged. Consequently, Veselago's metamaterial and other systems have negative phase velocities without double negative permittivity and permeability can be described by a unified theory. People are interested in the application of metamaterials and negative phase velocities but do not appreciate the magnitude and significance to the spacetime conception of modern physics and philosophy.

  2. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  3. Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

  4. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras,...

  5. Chimeras in SQUID Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Lazarides; G. Neofotistos; G. P. Tsironis

    2015-04-21

    Regular lattices comprising superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) form magnetic metamaterials exhibiting extraordinary properties, including tunability, dynamic multistability, and negative magnetic permeability. The SQUIDs in a metamaterial interact through nonlocal, magnetic dipole-dipole forces that makes it possible for counter-intuitive dynamic states referred to as chimera states to appear; the latter feature clusters of SQUIDs with synchronous dynamics which coexist with clusters exhibiting asynchronous behavior. The spontaneous appearance of chimera states is demonstrated numerically for one-dimensional SQUID metamaterials driven by an alternating magnetic field in which the fluxes threading the SQUID rings are randomly initialized; then, chimera states appear generically for sufficiently strong initial excitations, which exhibit relatively long lifetimes. The synchronization and metastability levels of the chimera states are discussed in terms of appropriate measures. Given that both one- and two-dimensional SQUID metamaterials have been already fabricated and investigated in the laboratory, the presence of a chimera state could in principle be detected with presently available experimental setups.

  6. Homogenizing metamaterials, three times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Didier Felbacq

    2012-11-08

    The homogenization of a metamaterial made of a collection of scatterers periodically disposed is studied from three different points of view. Specifically tools for multiple scattering theory, functional analysis, differential geometry and optimization are used. Detailed numerical results are given and the connections between the different approaches are enlightened.

  7. COVER IMAGE Mechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    COVER IMAGE Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures whose properties originate from a range of structural deformations. Letter p153; News & Views p95 IMAGE: JAYSON PAULOSE COVER DESIGN in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2 Ajit Srivastava, Meinrad Sidler, Adrien V. Allain, Dominik S

  8. Modeling of Time with Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Yu-Ju Hung

    2011-05-12

    Metamaterials have been already used to model various exotic "optical spaces". Here we demonstrate that mapping of monochromatic extraordinary light distribution in a hyperbolic metamaterial along some spatial direction may model the "flow of time". This idea is illustrated in experiments performed with plasmonic hyperbolic metamaterials. Appearance of the "statistical arrow of time" is examined in an experimental scenario which emulates a Big Bang-like event.

  9. Transformable topological mechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Zeb Rocklin; Shangnan Zhou; Kai Sun; Xiaoming Mao

    2015-10-21

    Mechanical metamaterials are engineered materials that gain their remarkable mechanical properties, such as negative Poisson's ratios, negative compressibility, phononic bandgaps, and topological phonon modes, from their structure rather than composition. Here we propose a new design principle, based on a uniform soft deformation of the whole structure, to allow metamaterials to be immediately and reversibly transformed between states with contrasting mechanical and acoustic properties. These properties are protected by the topological structure of the phonon band of the whole structure and are thus highly robust against disorder and noise. We discuss the general classification of all structures that exhibit such soft deformations, and provide specific examples to demonstrate how to utilize soft deformations to transform a system between different regimes such that remarkable changes in their properties, including edge stiffness and speed of sound, can be achieved.

  10. Doped graphene nanohole arrays for flexible transparent conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jianwei; Xu, Guowei; Rochford, Caitlin; Lu, Rongtao; Wu, Judy; Edwards, Christina M.; Berrie, Cindy L.; Chen, Zhijun; Maroni, Victor A.

    2011-07-15

    times greater than that of G peak and peaks are symmetric, indicating the presence of a single layer of graphene.16,17 In addition, the very low intensity D peak was observed on graphene sample, which suggests that defect population in our graphene... in the article. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to IP: 129.237.46.99 On: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 21:34:03 hexagonal lattice constant is ?590 nm in accordance with the NIL mold. The array pattern...

  11. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana; Czaplewski, David; Gao, Jie

    2015-09-18

    A high-resolution and angle-insensitive structural color generation platform is demonstrated based on triple-layer aluminum-silica-aluminum metamaterials supporting surface plasmon resonances tunable across the entire visible spectrum. The color performances of the fabricated aluminum metamaterials can be strongly enhanced by coating a thin transparent polymer layer on top. The results show that the presence of the polymer layer induces a better impedance matching for the plasmonic resonances to the free space so that strong light absorption can be obtained, leading to the generation of pure colors in cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) with high color saturation.

  12. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  13. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM) are of great interest due to their ability to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. Here we demonstrate that an annular, transparent HMM enables selective heating of a sub-wavelength plasmonic nanowire by controlling the angular mode number of a plasmonic resonance. A nanowire emitter, surrounded by an HMM, appears dark to incoming radiation from an adjacent nanowire emitter unless the second emitter is surrounded by an identical lens such that the wavelength and angular mode of the plasmonic resonance match. Our result can find applications in radiative thermal management.

  14. Modeling of causality with metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2012-12-14

    Hyperbolic metamaterials may be used to model a 2+1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime in which the role of time is played by one of the spatial coordinates. When a metamaterial is built and illuminated with a coherent extraordinary laser beam, the stationary pattern of light propagation inside the metamaterial may be treated as a collection of particle world lines, which represents a complete history of this 2+1 dimensional spacetime. While this model may be used to build interesting spacetime analogs, such as metamaterial black holes and big bang, it lacks causality: since light inside the metamaterial may propagate back and forth along the timelike spatial coordinate, events in the future may affect events in the past. Here we demonstrate that a more sophisticated metamaterial model may fix this deficiency via breaking the mirror and temporal (PT) symmetries of the original model and producing one-way propagation along the timelike spatial coordinate. Resulting 2+1 Minkowski spacetime appears to be causal. This scenario may be considered as a metamaterial model of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of causality.

  15. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  16. Metamaterials | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter ByMentor-ProtegeFrom theAvailableMetamaterials

  17. Theory of anomalous optical properties of bulk Rashba conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shibata, Junya; Kohno, Hiroshi; Tatara, Gen

    2015-01-01

    The Rashba interaction induced when inversion symmetry is broken in solids is a key interaction connecting spin and charge for realizing novel magnetoelectric cross-correlation effects. Here, we theoretically explore the optical properties of a bulk Rashba conductor by calculating the transport coefficients at finite frequencies. It is demonstrated that the combination of direct and inverse Edelstein effects leads to a softening of the plasma frequency for the electric field perpendicular to the Rashba field, resulting in a hyperbolic electromagnetic metamaterial. In the presence of magnetization, a significant enhancement of anisotropic propagation (directional dichroism) is predicted because of interband transition edge singularity.Based on an effective Hamiltonian analysis, the dichroism is demonstrated to be driven by toroidal and quadratic moments of the magnetic Rashba system. The effective theory of the cross-correlation effects has the same mathematical structure as that of insulating multiferroics.

  18. A quantum way for metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Didier Felbacq

    2011-03-09

    A new future for metamaterials is suggested, involving the insertion of quantum degrees of freedom, under the guise of quantum dots or cold atoms, in an photonic matrix. It is argued that new emergent, quantum, properties could be obtained.

  19. Hyperbolic metamaterials: fundamentals and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shekhar, Prashant; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials are nano-engineered media with designed properties beyond those available in nature with applications in all aspects of materials science. In particular, metamaterials have shown promise for next generation of optical materials with electromagnetic responses that cannot be obtained from conventional media. We review the fundamental properties of metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion and present the various applications where such media offer potential for transformative impact. These artificial materials support unique bulk electromagnetic states which can tailor light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. We present a unified view of current research in the field of hyperbolic metamaterials such as sub-wavelength imaging and broadband photonic density of states engineering. The review introduces the concepts central to the theory of hyperbolic media as well as nanofabrication and characterization details essential to experimentalists. Finally, we outline the challenges in the area and offer a...

  20. Wave scattering and splitting by magnetic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wave scattering and splitting by magnetic metamaterials Alexander B. Kozyrev1, Chao Qin1, Ilya V experimentally propagation of electromagnetic waves through a slab of uniaxial magnetic metamaterial. We observe.2110) Electromagnetic Theory; (999.9999) Metamaterials. References and links 1. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier

  1. Microwave and Terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xin

    Microwave and Terahertz wave sensing with metamaterials Hu Tao,1 Emil A. Kadlec,2 Andrew C designed, fabricated, and characterized metamaterial enhanced bimaterial cantilever pixels for far codes: (160.3918) Metamaterials; (040.2235) Detectors, Far infrared or terahertz; (050.6875) Three

  2. Enhanced spontaneous emission inside hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Enhanced spontaneous emission inside hyperbolic metamaterials Lorenzo Ferrari,1 Dylan Lu,2 Dominic@ucsd.edu Abstract: Hyperbolic metamaterials can enhance spontaneous emission, but the radiation-matter coupling within a Si/Ag periodic multilayer metamaterial. To extract the plasmonic modes of the structure

  3. Stability of discrete breathers in magnetic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    Stability of discrete breathers in magnetic metamaterials Dmitry Pelinovsky1 and Vassilis Rothos2 1 describing magnetic metamaterials which consist of periodic arrays of split- ring resonators [4, 7]: ¨qn + V criterion to the multi-site breathers in magnetic metamaterials. 2 Formalism In what follows, we shall use

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nonlinear dielectric optomechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nonlinear dielectric optomechanical metamaterials Jianfa Zhang1 , Kevin F MacDonald1 and Nikolay I Zheludev1,2 We introduce a dielectric photonic metamaterial presenting a giant Keywords: Metamaterial; optical bistability; optomechanical INTRODUCTION Optical forces are extremely

  5. Nonlinear transmission and spatiotemporal solitons in metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear transmission and spatiotemporal solitons in metamaterials with negative refraction Nina A metamaterials with the left-handed properties in other frequency range. © 2005 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (190.1450) Bistability; (190.5530) Pulse propagation and solitons; (999.9999) Metamaterials

  6. Topical Review Progress in superconducting metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Topical Review Progress in superconducting metamaterials Philipp Jung1,2 , Alexey V Ustinov1 in the development and applications of superconducting metamaterials. The review is organized in terms of several distinct advantages and unique properties brought to the metamaterials field by superconductivity

  7. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D. McGehee*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. Thin film solar cell modules can be manufactured either

  8. Virtual Black Holes in Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2011-01-24

    Optical space in electromagnetic metamaterials may be engineered to emulate various exotic space-time geometries. However, these metamaterial models are limited in many respects. It is believed that real physical space-time strongly fluctuates on the Planck scale. These fluctuations are usually described as virtual black holes. Static metamaterial models introduced so far do not exhibit similar behavior. Here we demonstrate that thermal fluctuations of optical space in hyperbolic metamaterials lead to creation of virtual electromagnetic black holes. This effect is very large if the dielectric component of the metamaterial exhibits critical opalescence.

  9. Module Title: Metamaterials, Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Module Code: OPTO6004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molinari, Marc

    1 Module Title: Metamaterials, Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Module Code: OPTO6004 Core introduction to the three cornerstones of future photonic technologies, namely metamaterials, plasmonics. Comprehend the concept of metamaterials and underlying principles of their operation A3. Learn about

  10. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Benabou, Elie (Alameda, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  11. Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and...

  12. Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials We...

  13. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials Authors:...

  14. Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using a chiral metamaterial composed of an array of conjugated bilayer metal structures. The chiral metamaterials were further integrated with photoactive inclusions to...

  15. Solos (Dice Game) and Conductor (Neural Network)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquetti, Andre

    2015-01-01

    method to compose music and the Conductors’ neural network for processing the music is based on pattern- extraction,

  16. Quantum informatics with plasmonic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali A. Kamli; Sergey A. Moiseev; Barry C. Sanders

    2010-08-07

    Surface polaritons at a meta-material interface are proposed as qubits. The SP fields are shown to have low losses, subwavelength confinement and can demonstrate very small modal volume. These important properties are used to demonstatre interesting applications in quantum information, i.e., coherent control of weak fields and large Kerr nonlinearity at the low photon level.

  17. Metric Signature Transitions in Optical Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2010-07-07

    We demonstrate that the extraordinary waves in indefinite metamaterials experience (- - + +) effective metric signature. During a metric signature change transition in such a metamaterial, a Minkowski space-time is "created" together with large number of particles populating this space-time. Such metamaterial models provide a table top realization of metric signature change events suggested to occur in Bose-Einstein condensates and quantum gravity theories.

  18. Leaky and bound modes in terahertz metasurfaces made of transmission-line metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hon, PWC; Liu, Z; Itoh, T; Williams, BS

    2013-01-01

    T. Itoh, Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Linemade of transmission-line metamaterials Philip W. C. Hon, 1theory of CRLH TL metamaterials is described in considerable

  19. Near-infrared surface plasmon polariton dispersion control with hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    density of states using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. B 100(for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of

  20. Mode Analysis of Phase-Constant Nonreciprocity in Ferrite-Embedded CRLH Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porokhnyuk, A; Ueda, T; Kado, Y; Itoh, T

    2013-01-01

    of the nonreciprocal metamaterials com- posed of theT. Itoh, Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission LineNegative refraction metamaterials, John Wiley & Sons,

  1. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  2. Transformation optics for cavity array metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Q. Quach; Chun-Hsu Su; Andrew D. Greentree

    2013-04-04

    Cavity array metamaterials (CAMs), composed of optical microcavities in a lattice coupled via tight-binding interactions, represent a novel architecture for engineering metamaterials. Since the size of the CAMs' constituent elements are commensurate with the operating wavelength of the device, it cannot directly utilise classical transformation optics in the same way as traditional metamaterials. By directly transforming the internal geometry of the system, and locally tuning the permittivity between cavities, we provide an alternative framework suitable for tight-binding implementations of metamaterials. We develop a CAM-based cloak as the case study.

  3. Experimental Modeling of Cosmological Inflation with Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Yu-Ju Hung; Ehren Hwang

    2012-07-23

    Recently we demonstrated that mapping of monochromatic extraordinary light distribution in a hyperbolic metamaterial along some spatial direction may model the flow of time and create an experimental toy model of the big bang. Here we extend this model to emulate cosmological inflation. This idea is illustrated in experiments performed with two-dimensional plasmonic hyperbolic metamaterials. Spatial dispersion which is always present in hyperbolic metamaterials results in scale-dependent (fractal) structure of the inflationary "metamaterial spacetime". This feature of our model replicates hypothesized fractal structure of the real observable universe.

  4. Electron beam coupling to a metamaterial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117 (United States)] [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Cartwright, Keith [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Microwave metamaterials have shown promise in numerous applications, ranging from strip lines and antennas to metamaterial-based electron beam driven devices. In general, metamaterials allow microwave designers to obtain electromagnetic characteristics not typically available in nature. High Power Microwave (HPM) sources have in the past drawn inspiration from work done in the conventional microwave source community. In this article, the use of metamaterials in an HPM application is considered by using an effective medium model to determine the coupling of an electron beam to a metamaterial structure in a geometry similar to that of a dielectric Cerenkov maser. Use of the effective medium model allows for the analysis of a wide range of parameter space, including the “mu-negative,”“epsilon-negative,” and “double negative” regimes of the metamaterial. The physics of such a system are modeled analytically and by utilizing the particle-in-cell code ICEPIC. For this geometry and effective medium representation, optimum coupling of the electron beam to the metamaterial, and thus the optimum microwave or RF production, occurs in the epsilon negative regime of the metamaterial. Given that HPM tubes have been proposed that utilize a metamaterial, this model provides a rapid method of characterizing a source geometry that can be used to quickly understand the basic physics of such an HPM device.

  5. Realization and modeling of rf superconducting quantum interference device metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Trepanier; Daimeng Zhang; Oleg Mukhanov; Steven M. Anlage

    2013-10-28

    We have prepared meta-atoms based on radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices (RF SQUIDs) and examined their tunability with dc magnetic field, rf current, and temperature. RF SQUIDs are superconducting split ring resonators in which the usual capacitance is supplemented with a Josephson junction, which introduces strong nonlinearity in the rf properties. We find excellent agreement between the data and a model which regards the Josephson junction as the resistively and capacitively-shunted junction. A magnetic field tunability of 80 THz/Gauss at 12 GHz is observed, a total tunability of 56$%$ is achieved, and a unique electromagnetically-induced transparency feature at intermediate excitation powers is demonstrated for the first time. An RF SQUID metamaterial is shown to have qualitatively the same behavior as a single RF SQUID with regards to DC flux and temperature tuning.

  6. Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kenanakis, George; Xomalis, Aggelos; Selimis, Alexandros; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2015-01-14

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) metallic metamaterial structure with asymmetric transmission for linear polarization is demonstrated in the infrared spectral region. The structure was fabricated by direct laser writing and selective electroless silver coating, a straightforward, novel technique producing mechanically and chemically stable 3D photonic structures. The structure unit cell is composed of a pair of conductively coupled magnetic resonators, and the asymmetric transmission response results from interplay of electric and magnetic responses; this equips the structure with almost total opaqueness along one propagation direction versus satisfying transparency along the opposite one. It also offers easily adjustable impedance, 90° one-way puremore »optical activity and backward propagation possibility, resulting thus in unique capabilities in polarization control and isolation applications. We show also that scaling down the structure can make it capable of exhibiting its asymmetric transmission and its polarization capabilities in the optical region.« less

  7. Metamaterials Controlled with Light Ilya V. Shadrivov,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metamaterials Controlled with Light Ilya V. Shadrivov,1 Polina V. Kapitanova,2 Stanislav I suggest and verify experimentally the concept of functional metamaterials whose properties are remotely controlled by illuminating the metamaterial with a pattern of visible light. In such metamaterials arbitrary

  8. Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate Rongkuo Zhao metamaterials were designed and fabricated at difference frequency ranges from microwaves to optical waves metamaterials is urgently needed. Here, we analyze the wave propagation in chiral metamaterials and follow

  9. Temperature control of Fano resonances and transmission in superconducting metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Temperature control of Fano resonances and transmission in superconducting metamaterials V *vaf@orc.soton.ac.uk Abstract: Losses are the main evil that limits the use of metamaterials to the metamaterial structures. An exception is superconducting metamaterials, where Joule losses can be uniquely

  10. Flexible and Transparent Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, SUNG MIN

    2012-01-01

    Transparent and Flexible Electronics," Nat. Nanotechnol. ,Wong and A. Salleo. , "Flexible Electronics: Materials andcompletely see- through flexible electronics and change the

  11. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  12. Modulating light with light via giant nano-opto-mechanical nonlinearity of plasmonic metamaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ou, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Jianfa; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    From the demonstration of saturable absorption by Vavilow and Levshin in 1926, and with invention of the laser, unavailability of strongly nonlinear materials was a key obstacle for developing optical signal processing, in particular in transparent telecommunication networks. Today, most advanced photonic switching materials exploit gain dynamics and near-band and excitonic effects in semiconductors, nonlinearities in organic media with weakly-localized electrons and nonlinearities enhanced by hybridization with metamaterials. Here we report on a new type of artificial nonlinearity that is nano-opto-mechanical in nature. It was observed in an artificial metamaterial array of plasmonic meta-molecules supported by a flexible nano-membrane. Here nonlinearity is underpinned by the reversible reconfiguration of its structure induced by light. In a film of only 100 nanometres thickness we demonstrated modulation of light with light using milliwatt power telecom diode lasers.

  13. Topological mechanics of gyroscopic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisa M. Nash; Dustin Kleckner; Alismari Read; Vincenzo Vitelli; Ari M. Turner; William T. M. Irvine

    2015-04-17

    Topological mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures whose unusual properties are protected very much like their electronic and optical counterparts. Here, we present an experimental and theoretical study of an active metamaterial -- comprised of coupled gyroscopes on a lattice -- that breaks time-reversal symmetry. The vibrational spectrum of these novel structures displays a sonic gap populated by topologically protected edge modes which propagate in only one direction and are unaffected by disorder. We present a mathematical model that explains how the edge mode chirality can be switched via controlled distortions of the underlying lattice. This effect allows the direction of the edge current to be determined on demand. We envision applications of these edges modes to the design of loss-free, one-way, acoustic waveguides and demonstrate this functionality in experiment.

  14. Fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-06-21

    We give a detailed account of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials. We show the unifying aspects of two different approaches; one utilizes the second kind of fluctuation dissipation theorem and the other makes use of the scattering method. We analyze the near-field of hyperbolic media at finite temperatures and show that the lack of spatial coherence can be attributed to the multi-modal nature of super-Planckian thermal emission. We also adopt the analysis to phonon-polaritonic super-lattice metamaterials and describe the regimes suitable for experimental verification of our predicted effects. The results reveal that far-field thermal emission spectra are dominated by epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole responses as expected from Kirchoff's laws. Our work should aid both theorists and experimentalists to study complex media and engineer equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuations for applications in thermal photonics.

  15. Metamaterials, transformation optics, and cloaks of invisibility Metamaterials: we control electromagnetic radiation in general and light in particular by exploiting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lecture 1 Metamaterials, transformation optics, and cloaks of invisibility JB Pendry Metamaterials by their constituent molecules. In contrast metamaterials owe their properties to much larger units, though still less given. Far left: in conventional materials ,µ derive from the constituent atoms. Right: in metamaterials

  16. Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feng

    Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials Long Ju1 , Baisong Geng1,6 , Jason Horng1 metamaterials1­3 . Plasmons of two-dimensional massless electrons, as present in graphene, show unusual graphene micro- ribbonarrays.Wedemonstratethatgrapheneplasmonresonances can be tuned over a broad terahertz

  17. Analogue gravity in hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2013-09-09

    Sub-wavelength confinement of light in nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials due to formation of spatial solitons has attracted much recent attention because of its seemingly counter-intuitive behavior. In order to achieve self-focusing in a hyperbolic wire medium, a nonlinear self-defocusing Kerr medium must be used as a dielectric host. Here we demonstrate that this behavior finds natural explanation in terms of analogue gravity. Wave equation describing propagation of extraordinary light inside hyperbolic metamaterials exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the metamaterial. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational force between extraordinary photons. In order for the effective gravitational constant to be positive, negative self-defocusing Kerr medium must be used as a host. If gravitational self-interaction is strong enough, spatial soliton may collapse into a black hole analogue.

  18. Three-component gyrotropic metamaterial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tralle, Igor, E-mail: tralle@ur.edu.pl; Zi?ba, Pawe?; Pa?ko, Wioletta [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Theoretical Physics Department, University of Rzeszów, Pigonia 1, 35-310 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-06-21

    All of the proposed ever since designs of metamaterials are characterized by ever-increasing sophistication of fabrication methods. Here, a comparatively simple recipe for the fabrication of a metamaterial, which is both gyrotropic and of the simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability, is proposed. The idea is to make a mixture of three ingredients, where one of them would be responsible for the negativity of ?, while the other two would be responsible for the negativity of ?. The first component of the mixture is the “swarm” of single-domain ferromagnetic nano-particles, immersed in a mixture of other two, silver and mercury cadmium telluride. By carrying out the computer simulations, the domains of gyromagnetic metamaterial exist, relative to all parameters characterizing the model, that is, the temperature, external magnetic field, parameters of nano-particles, and the fraction of cadmium in Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te-compound as well as relative concentrations of the mixture components are established.

  19. Optically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  20. Grain boundaries in coated conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigand, Marcus

    2010-07-06

    ,757 • Bibliography: 5,087 ix Publications and Conference Presentations This thesis led to the following publications: • M. Weigand, S. C. Speller, G. M. Hughes, N. A. Rutter, S. Lozano-Perez, C. R. M. Grovenor and J. H. Durrell: “Individual grain boundary properties... and overall performance of metal-organic deposition coated conductors ”, Phys. Rev. B 81, 174537 (2010) • R. Hühne, J. Eickemeyer, V. S. Sarma, A. Güth, T. Thersleff, J. Freudenberger, O. de Haas, M. Weigand, J. H. Durrell, L. Schultz and B. Holzapfel: “Ap...

  1. Flexible and Transparent Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, SUNG MIN

    2012-01-01

    for subsequent atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of the oxidedeposited through atomic layer deposition and transparent15-nm-thick Al 2 O 3 by atomic-layer-deposition, oxygen ion-

  2. Casimir-Lifshitz Theory and Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. S. S. Rosa; D. A. R. Dalvit; P. W. Milonni

    2008-03-19

    Based on a generalization of the Lifshiftz theory we calculate Casimir forces involving magnetodielectric and possibly anisotropic metamaterials, focusing on the possibility of repulsive forces. It is found that Casimir repulsion decreases with magnetic dissipation, and even a small Drude background in metallic-based metamaterials acts to make attractive a Casimir force that would otherwise be predicted to be repulsive. The sign of the force also depends sensitively on the degree of optical anisotropy of the metamaterial, and on the form of the frequency-dependency of the magnetic response.

  3. Conjugate metamaterials and the perfect lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we show how transformation optics makes it possible to design what we call conjugate metamaterials. We show that these materials can also serve as substrates for making a subwavelength-resolution lens. The so-called "perfect lens", which is a lens that could focus all components of light (including propagating and evanescent waves), can be regarded as a limiting case, in which the respective conjugate metamaterials approach the characteristics of left-handed metamaterials, which have a negative refractive index.

  4. Hyperbolic plasmons on uniaxial metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takayama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyze surface electromagnetic waves with hyperbolic dispersion supported at the interface between a semi-infinite isotropic medium and an effective uniaxial material. Apart from known types plasmons with hyperbolic dispersion curve, sometimes referred to as Dyakonov plasmons [Z. Jacob and E. E. Narimanov, APL 93, 221109 (2008)], we classify two new types of surface waves with hyperbolic dispersion. One type of such waves, in contrary to Dyakonov plasmons, does not require hyperbolic metamaterials to be involved. These hybrid-polarized plasmon modes with both TE and TM electromagnetic components are directional. Their propagation direction can be controlled by changing material parameters.

  5. Wave guides: vacuum w/ tube of conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Wave guides: vacuum w/ tube of conductor boundary conditions for conductor Properties: non-transverse waves except TEM mode in coaxial cable speed normal modes (from Liouville problem) TE or TM TEM for coaxial cable cuto frequency otherwise evanescent waves separation into and components with 1 #12;B

  6. Pd conductor for thick film hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felten, J.J. [DuPont Electronics, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cooperation between a materials developer and sensor designers has resulted in a palladium conductor used ro design and build a new hydrogen sensor that has superior performance characteristics and is also inexpensive to manufacture. Material characteristics give it faster response time and greater thermal/mechanical stability. The thick film palladium conductor paste, which can be fired at 850{degrees}C-950{degrees}C, has provided device designers a practical conductor paste with which to produce the improved sensor. The conductor uses a high surface area Pd powder combined with a binder glass that is chemically very inert, which combination produces a porous conductor that has good adhesion and chemical resistance. The current sensor design consists of three or four thick film Layers. Because of the flexibility of thick film techniques, the sensor element can be configured to any desired size and shape for specific instrument needs.

  7. Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials M. Decker, M. W. Klein, and M. Wegener 78002); published March 5, 2007 We propose, fabricate, and study a double-layer chiral planar

  8. Nonlinear terahertz devices utilizing semiconducting plasmonic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seren, Huseyin R; Keiser, George R; Maddox, Scott J; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Bank, Seth R; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The development of responsive metamaterials has enabled the realization of compact tunable photonic devices capable of manipulating the amplitude, polarization, wave vector, and frequency of light. Integration of semiconductors into the active regions of metallic resonators is a proven approach for creating nonlinear metamaterials through optoelectronic control of the semiconductor carrier density. Metal-free subwavelength resonant semiconductor structures offer an alternative approach to create dynamic metamaterials. We present InAs plasmonic disk arrays as a viable resonant metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. Importantly, InAs plasmonic disks exhibit a strong nonlinear response arising from electric field induced intervalley scattering resulting in a reduced carrier mobility thereby damping the plasmonic response. We demonstrate nonlinear perfect absorbers configured as either optical limiters or saturable absorbers, including flexible nonlinear absorbers achieved by transferring the disks to polyimide f...

  9. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  10. Tailoring photonic metamaterial resonances for thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter A.

    Selective solar absorbers generally have limited effectiveness in unconcentrated sunlight, because of reradiation losses over a broad range of wavelengths and angles. However, metamaterials offer the potential to limit ...

  11. Nano-optomechanical Nonlinear Dielectric Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karvounis, Artemios; MacDonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    By harnessing the resonant nature of localized electromagnetic modes in a nanostructured silicon membrane, an all-dielectric metamaterial can act as nonlinear medium at optical telecommunications wavelengths. We show that such metamaterials provide extremely large optomechanical nonlinearities, operating at intensities of only a few {\\mu}W per unit cell and modulation frequencies as high as 152 MHz, thereby offering a path to fast, lossless, compact and energy efficient all-optical metadevices.

  12. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. Leonhardt; T. G. Philbin

    2007-07-19

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors.

  13. Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyonsource History View NewTransparent Cost

  14. Levitated crystals and quasicrystals of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goree, John A [Dept Phys and Astron., University of Iowa

    2012-07-25

    New scientific and technological opportunities exist by marrying dusty plasma research with metamaterials. Specifically, by balancing control and self-assembly, certain laboratory plasmas can become a generic levitation platform for novel structure formation and nanomaterial synthesis. We propose to experimentally investigate two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) levitated structures of metamaterials and their properties. Such structures can self assemble in laboratory plasmas, similar to levitated dust crystals which were discovered in the mid 1990's. Laboratory plasma platform for metamaterial formation eliminates substrates upon which most metamaterials have to be supported. Three types of experiments, with similar setups, are discussed here. Levitated crystal structures of metamaterials using anisotropic microparticles are the most basic of the three. The second experiment examines whether quasicrystals of metamaterials are possible. Quasicrystals, discovered in the 1980's, possess so-called forbidden symmetries according to the conventional crystallography. The proposed experiment could answer many fundamental questions about structural, thermal and dynamical properties of quasicrystals. And finally, how to use nanoparticle coated microparticles to synthesize very long carbon nanotubes is also described. All of the experiments can fit inside a standard International Space Station locker with dimensions of 8-inch x 17-inch X 18-inch. Microgravity environment is deemed essential in particular for large 3D structures and very long carbon nanotube synthesis.

  15. Active negative-index metamaterial powered by an electron beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Michael

    An active negative index metamaterial that derives its gain from an electron beam is introduced. The metamaterial consists of a stack of equidistant parallel metal plates perforated by a periodic array of holes shaped as ...

  16. POOL BOILING OF HIGH-FREQUENCY CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S. E. (Spencer E.); Konecni, S. (Snezana); Ammerman, C. N. (Curtt N.); Sims, J. R. (James R.)

    2001-01-01

    This study presents development of a unique, powerful method for cooling high-frequency, AC conductors that can benefit end users of transformer windings, electrical machine windings, and magnet coils. This method of heat removal involves boiling a dielectric, fluorinert refrigerant that is in direct contact with litz wire conductors. A pool boiling test vessel is constructed, which provides for temperature control of the pool of fluorinert liquid. The test vessel is fitted with viewing ports so that the experiments are observed and studied with the aid of high-speed photography. Tests are performed on a variety of litz wire conductors. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is dependent on the conductor surface roughness. The size of the features on the conductor surface depends on the single-strand wire gage from which the conductor is constructed. All tests are performed with the conductors mounted horizontally. These tests are performed using a DC power supply. The results of these experiments will aid in the design of future cooling systems.

  17. Giant optical forces in planar dielectric photonic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Giant optical forces in planar dielectric photonic metamaterials Jianfa Zhang,1,2 Kevin F. Mac Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK 2 College of Optoelectronic within all-dielectric planar photonic metamaterials at near- infrared illumination wavelengths can

  18. Wide-band negative permeability of nonlinear metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wide-band negative permeability of nonlinear metamaterials Mikhail Lapine1 , Ilya Shadrivov2 & Yuri frequency range where metamaterial possesses negative effective permeability. This can be achieved by employing a nonlinear response of metamaterials. We demonstrate that, with an appropriate design

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 024303 (2013) Tunable active acoustic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 024303 (2013) Tunable active acoustic metamaterials Bogdan-Ioan Popa,* Lucian July 2013) We describe and demonstrate an architecture for active acoustic metamaterials whose types of unit cells that generate metamaterials in which either the effective density or bulk modulus

  20. Hyperbolic metamaterials based on quantum-dot plasmon-resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Hyperbolic metamaterials based on quantum-dot plasmon-resonator nanocomposites S. V. Zhukovsky,1, T function as multilayer hyperbolic metamateri- als. Depending on the thickness of the spacer between (2011)] and confirms that hyperbolic metamaterials are capable of increasing the radiative decay rate

  1. DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY METHODS FOR TERAHERTZ METAMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    DIELECTRIC RESONATOR FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY METHODS FOR TERAHERTZ METAMATERIALS BY JAMES MARK AND ASSEMBLY METHODS FOR TERAHERTZ METAMATERIALS BY JAMES MARK LELAND CRAMER ABSTRACT OF A DISSERTATION was the design and manufacture of a negative index of refraction metamaterial having an isotropic negative

  2. Contributors xix DOUBLE-NEGATIVE (DNG) METAMATERIALS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTENTS Preface xv Contributors xix PART I DOUBLE-NEGATIVE (DNG) METAMATERIALS 1 SECTION I THREE-DIMENSIONAL VOLUMETRIC DNG METAMATERIALS 3 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION, HISTORY, AND SELECTED TOPICS IN FUNDAMENTAL THEORIES OF METAMATERIALS 5 Richard W. Ziolkowski and Nader Engheta 1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 Wave Parameters in DNG Media 9 1

  3. Second-harmonic generation in nonlinear left-handed metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Second-harmonic generation in nonlinear left-handed metamaterials Ilya V. Shadrivov, Alexander A August 21, 2005 We study the second-harmonic generation (SHG) in left-handed metamaterials that this novel parametric process can convert a surface of the left-handed metamaterial into an effective mirror

  4. Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials Ranjan Singh,1,2,* Eric dichroism in intrinsically non- chiral planar terahertz metamaterials without twofold rotational symmetry. The observed effect is due to extrinsic chirality arising from the mutual orientation of the metamaterial plane

  5. Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition online: 11 May 2008; doi:10.1038/nmat2197 Metamaterials are artificial materials that--unlike natural metamaterials4,5 has been fabricated by electron-beam lithography and evaporation of metal films, both of which

  6. Discrete dissipative localized modes in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Discrete dissipative localized modes in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials Nikolay N. Rosanov,1 effects in. References and links 1. N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, eds. Electromagnetic Metamaterials. Gorkunov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Metamaterial tuning by manip- ulation of near

  7. Flexible metamaterials for wireless strain sensing Rohat Melik,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Flexible metamaterials for wireless strain sensing Rohat Melik,1 Emre Unal,1 Nihan Kosku Perkgoz,1; published online 4 November 2009 We proposed and demonstrated flexible metamaterial-based wireless strain. For these metamaterial sensors, we showed that a flexible substrate e.g., Kapton tape delivers greater sensitivity

  8. Nonlinear magnetoinductive waves and domain walls in composite metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear magnetoinductive waves and domain walls in composite metamaterials Ilya V. Shadrivov a-handed composite metamaterials. We derive the coupled equations for describing the propagation of magnetoinductive waves, and show that in the nonlinear regime the magnetic response of a metamaterial may become bistable

  9. Double-nonlinear metamaterials Rongcao Yang1,2,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Double-nonlinear metamaterials Rongcao Yang1,2,a and Ilya V. Shadrivov1 1 Nonlinear Physics Centre 10 December 2010 We study a double-nonlinear metamaterial composed of a mixture of both nonlinear electric and nonlinear magnetic resonators. We predict multistable behavior in such metamaterial

  10. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.; Croessmann, C.D.; Horton, R.D.; Matter, J.C.; Czajkowski, A.F.; Sheely, K.B.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the US without compromising the national security of the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct-use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries.

  11. Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tench, D. Morgan (Camarillo, CA); Cunningham, Michael A. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Kobrin, Paul H. (Newbury Park, CA)

    2008-01-08

    Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

  12. Neural representation of transparent overlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    the corners of the light and dark squares are rounded off (Fig. 1c), transparency is no longer perceivedNeural representation of transparent overlay Fangtu T Qiu & Ru¨diger von der Heydt Perceptual transparency is a surprising phenomenon in which a number of regions of different shades organize

  13. Conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-10

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed perpendicular to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  14. Anisotropic metamaterials with simultaneous attenuation and amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackay, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic metamaterials that are neither wholly dissipative nor wholly active at a specific frequency are permitted by classical electromagnetic theory. Well-established formalisms for the homogenization of particulate composite materials indicate that such a metamaterial may be conceptualized quite simply as a random mixture of electrically small spheroidal particles of at least two different isotropic dielectric materials, one of which must be dissipative but the other active. The realization of this metametarial is influenced by the volume fraction, spatial distribution, particle shape and size, and the relative permittivities of the component materials. Metamaterials displaying both dissipation and amplification at the same frequency with more complicated linear as well as nonlinear constitutive properties are possible.

  15. A multi-stable switchable metamaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Philipp; Marthaler, Michael; Fistul, Mikhail V; Leppäkangas, Juha; Koshelets, Valery P; Ustinov, Alexey V

    2013-01-01

    The field of metamaterial research revolves around the idea of creating artificial media that interact with light in a way unknown from naturally occurring materials. This is commonly achieved by creating sub-wavelength lattices of electronic or plasmonic structures, so-called meta-atoms, that determine the interaction between light and metamaterial. One of the ultimate goals for these tailored media is the ability to control their properties in-situ which has led to a whole new branch of tunable and switchable metamaterials. Many of the present realizations rely on introducing microelectromechanical actuators or semiconductor elements into their meta-atom structures. Here we show that superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be used as fast, intrinsically switchable meta-atoms. We found that their intrinsic nonlinearity leads to simultaneously stable dynamic states, each of which is associated with a different value and sign of the magnetic susceptibility in the microwave domain. Moreover, w...

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 024408 (2013) Broadband diamagnetism in anisotropic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 024408 (2013) Broadband diamagnetism in anisotropic metamaterials Mikhail permeability much smaller than unity by employing an appropriate arrangement of metamaterial elements ("meta in metamaterials by employing nonresonant elements with deeply subwavelength dimensions. We analyze the effect

  17. Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justin Elser; Robyn Wangberg; Viktor A. Podolskiy; Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2006-12-05

    We study perspectives of nanowire metamaterials for negative-refraction waveguides, high-performance polarizers, and polarization-sensitive biosensors. We demonstrate that the behavior of these composites is strongly influenced by the concentration, distribution, and geometry of the nanowires, derive an analytical description of electromagnetism in anisotropic nanowire-based metamaterials, and explore the limitations of our approach via three-dimensional numerical simulations. Finally, we illustrate the developed approach on the examples of nanowire-based high energy-density waveguides and non-magnetic negative index imaging systems with far-field resolution of one-sixth of vacuum wavelength.

  18. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  19. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  20. Stators with improved conductor assembly and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dang, Dang Dinh; Blissenbach, Rolf; Schauer, David; Wattleworth, John; Milani, Michael; Hatch, Erik

    2013-07-30

    A stator includes a stator core, a plurality of slots, and a conductor. The plurality of slots are formed within the stator core. The conductor is disposed continuously within at least two of the plurality of openings.

  1. Metamaterials: $\\textit{supra}$-classical dynamic homogenization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihai Caleap; Bruce W Drinkwater

    2015-11-19

    Metamaterials are artificial composite structures designed for controlling waves or fields, and exhibit interaction phenomena that are unexpected on the basis of their chemical constituents. These phenomena are encoded in effective material parameters that can be electronic, magnetic, acoustic, or elastic, and must adequately represent the wave interaction behaviour in the composite within desired frequency ranges. In some cases -- for example, the low frequency regime -- there exist various efficient ways by which effective material parameters for wave propagation in metamaterials may be found. However, the general problem of predicting frequency-dependent dynamic effective constants has remained unsolved. Here, we obtain novel mathematical expressions for the effective parameters of two-dimensional metamaterial systems valid at higher frequencies and wavelengths than previously possible. By way of an example, random configurations of cylindrical scatterers are considered, in various physical contexts: sound waves in a compressible fluid, anti-plane elastic waves, and electromagnetic waves. Our results point towards a paradigm shift in our understanding of these effective properties, and metamaterial designs with functionalities beyond the low-frequency regime are now open for innovation.

  2. An electromagnetic black hole made of metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Cheng; Tie Jun Cui; Wei Xiang Jiang; Ben Geng Cai

    2010-04-30

    Traditionally, a black hole is a region of space with huge gravitational field, which absorbs everything hitting it. In history, the black hole was first discussed by Laplace under the Newton mechanics, whose event horizon radius is the same as the Schwarzschild's solution of the Einstein's vacuum field equations. If all those objects having such an event horizon radius but different gravitational fields are called as black holes, then one can simulate certain properties of the black holes using electromagnetic fields and metamaterials due to the similar propagation behaviours of electromagnetic waves in curved space and in inhomogeneous metamaterials. In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev, an optical black hole has been proposed based on metamaterials, in which the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all electromagnetic waves hitting it are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of such an electromagnetic black hole in the microwave frequencies. The proposed black hole is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields and the event horizon corresponding to the device boundary. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99% in the microwave frequencies. We expect that the electromagnetic black hole could be used as the thermal emitting source and to harvest the solar light.

  3. Casimir Interactions for Anisotropic Magnetodielectric Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. S. S. Rosa; D. A. R. Dalvit; P. W. Milonni

    2008-07-22

    We extend our previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 100}, 183602 (2008)] on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces. We present results for metamaterials including structures with uniaxial and biaxial magnetodielectric anisotropies, as well as for structures with isolated metallic or dielectric properties that we describe in terms of filling factors and a Maxwell Garnett approximation. The elimination or reduction of Casimir "stiction" by appropriate engineering of metallic-based metamaterials, or the indirect detection of magnetic contributions, appear from the examples considered to be very challenging, as small background Drude contributions to the permittivity act to enhance attraction over repulsion, as does magnetic dissipation. In dielectric-based metamaterials the magnetic properties of polaritonic crystals, for instance, appear to be too weak for repulsion to overcome attraction. We also discuss Casimir-Polder experiments, that might provide another possibility for the detection of magnetic effects.

  4. Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S; Dalvit, Diego A; Milonni, Peter W

    2008-01-01

    We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.

  5. Birck Nanotechnology Center Transforming Light with Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiebig, Peter

    Birck Nanotechnology Center Transforming Light with Metamaterials (with A.V. Kildishev, W. Cai, V.P. Drachev, S. Xiao, U. Chettiar) OUTLINE Birck Nanotechnology Center Vladimir M. Shalaev Purdue University;Birck Nanotechnology Center Meta-Magnetics: from 10GHz to 200THz Terahertz magnetism a) Yen, et al. ~ 1

  6. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-12-15

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  7. Virginia Tech Conductor AGUIDEFOROURJOURNEY TOWARDEXCELLENCE,EQUITYANDEFFECTIVENESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    transition New friend leads to new opinions The Virginia Tech on-campus transition program (VT/ OCTPVirginia Tech Conductor AGUIDEFOROURJOURNEY TOWARDEXCELLENCE,EQUITYANDEFFECTIVENESS by Austin Morton May 5, 2006 See New opinions on page 3 Poetry at the Grove honors victims At three o

  8. Dynamic frequency tuning of electric and magnetic metamaterial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    can achieve active optical andor electronic control of the frequency response in metamaterials andor frequency selective surfaces, potentially with sub-picosecond response...

  9. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz Radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response of High-Tc Superconductor...

  10. Stretchable and Transparent Hydrogels as Soft Conductors for Dielectric Elastomer Actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    interfaces,2,5 adaptive optics,6­8 generators,9,10 morphing wings,11 airships,12 and vibration isolators.13

  11. p-Type Zinc Oxide Spinels: Application to Transparent Conductors and Spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoica, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We report on the electronic and optical properties of two theoretically predicted stable spinel compounds of the form ZnB2O4, where B = Ni or Cu; neither compound has been previously synthesized, so we compare them to the previously studied p-type ZnCo2O4 spinel. These new materials exhibit spin polarization that is ideal for spintronics applications, and broad conductivity maxima near the valence band edge that facilitate p-type dopability. We show that 3d electrons on the octahedrally coordinated Zn atom fall deep within the valence band and do not contribute significantly to the electronic structure of the material, while the O 2p and tetrahedrally coordinated B 3d electrons hybridize broadly in the shallow valence states, resulting in increasing curvature (i.e., decreased electron effective mass) of valence bands near the band edge. In particular, ZnCu2O4 exhibits high electrical conductivities near the valence band edge that, at sigma = 2 x 10^4 S/cm, are twice the maximum found for ZnCo2O4, a previously...

  12. METAMATERIALS: Large-area printed 3D negative-index metamaterial is flexible -Laser Focus World http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/print/volume-47/issue-8/world-news/metamaterials-large-area-printed-3d-negative-index-metamaterial-is-flexible.html[8/1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    METAMATERIALS: Large-area printed 3D negative-index metamaterial is flexible - Laser Focus World http://www.laserfocusworld.com/articles/print/volume-47/issue-8/world-news/metamaterials-large-area-printed-3d-negative-index-metamaterial-is-flexible.html[8/12/2011 3:45:06 PM] About · Advertise · Advertise

  13. www.osa-opn.org22 | OPN November 2008 Photonic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    www.osa-opn.org22 | OPN November 2008 Photonic Metamaterials Ekmel Ozbay Metamaterials have opened- neering of a new type of structure called metamaterials. The seminal work of Sir John Pendry provided of metallic wires (metamaterials. They were then used

  14. Cut-wire-pair structures as two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cut-wire-pair structures as two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials David A. Powell, Ilya V-dimensional metamaterial suitable for scaling to optical frequencies. We fabricate the cut-wire metamaterial operating. © 2008 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (160.3918) Metamaterials; (350.4010) Microwaves References

  15. Inhomogeneous All-Dielectric Magnetic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jingbo; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the localized field enhancement of the electromagnetic wave obliquely incident on a Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values.

  16. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  17. Electron Waiting Times in Mesoscopic Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathias Albert; Géraldine Haack; Christian Flindt; Markus Büttiker

    2012-02-14

    Electron transport in mesoscopic conductors has traditionally involved investigations of the mean current and the fluctuations of the current. A complementary view on charge transport is provided by the distribution of waiting times between charge carriers, but a proper theoretical framework for coherent electronic systems has so far been lacking. Here we develop a quantum theory of electron waiting times in mesoscopic conductors expressed by a compact determinant formula. We illustrate our methodology by calculating the waiting time distribution for a quantum point contact and find a cross-over from Wigner-Dyson statistics at full transmission to Poisson statistics close to pinch-off. Even when the low-frequency transport is noiseless, the electrons are not equally spaced in time due to their inherent wave nature. We discuss the implications for renewal theory in mesoscopic systems and point out several analogies with energy level statistics and random matrix theory.

  18. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order $\\chi^{(2)}$ susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency $\\omega_1$ can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated,when phase matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of 'scattering' in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility $\\chi^{(2)}$ along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodiza...

  19. Flexible Terahertz Metamaterials: Towards a Terahertz Metamaterial Invisible Cloak , N. I. Landy2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this work, we present flexible metamaterials on free standing polyimide substrates operating at terahertz fabricated on 5.5m thick polyimide substrates. The samples include purely electric resonator (#1 of the polyimide substrate; w, line width; l, length of the gap; g, gap distance. The SRR structure can be tuned

  20. Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transpar- ent and have to be thick

  1. Composite-Reinforced Aluminum Conductor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a conventional conductor, the ACCC's improved efficiency can help reduce power generation costs and greenhouse gas emissions, while mitigating grid bottlenecks and the...

  2. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleva, E. F. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Mehrotra, V. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  3. Single ion conductor cross-linked polymeric networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerr, John Borland (Oakland, CA); Wang, Shanger (Fairfield, CA); Hou, Jun (Painted Post, NY); Sloop, Steven Edward (Berkeley, CA); Han, Yong Bong (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Gao (Oakland, CA)

    2011-03-08

    Single ion conductors comprising polymer electrolytes prepared by grafting a salt compound onto a comb-branch polymer or dendrimer are disclosed having superior properties.

  4. Single ion conductor cross-linked polymeric networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerr, John Borland (Oakland, CA); Wang, Shanger (Fairfield, CA); Han, Yong Bong (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Gao (Oakland, CA); Hou, Jun (Painted Post, NY); Sloop, Steven Edward (Berkeley, CA)

    2005-10-18

    Single ion conductors comprising polymer electrolytes prepared by grafting a salt compound onto a comb-branch polymer or dendrimer are disclosed having superior properties.

  5. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors Hannah.phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. Therare earth phosphate ceramics, glasses, and glass-ceramics

  6. Advanced Conductor Development with High Temperature Superconductors and Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holesinger, Terry George

    2015-11-17

    This is a report that describes advanced conductor research performed by LANL in preparation for the Colloquia at the University of New Mexico.

  7. Simulation of Zitterbewegung by modelling the Dirac equation in Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sven Ahrens; Jun Jiang; Yong Sun; Shi-Yao Zhu

    2015-05-19

    We develop a dynamic description of an effective Dirac theory in metamaterials, in which the wavefunction is modeled by the corresponding electric and magnetic field in the metamaterial. This electro-magnetic field can be probed in the experimental setup, which means that the wavefunction of the effective theory is directly accessible by measurement. Our model is based on a plane wave expansion, which ravels the identification of Dirac spinors with single-frequency excitations of the electro-magnetic field in the metamaterial. The characteristic Zitterbewegung is shown to emerge in simulations of the effective theory and we verify this signature with an analytic solution.

  8. Simulation of Zitterbewegung by modelling the Dirac equation in Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sven Ahrens; Jun Jiang; Yong Sun; Shi-Yao Zhu

    2015-10-30

    We develop a dynamic description of an effective Dirac theory in metamaterials, in which the wavefunction is modeled by the corresponding electric and magnetic field in the metamaterial. This electro-magnetic field can be probed in the experimental setup, which means that the wavefunction of the effective theory is directly accessible by measurement. Our model is based on a plane wave expansion, which ravels the identification of Dirac spinors with single-frequency excitations of the electro-magnetic field in the metamaterial. The characteristic Zitterbewegung is shown to emerge in simulations of the effective theory and we verify this signature with an analytic solution.

  9. Second-harmonic generation from hyperbolic plasmonic nanorod metamaterial slab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marino, Giuseppe; Krasavin, Alexey V; Ginzburg, Pavel; Olivier, Nicolas; Wurtz, Gregory A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic plasmonic metamaterials provide numerous opportunities for designing unusual linear and nonlinear optical properties. We show that the modal overlap of fundamental and second-harmonic light in an anisotropic plasmonic metamaterial slab results in the broadband enhancement of radiated second-harmonic intensity by up to 2 and 11 orders of magnitudes for TM- and TE-polarized fundamental light, respectively, compared to a smooth Au film under TM-polarised illumination. The results open up possibilities to design tuneable frequency-doubling metamaterial with the goal to overcome limitations associated with classical phase matching conditions in thick nonlinear crystals.

  10. Seismic metamaterials based on isochronous mechanical oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finocchio, G., E-mail: gfinocchio@unime.it; Garescì, F.; Azzerboni, B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Casablanca, O.; Chiappini, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Via Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy); Ricciardi, G. [Department of Civil, Informatic, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering and Applied Mathematics, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Alibrandi, U. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-05-12

    This Letter introduces a seismic metamaterial (SM) composed by a chain of mass-in-mass system able to filter the S-waves of an earthquake. We included the effect of the SM into the mono dimensional model for the soil response analysis. The SM modifies the soil behavior and in presence of an internal damping the amplitude of the soil amplification function is reduced also in a region near the resonance frequency. This SM can be realized by a continuous structure with inside a 3d-matrix of isochronous oscillators based on a sphere rolling over a cycloidal trajectory.

  11. Entanglement creation with negative index metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Siomau; Ali A. Kamli; Sergey A. Moiseev; Barry C. Sanders

    2012-05-21

    We propose a scheme for creating of a maximally entangled state comprising two field quanta. In our scheme, two weak light fields, which are initially prepared in either coherent or polarization states, interact with a composite medium near an interface between a dielectric and a negative index metamaterial. Such interaction leads to a large Kerr nonlinearity, reduction of the group velocity of the light and significant confinement of the light fields while simultaneously avoiding amplitude losses of the incoming radiation. All these considerations make our scheme efficient.

  12. Generalized transformation optics from triple spacetime metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Bergamin

    2008-10-27

    In this paper various extensions of the design strategy of transformation media are proposed. We show that it is possible to assign different transformed spaces to the field strength tensor (electric field and magnetic induction) and to the excitation tensor (displacement field and magnetic field), resp. In this way, several limitations of standard transformation media can be overcome. In particular it is possible to provide a geometric interpretation of non-reciprocal as well as indefinite materials. We show that these transformations can be complemented by a continuous version of electric-magnetic duality and comment on the relation to the complementary approach of field-transforming metamaterials.

  13. Resonance and Double Negative Behavior in Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue Chen; Robert P. Lipton

    2013-05-03

    A generic class of metamaterials is introduced and is shown to exhibit frequency dependent double negative effective properties. We develop a rigorous method for calculating the frequency intervals where either double negative or double positive effective properties appear and show how these intervals imply the existence of propagating Bloch waves inside sub-wavelength structures. The branches of the dispersion relation associated with Bloch modes are shown to be explicitly determined by the Dirichlet spectrum of the high dielectric phase and the generalized electrostatic spectra of the complement.

  14. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz-Rubio, Ana; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated.

  15. Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2014-04-22

    A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

  16. MEMS-reconfigurable metamaterials and antenna applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debogovic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews some of our contributions to reconfigurable metamaterials, where dynamic control is enabled by micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. First, we show reconfigurable composite right/left handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) having state of the art phase velocity variation and loss, thereby enabling efficient reconfigurable phase shifters and leaky-wave antennas (LWA). Second, we present very low loss metasurface designs with reconfigurable reflection properties, applicable in reflectarrays and partially reflective surface (PRS) antennas. All the presented devices have been fabricated and experimentally validated. They operate in X- and Ku-bands.

  17. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and an aluminum-zirconium alloy to improve the outer strands. The result is a cable that can carry more current than steelaluminum lines without sagging as much at higher temperatures. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by 3M have been successfully test at ORNL – small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  18. Casimir force between sharp-shaped conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad F. Maghrebi; Sahand Jamal Rahi; Thorsten Emig; Noah Graham; Robert L. Jaffe; Mehran Kardar

    2010-10-15

    Casimir forces between conductors at the sub-micron scale cannot be ignored in the design and operation of micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices. However, these forces depend non-trivially on geometry, and existing formulae and approximations cannot deal with realistic micro-machinery components with sharp edges and tips. Here, we employ a novel approach to electromagnetic scattering, appropriate to perfect conductors with sharp edges and tips, specifically to wedges and cones. The interaction of these objects with a metal plate (and among themselves) is then computed systematically by a multiple-scattering series. For the wedge, we obtain analytical expressions for the interaction with a plate, as functions of opening angle and tilt, which should provide a particularly useful tool for the design of MEMs. Our result for the Casimir interactions between conducting cones and plates applies directly to the force on the tip of a scanning tunneling probe; the unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the force in these configurations should attract immediate experimental interest.

  19. Differential GPS Measurement of Overhead Conductor Sag: Software Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Differential GPS Measurement of Overhead Conductor Sag: Software Implementation Final Project Measurement of Overhead Conductor Sag: Software Implementation Final Project Report G. T. Heydt Arizona State and implementation of software that can be used to estimate and continuously display the changing real-time current

  20. Coupling Schemes in Terahertz Planar Metamaterials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Singh, Ranjan; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Zhang, Weili; Azad, Abul K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of the different coupling schemes in a planar array of terahertz metamaterials. The gap-to-gap near-field capacitive coupling between split-ring resonators in a unit cell leads to either blue shift or red shift of the fundamental inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance, depending on the position of the split gap. The inductive coupling is enhanced by decreasing the inter resonator distance resulting in strong blue shifts of theLCresonance. We observe theLCresonance tuning only when the split-ring resonators are in close proximity of each other; otherwise, they appear to be uncoupled. Conversely, the higher-order resonances are sensitive to the smallest changemore »in the inter particle distance or split-ring resonator orientation and undergo tremendous resonance line reshaping giving rise to a sharp subradiant resonance mode which produces hot spots useful for sensing applications. Most of the coupling schemes in a metamaterial are based on a near-field effect, though there also exists a mechanism to couple the resonators through the excitation of lowest-order lattice mode which facilitates the long-range radiative or diffractive coupling in the split-ring resonator plane leading to resonance line narrowing of the fundamental as well as the higher order resonance modes.« less

  1. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (split–ring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gapmore »and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.« less

  2. Design and analysis of MEMS-based metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varsanik, Jonathan S

    2006-01-01

    Metamaterials, materials that are constructed with arrays of small elements have significant potential to provide material properties that are useful for electromagnetic applications but are not found in nature. Slight ...

  3. Microstructure effects for Casimir forces in chiral metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steven G.

    We examine a recent prediction for the chirality dependence of the Casimir force in chiral metamaterials by numerical computation of the forces between the exact microstructures, rather than homogeneous approximations. ...

  4. Competing nonlinearities with metamaterials Polina V. Kapitanova,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO), St. Petersburg 197101, Russia 2 Nonlinear Physics Center, Research, which can rarely be found in nat- ural dielectric materials.2 Recently emerged physics of metamaterials

  5. Anisotropic Complementary Acoustic Metamaterial for Canceling out Aberrating Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Chen

    In this paper, we investigate a type of anisotropic, acoustic complementary metamaterial (CMM) and its application in restoring acoustic fields distorted by aberrating layers. The proposed quasi two-dimensional (2D), ...

  6. Mechanism of the metallic metamaterials coupled to the gain material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhixiang; Droulias, Sotiris; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-10-11

    We present evidence of strong coupling between the gain material and the metallic metamaterials. It is of vital importance to understand the mechanism of the coupling of metamaterials with the gain medium. Using a four-level gain system, the numerical pump-probe experiments are performed in several configurations (split–ring resonators (SRRs), inverse SRRs and fishnets) of metamaterials, demonstrating reduction of the resonator damping in all cases and hence the possibility for loss compensation. We find that the differential transmittance ?T/T can be negative in different SRR configurations, such as SRRs on the top of the gain substrate, gain in the SRR gap and gain covering the SRR structure, while in the fishnet metamaterial with gain ?T/T is positive.

  7. Two dimensional control of metamaterial parameters for radiation directivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foltz, Eleanor R. (Eleanor Ruth)

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility of using metamaterials to direct radiation. The limits of required index of refraction and the required material depth are explored using MATLAB simulations. A wedge of connected S-shape ...

  8. Metamaterial based telemetric strain sensing in different materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    .3918) Metamaterials; (280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors. References and links 1. A. Ghali, and R. Favre, Concrete nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005). 7. V. M. Shalaev

  9. Towards a metamaterial simulation of a spinning cosmic string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom G. Mackay; Akhlesh Lakhtakia

    2009-11-21

    Establishing the constitutive parameters of a nonhomogeneous bianisotropic medium that is equivalent to the spacetime metric of a spinning cosmic string, in a noncovariant formalism, we found a metamaterial route to investigate the existence of closed timelike curves.

  10. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  11. Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing Facility (PCAT) The Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing facility (PCAT) at Oak Ridge National

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    as simultaneous measuring of conductor tension, sag, and environmental conditions (e.g., wind, solar, ambient power transmission technologies with the potential to increase the capacity and reliability of the U designed the PCAT structures and installed poles, hardware, conductor and accessories at the site

  12. Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    normal to the array. The metamaterial was fabricated using a double exposure e-beam lithographic process negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41­48 (2007). 6. D. Diessel, M. Decker, S. Linden

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 235126 (2013) Nonlinear response via intrinsic rotation in metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 235126 (2013) Nonlinear response via intrinsic rotation in metamaterials and elastic properties in metamaterials. This coupling is provided through a novel degree of freedom in metamaterial design: the internal rotation within structural elements. Our meta-atoms have high sensitivity

  14. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 035148 (2012) Microscopic model of Purcell enhancement in hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    metamaterials Alexander N. Poddubny,1,2 Pavel A. Belov,1,3 Pavel Ginzburg,4 Anatoly V. Zayats,4 and Yuri S in metamaterials with the hyperbolic dispersion modeled as a cubic lattice of anisotropic resonant dipoles. We insights into the rapidly developing field of hyperbolic metamaterials. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 045424 (2011) Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 045424 (2011) Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials-dielectric structures, which can be considered as a simple example of nanostructured metamaterials. We demonstrate that of the transverse-magnetic polarized beam refracted at an air-metamaterial interface. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 195148 (2013) Circular dichroism of four-wave mixing in nonlinear metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    metamaterials Alec Rose,1 David A. Powell,2 Ilya V. Shadrivov,2 David R. Smith,1 and Yuri S. Kivshar2,3 1 Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA 2 Nonlinear Physics 2013; published 25 November 2013) Metamaterial engineering offers a route to combine unusual

  17. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 NOVEMBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3168 Magnetoelastic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 NOVEMBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3168 Magnetoelastic metamaterials electromagnetic materials, known as metamaterials, provides a link from material sci- ence to theoretical negative refraction1,2 , the concept of metamaterials quickly covered a much broader range of applications

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 045122 (2012) Transmission and Anderson localization in dispersive metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    metamaterials Ara A. Asatryan,1 Lindsay C. Botten,1 Michael A. Byrne,1 Valentin D. Freilikher,2 Sergey A, one-dimensional stacks composed of dispersive metamaterials and normal materials are presented that the localization of waves in random stacks composed entirely of either metamaterial or normal dielectric layers

  19. Tunable split-ring resonators for nonlinear negative-index metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tunable split-ring resonators for nonlinear negative-index metamaterials Ilya V. Shadrivov, Steven; (999.9999) Metamaterials. References and links 1. C. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356

  20. Metamaterials: Optical Activity without Chirality X.-X. Liu,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Metamaterials: Optical Activity without Chirality E. Plum,1 X.-X. Liu,1,2 V. A. Fedotov,1 Y. Chen,3 in developing microwave and optical artificial chiral metamaterials [11­15] and yielded a dem- onstration that very strong optical activity may be seen in a metamaterial system consisting of metamolecules

  1. Tunable hyperbolic metamaterials utilizing phase change heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; Menon, Vinod M.; Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2014-03-24

    We present a metal-free tunable anisotropic metamaterial where the iso-frequency surface is tuned from elliptical to hyperbolic dispersion by exploiting the metal-insulator phase transition in the correlated material vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). Using VO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} heterostructures, we demonstrate the transition in the effective dielectric constant parallel to the layers to undergo a sign change from positive to negative as the VO{sub 2} undergoes the phase transition. The possibility to tune the iso-frequency surface in real time using external perturbations such as temperature, voltage, or optical pulses creates new avenues for controlling light-matter interaction.

  2. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  3. Fast dynamic force computation for electrostatic and electromagnetic conductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koteeswaran, Prabhavathi

    2005-02-17

    -1 FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Computer Engineering FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  4. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng Song, Kun

    2014-10-15

    Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  5. Polarization-controlled anisotropic coding metamaterials at terahertz frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shuo; Xu, Quan; Bao, Di; Du, Liangliang; Wan, Xiang; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ouyang, Chunmei; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Yuan, Hao; Ma, Hui Feng; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Cheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials based on effective media have achieved a lot of unusual physics (e.g. negative refraction and invisibility cloaking) owing to their abilities to tailor the effective medium parameters that do not exist in nature. Recently, coding metamaterials have been suggested to control electromagnetic waves by designing the coding sequences of digital elements '0' and '1', which possess opposite phase responses. Here, we propose the concept of anisotropic coding metamaterial at terahertz frequencies, in which coding behaviors in different directions are dependent on the polarization status of terahertz waves. We experimentally demonstrate an ultrathin and flexible polarization-controlled anisotropic coding metasurface functioning in the terahertz regime using specially- designed coding elements. By encoding the elements with elaborately-designed digital sequences (in both 1 bit and 2 bits), the x- and y-polarized reflected waves can be deflected or diffused independently in three dimensions. The simulated f...

  6. Metamaterials, Point Interactions, Phase-Conjugation, and PT-Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Mostafazadeh

    2015-08-07

    We express the boundary conditions for TE and TM waves at the interfaces of an infinite planar slab of homogeneous metamaterial as certain point interactions and use them to compute the transfer matrix of the system. This allows us to demonstrate the omnidirectional reflectionlessness of Veselago's slab for waves of arbitrary wavelength, reveal the translational and reflection symmetry of this slab, explore the laser threshold condition and coherent perfect absorption for active negative-index metamaterials, introduce a point interaction modeling phase-conjugation, determine the corresponding antilinear transfer matrix, and offer a simple proof of the equivalence of Veselago's slab with a pair of parallel phase-conjugating plates. We also study the connection between certain optical setups involving metamaterials and a class of PT-symmetric quantum systems defined on wedge-shape contours in the complex plane. This provides a physical interpretation for the latter.

  7. Metamaterials, Point Interactions, Phase-Conjugation, and PT-Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We express the boundary conditions for TE and TM waves at the interfaces of an infinite planar slab of homogeneous metamaterial as certain point interactions and use them to compute the transfer matrix of the system. This allows us to demonstrate the omnidirectional reflectionlessness of Veselago's slab for waves of arbitrary wavelength, reveal the translational and reflection symmetry of this slab, explore the laser threshold condition and coherent perfect absorption for active negative-index metamaterials, introduce a point interaction modeling phase-conjugation, determine the corresponding antilinear transfer matrix, and offer a simple proof of the equivalence of Veselago's slab with a pair of parallel phase-conjugating plates. We also study the connection between certain optical setups involving metamaterials and a class of PT-symmetric quantum systems defined on wedge-shape contours in the complex plane. This provides a physical interpretation for the latter.

  8. Past Achievements and Future Challenges in 3D Photonic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soukoulis, Costas M

    2011-01-01

    Photonic metamaterials are man-made structures composed of tailored micro- or nanostructured metallo-dielectric sub-wavelength building blocks that are densely packed into an effective material. This deceptively simple, yet powerful, truly revolutionary concept allows for achieving novel, unusual, and sometimes even unheard-of optical properties, such as magnetism at optical frequencies, negative refractive indices, large positive refractive indices, zero reflection via impedance matching, perfect absorption, giant circular dichroism, or enhanced nonlinear optical properties. Possible applications of metamaterials comprise ultrahigh-resolution imaging systems, compact polarization optics, and cloaking devices. This review describes the experimental progress recently made fabricating three-dimensional metamaterial structures and discusses some remaining future challenges.

  9. Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2015-01-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  10. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alloatti, Luca; Froelich, Andreas; Lauermann, Matthias; Frenzel, Tobias; Koehnle, Kira; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Wegener, Martin; Koos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Structuring optical materials on a nanometer scale can lead to artificial effective media, or metamaterials, with strongly altered optical behavior. Metamaterials can provide a wide range of linear optical properties such as negative refractive index, hyperbolic dispersion, or magnetic behavior at optical frequencies. Nonlinear optical properties, however, have only been demonstrated for patterned metallic films which suffer from high optical losses. Here we show that second-order nonlinear metamaterials can also be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. In our proof-of-principle experiments, we have iterated atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of three different constituents, A = Al$_2$O$_3$, B = TiO$_2$ and C = HfO$_2$. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent - a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first realizati...

  11. Integrated digital metamaterials enables ultra-compact optical diodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    We applied nonlinear optimization to design integrated digital metamaterials in silicon for unidirectional energy flow. Two devices, one for each polarization state, were designed, fabricated, and characterized. Both devices offer comparable or higher transmission efficiencies and extinction ratios, are easier to fabricate, exhibit larger bandwidths and are more tolerant to fabrication errors, when compared to alternatives. Furthermore, each device footprint is only 3?m × 3?m, which is the smallest optical diode ever reported. To illustrate the versatility of digital metamaterials, we also designed a polarization-independent optical diode.

  12. Nonlocal effective medium approximation for metallic nanorod metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Tao; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical nonlocal effective medium approximation to describe the optical nonlocal effects in metallic nanorod metamaterials based on Mie scattering theory. It is shown that the developed nonlocal effective medium theory can predict a coexistence state of two modes around the epsilon-near-zero region, where strong optical nonlocal effects lead to the behavior of both positive refraction and negative refraction in the nanorod metamaterials. Outside of the coexistence region, only one mode can be excited and its behavior can be well described using the local effective medium theory.

  13. Broadband dispersionless polarization rotation with composite chiral metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Kun; Liu, Yahong; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a planar composite chiral metamaterial (CCMM) by symmetrically inserting a metallic mesh between two layers of conjugated gammadion resonators. As the elaborate CCMM operates in the frequency region of off-resonance, it therefore presents loss-less and dispersion-free features. It can achieve flat polarization rotation simultaneously accompanied with high transmission and extremely low ellipticity in a broad bandwidth. In the meanwhile, this intriguing CCMM shows more superiorities in polarization rotation power and operating bandwidth than the pure chiral metamaterial just composed of conjugated gammadions. Due to the fascinating properties, the proposed CCMM is greatly appealing for controlling the polarization state of the electromagnetic waves.

  14. New metamaterials with macroscopic behavior outside that of continuum elastodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graeme W. Milton

    2007-06-14

    Metamaterials are constructed such that, for a narrow range of frequencies, the momentum density depends on the local displacement gradient, and the stress depends on the local velocity. In these models the momentum density generally depends not only on the strain, but also on the local rotation, and the stress is generally not symmetric. A variant is constructed for which, at a fixed frequency, the momentum density is independent of the local rotation (but still depends on the strain) and the stress is symmetric (but still depends on the velocity). Generalizations of these metamaterials may be useful in the design of elastic cloaking devices.

  15. Optical properties of two-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mejía-Salazar, J. R.

    2013-12-14

    In the present work, we theoretically study a 2D photonic crystal (PC) comprised by double negative (DNG) metamaterial cylinders, showing that such a system presents a superior light-matter interaction when compared with their single negative (SNG) plasmonic PC counterparts, suggesting a route to enhance the performance of sensors and photovoltaic cells. On the other hand, we have observed that depending on the frequency, the mode symmetry resembles either the case of SNG electric (SNG-E) or SNG magnetic (SNG-M) PC, suggesting that either the electric or magnetic character of the DNG metamaterial dominates in each case.

  16. Benchmarking & Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook May 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by Navigant Consulting, Inc.and Steven Winter Associates, Inc....

  17. Localization length of nearly periodic layered metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Barco, O

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed numerically the localization length of light $\\xi$ for nearly periodic arrangements of homogeneous stacks (formed exclusively by right-handed materials) and mixed stacks (with alternating right and left-handed metamaterials). Layers with index of refraction $n_1$ and thickness $L_1$ alternate with layers of index of refraction $n_2$ and thickness $L_2$. Positional disorder has been considered by shifting randomly the positions of the layer boundaries with respect to periodic values. For homogeneous stacks, we have shown that the localization length is modulated by the corresponding bands and that $\\xi$ is enhanced at the center of each allowed band. In the limit of long-wavelengths $\\lambda$, the parabolic behavior previously found in purely disordered systems is recovered, whereas for $\\lambda \\ll L_1 + L_2$ a saturation is reached. In the case of nearly periodic mixed stacks with the condition $|n_1 L_1|=|n_2 L_2|$, instead of bands there is a periodic arrangement of Lorenztian resonances, ...

  18. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO[sub 2] oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a [beta]-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca[sup o] used for reducing UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to U and Pu. 2 figures.

  19. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

  20. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual technical report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Sato, H.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Thornton, J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The general objective is to develop methods to deposit materials which can be used to make more efficient solar cells. The work is organized into three general tasks: Task 1. Develop improved methods for depositing and using transparent conductors of fluorine-doped zinc oxide in amorphous silicon solar cells Task 2. Deposit and evaluate titanium oxide as a reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between amorphous silicon and an aluminum or silver back-reflector. Task 3. Deposit and evaluate electrically conductive titanium oxide as a transparent conducting layer on which more efficient and more stable superstrate cells can be deposited. About one-third of the current project resources are allocated to each of these three objectives.

  1. Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials M. Decker,1,2, * M. Ruther,1,2 C: manuel.decker@physik.uni-karlsruhe.de Received May 26, 2009; revised July 14, 2009; accepted July 17). In this Letter, for the first time, to our knowledge, we investigate a chi- ral double-layer design [10

  2. Unidirectional transmission using array of zero-refractive-index metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Lin; Hong Hang, Zhi; Chen, Huanyang

    2014-05-12

    In this Letter, we find that high efficient unidirectional transmission occurs for an array of prisms made of zero-refractive-index metamaterials. As a specific demonstration, we further design the device using Dirac-cone-like photonic crystals. The device can function for a broadband of spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the one-way wave functionality.

  3. NANO EXPRESS Open Access Tailoring photonic metamaterial resonances for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ] and thermophotovoltaics [6,10]. Metamaterials, such as photonic crystals, offer unprecedented control over wave- length solar TPV system without angular sensitivity, both in the ideal case and with a realistic amount of long and Marin Soljacic Abstract Selective solar absorbers generally have limited effectiveness in unconcentrated

  4. Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1 Philippe Tassin,2,* Costas M demonstrate how the optical gradient force between two waveguides can be enhanced using transformation optics perceived by light, resulting in a more than tenfold enhancement of the optical force. This process

  5. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  6. DESIGN OF A 10-T SUPERCONDUCTING DIPOLE MAGNET USING NIOBIUM-TIN CONDUCTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, C.

    2011-01-01

    NIOBIUM-TIN CONOOCTOR' C. Taylor, R. Meuser. S. Caspi. W.NIOBIUM-TIN CONDUCTOR C. Taylor, R. Meuser, S. Caspi, W.NIOBIUM-TIN CONDUCTOR* C. Taylor, R. Meuser, S. Caspi, W.

  7. Using core-shell metamaterial engineering to triple the critical temperature of a superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Gresock, Thomas; Jensen, Christopher; Prestigiacomo, Joseph C; Osofsky, M S; Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown the viability of the metamaterial approach to dielectric response engineering for moderately enhancing the transition temperature, Tc, of a superconductor. In this report, we demonstrate the use of Al2O3-coated aluminium nanoparticles to form the recently proposed epsilon near zero (ENZ) core-shell metamaterial superconductor with a Tc that is three times that of pure aluminium. IR reflectivity measurements confirm the predicted metamaterial modification of the dielectric function thus demonstrating the efficacy of the ENZ metamaterial approach to Tc engineering. These results provide an explanation for the long known, but not understood, enhancement of the Tc of granular aluminum films.

  8. Optical Characterization of Epsilon-Near-Zero, Epsilon-Near-Pole and Hyperbolic Response in Nanowire Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Newman, Ward; Hu, Huan; Kallos, Themos; Palikaras, George; Fedosejevs, Robert; Pramanik, Sandipan; Jacob, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optical and physical characterization of metallic nanowire (NW) metamaterials fabricated by electrodeposition of ~30 nm diameter gold nanowires in nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide. We observe a uniaxial anisotropic dielectric response for the NW metamaterials that displays both epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and epsilon-near-pole (ENP) resonances. We show that a fundamental difference in the behavior of NW-metamaterials from metal-dielectric multilayer (ML) metamaterials is the differing directions of the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and epsilon-near-pole (ENP) dielectric responses relative to the optical axis of the effective dielectric tensor. In contrast to multilayer metamaterials, nanowire metamaterials exhibit an omnidirectional ENP and an angularly dependent ENZ. Also in contrast to ML metamaterials, the NW metamaterials exhibit ENP and ENZ resonances that are highly absorptive and can be effectively excited from free space. Our fabrication allows a large tunability of the epsilon-near-zero reson...

  9. Benchmarking and Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency - Methodologies and the NYC Example New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report Building Energy...

  10. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next-Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion...

  11. New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report Prepared for the U.S....

  12. Tuning the Properties of Transparent Oxide Conductors. Dopant Ion Size and Electronic Structure Effects on CdO-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    , Materials Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Materials Science-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics, solar cells, optical waveguides, and energy-efficient windows.1 University. § Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University. # Department of Materials Science

  13. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  14. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 13 NOVEMBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3161 Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers Chihhui Wu1 , Alexander * Engineered optical metamaterials present a unique platform for biosensing applications owing to their ability to confine light to nanoscale regions and to their spectral selectivity. Infrared plasmonic metamaterials

  15. Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.

    1982-03-15

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

  16. Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.

    1982-03-15

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler is described. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu/sub 5/Sn/sub 6/ with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Optically Transparent Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, John

    We present a fully functional material extrusion printer for optically transparent glass. The printer is composed of scalable modular elements able to operate at the high temperatures required to process glass from a molten ...

  18. Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote...

  19. Beyond transparency : collective engagement in sustainable design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonanni, Leonardo Amerigo, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    For a timely answer to the question of sustainability, or how to provide for future generations, there needs to be shared accounting of our social and physical resources. Supply chain transparency makes it possible to map ...

  20. Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    “NEPA is, at its core, a transparency statute,” said Katie Scharf, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Deputy General Counsel, in opening a panel discussion on using information technology to...

  1. A Testing Platform for Validation of Overhead Conductor Aging Models and Understanding Thermal Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Starke, Michael R; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Young II, Marcus Aaron; Rizy, D Tom; Stovall, John P; Overholt, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    Power system equipment manufacturers and researchers continue to experiment with novel overhead electric conductor designs that support better conductor performance and address congestion issues. To address the technology gap in testing these novel designs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory constructed the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) facility to evaluate the performance of novel overhead conductors in an accelerated fashion in a field environment. Additionally, PCAT has the capability to test advanced sensors and measurement methods for accessing overhead conductor performance and condition. Equipped with extensive measurement and monitoring devices, PCAT provides a platform to improve/validate conductor computer models and assess the performance of novel conductors. The PCAT facility and its testing capabilities are described in this paper.

  2. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  3. Dynamic frequency tuning of electric and magnetic metamaterial response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Hara, John F; Averitt, Richard; Padilla, Willie; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-09-16

    A geometrically modifiable resonator is comprised of a resonator disposed on a substrate, and a means for geometrically modifying the resonator. The geometrically modifiable resonator can achieve active optical and/or electronic control of the frequency response in metamaterials and/or frequency selective surfaces, potentially with sub-picosecond response times. Additionally, the methods taught here can be applied to discrete geometrically modifiable circuit components such as inductors and capacitors. Principally, controlled conductivity regions, using either reversible photodoping or voltage induced depletion activation, are used to modify the geometries of circuit components, thus allowing frequency tuning of resonators without otherwise affecting the bulk substrate electrical properties. The concept is valid over any frequency range in which metamaterials are designed to operate.

  4. Resonant Casimir--Polder forces in planar meta-materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnes Sambale; Stefan Yoshi Buhmann; Ho Trung Dung; Dirk-Gunnar Welsch

    2008-09-18

    We study the resonant Casimir--Polder potential of an excited atom near a half space containing magneto-electric meta-material of various kinds on the basis of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. Analytical results are obtained in the nonretarded and retarded distance regimes and numerical examples are given. We compare our findings with the potential of an excited atom near a left-handed superlens.

  5. Acoustic wave propagation and stochastic effects in metamaterial absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, J. Willatzen, M.

    2014-07-28

    We show how stochastic variations of the effective parameters of anisotropic structured metamaterials can lead to increased absorption of sound. For this, we derive an analytical model based on the Bourret approximation and illustrate the immediate connection between material disorder and attenuation of the averaged field. We demonstrate numerically that broadband absorption persists at oblique irradiation and that the influence of red noise comprising short spatial correlation lengths increases the absorption beyond what can be archived with a structured but ordered system.

  6. Terahertz relativistic spatial solitons in doped graphene metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haiming Dong; Claudio Conti; Fabio Biancalana

    2011-07-28

    We propose an electrically tunable graphene-based metamaterial showing a large nonlinear optical response at THz frequencies, which we calculate analytically for the first time to our knowledge and arises from the intraband current. The structure sustains a novel type of stable two-dimensional spatial solitary wave, a relativistic version of the Townes soliton. These results can be also applied to any material exhibiting a conical dispersion with massless Dirac fermions.

  7. Broadband enhancement of spontaneous emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalaginov, M Y; Liu, J; Liu, J; Irudayaraj, J; Lagutchev, A; Kildishev, A V; Shalaev, V M

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a broadband enhancement of emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds. The enhancement is achieved by using a multilayer metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion. The metamaterial is fabricated as a stack of alternating gold and alumina layers. Our approach paves the way towards the construction of efficient single-photon sources as planar on-chip devices.

  8. Soliton generation in active nonlinear metamaterials Alexander B. Kozyrev,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soliton generation in active nonlinear metamaterials Alexander B. Kozyrev,1,2 Ilya V. Shadrivov,1 generation in nonlinear active metamaterials. Our meta-structure consists of a ring resonator formed dynamics, including the generation of envelope solitons being realized only for the backward-wave regime

  9. METAMATERIAL DESIGN VIA THE DENSITY METHOD1 G. Kiziltas*, J. L. Volakis and N. Kikuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sendur, Gullu Kiziltas

    with complex geometry and materials, possibly "new" composites and artificial dielectrics or meta-materials has, ferroelectric ceramics and chiral materials [1-3]. The potential for improved designs and new devices using meta-materials INTRODUCTION Design of "new" electromagnetic devices such as antennas, frequency selective surfaces and filters

  10. IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 6, 2007 401 Characterization of Tunable Metamaterial Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    with reasonably low losses. Index Terms--Metamaterials, microelectromechanical (MEMS). I. INTRODUCTION SINCE through a high-frequency microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch. Such switches can have large open Metamaterial Elements Using MEMS Switches Thomas Hand, Student Member, IEEE, and Steven Cummer, Senior Member

  11. Plasmon Injection to Compensate and Control Losses in Negative Index Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadatgol, Mehdi; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials have introduced a whole new world of unusual materials with functionalities that cannot be attained in naturally occurring material systems by mimicking and controlling the natural phenomena at subwavelength scales. However, the inherent absorption losses pose fundamental challenge to the most fascinating applications of metamaterials. Based on a novel plasmon injection (PI or \\Pi) scheme, we propose a coherent optical amplification technique to compensate losses in metamaterials. Although the proof of concept device here operates under normal incidence only, our proposed scheme can be generalized to arbitrary form of incident waves. The \\Pi-scheme is fundamentally different than major optical amplification schemes. It does not require gain medium, interaction with phonons, or any nonlinear medium. The \\Pi-scheme allows for loss-free metamaterials. It is ideally suited for mitigating losses in metamaterials operating in the visible spectrum and is scalable to other optical frequencies. These fin...

  12. Exchanging Ohmic Losses in Metamaterial Absorbers with Useful Optical Absorption for Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vora, Ankit; Pala, Nezih; Kulkarni, Anand; Pearce, Joshua M; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2014-01-01

    Using metamaterial absorbers, we have shown that metallic layers in the absorbers do not necessarily constitute undesired resistive heating problem for photovoltaics. Tailoring the geometric skin depth of metals and employing the natural bulk absorbance characteristics of the semiconductors in those absorbers can enable the exchange of undesired resistive losses with the useful optical absorbance in the active semiconductors. Thus, Ohmic loss dominated metamaterial absorbers can be converted into photovoltaic near-perfect absorbers with the advantage of harvesting the full potential of light management offered by the metamaterial absorbers. Based on experimental permittivity data for indium gallium nitride, we have shown that between 75%-95% absorbance can be achieved in the semiconductor layers of the converted metamaterial absorbers. Besides other metamaterial and plasmonic devices, our results may also apply to photodectors and other metal or semiconductor based optical devices where resistive losses and p...

  13. Vacuum-surface flashover switch with cantilever conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  14. On the electric and magnetic properties of conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arbab I. Arbab

    2010-07-18

    Application of the generalized continuity equation reveals that the drift current in conductors is equivalent to a negative diffusion current. A phenomenological model of conductivity is developed using the generalized continuity equations. Consequently, a limiting conductivity is obtained that amounts to $1.09\\times \\,10^9\\,\\Omega^{-1}m^{-1}$. A magnetomotive force (current) is hypothesized to exist, which is exhibited when a voltage changes with time. Magnetic charges and currents are found to be related to displacement current.

  15. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  16. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent. 3 figs.

  17. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, Prasad R. (Westboro, MA)

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent.

  18. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  19. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes a drying process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing alkoxides to form alcogels, and subsequently removing the alcohol therefrom to form aerogels, the improvement comprising the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol for the alcohol in the alcogels, and drying the resulting gels at a supercritical temperature for the solvent, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced drying time period.

  20. On the cause of conductivity degradation in sodium strontium silicate ionic conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jee, Y; Zhao, X; Huang, K

    2015-01-01

    Here we present strong experimental evidence that elucidates the fundamental cause for the conductivity degradation observed in Na-SrSiO3 ionic conductor.

  1. A tunable metamaterial dependent on electric field at terahertz with barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, Yanlong; Zhai, Jiwei; Wu, Chao; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-01-27

    A tunable metamaterial with resonance frequency at terahertz (THz) was developed. Electromagnetic response of the metamaterial was characterized with THz time domain spectrometer at various direct current electric fields. The resonance frequency increased monotonously with increasing electric field. The finite difference time domain method was used to simulate the transmission spectra of the metamaterial at THz frequencies. By comparing the simulated resonance frequency with the experimental curve, dielectric property of the Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST60) thin film at THz, over 0–33?kV/cm, was evaluated.

  2. Parallel Hall effect from 3D single-component metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kern, Christian; Wegener, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a class of three-dimensional metamaterial architectures composed of a single doped semiconductor (e.g., n-Si) in air or vacuum that lead to unusual effective behavior of the classical Hall effect. Using an anisotropic structure, we numerically demonstrate a Hall voltage that is parallel---rather than orthogonal---to the external static magnetic-field vector ("parallel Hall effect"). The sign of this parallel Hall voltage can be determined by a structure parameter. Together with the previously demonstrated positive or negative orthogonal Hall voltage, we demonstrate four different sign combinations

  3. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lani, Shane W. E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu Sabra, Karim G.; Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12?MHz range.

  4. Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Lili

    2007-08-03

    We study the emission and absorption properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials using Comsol Multiphysics and Ansoft HFSS as simulation tools. We calculate the emission properties of metallic designs using drude model and the results illustrate that an appropriate termination of the surface of the metallic structure can significantly increase the absorption and therefore the thermal emissivity. We investigate the spontaneous emission rate modifications that occur for emitters inside two-dimensional photonic crystals and find the isotropic and directional emissions with respect to different frequencies as we have expected.

  5. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  6. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

  7. Implementation of Transparent Sources in FDTD Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, John B.

    , the transparent source does not scatter energy, i.e., the usual FDTD update equation applies to the source node and that is governed by the standard FDTD update equation does not, per se, scatter energy. Therefore, it appears­1/R11, 129 Parker St., Maynard, MA 01754 1 #12; 1 Introduction Energy can be coupled into a finite

  8. Preparation and characterization of transparent PZNPLZT ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Preparation and characterization of transparent PZN­PLZT ceramics Q.R Yin,a) A.L. Ding, X.S. Zheng, and P.S. Qiu The State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfire Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ding Xi Road, 200050, Shanghai, China M

  9. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Param H.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  10. Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

    1985-06-01

    Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

  11. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  12. Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

    2009-09-15

    A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses D. D. Yavuz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yavuz, Deniz

    Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses D. D. Yavuz Department pulses inside an atomic medium using electromag- netically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion.65. k Over the last decade, counterintuitive optical effects using electromagnetically induced

  14. Characterization of Light Scattering in Transparent Polycrystalline Laser Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Loss ………………………………………..…… 7 Characterization of BulkImages, the utility of characterization techniques towardsapplicable towards the characterization of any transparent

  15. Aramid-Nanofiber-Reinforced Transparent Nanocomposites Ming Yang1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thouless, Michael

    with diameters 50-200 nm produced by electrospinning, were used to prepare an optically transparent composite

  16. Principle of Transparency Applied in Construction Proceedings IGLC '98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    ABSTRACT Transparency is one of the foundations of excellence in manufacturing and a fundamental step Brazil and England. KEY WORDS Lean construction, transparency, visual management. 1 Civil Eng., M.Sc., Ph, Brazil INTRODUCTION Transparency is one of the foundations of excellence in manufacturing

  17. Percolation in Transparent and Conducting Carbon Nanotube Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    and chemical sensors9 , field emission devices10,11 , and transparent conductive coatings7 . We12 , and another. Transmission measurements also indicate the usefulness of nanotube network films as a transparent, conductive coating. Avenues for improvement of the network transparency are discussed. KEYWORDS Nanotubes, Networks

  18. Topological modes bound to dislocations in mechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayson Paulose; Bryan Gin-ge Chen; Vincenzo Vitelli

    2015-04-23

    Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures with unusual properties, such as negative Poisson ratio, bistability or tunable vibrational properties, that originate in the geometry of their unit cell. At the heart of such unusual behaviour is often a soft mode: a motion that does not significantly stretch or compress the links between constituent elements. When activated by motors or external fields, soft modes become the building blocks of robots and smart materials. Here, we demonstrate the existence of topological soft modes that can be positioned at desired locations in a metamaterial while being robust against a wide range of structural deformations or changes in material parameters. These protected modes, localized at dislocations, are the mechanical analogue of topological states bound to defects in electronic systems. We create physical realizations of the topological modes in prototypes of kagome lattices built out of rigid triangular plates. We show mathematically that they originate from the interplay between two Berry phases: the Burgers vector of the dislocation and the topological polarization of the lattice. Our work paves the way towards engineering topologically protected nano-mechanical structures for molecular robotics or information storage and read-out.

  19. Metamaterials Mimicking Dynamic Spacetime, D-brane and Noncommutativity in String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rong-Xin Miao; Rui Zheng; Miao Li

    2011-02-03

    We propose an executable scheme to mimic the expanding cosmos in 1+2 dimensions in laboratory. Furthermore, we develop a general procedure to use nonlinear metamaterials to mimic D-brane and noncommutativity in string theory.

  20. On the Origin of Negative Density and Modulus in Acoustic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Oliver B

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review and fundamental physical interpretation for the effective densities and moduli of acoustic metamaterials. We introduce the terminology of hidden force and hidden source of volume: the effective density or modulus is negative when the hidden force or source of volume operates in antiphase to, respectively, the force or volume change that would be obtained in their absence. We demonstrate this ansatz for some established acoustic metamaterials with elements based on membranes, Helmholtz resonators, springs and masses. The hidden force for membrane-based acoustic metamaterials, for instance, is the force from the membrane tension. The hidden source for a Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterial is the extra air volume injected from the resonator cavity. We also explain the analogous concepts for pure mass-and-spring systems, in which case hidden forces can arise from masses and springs fixed inside other masses, whereas hidden sources - more aptly termed hidden expanders of displacemen...

  1. Quantum optical effective-medium theory for loss-compensated metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehsan Amooghorban; N. Asger Mortensen; Martijn Wubs

    2013-03-13

    A central aim in metamaterial research is to engineer sub-wavelength unit cells that give rise to desired effective-medium properties and parameters, such as a negative refractive index. Ideally one can disregard the details of the unit cell and employ the effective description instead. A popular strategy to compensate for the inevitable losses in metallic components of metamaterials is to add optical gain material. Here we study the quantum optics of such loss-compensated metamaterials at frequencies for which effective parameters can be unambiguously determined. We demonstrate that the usual effective parameters are insufficient to describe the propagation of quantum states of light. Furthermore, we propose a quantum-optical effective-medium theory instead and show that it correctly predicts the properties of the light emerging from loss-compensated metamaterials.

  2. Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibbotson, Lindsey A.; Demetriadou, Angela; Stephen, Croxall; Hess, Ortwin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-02-09

    Metallic woodpile photonic crystals and metamaterials operating across the visible spectrum are extremely difficult to construct over large areas, because of the intricate three-dimensional nanostructures and sub-50?nm features demanded. Previous...

  3. Nonlinear Terahertz Metamaterials via Field-Enhanced Carrier Dynamics in GaAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Kebin

    We demonstrate nonlinear metamaterial split ring resonators (SRRs) on GaAs at terahertz frequencies. For SRRs on doped GaAs films, incident terahertz radiation with peak fields of ?20–160??kV/cm drives intervalley scattering. ...

  4. Upper Bound on the Modal Material Loss Rate in Plasmonic and Metamaterial Systems Aaswath Raman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    , and photovoltaics. In this Letter, we use a photonic band formalism for plasmonics to exactly derive a fundamental, and metamaterial systems is of fundamental importance to continued progress in photonics research. The coupling

  5. Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Metamaterials coated with Silicon Carbide Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Soumyadipta; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC.By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonance for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  6. Modeling of the interaction of a volumetric metallic metamaterial structure with a relativistic electron beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xueying

    We present the design of a volumetric metamaterial (MTM) structure and its interaction with a relativistic electron beam. This novel structure has promising applications in particle beam diagnostics, acceleration, and ...

  7. Development of a Graphic User Interface for an Overhead Conductor Sag Instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of a Graphic User Interface for an Overhead Conductor Sag Instrument Final Project of a Graphic User Interface for an Overhead Conductor Sag Instrument Sag Monitoring for Overhead Transmission is available for downloading from the PSERC website. 2002 Arizona State University. All rights reserved. #12

  8. Frequency dependent dynamical electromechanical response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Frequency dependent dynamical electromechanical response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors A. N dependent dynamical electromechanical response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors A. N. Morozovska,1,a) E online 9 January 2012) Frequency dependent dynamic electromechanical response of the mixed ionic

  9. Ceramic to metal attachment system. [Ceramic electrode to metal conductor in MHD generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, D.D.

    1983-06-10

    A composition and method are described for attaching a ceramic electrode to a metal conductor. A layer of randomly interlocked metal fibers saturated with polyimide resin is sandwiched between the ceramic electrode and the metal conductor. The polyimide resin is then polymerized providing bonding.

  10. Abatement of Computational Issues Associated with Dark Modes in Optical Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LePain, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Optical fields in metamaterial nanostructures can be separated into bright modes, whose dispersion is typically described by effective medium parameters, and dark fluctuating fields. Such combination of propagating and evanescent modes poses a serious numerical complication due to poorly conditioned systems of equations for the amplitudes of the modes. We propose a numerical scheme based on a transfer matrix approach, which resolves this issue for a parallel plate metal-dielectric metamaterial, and demonstrate its effectiveness.

  11. Fractional charges and Misner-Wheeler charge without charge effect in metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2014-12-08

    Optical space in metamaterials may be engineered to emulate four dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials mimics interaction of quantized electric charges. An electromagnetic wormhole is designed, which connects two points of such an optical space and changes its effective topology. Electromagnetic field configurations which exhibit fractional charges appear as a result of such topology change. Moreover, such effects as Misner-Wheeler charge without charge may be replicated.

  12. Theory of Dipole Induced Electromagnetic Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A detailed theory describing linear optics of vapors comprised of interacting multi-level quantum emitters is proposed. It is shown both by direct integration of Maxwell-Bloch equations and using a simple analytical model that at large densities narrow transparency windows appear in otherwise completely opaque spectra. The existence of such windows is attributed to overlapping resonances. This effect, first introduced for three-level systems in [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014)], is due to strongly enhanced dipole-dipole interactions at high emitters' densities. The presented theory extends this effect to the case of multilevel systems. The theory is applied to the D1 transitions of interacting Rb-85 atoms. It is shown that at high atomic densities, Rb-85 atoms can behave as three-level emitters exhibiting all the properties of dipole induced electromagnetic transparency. Applications including slow light and laser pulse shaping are also propose...

  13. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA); Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Seeley, Zachary M. (Pullman, WA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-10-18

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a transparent ceramic preform includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, adding the suspension to a mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the suspension in the mold for forming a preform. The suspension includes a dispersant but does not include a gelling agent. In another embodiment, a method includes creating a mixture without a gelling agent, the mixture including: inorganic particles, a solvent, and a dispersant. The inorganic particles have a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm. The method also includes agitating the mixture, adding the mixture to a mold, and curing the mixture in the mold at a temperature of less than about 80.degree. C. for forming a preform. Other methods for forming a transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several embodiments.

  14. Nuclear Transparency in the lightest nuclear interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ajaz; M. K. Suleymanov; K. H. Khan; A. Zaman

    2012-03-28

    Some experimental results on nuclear transparency effect in pC- and dC-interaction at 4.2 A GeV/c (JINR Dubna) are presented. The "half angle" ({\\theta}1/2) technique was used and the particles with emission angle greater and less than {\\theta}1/2 are considered separately. The results of the experimental study have been compared with the simulation data coming from the Dubna Cascade model. The values of average multiplicity, average momentum, and average transverse momentum of charged pions and protons are analyzed as a function of the number of identified protons in an event. We observed some behaviors for the data which could be considered as some nuclear transparency effects. The lasts have been divided into three main groups depending on their probable behavior: leading effect; cascade effect; medium effect.

  15. Transparent heat-spreader for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo

    2014-11-04

    An optoelectronic cooling system is equally applicable to an LED collimator or a photovoltaic solar concentrator. A transparent fluid conveys heat from the optoelectronic chip to a hollow cover over the system aperture. The cooling system can keep a solar concentrator chip at the same temperature as found for a one-sun flat-plate solar cell. Natural convection or forced circulation can operate to convey heat from the chip to the cover.

  16. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon���® enabled solar cells.

  17. Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability H. Nmec,1 P. Kuzel,1,* F. Kadlec,1 C. Kadlec,1 R. Yahiaoui,2 and P. Mounaix2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku?el, Petr

    Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability H. Nmec,1 P. Kuzel,1,* F. Kadlec,1 C experimentally and theoretically dielectric metamaterials exhibiting a tunable range of negative effective.241108 PACS number s : 42.25.Bs, 77.84. s, 78.20.Bh, 78.20.Ci The concept of metamaterials enables

  18. Energy transport faster than light in good conductors and superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Y. Wang

    2012-02-09

    People need a model to study tachyons whose prediction can be tested easily. The dispersion relation w^2=k^2C^2-a^2C^2 of a low-frequency electromagnetic field in good conductors is equivalent to the energy-momentum equation E^2=p^2C^2-m^2C^4 of a tachyon where the proportionality coefficient is h^2. An experiment in 1980s to measure the phase velocity Vp [1] can be regarded as an indirect evidence of the superluminal velocity V>>c of those photons just equals the rate of energy flow S/w of the field.Instability of the tachyonic field corresponds to the Joule heat. To detect the speed of energy is difficult and we plan to modulate signals to observe the information velocity (speed of points of non-analyticity)[2].

  19. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.; Degiovanni, P.

    2014-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100?Hz, 1?MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.

  20. Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leuer, J.A.

    1990-05-01

    A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented. 5 figs.

  1. Photoconduction in the Peierls conductor monoclinic TaS$_3$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Minakova; V. F. Nasretdinova; S. V. Zaitsev-Zotov

    2014-11-01

    Photoconduction in the monoclinic phase of quasi-one-dimensional conductor TaS$_3$ has been observed at $T quality dependence of both photoconduction and dark conduction at this temperature region has been observed. Together with a similarity of the main features of the photoconduction characteristic of both monoclinic ({\\it m-}TaS$_3$) and orthorhombic ({\\it o-}TaS$_3$) samples the following new peculiarities of photoconduction in {\\it m-}TaS$_3$ were found: 1) the dependence of the activation energy of photoconduction on temperature, $T$, 2) the change of the recombination mechanism from the linear type to the collisional one at low $T$ with a sample quality growth, 3) the existence of a fine structure of the electric-field dependence of photoconduction. Spectral study gives the Peierls energy gap value $2\\Delta ^*= 0.18$~eV.

  2. A High Conducting Oxide Sulfide Composite Lithium Superionic Conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [ORNL] [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL] [ORNL; Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid superionic conductor was fabricated utilizing the space charge effect between the LLZO and LPS interfaces. This space-charge effect resulted in an improvement over the individual bulk conductivities of the two systems. Sample with higher weight fractions of LLZO are limited by the porosity and grain boundary resistance arising from non-sintered membranes. By combining the properties of LLZO and LPS, the high temperature sintering step has been avoided thus facilitating easier materials processing. The interfacial resistances were also measured to be minimal at ambient conditions. This procedure thus opens a new avenue for improving the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of existing solid state electrolytes. High frequency impedance analyses could aid in resolving the ionic conductivity contributions from the space charge layer in the higher conducting composites while mechanical property investigations could illustrate an improvement in the composite electrolyte in comparison with the crystalline LPS membranes.

  3. Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leuer, James A. (Encinitas, CA)

    1990-05-01

    A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented.

  4. Multimode circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel J. Egger; Frank K. Wilhelm

    2013-11-07

    Quantum transmission lines are a central to superconducting and hybrid quantum computing. Parallel to these developments are those of left-handed meta-materials. They have a wide variety of applications in photonics from the microwave to the visible range such as invisibility cloaks and perfect flat lenses. For classical guided microwaves, left-handed transmission lines have been proposed and studied on the macroscopic scale. We combine these ideas in presenting a left-handed/right-handed hybrid transmission line for applications in quantum optics on a chip. The resulting system allows circuit QED to reach a new regime: multi-mode ultra-strong coupling. Out of the many potential applications of this novel device, we discuss two; the preparation of multipartite entangled states and its use as a quantum simulator for the spin-boson model where a quantum phase transition is reached up to finite size-effects.

  5. Microstructure Effects for Casimir Forces in Chiral Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander P. McCauley; Rongkuo Zhao; M. T. Homer Reid; Alejandro W. Rodriguez; Jiangfeng Zhou; F. S. S. Rosa; John D. Joannopoulos; D. A. R. Dalvit; Costas M. Soukoulis; Steven G. Johnson

    2010-06-29

    We examine a recent prediction for the chirality-dependence of the Casimir force in chiral metamaterials by numerical computation of the forces between the exact microstructures, rather than homogeneous approximations. We compute the exact force for a chiral bent-cross pattern, as well as forces for an idealized "omega"-particle medium in the dilute approximation and identify the effects of structural inhomogeneity (i.e. proximity forces and anisotropy). We find that these microstructure effects dominate the force for separations where chirality was predicted to have a strong influence. To get observations of chirality free from microstructure effects, one must go to large separations where the effect of chirality is at most $\\sim10^{-4}$ of the total force.

  6. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  7. Tapered labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials for broadband impedance Yangbo Xie, Adam Konneker, Bogdan-Ioan Popa, and Steven A. Cummera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    a long wavelength approximation, the acoustic wave equation can be expressed as @2 p @2f þ @ ln Sðf� @f metamaterials show potential as building blocks for a wide range of acoustic wave manipulation and imagingTapered labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials for broadband impedance matching Yangbo Xie, Adam

  8. Transparency Market Research | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyonsource History View New PagesTransparency

  9. Bulk Phase Relations, Conductivity, and Transparency in Novel Bixbyite Transparent Conducting Oxide Solution in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    applications, and high-temperature and radiation hard electronics.6 To date, much of the research on p of materials that transmit visible radiation and conduct electricity. They find application as transparent/cm, mobilities of 28.3 cm2 /(V s), and carrier densities of 1.2 1021 .1 As areas increase in solar cells and flat

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency controlled by a microwave field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hebin; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Welch, George R.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2009-01-01

    interferences in electromagnetically induced transparency. A simple theoretical model and a numerical simulation have been developed to explain the observed experimental results....

  11. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  12. Representation-transparent Matrix Algorithms with Scalable Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, David Stephen

    Representation-transparent Matrix Algorithms with Scalable Performance Peter Gottschling Indiana been suspended since the next round of Moore's-law improvements will be delivered via CMPs. Programmers

  13. Analytical results on Casimir forces for conductors with edges and tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emig, Thorsten

    Casimir forces between conductors at the submicron scale are paramount to the design and operation of microelectromechanical devices. However, these forces depend nontrivially on geometry, and existing analytical formulae ...

  14. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  15. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  16. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  17. Transparent self-cleaning dust shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Malay K.; Sims, Robert A.; Wilson, James D.

    2005-06-28

    A transparent electromagnetic shield to protect solar panels and the like from dust deposition. The shield is a panel of clear non-conducting (dielectric) material with embedded parallel electrodes. The panel is coated with a semiconducting film. Desirably the electrodes are transparent. The electrodes are connected to a single-phase AC signal or to a multi-phase AC signal that produces a travelling electromagnetic wave. The electromagnetic field produced by the electrodes lifts dust particles away from the shield and repels charged particles. Deposited dust particles are removed when the electrodes are activated, regardless of the resistivity of the dust. Electrostatic charges on the panel are discharged by the semiconducting film. When used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells, the power for the device may be obtained from the cells themselves. For other surfaces, such as windshields, optical windows and the like, the power must be derived from an external source. One embodiment of the invention employs monitoring and detection devices to determine when the level of obscuration of the screen by dust has reached a threshold level requiring activation of the dust removal feature.

  18. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.; Rutledge, S.K.; Roig, D.; Degroh, K.K.; Hung, C.

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  19. Doped Y.sub.2O.sub.3 buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T. (Oxford, MA) [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA) [Framingham, MA

    2007-08-21

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the metallic substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and a dopant for blocking cation diffusion through the Y.sub.2O.sub.3, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  20. Qualification of the US made conductors for ITER TF magnet system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martovetsky, N; Hatfield, D; Miller, J; Bruzzone, P; Stepanov, B; Seber, B

    2009-10-08

    The US Domestic Agency (USDA) is one of the six suppliers of the TF conductor for ITER. In order to qualify conductors according to ITER requirements we prepared several lengths of the CICC and short samples for testing in the SULTAN facility in CRPP, Switzerland. We also fully characterized the strands that were used in these SULTAN samples. Fabrication experience and test results are presented and discussed.

  1. Qualification of the US Made Conductors for ITER TF Magnet System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Hatfield, Daniel R; Miller, John R; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Seber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US Domestic Agency (USDA) is one of the six suppliers of the TF conductor for ITER. In order to qualify conductors according to ITER requirements we prepared several lengths of the CICC and short samples for testing in the SULTAN facility in CRPP, Switzerland. We also fully characterized the strands that were used in these SULTAN samples. Fabrication experience and test results are presented and discussed.

  2. Phase diagram for the transition from photonic crystals to dielectric metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Samusev, Kirill B; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F

    2015-01-01

    Photonic crystals and metamaterials represent two seemingly different classes of artificial electromagnetic media but often they are composed of similar structural elements arranged in periodic lattices. The important question is how to distinguish these two types of periodic photonic structures when their parameters, such as dielectric permittivity and lattice spacing, vary continuously. Here, we discuss transitions between photonic crystals and all-dielectric metamaterials and introduce the concept of a phase diagram and an order parameter for such structured materials, based on the physics of Mie and Bragg resonances. We show that a periodic photonic structure transforms into a metamaterial when the Mie gap opens up below the lowest Bragg bandgap where the homogenization approach can be justified and the effective permeability becomes negative. Our theoretical approach is confirmed by detailed microwave experiments for a metacrystal composed of a square lattice of glass tubes filled with heated water. This...

  3. Giant Transverse Optical Forces in Nanoscale Slot Waveguides of Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yingran; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that giant transverse optical forces can be generated in nanoscale slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials, with more than two orders of magnitude stronger compared to the force created in conventional silicon slot waveguides, due to the nanoscale optical field enhancement and the extreme optical energy compression within the air slot region. Both numerical simulation and analytical treatment are carried out to study the dependence of the optical forces on the waveguide geometries and the metamaterial permittivity tensors, including the attractive optical forces for the symmetric modes and the repulsive optical forces for the anti-symmetric modes. The significantly enhanced transverse optical forces result from the strong optical mode coupling strength between two metamaterial waveguides, which can be explained with an explicit relation derived from the coupled mode theory. Moreover, the calculation on realistic metal-dielectric multilayer structures indicates that the predicted giant ...

  4. Electrically tunable terahertz wave modulator based on complementary metamaterial and graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Xun-jun, E-mail: hexunjun@hrbust.edu.cn; Li, Teng-yue; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian-min; Jiang, Jiu-xing [Department of Electronic Science and technology, School of Applied Sciences, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Yang, Guo-hui; Meng, Fan-yi; Wu, Qun [Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, we design and numerically demonstrate an electrically controllable light-matter interaction in a hybrid material/metamaterial system consisting of an artificially constructed cross cut-wire complementary metamaterial and an atomically thin graphene layer to realize terahertz (THz) wave modulator. By applying a bias voltage between the metamaterial and the graphene layer, this modulator can dynamically control the amplitude and phase of the transmitted wave near 1.43 THz. Moreover, the distributions of current density show that this large modulation depth can be attributed to the resonant electric field parallel to the graphene sheet. Therefore, the modulator performance indicates the enormous potential of graphene for developing sophisticated THz communication systems.

  5. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail; Simovski, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have suggested dielectric metamaterial composed as an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously can suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our precedent theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  6. $Nb_{3}Al$ prototype conductor for the transmission line magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barzi, E; Malamud, E; Mazur, P O; Piekarz, H; Wake, M; Hayashi, K; Koganeya, M

    1999-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), under consideration for construction at Fermilab in the next 1-2 decades, is a 100 TeV cm pp collider. A major cost driver is the magnet. R&D is underway on several possible magnet designs. A low-field (2T) superferric magnet, sometimes called a transmission line magnet, may be the most cost- effective route to the VLHC. Although NbTi is now the cheapest superconductor measured in cost/kA-meter, Nb/sub 3/Al has the potential advantage that it remains superconducting at higher temperature. It may be particularly suited to the single "turn" and long straight lengths of the transmission line design. The combination of the simple magnet design and the higher strain tolerance than e.g. Nb/sub 3/Sn allows a simple process of cable fabrication, reaction, and magnet assembly. This higher strain tolerance is an advantage for splicing in the field. Sumitomo Electric Industries is producing an Nb/sub 3/Al conductor for the Fermilab low-field magnet program. (9 refs).

  7. Texas Cities in the Era of Government Transparency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearfield, Domonic; Bowman, Ann O'M

    2014-01-01

    citizens and government, increased transparency can offer a way to bridge this divide. Clear, organized and useful data posted online is a good indicator of a city’s transparency. It is best for city governments to engage their citizens in a dialogue about...

  8. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  9. Matched slow pulses using double electromagnetically induced transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lvovsky, Alexander

    Matched slow pulses using double electromagnetically induced transparency Andrew MacRae,* Geoff, 2008 We implement double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in rubidium vapor using Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 270.1670, 270.5585, 190.5530. Electromagnetically induced

  10. Active metamaterials: sign of refraction index and gain-assisted dispersion management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander A. Govyadinov; Mikhail A. Noginov; Viktor A. Podolskiy

    2007-04-27

    We derive an approach to define the causal direction of the wavevector of modes in optical metamaterials, which in turn, determines signs of refractive index and impedance as a function of {\\it real and imaginary} parts of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability. We use the developed technique to demonstrate that the interplay between resonant response of constituents of metamaterials can be used to achieve efficient dispersion management. Finally we demonstrate broadband dispersion-less index and impedance matching in active nanowire-based negative index materials. Our work opens new practical applications of negative index composites for broadband lensing, imaging, and pulse-routing.

  11. Laser-ablative engineering of phase singularities in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Kabashin, Andrei V.; Zywietz, Urs; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.; Reinhardt, Carsten; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2014-02-17

    By using methods of laser-induced transfer combined with nanoparticle lithography, we design and fabricate large-area gold nanoparticle-based metamaterial arrays exhibiting extreme Heaviside-like phase jumps in reflected light due to a strong diffractive coupling of localized plasmons. When employed in sensing schemes, these phase singularities provide the sensitivity of 5?×?10{sup 4} deg. of phase shift per refractive index unit change that is comparable with best values reported for plasmonic biosensors. The implementation of sensor platforms on the basis of such metamaterial arrays promises a drastic improvement of sensitivity and cost efficiency of plasmonic biosensing devices.

  12. Integrated broadband bowtie antenna on transparent substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xingyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhan, Qiwen; Pan, Zeyu; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T

    2015-01-01

    The bowtie antenna is a topic of growing interest in recent years. In this paper, we design, fabricate, and characterize a modified gold bowtie antenna integrated on a transparent glass substrate. We numerically investigate the antenna characteristics, specifically its resonant frequency and enhancement factor. We simulate the dependence of resonance frequency on bowtie geometry, and verify the simulation results through experimental investigation, by fabricating different sets of bowtie antennas on glass substrates utilizing CMOS compatible processes and measuring their resonance frequencies. Our designed bowtie antenna provides a strong broadband electric field enhancement in its feed gap. The far-field radiation pattern of the bowtie antenna is measured, and it shows dipole-like characteristics with large beam width. Such a broadband antenna will be useful for a myriad of applications, ranging from wireless communications to electromagnetic wave detection.

  13. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bijunath Patla; Robert J. Nemiroff

    2011-12-12

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discussed.

  14. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2012-12-25

    A method for forming a transparent ceramic preform in one embodiment includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, wherein the suspension includes a dispersant, with the proviso that the suspension does not include a gelling agent; and uniformly curing the suspension for forming a preform of gelled suspension. A method according to another embodiment includes creating a mixture of inorganic particles, a solvent and a dispersant, the inorganic particles having a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm; agitating the mixture; adding the mixture to a mold; and curing the mixture in the mold for gelling the mixture, with the proviso that no gelling agent is added to the mixture.

  15. Spatiotemporal electromagnetic soliton and spatial ring formation in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jinggui; Wen Shuangchun; Xiang Yuanjiang; Wang Youwen; Luo Hailu [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Computer and Communication, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2010-02-15

    We present a systematic investigation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in metamaterials (MMs) with simultaneous cubic electric and magnetic nonlinearity. We predict that spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons may exist in the positive-index region of a MM with focusing nonlinearity and anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD), as well as in the negative-index region of the MM with defocusing nonlinearity and normal GVD. The experimental circumstances for generating and manipulating spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons can be created by elaborating appropriate MMs. In addition, we find that, in the negative-index region of a MM, a spatial ring may be formed as the electromagnetic pulse propagates for focusing nonlinearity and anomalous GVD; while the phenomenon of temporal splitting of the electromagnetic pulse may appear for the same case except for the defocusing nonlinearity. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear magnetization makes the sign of effective electric nonlinear effect switchable due to the combined action of electric and magnetic nonlinearity, exerting a significant influence on the propagation of electromagnetic pulses.

  16. Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hautier, Geoffroy

    The development of high-performance transparent conducting oxides is critical to many technologies from transparent electronics to solar cells. Whereas n-type transparent conducting oxides are present in many devices, their ...

  17. Heavy duty insulator assemblies for 500-kV bulk power transmission line with large diameter octagonalbundled conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Hayase, I.; Hirai, J.; Inove, M.; Naito, K.; Yukino, T.

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes the design procedure and the results of field tests on mechanical performances of insulator assemblies newly developed to support octagonal-bundled conductors for 500-kV bulk power transmission. Taking account of conductor-motion-induced peak tensile load, fatigue, torsional torque and others, a successful design has been achieved in two prototype assemblies for such heavy mechanical duties as encountered during conductor galloping or swing. This has been proved throughout three years of the field tests.

  18. 2011 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radev, R

    2012-04-30

    During the 2008 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. They also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2008, there were 158 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 158 person-trips, 148 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 6 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 8 to UEIE itself. There were three monitoring visits (source changes) that were back-to-back with a total of 24 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2008, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency now has thirteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  19. One-way propagation of light in Born-Infeld-like metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitorio A. De Lorenci; Jonas P. Pereira

    2014-12-18

    We propose and investigate a family of nonlinear metamaterials in which light rays propagate just in one direction -- one-way propagation. Furthermore, we argue how such nonlinear media could provide an analog model for investigating the Born-Infeld Lagrangian in the realm of fields larger than its scale field.

  20. Realization and Modeling of Metamaterials Made of rf Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ,5], cloaking [6,7], transformation optics [8,9], and perfect absorption [10]. Most of the applications invoking in space (e.g., for cloaking or transformation optics) or that can be tuned and reconfigured after for digital rf receivers [25,26]. Superconducting metamaterials have been proposed to address all three

  1. Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansey, Eli

    Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis Eli a horizontally-oriented multi-junction solar cell by creating an array of cavities tuned with targeted CMs of New York, New York, NY, USA 10031 August 26, 2010 ABSTRACT We have developed a method to design multi-junction

  2. Controlling terahertz waves with meta-materials and photonic bandgap structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shchegolkov, Dmitry; Azad, Abul; O' Hara, John F; Moody, Nathan A; Simakov, Evgenya I

    2010-12-07

    We will describe research conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory towards developing components for controlling terahertz waves. We employ meta-materials and, particularly, meta-films, as very compact absorbers for controlling quasioptical beams. We believe that dielectric photonic bandgap structures could replace ordinary metal waveguide devices at THz, since metal structures become extremely lossy in this frequency range.

  3. Two-Dimensional Chalcogenide Nanoplates as Tunable Metamaterials via Chemical Intercalation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Following the success of graphene and boron nitride, two- dimensional (2D) layered metal chalcogenides. Here, we explore 2D metal chalcogenides as a potential material platform for plasmonic and photonic include metamaterials with a gain medium,15,16 intermetallics,17 heavily doped semiconductors with carrier

  4. Metamaterial Perfect Absorber Based Hot Electron Photodetection Wei Li and Jason Valentine*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors, and photocatalysis systems. KEYWORDS: Plasmonics, metamaterial perfect absorber, hot electrons, infrared including photo- detection,11-20 photovoltaic devices,21,22 photocatalysis,23-26 and surface imaging.27

  5. Subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric broadband terahertz gradient index metamaterial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sang-Gil; Jeong, Ki-Hun, E-mail: kjeong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); KAIST Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kanghee; Han, Daehoon; Ahn, Jaewook [KAIST Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Structuring at subwavelength scales brings out artificial media with anomalous optical features called metamaterials. All-dielectric metamaterials have high potential for practical applications over the whole electromagnetic spectrum owing to low loss and optical isotropy. Here, we report subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial with broadband THz operation. The unit cell consists of a single subwavelength through-hole on highly resistive monocrystalline silicon. Depending on the fill-factor and period, the effective index was linearly modulated at 0.3–1.6 THz. The experimental results also demonstrate silicon gradient refractive index (Si-GRIN) lenses with parabolic index profiles through the spatial modification of a single unit cell along the radial direction. Si-GRIN lenses either focus 0.4–1.6 THz beam to the diffraction-limit or serve as a flat and thin solid immersion lens on the backside of THz photoconductive antenna for highly efficient pulse extraction. This all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial opens up opportunities for integrated THz GRIN optics.

  6. A DIPLEXER BASED ON THE SPATIAL FILTERING PROPERTY OF PLANAR ANISOTROPIC TRANSMISSION-LINE METAMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balmain, Keith G.

    Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Toronto 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G4, Canada (1) Email: joshua@waves.utoronto.ca (2) Email: balmain be referred to as a hyperbolic metamaterial [3]. As a result, under point-source excitation, resonance cones

  7. Improving the Transparency of IAEA Safeguards Reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Christopher; Hayman, Aaron M.; Wyse, Evan T.; Odlaug, Christopher S.

    2011-07-17

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data.

  8. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  9. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  10. Conformal Coating of Three-Dimensional Nanostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition for Development of Advanced Energy Storage Devices and Plasmonic Transparent Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malek, Gary Anthony

    2015-08-31

    arrays into core-shell structures via atomic layer deposition as well as into a mesoporous manganese oxide coated supercapacitor electrode are given. Another unique type of three-dimensional nanostructured substrate is nanotextured glass, which...

  11. Device Transparency: a New Model for Mobile Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strauss, Jacob A.

    This paper proposes a new storage model, device transparency, in which users view and manage their entire data collection from any of their devices, even from disconnected storage-limited devices holding only a subset of ...

  12. Do Independent Directors Cause Improvements in Firm Transparency?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Christopher S.

    Although recent research documents a positive relation between corporate transparency and the proportion of independent directors, the direction of causality is unclear. We examine a regulatory shock that substantially ...

  13. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01

    surfaces in a passive solar-heated building is to maximizeBuildings and Community Systems. -i- TRANSPARENT HEATING MIRRORS FOR PASSIVEpassive solar systems. Architecturally, a window is a very complex building

  14. Investigation of conductor swinging by wind and its application for design of compact transmission line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Fujii, K.; Kubokawa, H.; Okomura, T.; Simojima, K.; Yoshioka, V.

    1982-11-01

    In Japan it has recently become necessary to shorten the interphase spacing in overhead transmission lines because of land limitations and economical considerations. In this connection, the authors have attempted to analyze, in-depth, the possibilities of shortened interphase spacing via conductor swinging caused by wind effects: one of the important factors in the design of more compact overhead lines. This paper describes not only the investigative results of conductor swinging that were obtained both through computer simulation and in 3 years of full scale field line testing, but also design methodology for compact overhead lines based on these results.

  15. Coupled-resonator-induced transparency with a squeezed vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke Di; Changde Xie; Jing Zhang

    2011-03-17

    We present the first experimental observation of quantum fluctuation spectra in two coupled optical cavities with an injected squeezed vacuum light. The quadrature components of the reflected squeezed vacuum spectra are measured by phase sensitive homodyne detector. The experimental results demonstrate coupled-resonator-induced transparency in the quantum regime, in which electromagnetically-induced-transparency-like characteristic of the absorption and dispersion properties of the coupled optical cavities determines the line-shape of the reflected quantum noise spectra.

  16. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 47, NUMBER 4 15 JANUARY 1993-II Nonlinear voltages in multiple-lead coherent conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presilla, Carlo

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 47, NUMBER 4 15 JANUARY 1993-II Nonlinear voltages in multiple-lead to study multiple-lead coherent conductors in the case of finite applied voltages. In this framework we discuss the transverse voltage arising in a four-lead conductor with two symmetric biased leads. Recently

  18. NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government, Environmental Law Institute, 2010.

  19. Nuclear transparency in 90c.m. quasielastic A,,p,2p... reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Nelson

    Nuclear transparency in 90c.m. ° quasielastic A,,p,2p... reactions J. Aclander,7 J. Alster,7 G Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A p,2p quasielastic of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency

  20. Is Opacity A Basic Feature? It's Not Transparent. Randall S. Birnkrant Jeremy M. Wolfe Hermie Mendoza

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transparent objects and/or vice versa? Stimuli: Transparent bars were created by moving a virtual green filter Mendoza Brigham & Women's Hospital Brigham & Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School OPAQUE You spotted as a basic feature? TRANSPARENT Exp. 1: Does an opaque object stick out among transparent objects and/or vice

  1. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, K.L.; Siu, B.K.

    1996-07-09

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: (a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; (b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; (c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; (d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; (e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; (f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and (g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method. 13 figs.

  2. Tunable conductivity and conduction mechanism in an ultraviolet light activated electronic conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    to the cubic system and space group I4¯3d with a lattice parameter of 1.199 nm.3 It possesses a cage structure in the optical and electrical properties of the material. However, upon ultravio- let UV irradiation two optical conductor Mariana I. Bertoni and Thomas O. Masona Department of Materials Science and Engineering

  3. Aluminum Stabilized NbTi Conductor Test Coil Design, Fabrication, and Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.; Makarov, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Nakamoto, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-09-01

    A new generation of precision muon conversion experiments is planned at both Fermilab and KEK. These experiments will depend upon a complex set of solenoid magnets for the production, momentum selection and transport of a muon beam to a stopping target, and for tracking detector momentum analysis of candidate conversion electrons from the target. Baseline designs for the production and detector solenoids use NbTi cable that is heavily stabilized by an extruded high RRR aluminum jacket. A U.S.-Japan research collaboration has begun whose goal is to advance the development of optimized Al-NbTi conductors, gain experience with the technology of winding coils from this material, and test the conductor performance as modest length samples become available. For this purpose, a 'conductor test' solenoid with three coils was designed and built at Fermilab. A sample of the RIKEN Al-NbTi conductor from KEK was wound into a 'test' coil; this was sandwiched between two 'field' coils wound from doubled SSC cable, to increase the peak field on the RIKEN test coil. All three solenoid coils were epoxy impregnated, and utilized aluminum outer bandage rings to apply preload to the coils when cold. The design and fabrication details, and results of the magnet quench performance tests are presented and discussed.

  4. Polysulfide Flow Batteries Enabled by Percolating Nanoscale Conductor Networks Frank Y. Fan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Polysulfide Flow Batteries Enabled by Percolating Nanoscale Conductor Networks Frank YKinley2 , W. Craig Carter1 , and Yet-Ming Chiang*1 Abstract A new approach to flow battery design shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility, and may thereby enable new flow battery designs

  5. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to conserving energy, and such innovative approaches are required to drive towards the DOE's goal of a 50% reduction in electric lighting consumption by 2020, and an energy efficient building. Furthermore, the team of UDC and Princeton University is ideally suited to develop and demonstrate this technical approach because of our recognized expertise in the fields of PHOLED and OLED technologies.

  6. Colloidal superlattices for unnaturally high-index metamaterials at broadband optical frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2015-01-01

    The recent advance in the assembly of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has enabled sophisticated engineering of unprecedented light-matter interaction at the optical domain. In this work, I expand the design flexibility of NP optical metamaterial to push the upper limit of accessible refractive index to the unnaturally high regime. The precise control over the geometrical parameters of NP superlattice monolayer conferred the dramatic increase in electric resonance and related effective permittivity far beyond the naturally accessible regime. Simultaneously, effective permeability, another key factor to achieving high refractive index, was effectively suppressed by reducing the thickness of NPs. By establishing this design rule, I have achieved unnaturally high refractive index (15.7 at the electric resonance and 7.3 at the quasi-static limit) at broadband optical frequencies (100 THz ~ 300 THz). I also combined this NP metamaterial with graphene to electrically control the high refractive index over the broad opt...

  7. Visco-thermal effects in acoustic metamaterials: from total transmission to total reflection and high absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molerón, Miguel; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate visco-thermal effects on the acoustic propagation through metamaterials consisting of rigid slabs with subwavelength slits embedded in air. We demonstrate that this unavoidable loss mechanism is not merely a refinement, but it plays a dominant role in the actual acoustic response of the structure. Specifically, in the case of very narrow slits, the visco-thermal losses avoid completely the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonances, leading to 100% reflection. This is exactly opposite to the perfect transmission predicted in the idealised lossless case. Moreover, for a wide range of geometrical parameters, there exists an optimum slit width at which the energy dissipated in the structure can be as high as 50%. This work provides a clear evidence that visco-thermal effects are necessary to describe realistically the acoustic response of locally resonant metamaterials.

  8. An experimental verification of metamaterial coupled enhanced transmission for antenna applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pushpakaran, Sarin V.; Raj, Rohith K.; Pradeep, Anju; Ouseph, Lindo; Hari, Mridula; Chandroth, Aanandan; Pezholil, Mohanan; Kesavath, Vasudevan

    2014-02-10

    Inspired by the work of Bethe on electromagnetic transmission through subwavelength hole, there has been immense interest on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength slot/slit on metal plates. The invention of metamaterials has boosted the extra ordinary transmission through subwavelength slots. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of metamaterial cover using an array of split ring resonators (SRRs), for enhancing the transmission in a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. The front to back ratio is considerably improved by enhancing the magnetic resonant strength in close proximity of the slit of the upper parasitic dipole. The effect of stacking height of the SRR monolayer on the resonant characteristics of the split ring resonators and its effect on antenna radiation characteristics has been studied.

  9. Super-Planckian far-zone thermal emission from asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nefedov, Igor S.; Melnikov, Leonid A.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate the production of strong directive thermal emissions in the far-field zone of asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMs), exceeding that predicted by Planck's limit. Asymmetry is inherent to the uniaxial medium, where the optical axis is tilted with respect to medium interfaces. The use of AHMs is shown to enhance the free-space coupling efficiency of thermally radiated waves, resulting in Super-Planckian far-field thermal emission in certain directions. This effect is impossible in usual hyperbolic materials because emission of high density of states (DOS) photons into vacuum with smaller DOS is preserved by the total internal reflection. Different plasmonic metamaterials are proposed for realizing AHM media; the thermal emission from a AHM, based on a grapheme multilayer structure, is presented, as an example.

  10. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipton, Robert Polizzi, Anthony

    2014-10-14

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  11. Amplitude and phase-resolved measurements of optical metamaterials in the mid-infrared by phase matched electro-optic sampling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Wendt, Joel Robert; Bender, Daniel A.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-03-01

    We describe a time-domain spectroscopy system in the thermal infrared used for complete transmission and reflection characterization of metamaterials in amplitude and phase. The system uses a triple-output near-infrared ultrafast fiber laser, phase-locked difference frequency generation and phase-matched electro-optic sampling. We will present measurements of several metamaterials designs.

  12. Selective buckling via states of self-stress in topological metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayson Paulose; Anne S. Meeussen; Vincenzo Vitelli

    2015-08-05

    States of self-stress, tensions and compressions of structural elements that result in zero net forces, play an important role in determining the load-bearing ability of structures ranging from bridges to metamaterials with tunable mechanical properties. We exploit a class of recently introduced states of self-stress analogous to topological quantum states to sculpt localized buckling regions in the interior of periodic cellular metamaterials. Although the topological states of self stress arise in the linear response of an idealized mechanical frame of harmonic springs connected by freely-hinged joints, they leave a distinct signature in the nonlinear buckling behaviour of a cellular material built out of elastic beams with rigid joints. The salient feature of these localized buckling regions is that they are indistinguishable from their surroundings as far as material parameters or connectivity of their constituent elements are concerned. Furthermore, they are robust against a wide range of structural perturbations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this topological design through analytical and numerical calculations as well as buckling experiments performed on two- and three-dimensional metamaterials built out of stacked kagome lattices.

  13. Tunable microwave impedance matching to a high impedance source using a Josephson metamaterial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altimiras, Carles, E-mail: carles.altimiras@sns.it; Parlavecchio, Olivier; Joyez, Philippe; Vion, Denis; Roche, Patrice; Esteve, Daniel; Portier, Fabien [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé (CNRS URA 2464), IRAMIS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé (CNRS URA 2464), IRAMIS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-18

    We report the efficient coupling of a 50??? microwave circuit to a high impedance conductor. We use an impedance transformer consisting of a ?/4 co-planar resonator whose inner conductor contains an array of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), providing it with a tunable lineic inductance L?80??{sub 0}, resulting in a characteristic impedance Z{sub C}?1?k?. The impedance matching efficiency is characterized by measuring the shot noise power emitted by a dc biased tunnel junction connected to the resonator. We demonstrate matching to impedances in the 15 to 35?k? range with bandwidths above 100?MHz around a resonant frequency tunable between 4 and 6 GHz.

  14. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency from a Single Atom in Free Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Slodicka; G. Hetet; S. Gerber; M. Hennrich; R. Blatt

    2010-05-18

    We report an absorption spectroscopy experiment and the observation of electromagnetically induced transparency from a single trapped atom. We focus a weak and narrowband Gaussian light beam onto an optically cooled Barium ion using a high numerical aperture lens. Extinction of this beam is observed with measured values of up to 1.3 %. We demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency of the ion by tuning a strong control beam over a two-photon resonance in a three-level lambda-type system. The probe beam extinction is inhibited by more than 75 % due to population trapping.

  15. Matched Slow Pulses Using Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew MacRae; Geoff Campbell; A. I. Lvovsky

    2008-09-29

    We implement double electromagnetically-induced transparency (double EIT) in rubidium vapor, using a tripod-shaped energy level scheme consisting of hyperfine and magnetic sublevels of the 5S1/2 to 5P1/2 transition. We show experimentally that through the use of double EIT one can control the contrast of transparency windows as well as group velocities of the two signal fields. In particular, the group velocities can be equalized, which holds promise to greatly enhance nonlinear optical interaction between these fields.

  16. Apparatus and method for measuring critical current properties of a coated conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Haenisch, Jens (Dresden, DE)

    2012-07-24

    The transverse critical-current uniformity in a superconducting tape was determined using a magnetic knife apparatus. A critical current I.sub.c distribution and transverse critical current density J.sub.c distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured nondestructively with high resolution using a magnetic knife apparatus. The method utilizes the strong depression of J.sub.c in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low, including zero, magnetic field in a surrounding higher field is moved transversely across a sample of coated conductor. This reveals the critical current density distribution. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J.sub.c distribution in the sample.

  17. Magnetization measurements on multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn and NbTi conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The effective filament size has been determined for a number of high current Nb/sub 3/Sn multifilamentary composites. In most cases it is much larger than the nominal filament size. For the smallest filaments (approx. 1 micron) the effective size can be as much as a factor of forty times the nominal size. Samples made by the internal tin, bronze route, and jelly roll methods have been examined with filaments in the range one to ten microns. Rate dependent magnetization and flux jumping have been observed in some cases. NbTi composites ranging in filament size from nine to two hundred microns and with copper to super-conductor ratios between 1.6:1 and 7:1 have been examined in the same apparatus. Low field flux jumping was only observed in conductors with very large filaments and relatively little stabilizing copper. 9 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Particle trap to sheath non-binding contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-24

    A non-binding particle trap to outer sheath contact for use in gas insulated transmission lines having a corrugated outer conductor. The non-binding feature of the contact according to the teachings of the invention is accomplished by having a lever arm rotatably attached to a particle trap by a pivot support axis disposed parallel to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulator/particle trap assembly.

  19. Sponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Flexible and Transparent Optoelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    to fabricate high-performance and flexible electronics. The physics of Quantum-dots Light Emitting Diodes as a Postdoctoral Research Associate, where he was involved in research of flexible and stretchable electronicSponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Flexible and Transparent Optoelectronics based

  20. Avaki Data Grid Secure Transparent Access to Data Andrew Grimshaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimshaw, Andrew

    1 of 27 Avaki Data Grid ­ Secure Transparent Access to Data Andrew Grimshaw Mike Herrick Anand and development by the Grid community we see Grids (then called Metasystems [3]) being deployed around the world both in academic settings, and more tellingly, in production commercial settings. What is a Grid? What

  1. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  2. Score Region Algebra: Building a Transparent XML-IR Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    imple- mented the algebra operators in a prototype system on top of a low-level database kernel algebra framework on top of any low-level physical database engine or existing RDBMS, allowing a more sysScore Region Algebra: Building a Transparent XML-IR Database Vojkan Mihajlovi´c Henk Ernst Blok

  3. Optical models of the big bang and non-trivial space-time metrics based on metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2009-08-17

    Optics of metamaterials is shown to provide interesting table top models of many non-trivial space-time metrics. The range of possibilities is broader than the one allowed in classical general relativity. For example, extraordinary waves in indefinite metamaterials experience an effective metric, which is formally equivalent to the "two times physics" model in 2+2 dimensions. An optical analogue of a "big bang" event is presented during which a (2+1) Minkowski space-time is created together with large number of particles populating this space-time. Such metamaterial models enable experimental exploration of the metric phase transitions to and from the Minkowski space-time as a function of temperature and/or light frequency.

  4. Comparison of gold- and graphene-based resonant nanostructures for terahertz metamaterials and an ultrathin graphene-based modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Nian-Hai [Ames Laboratory; Tassin, Philippe [Ames Laboratory; Koschny, Thomas [Ames Laboratory; Soukoulis, Costas M [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Graphene exhibits unique material properties, and in electromagnetic wave technology it raises the prospect of devices miniaturized down to the atomic length scale. Here we study split-ring resonator metamaterials made from graphene and we compare them to gold-based metamaterials. We find that graphene's huge reactive response derived from its large kinetic inductance allows for deeply subwavelength resonances, although its resonance strength is reduced due to higher dissipative loss damping and smaller dipole coupling. Nevertheless, tightly stacked graphene rings may provide for negative permeability and the electric dipole resonance of graphene meta-atoms turns out to be surprisingly strong. Based on these findings, we present a terahertz modulator based on a metamaterial with a multilayer stack of alternating patterned graphene sheets separated by dielectric spacers. Neighboring graphene flakes are biased against each other, resulting in modulation depths of over 75% at a transmission level of around 90%.

  5. Excitation of surface waves by a short laser pulse in a conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uryupin, S A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Frolov, A A [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-31

    We have studied the possibility of exciting surface waves in a conductor, which is irradiated by a focused femtosecond laser pulse incident along the normal to the surface. The time-dependent ponderomotive force is shown to lead to the excitation of surface waves in the terahertz frequency range. It is also shown that the total energy and the pulse amplitude of the surface waves increases with increasing effective electron collision frequency. (terahertz radiation)

  6. On the Dependence of Charge Density on Surface Curvature of an Isolated Conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Kolahal

    2015-01-01

    A study of the relation between the electrostatic charge density at a point on a conducting surface and the curvature of the surface (at that point) is presented. Two major scientific literature on this topic are reviewed and the apparent discrepancy between them is resolved. Hence, a step is taken towards obtaining a general analytic formula for relating the charge density with surface curvature of conductors. The merit of this formula and its limitations are discussed.

  7. Heteroclite electrochemical stability of an I based Li7P2S8I superionic conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Liu, Zengcai; Gobet, Mallory; Pilar, Kartik; Sahu, Gayatri; Greenbaum, Steve; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Stability from Instability: A Li7P2S8I solid state Li-ion conductor derived from -Li3PS4 and LiI demonstrates exceptional electrochemical stability. The oxidation instability of I is subverted nullified via its incorporation into the coordinated structure. The inclusion of I also creates stability with metallic Li anode while simultaneously improving the interfacial kinetics. Low temperature membrane processability enables facile fabrication of dense membranes, making it suitable for industrial adoption.

  8. Creating transparency in the Chinese real estate development industry : a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Feng, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Transparency issue remains one of the top issues that have discouraged foreign investors to invest China's real estate market. This thesis establishes a framework for Chinese developers to create transparency for their ...

  9. FEMCAM Analysis of SULTAN Test Results for ITER Nb3SN Cable-conduit Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhu Zhai, Pierluigi Bruzzone, Ciro Calzolaio

    2013-03-19

    Performance degradation due to filament fracture of Nb3 Sn cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) is a critical issue in large-scale magnet designs such as ITER which is currently being constructed in the South of France. The critical current observed in most SULTAN TF CICC samples is significantly lower than expected and the voltage-current characteristic is seen to have a much broader transition from a single strand to the CICC. Moreover, most conductors exhibit the irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and strain relaxation under electromagnetic cyclic loading. With recent success in monitoring thermal strain distribution and its evolution under the electromagnetic cyclic loading from in situ measurement of critical temperature, we apply FEMCAM which includes strand filament breakage and local current sharing effects to SULTAN tested CICCs to study Nb3 Sn strain sensitivity and irreversible performance degradation. FEMCAM combines the thermal bending effect during cool down and the EM bending effect due to locally accumulating Lorentz force during magnet operation. It also includes strand filament fracture and related local current sharing for the calculation of cable n value. In this paper, we model continuous performance degradation under EM cyclic loading based on strain relaxation and the transition broadening upon cyclic loading to the extreme cases seen in SULTAN test data to better quantify conductor performance degradation.

  10. Text-Alternative Version of TAP Webinar: Measuring the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of the June TAP webinar, Measuring the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency - Methodologies and the NYC Example.

  11. Transparent Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Self-Powered Pressure Sensors Based on Micropatterned Plastic Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    generator, we demonstrate a new high-output, flexible and transparent nanogenerator by using transparent of power generation can be developed to build a high-output, flexible, and transparent NG. To make) fabricating various PDMS pattern arrays to enhance the friction effect, resulting in a high-output generator

  12. Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

  13. Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12; 2 #12; Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

  14. TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level flow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

  15. TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level ¤ow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

  16. Transparent Incremental State Saving in Time Warp Parallel Discrete Event Robert Rnngren, Michael Liljenstam Johan Montagnat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Transparent Incremental State Saving in Time Warp Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Robert is the state saving mechanism. It should not only allow efficient state saving, but also support efficient is transparent to the user. In this paper we present a method to implement a transparent incremental state saving

  17. Giant Photoresponsivity of Mid-Infrared Hyperbolic Metamaterials in the Quantum Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Sakhdari, Maryam; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We explore broadband, wide-angle mid-infrared rectification based on nanopatterned hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM), composed of two dissimilar metals separated by a sub-nanometer tunnel barrier. The exotic slow-light modes supported by such periodically trenched HMMs efficiently trap incident radiation in massively parallel metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions supporting ultrafast optical rectification induced by photon-assisted tunneling. This leads to highly efficient photon-to-electron conversion, orders of magnitude larger than conventional rectennas. Our results promise an impact on infrared energy harvesters and plasmonic photodetectors.

  18. Negative-Index Metamaterials: Second-Harmonic Generation, Manley-Rowe Relations and Parametric Amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Popov; Vladimir M. Shalaev

    2006-01-10

    Second harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification in negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) are studied. The opposite directions of the wave vector and the Poynting vector in NIMs results in a "backward" phase-matching condition, causing significant changes in the Manley-Rowe relations and spatial distributions of the coupled field intensities. It is shown that absorption in NIMs can be compensated by backward optical parametric amplification. The possibility of distributed-feedback parametric oscillation with no cavity has been demonstrated. The feasibility of the generation of entangled pairs of left- and right-handed counter-propagating photons is discussed.

  19. Replication of patterned thin-film structures for use in plasmonics and metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norris, David J; Han, Sang Eon; Bhan, Aditya; Nagpal, Prashant; Lindquist, Nathan Charles; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2015-02-03

    The present invention provides templating methods for replicating patterned metal films from a template substrate such as for use in plasmonic devices and metamaterials. Advantageously, the template substrate is reusable and can provide plural copies of the structure of the template substrate. Because high-quality substrates that are inherently smooth and flat are available, patterned metal films in accordance with the present invention can advantageously provide surfaces that replicate the surface characteristics of the template substrate both in the patterned regions and in the unpatterned regions.

  20. A novel approach to Hugoniot measurements utilizing transparent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Akin, M. C.; Chau, R.; Holmes, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new absolute equation of state measurement technique is described and demonstrated measuring the shock state and the refractive index of MgO up to 226GPa. This technique utilizes steady shock waves and the high-pressure transparency of MgO under dynamic shock compression and release. Hugoniot measurements performed using this technique are consistent with the previous measurements. A linear dependence of the shocked refractive index and density is observed up to 226GPa, over a magnitude greater in pressure that previous studies. The transparency of MgO along the principal Hugoniot is higher than any other material reported to date. We observe a significant change in the refractive index of MgO as the Hugoniot elastic limit is exceeded due to the transition from uniaxial to hydrostatic strain. Measurements of the elastic-plastic two-wave structure in MgO indicate a nucleation time for plastic deformation.

  1. 2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radev, R

    2006-04-21

    During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

  2. Consistency among distance measurements: transparency, BAO scale and accelerated expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Avgoustidis; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez

    2009-06-11

    We explore consistency among different distance measures, including Supernovae Type Ia data, measurements of the Hubble parameter, and determination of the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale. We present new constraints on the cosmic transparency combining $H(z)$ data together with the latest Supernova Type Ia data compilation. This combination, in the context of a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, improves current constraints by nearly an order of magnitude. We re-examine the recently reported tension between the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale and Supernovae data in light of possible deviations from transparency, concluding that the source of the discrepancy may most likely be found among systematic effects of the modelling of the low redshift data or a simple $\\sim 2-\\sigma$ statistical fluke, rather than in exotic physics. Finally, we attempt to draw model-independent conclusions about the recent accelerated expansion, determining the acceleration redshift to be $z_{acc}=0.35^{+0.20}_{-0.13}$ (1-$\\sigma$).

  3. Composition for forming an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Lewis, Linda A.

    2015-12-29

    A composition for producing an optically clear, well bonded superhydrophobic coating includes a plurality of hydrophobic particles comprising an average particle size of about 200 nm or less, a binder at a binder concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.5 wt. %, and a solvent. The hydrophobic particles may be present in the composition at a particle concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 1 wt. %. An optically transparent, superhydrophobic surface includes a substrate, a plurality of hydrophobic particles having an average particle size of about 200 nm or less dispersed over the substrate, and a discontinuous binder layer bonding the hydrophobic particles to the substrate, where the hydrophobic particles and the binder layer form an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating.

  4. Compound transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard L.

    2012-12-11

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform includes forming a first suspension of oxide particles in a first solvent which includes a first dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the first suspension to a first mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the first suspension in the first mold until stable. The method also includes forming a second suspension of oxide particles in a second solvent which includes a second dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the second suspension to the stable first suspension in a second mold of a desired shape encompassing the first suspension and the second suspension, and uniformly curing the second suspension in the second mold until stable. Other methods for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several other embodiments. Structures are also disclosed.

  5. Transparent runtime parallelization of the R scripting language

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Scripting languages such as R and Matlab are widely used in scientific data processing. As the data volume and the complexity of analysis tasks both grow, sequential data processing using these tools often becomes the bottleneck in scientific workflows. We describe pR, a runtime framework for automatic and transparent parallelization of the popular R language used in statistical computing. Recognizing scripting languages interpreted nature and data analysis codes use pattern, we propose several novel techniques: (1) applying parallelizing compiler technology to runtime, whole-program dependence analysis of scripting languages, (2) incremental code analysis assisted with evaluation results, and (3) runtime parallelization of file accesses. Our framework does not require any modification to either the source code or the underlying R implementation. Experimental results demonstrate that pR can exploit both task and data parallelism transparently and overall has better performance as well as scalability compared to an existing parallel R package that requires code modification.

  6. First Principles Study of the Li[subscript 10]GeP[subscript 2]S[subscript 12] Lithium Super Ionic Conductor Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Yifei

    The continued drive for high performance lithium batteries has imposed stricter requirements on the electrolyte materials. Solid electrolytes comprising lithium super ionic conductor materials exhibit good safety and ...

  7. Yttrium oxide transparent ceramics by low-temperature microwave sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Junming, E-mail: ljmniat@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhong, Zhenchen; Xu, Jilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the SEM photos of the surfaces of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramic samples obtained by microwave sintering and vacuum sintering. It is clearly demonstrated that the grain distribution of the vacuum sintering sample is not uniform with the smallest and the largest particle size at about 2 ?m and 15 ?m respectively, while the grain distribution of microwave sintering sample is uniform with the average diameter at about 2–4 ?m (the smallest reported so far) and with no abnormal growth-up or coarsening phenomenon. We have further found out that the smaller the grain size, the higher the mechanical and optical properties. Display Omitted Highlights: ? The microwave sintering temperature of the sample is lower compared with vacuum. ? The microwave sintering time of the sample is shorter compared with vacuum. ? The mechanical properties of the microwave sintering sample is improved greatly. ? The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} grain of microwave sintering sample is the smallest reported so far. -- Abstract: Yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) transparent ceramics samples have been successfully fabricated by microwave sintering processing at relatively low temperatures. In comparison with the vacuum sintering processing, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramics can be obtained by microwave sintering at lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, and they possess higher transmittances and mechanical properties. The technologies of low-temperature microwave sintering and the relationships of the microstructures and properties of the specified samples have been investigated in detail. We have found out that the low-temperature microwave sintering technique has its obvious advantages over the conventional methods in manufacturing yttrium oxide transparent ceramics.

  8. Nanoantennas for enhanced light trapping in transparent organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a light-trapping structure offering a significant enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in transparent organic solar cells operating at infrared while the visible light transmission keeps sufficiently high. The main mechanism of light trapping is related with the excitation of collective oscillations of the metal nanoantenna arrays, characterized by advantageous field distribution in the volume of the solar cell. It allows more than triple increase of infrared photovoltaic absorption.

  9. Ultraslow Propagation of Squeezed Vacuum Pulses with Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Akamatsu; Yoshihiko Yokoi; Manabu Arikawa; Satoshi Nagatsuka; Takahito Tanimura; Akira Furusawa; Mikio Kozuma

    2008-01-27

    We have succeeded in observing ultraslow propagation of squeezed vacuum pulses with electromagnetically induced transparency. Squeezed vacuum pulses (probe lights) were incident on a laser cooled 87Rb gas together with an intense coherent light (control light). A homodyne method sensitive to the vacuum state was employed for detecting the probe pulse passing through the gas. A delay of 3.1us was observed for the probe pulse having a temporal width of 10 us.

  10. Methods of fabricating a conductor assembly having a curvilinear arcuate shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinke, Rainer (Melbourne, FL) [Melbourne, FL

    2011-08-23

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly along a curvilinear axis. The assembly may be of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In one example, the assembly includes a structure having a curved shape extending along the axis. A surface of the structure is positioned for formation of a channel along the curved shape. The structure is rotated about a second axis. While rotating the structure, a channel is formed in the surface that results in a helical shape in the structure. The channel extends both around and along the first axis.

  11. Individual grain boundary properties and overall performance of metal-organic-deposition coated conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigand, Marcus; Speller, Susannah; Hughes, Gareth; Rutter, Noel Anthony; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Grovenor, Chris; Durrell, John H.

    2010-04-13

    . Berghuis, and J. E. Evetts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3855 (1998). 18 J. H. Durrell, M. J. Hogg, F. Kahlmann, Z. H. Barber, M. G. Blamire, and J. E. Evetts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247006 (2003). 19 D. M. Feldmann, T. G. Holesinger, R. Feenstra, C. Can- toni, W... -co n] 1 3 A pr 20 10 Individual grain boundary properties and overall performance of metal-organic-deposition coated conductors M. Weigand,1 S. C. Speller,2 G. M. Hughes,2 N. A. Rutter,1 S. Lozano-Perez,2 C. R. M. Grovenor,2 and J. H. Durrell1, ? 1...

  12. High current density electropolishing in the preparation of highly smooth substrate tapes for coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreiskott, Sascha (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-03-31

    A continuous process of forming a highly smooth surface on a metallic tape by passing a metallic tape having an initial roughness through an acid bath contained within a polishing section of an electropolishing unit over a pre-selected period of time, and, passing a mean surface current density of at least 0.18 amperes per square centimeter through the metallic tape during the period of time the metallic tape is in the acid bath whereby the roughness of the metallic tape is reduced. Such a highly smooth metallic tape can serve as a base substrate in subsequent formation of a superconductive coated conductor.

  13. Generation of non-classical photon states in superconducting quantum metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. I. Mukhin; M. V. Fistul

    2013-02-22

    We report a theoretical study of diverse non-classical photon states that can be realized in superconducting quantum metamaterials. As a particular example of superconducting quantum metamaterials an array of SQUIDs incorporated in a low-dissipative transmission line (resonant cavity) will be studied. This system will be modeled as a set of two-levels systems (qubits) strongly interacting with resonant cavity photons. We predict and analyze {a second(first)-order phase transition} between an incoherent (the high-temperature phase) and coherent (the low-temperatures phase) states of photons. In equilibrium state the partition function $Z$ of the electromagnetic field (EF) in the cavity is determined by the effective action $S_{eff}\\{P(\\tau)\\}$ that, in turn, depends on imaginary-time dependent momentum of photon field $P(\\tau)$. We show that the order parameter of this phase transition is the $P_{0}(\\tau)$ minimizing the effective action of a whole system. In the incoherent state the order parameter $P_{0}(\\tau)=0$ but at low temperatures we obtain various coherent states characterized by non-zero values of $P_{0}(\\tau)$. This phase transition in many aspects resembles the Peierls metal-insulator and the metal-superconductor phase transitions. The critical temperature of such phase transition $T^\\star$ is determined by the energy splitting of two-level systems $\\Delta$, a number of SQUIDs in the array $N$, and the strength of the interaction $\\eta$ between SQUIDs and photons in cavity.

  14. Hyperbolic-metamaterial antennas for broadband enhancement of dipole emission to free space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valagiannopoulos, C. A.; Mirmoosa, M. S.; Nefedov, I. S.; Tretyakov, S. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2014-10-28

    Dipole emitters used in nano optics and nanophotonics (e.g., fluorescent molecules or quantum dots) are weak radiators and thus detecting the radiation of a single emitter gets possible only if it is significantly enhanced. For this enhancement, one often utilizes resonant nanoantennas (Purcell's effect); this method, however, requires the exact knowledge of source location and radiation frequency which constitute a significant drawback. One known possibility for broadband location-insensitive radiation enhancement is to use a layer of the so-called hyperbolic metamaterial. However, the enhanced radiated energy is mainly directed into the volume of the lossy medium, where it is lost to heating. In this work, we suggest specific shapes of macroscopic hyperbolic metamaterial samples to open radiation windows for enhanced radiation to free space. We show that hyperbolic media slabs with properly shaped macroscopic grooves convert the evanescent waves produced by a dipole into waves traveling in free space, which results in the enhancement of useful radiation by one to two orders of magnitude. That level of enhancement of radiation into free-space which is also wideband and of non-resonant nature has not been reported up to now. These results may open possibilities for realization of broadband and directive antennas, where the primary radiators are randomly positioned fluorescent molecules or quantum dots.

  15. Coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Stan, Liliana; Usov, Igor O.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an IBAD oriented material thereon, and, a layer of barium-containing material selected from the group consisting of barium zirconate, barium hafnate, barium titanate, barium strontium titanate, barium dysprosium zirconate, barium neodymium zirconate and barium samarium zirconate, or a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the layer of an IBAD oriented material. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of barium-containing material selected from the group consisting of barium zirconate, barium hafnate, barium titanate, barium strontium titanate, barium dysprosium zirconate, barium neodymium zirconate and barium samarium zirconate, or a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates.

  16. Progress in superconducting performance of rolled multifilamentary Bi-2223 HTS composite conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.; Riley, G.N. Jr.; Parrella, R.D. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Significant enhancements in critical current densities in rolled multifilamentary Bi-2223 HTS composite conductors have been achieved using the powder-in-tube technique. At 77 K and self field, oxide critical current densities (J{sub c})of 55 kA/cm{sup 2}, overall or engineering critical current densities of 15 kA/cm{sup 2}, and critical currents of 125 A have been achieved in different rolled multifilamentary composites. Progress in achieving such high electrical performance is believed to stem in part from an improvement of grain connectivity by reducing weak links. The J{sub c} dependence on magnetic field and the degree of c-axis texture of these high quality conductors have been investigated at various temperatures. Our results also demonstrate that the critical current retention in magnetic field can be independently controlled from the self field critical current density, suggesting that flux pinning improvements and weak link reductions can be separately engineered into Bi-2223 composites fabricated using manufacturable processes.

  17. Reconstruction of an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gen Nakamura; Haibing Wang

    2015-05-22

    Active thermography is a non-destructive testing technique to detect the internal structure of a heat conductor, which is widely applied in industrial engineering. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying an unknown cavity with Robin boundary condition inside a heat conductor from boundary measurements. To set up the inverse problem mathematically, we first state the corresponding forward problem and show its well-posedness in an anisotropic Sobolev space by the integral equation method. Then, taking the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map as mathematically idealized measured data for the active thermography, we present a linear sampling method for reconstructing the unknown Robin-type cavity and give its mathematical justification by using the layer potential argument. In addition, we analyze the indicator function used in this method and show its pointwise asymptotic behavior by investigating the reflected solution of the fundamental solution. From our asymptotic analysis, we can establish a pointwise reconstruction scheme for the boundary of the cavity, and can also know the distance to the unknown cavity as we probe it from its inside.

  18. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency in mechanical effects of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Huang, Sumei [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    We consider the dynamical behavior of a nanomechanical mirror in a high-quality cavity under the action of a coupling laser and a probe laser. We demonstrate the existence of the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the output field at the probe frequency. Our calculations show explicitly the origin of EIT-like dips as well as the characteristic changes in dispersion from anomalous to normal in the range where EIT dips occur. Remarkably the pump-probe response for the optomechanical system shares all the features of the {Lambda} system as discovered by Harris and collaborators.

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency with quantized fields in optocavity mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We report electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using quantized fields in optomechanical systems. The weak probe field is a narrowband squeezed field. We present a homodyne detection of EIT in the output quantum field. We find that the EIT dip exists even though the photon number in the squeezed vacuum is at the single-photon level. The EIT with quantized fields can be seen even at temperatures on the order of 100 mK, thus paving the way for using optomechanical systems as memory elements.

  1. Beam Collimation Using an Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab without Any Nanometer-sized Aperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shou; Cui, Yanxia; Zhang, Feng; He, Sailing; Hao, Yuying; Zhu, Furong

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic beam collimation effect has been thoroughly investigated based on the well-known nanometer-scale bull's eye structure formed by complex and high-cost fabrication processes. In this work, we report our effort for attaining beam collimation using an anisotropic metamaterial (AMM) slab that consists of a stack of alternating metal/dielectric layers and an integrated top metal grating. The results show that AMM slab allows creating the beam collimation effect similar to that of the bull's eye structure, an enabling technology for practical application due to its simple architecture and cost benefits. The excitation of surface plasmons at the AMM/air interface is derived. The structure of the AMM slab and its impact on beaming performance were analyzed using the effective medium theory and Finite Element Method.

  2. Nonlocal effective medium analysis in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lei; Luk, Ting S; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The optical nonlocality in symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials is theoretically and experimentally investigated with respect to transverse-magnetic-polarized incident light. A nonlocal effective medium theory is derived from the transfer-matrix method to determine the nonlocal effective permittivity depending on both the frequency and wave vector in a symmetric metal-dielectric multilayer stack. In contrast to the local effective medium theory, our proposed nonlocal effective medium theory can accurately predict measured incident angle-dependent reflection spectra from a fabricated multilayer stack and provide nonlocal dispersion relations. Moreover, the bulk plasmon polaritons with large wave vectors supported in the multilayer stack are also investigated with the nonlocal effective medium theory through the analysis of the dispersion relation and eigenmode.

  3. Achieving selective interrogation and sub-wavelength resolution in thin plates with embedded metamaterial acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semperlotti, F., E-mail: fsemperl@nd.edu; Zhu, H. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    In this study, we present an approach to ultrasonic beam-forming and high resolution identification of acoustic sources having critical implications for applications such as structural health monitoring. The proposed concept is based on the design of dynamically tailored structural elements via embedded acoustic metamaterial lenses. This approach provides a completely new alternative to conventional phased-array technology enabling the formation of steerable and collimated (or focused) ultrasonic beams by exploiting a single transducer. Numerical results show that the ultrasonic beam can be steered by simply tuning the frequency of the excitation. Also, the embedded lens can be designed to achieve sub-wavelength resolution to clustered acoustic sources, which is a typical scenario encountered in incipient structural damage.

  4. Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-10-07

    In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.

  5. Metamaterials as Photonic or Phononic crystals: towards molding the flow of waves on subwavelength scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2011-01-01

    In this letter we show that it is possible to merge the properties of metamaterials and photonic/phononic crystals. To do so, we demonstrate experimentally a defect cavity in a material made of resonant electric wires arranged on a lattice much smaller than the free space wavelength. We prove that such a cavity, analogous to those designed in photonic crystals, can present very high quality factors. Furthermore, we establish that the resonant state displays a mode volume much smaller than a wavelength cube, owing to the subwavelength nature of the unit cell. We also underline that this type of structure is not sensible to positional disorder. Our approach paves the way towards the manipulation of waves at scales independents of the wavelength.

  6. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces: geometrical optics in dispersionless linear (meta)materials and vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Favaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical optics describes, with good accuracy, the propagation of high-frequency plane waves through an electromagnetic medium. Under such approximation, the behaviour of the electromagnetic fields is characterised by just three quantities: the temporal frequency $\\omega$, the spatial wave (co)vector $k$, and the polarisation (co)vector $a$. Numerous key properties of a given optical medium are determined by the Fresnel surface, which is the visual counterpart of the equation relating $\\omega$ and $k$. For instance, the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a uniaxial crystal, such as calcite, is represented by two light-cones. Kummer, whilst analysing quadratic line complexes as models for light rays in an optical apparatus, discovered in the framework of projective geometry a quartic surface that is linked to the Fresnel one. Given an arbitrary dispersionless linear (meta)material or vacuum, we aim to establish whether the resulting Fresnel surface is equivalent to, or is more general than, a Kummer su...

  7. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces: geometrical optics in dispersionless linear (meta)materials and vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Favaro; Friedrich W. Hehl

    2014-01-16

    Geometrical optics describes, with good accuracy, the propagation of high-frequency plane waves through an electromagnetic medium. Under such approximation, the behaviour of the electromagnetic fields is characterised by just three quantities: the temporal frequency $\\omega$, the spatial wave (co)vector $k$, and the polarisation (co)vector $a$. Numerous key properties of a given optical medium are determined by the Fresnel surface, which is the visual counterpart of the equation relating $\\omega$ and $k$. For instance, the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a uniaxial crystal, such as calcite, is represented by two light-cones. Kummer, whilst analysing quadratic line complexes as models for light rays in an optical apparatus, discovered in the framework of projective geometry a quartic surface that is linked to the Fresnel one. Given an arbitrary dispersionless linear (meta)material or vacuum, we aim to establish whether the resulting Fresnel surface is equivalent to, or is more general than, a Kummer surface.

  8. Mechanically stable, high-aspect-ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, J.G.

    1982-03-15

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor is described having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substnatially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  9. Superconductivityand absence of a Kohn anomaly in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor : (TMTSF)2AsF6 (+)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-607 Superconductivityand absence of a Kohn anomaly in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor Kohn à 2 kF à basse température et à pression atmosphérique. Abstract. 2014 Superconductivity has been under 12 kbar. The establishment of the superconducting state is apparently not related to the existence

  10. Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines for Broadband Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavehrad, Mohsen

    Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines signal transmission, power-line has many non-ideal properties as a communications medium. Impedance-voltage power distribution networks for broadband power-line communications applications. Keywords - channel

  11. Abstract--The paper presents an eco-design methodology, dedicated to semi-conductor components manufacturers. This

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract--The paper presents an eco-design methodology, dedicated to semi-conductor components production of e- waste. To control these blended exponential developments, design of electric and electronic cleaner components or at least to better know the environmental impact generated by all

  12. A super-compact metamaterial absorber cell in L-band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Z. X. [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23666 (United States); Yuan, F. G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23666 (United States); Li, L. H. [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-05-14

    A super-compact metamaterial absorber (SMA) unit cell in L band (1–2?GHz) is proposed, which is composed of a pair of electric ring resonator (ERR) and its complementary ERR (CERR) with a high dielectric substrate sandwiched in between. The CERR has a cross sectional area where approximately the etched copper foil in ERR is now retained, and the remaining region is now etched. In contract with quarter-wavelength (?/4) thickness which is required for conventional absorbers, the largest in-plane dimension and thickness of the SMA cell are only ?/33 and ?/250, respectively, leading to a super compact cell volume. While traditionally the long straight wire is introduced in electric-LC resonators for increasing inductance, the CERR achieves similar inductance with much shorter lengths. Thus, its cell dimensions can be drastically reduced without compromising its performance. In addition, simulations together with an automated phase correction algorithm show that the SMA is a type of metamaterial possessing simultaneous negative electric permittivity (NEP) and negative magnetic permeability (NMP). Further the SMA has a very large imaginary part of the NEP and NMP, resulting in significantly large imaginary part of the refractive index at resonant frequency. These properties are well suited to design excellent absorbers. In addition, numerical results demonstrate that the maximum absorption coefficient of the SMA can reach greater than 99% at resonant frequency, and the full-width half-maximum is roughly 1% of the operating frequency, and a wide incident angle of ±49° over 90% absorption. Meanwhile, it is pointed out that this type of absorber is rather sensitive to polarization characteristic of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  13. Investigating the effective range of vacuum ultraviolet-mediated breakdown in high-power microwave metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chien-Hao, E-mail: cliu82@wisc.edu; Neher, Joel D., E-mail: jdneher@wisc.edu; Booske, John H., E-mail: booske@engr.wisc.edu; Behdad, Nader, E-mail: behdad@wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Metamaterials and periodic structures operating under high-power excitations are susceptible to breakdown. It was recently demonstrated that a localized breakdown created in a given region of a periodic structure can facilitate breakdown in other regions of the structure where the intensity of the incident electromagnetic fields may not be high enough to cause breakdown under normal circumstances. It was also demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the location of the initial discharge, which propagates to the neighboring regions (e.g., other unit cells in a periodic structure) and facilitates the generation of a discharge at a lower incident power level. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study conducted to determine the effective range of this physical phenomenon for periodic structures that operate in air and in pure nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure levels. It is demonstrated that when breakdown is induced in a periodic structure using a high-power pulse with a frequency of 9.382 GHz, duration of 0.8 ?s, and peak power level of 25 kW, this phenomenon is highly likely to happen in radii of approximately 16–17 mm from the location of the initial discharge under these test conditions. The results of this study are significant in designing metamaterials and periodic structures for high-power microwave applications as they suggest that a localized discharge created in such a periodic structure with a periodicity less than 16–17 mm can spread over a large surface and result in a distributed discharge.

  14. A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'hara, John F; Azad, Abul K

    2008-01-01

    A metafilm (also referred to as a metasurface) is the surface equivalent of a metamaterial. More precisely, a metafilm is a surface distribution of suitable chosen electrically small scatterers. Metafilms are becoming popular as an alternative to full three-dimensional metamaterials. Unfortunately, many papers in the literature present incorrect interpretations and mischaracterizations of these metafilms. In fact, some of the characterizations presented in the literature result in non-unique parameters for a uniquely defined metafilm. In this paper we discuss an appropriate interpretation and characterization of metafilms and present a correct manner to characterize a metafilm. Additionally, we illustrate the error that results from an incorrect characterization of metafilms. We present various examples to emphasize these points. Finally we present a retrieval approach for determining the uniquely defined quantities (the electric and magnetic susceptibilities of its constituent scatterers) that characterize a metafilm.

  15. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meinke, Rainer (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-09

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  16. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinke, Rainer

    2013-08-20

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  17. Magnetic-Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Transition in SU(2) Quenched Lattice Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buividovich, P.V.; Kharzeev, D.; Chernodub, M.N., Kalaydzhyan, T., Luschevskaya, E.V., and M.I. Polikarpov

    2010-09-24

    We study the correlator of two vector currents in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a chirally invariant lattice Dirac operator with a constant external magnetic field. It is found that in the confinement phase the correlator of the components of the current parallel to the magnetic field decays much slower than in the absence of a magnetic field, while for other components the correlation length slightly decreases. We apply the maximal entropy method to extract the corresponding spectral function. In the limit of zero frequency this spectral function yields the electric conductivity of quenched theory. We find that in the confinement phase the external magnetic field induces nonzero electric conductivity along the direction of the field, transforming the system from an insulator into an anisotropic conductor. In the deconfinement phase the conductivity does not exhibit any sizable dependence on the magnetic field.

  18. High efficiency and rapid response superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector based on asymmetric split ring metamaterial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guanhai; Chen, Xiaoshuang [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200083 Shanghai (China); Wang, Shao-Wei, E-mail: wangshw@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Lu, Wei, E-mail: luwei@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200083 Shanghai (China); Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 201210 Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-09

    With asymmetric split ring metamaterial periodically placed on top of the niobium nitride (NbN) nanowire meander, we theoretically propose a kind of metal-insulator-metallic metamaterial nanocavity to enhance absorbing efficiency and shorten response time of the superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operating at wavelength of 1550?nm. Up to 99.6% of the energy is absorbed and 96.5% dissipated in the nanowire. Meanwhile, taking advantage of this high efficiency absorbing cavity, we implement a more sparse arrangement of the NbN nanowire of the filling factor 0.2, which significantly lessens the nanowire and crucially boosts the response time to be only 40% of reset time in previous evenly spaced meander design. Together with trapped mode resonance, a standing wave oscillation mechanism is presented to explain the high efficiency and broad bandwidth properties. To further demonstrate the advantages of the nanocavity, a four-pixel SNSPD on 10??m?×?10??m area is designed to further reduce 75% reset time while maintaining 70% absorbing efficiency. Utilizing the asymmetric split ring metamaterial, we show a higher efficiency and more rapid response SNSPD configuration to contribute to the development of single photon detectors.

  19. Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Shengwang

    Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold 85 Rb atomic ensemble. By varying the optical depth (OD) from 0 to 140, we observe that the optimal storage effi- ciency has a saturation value

  20. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    -bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductorSemi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS Colin D. Bailie,a M on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar

  1. Microwave shielding of transparent and conducting single-walled carbon nanotube films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    Microwave shielding of transparent and conducting single-walled carbon nanotube films Hua Xu, they calculated the shielding effectiveness for various film thicknesses. Shielding effectiveness of 43 dB at 10 films are promising as a type of transparent microwave shielding material. By combining their data

  2. Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly on glass major hurdles that research has to overcome to get graphene out of research laboratories. Here, using transparent graphene layers at temperatures as low as 450 °C. Our few-layer graphene grows at the interface

  3. Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic Wei Xu,1 (Doc. ID 158093); published January 12, 2012 Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic containing -PbF2 choose the oxyfluoride glass ceramic as the host material in our investigations. Through thermal treat

  4. A Transparent Runtime Data Distribution Engine for OpenMP Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitris

    A Transparent Runtime Data Distribution Engine for OpenMP Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos ¡ , Theodore architectures, reasonably balanced page placement schemes, such as round-robin or random distribution, incur modest performance losses. Second, the paper presents a transparent, user-level page migration engine

  5. Transparent Flow Migration through Splicing for Multi-homed Vehicular Internet Gateways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Suman

    Transparent Flow Migration through Splicing for Multi-homed Vehicular Internet Gateways Joshua Hare for the contents of the interrupted flow and splice them back to the original flow in a manner that is transparent round trip times for more than 93% of the traffic volume. Clients left to their own mechanisms would

  6. Optical breakdown in transparent media with adjustable axial length and location

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Optical breakdown in transparent media with adjustable axial length and location Ilya Toytman,1 of transparent materials. It might be useful for ophthalmic surgical applications including cataract surgery­430 (2006). 10. O. Brzobohatý, T. Cizmár, and P. Zemánek, "High quality quasi-Bessel beam generated by round

  7. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1986-04-08

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  8. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  9. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Phillips, D. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  11. Do More Transparent Corporate Actions Following a Restatement Influence the SEC's Decision to Issue an Enforcement Action? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Files, Rebecca Lynn

    2010-10-12

    This study examines whether corporate transparency about a restatement influences the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) decision to issue an enforcement action. I consider corporate transparency to be higher when firms initiate...

  12. Prospects of graphene electrodes in photovoltaics Yasin Khatami, Wei Liu, Jiahao Kang, and Kaustav Banerjee*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospects of graphene electrodes in photovoltaics Yasin Khatami, Wei Liu, Jiahao Kang, and Kaustav, the prospects of graphene for transparent conductors in photovoltaics are discussed. The recent advancements in a controllable manner. Keywords: Graphene, photovoltaics, transparent conductor 1. INTRODUCTION Transparent

  13. Co-Percolating Graphene-Wrapped Silver Nanowire Network for High Performance, Highly Stable, Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ruiyi; Das, Suprem R; Jeong, Changwook; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Janes, David B; Alam, Muhammad A

    2013-04-25

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) require high transparency and low sheet resistance for applications in photovoltaics, photodetectors, flat panel displays, touch screen devices, and imagers. Indium tin oxide (ITO), or other transparent conductive oxides, have been used, and provide a baseline sheet resistance (RS) vs. transparency (T) relationship. Several alternative material systems have been investigated. The development of high-performance hybrid structures provides a route towards robust, scalable and low-cost approaches for realizing high-performance TCE.

  14. Particle trap to sheath contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-10

    A particle trap to outer elongated conductor or sheath contact for gas-insulated transmission lines. The particle trap to outer sheath contact of the invention is applicable to gas-insulated transmission lines having either corrugated or non-corrugated outer sheaths. The contact of the invention includes an electrical contact disposed on a lever arm which in turn is rotatably disposed on the particle trap and biased in a direction to maintain contact between the electrical contact and the outer sheath.

  15. Electromagnetically-induced transparency and light storing of a pair of pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Raczynski; J. Zaremba; S. Zielinska-Kaniasty

    2003-07-30

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency and light storing are studied in the case of a medium of atoms in a double Lambda configuration, both in terms of dark- and bright-state polatitons and atomic susceptibility. It is proven that the medium can be made transparent simultaneously for two pulses following their self-adjusting so that a condition for an adiabatic evolution has become fulfilled. Analytic formulas are given for the shapes and phases of the transmitted/stored pulses. The level of transparency can be regulated by adjusting the heights and phases of the control fields.

  16. Broad Temperature Pinning Study of 15 mol.% Zr-Added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O MOCVD Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, AX; Khatri, N; Liu, YH; Majkic, G; Galstyan, E; Selvamanickam, V; Chen, YM; Lei, CH; Abraimov, D; Hu, XB; Jaroszynski, J; Larbalestier, D

    2015-06-01

    BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumns have long been shown to be very effective for raising the pinning force F-p of REBa2Cu3Ox (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) films at high temperatures and recently at low temperatures too. We have successfully incorporated a high density of BZO nanorods into metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) REBCO coated conductors via Zr addition. We found that, compared to the 7.5% Zr-added coated conductor, dense BZO nanorod arrays in the 15% Zr-added conductor are effective over the whole temperature range from 77 K down to 4.2 K. We attribute the substantially enhanced J(c) at 30 K to the weak uncorrelated pinning as well as the strong correlated pinning. Meanwhile, by tripling the REBCO layer thickness to similar to 2.8 mu m, the engineering critical current density J(e) at 30 K exceeds J(e) of optimized Nb-Ti wires at 4.2 K.

  17. Nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connectors and method of connecting electrical conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J. G. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connection comprises an insulated, sheathed instrument lead having electrical conductors extending from one end thereof to provide two exposed lead wires, a watertight cable having electrical conducting wires therein and extending from one end of the cable to provide two lead wires therefrom, two butt splice connectors each connecting the ends of respective ones of the lead wires from the instrument lead and cable, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing positioned over each butt splice connector and an adjacent portion of a respective lead wire from the cable and heat shrunk into position, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing on the end portion of the instrument lead adjacent the lead wires therefrom and heat shrunk thereon and a length of outer heat shrinkable plastic tubing extending over the end portion of the instrument lead and the heat shrinkable tubing thereon and over the butt splice connectors and a portion of the cable adjacent the cable lead lines, the outer heat shrinkable tubing being heat shrunk into sealing position on the instrument lead and cable.

  18. High-performance, transparent conducting oxides based on cadmium stannate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wu, X.; Mulligan, W.P.; Webb, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss the modeling of thin films of transparent conducting oxides and we compare the predictions with the observed properties of cadmium stannate. Thin films of this material were deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The Drude free-carrier model is used to model the optical and electrical properties. The model demonstrates the need for high mobilities. The free-carrier absorbance in the visible spectrum is used as a comparative figure-of-merit for cadmium stannate and tin oxide. This shows that free-carrier absorbance is much less in cadmium stannate than in tin oxide. X-ray diffraction shows that annealed films consist of a single-phase spinel structure. The post-deposition annealing sequence is shown to be crucial to forming a single phase, which is vital for optimal optical and electrical properties. The films are typically high mobility (up to 65 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) and have carrier concentrations as high as 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. Resistivities are as low as 1.3 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, the lowest values reported for cadmium stannate. Atomic force microscopy indicates that the root-mean-square surface roughness is approximately {+-}15A. Cadmium stannate etches readily in both hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, which is a commanding advantage over tin oxide. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Novel Scintillation Material - ZnO Transparent Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodnyi, P A; Gorokhova, E I; Kozlovskii, S S; Khanin, V M; Khodyuk, I V

    2011-01-01

    ZnO-based scintillation ceramics for application in HENPA LENPA analyzers have been investigated. The following ceramic samples have been prepared: undoped ones (ZnO), an excess of zinc in stoichiometry (ZnO:Zn), doped with gallium (ZnO:Ga) and lithium (ZnO:Li). Optical transmission, x-ray excited emission, scintillation decay and pulse height spectra were measured and analyzed. Ceramics have reasonable transparency in visible range (up to 60% for 0.4 mm thickness) and energy resolution (14.9% at 662 keV Cs137 gamma excitation). Undoped ZnO shows slow (1.6 {\\mu}s) luminescence with maximum at 2.37 eV and light yield about 57% of CsI:Tl. ZnO:Ga ceramics show relatively low light yield with ultra fast decay time (1 ns). Lithium doped ceramics ZnO:Li have better decay time than undoped ZnO with fair light yield. ZnO:Li ceramics show good characteristics under alpha-particle excitation and can be applied for the neutral particle analyzers.

  20. Novel Scintillation Material - ZnO Transparent Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Rodnyi; K. A. Chernenko; E. I. Gorokhova; S. S. Kozlovskii; V. M. Khanin; I. V. Khodyuk

    2011-11-09

    ZnO-based scintillation ceramics for application in HENPA LENPA analyzers have been investigated. The following ceramic samples have been prepared: undoped ones (ZnO), an excess of zinc in stoichiometry (ZnO:Zn), doped with gallium (ZnO:Ga) and lithium (ZnO:Li). Optical transmission, x-ray excited emission, scintillation decay and pulse height spectra were measured and analyzed. Ceramics have reasonable transparency in visible range (up to 60% for 0.4 mm thickness) and energy resolution (14.9% at 662 keV Cs137 gamma excitation). Undoped ZnO shows slow (1.6 {\\mu}s) luminescence with maximum at 2.37 eV and light yield about 57% of CsI:Tl. ZnO:Ga ceramics show relatively low light yield with ultra fast decay time (1 ns). Lithium doped ceramics ZnO:Li have better decay time than undoped ZnO with fair light yield. ZnO:Li ceramics show good characteristics under alpha-particle excitation and can be applied for the neutral particle analyzers.

  1. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuankun

    2014-01-01

    7. Optical bandgap of the doped CdO thin films as a functionelectrical properties of In-doped CdO thin films fabricatedand transparent Ti-doped CdO films by pulsed laser

  2. Evidence for the Onset of Color Transparency in $?^0$ Electroproduction off Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. El Fassi; L. Zana; K. Hafidi; M. Holtrop; B. Mustapha; W. K. Brooks; H. Hakobyan; X. Zheng; K. P. Adhikari; D. Adikaram; M. Aghasyan; M. J. Amaryan; M. Anghinolfi; J. Arrington; H. Avakian; H. Baghdasaryan; M. Battaglieri; V. Batourine; I. Bedlinskiy; A. S. Biselli; C. Bookwalter; D. Branford; W. J. Briscoe; S. Bultmann; V. D. Burkert; D. S. Carman; A. Celentano; S. Chandavar; P. L. Cole; M. Contalbrigo; V. Crede; A. D'Angelo; A. Daniel; N. Dashyan; R. De Vita; E. De Sanctis; A. Deur; B. Dey; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G. E. Dodge; D. Doughty; R. Dupre; H. Egiyan; A. El Alaoui; L. Elouadrhiri; P. Eugenio; G. Fedotov; S. Fegan; M. Y. Gabrielyan; M. Garcon; N. Gevorgyan; G. P. Gilfoyle; K. L. Giovanetti; F. X. Girod; J. T. Goetz; W. Gohn; E. Golovatch; R. W. Gothe; K. A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; L. Guo; C. Hanretty; D. Heddle; K. Hicks; R. J. Holt; C. E. Hyde; Y. Ilieva; D. G. Ireland; B. S. Ishkhanov; E. L. Isupov; S. S. Jawalkar; D. Keller; M. Khandaker; P. Khetarpal; A. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F. J. Klein; V. Kubarovsky; S. E. Kuhn; S. V. Kuleshov; V. Kuznetsov; J. M. Laget; H. Y. Lu; I. J. D. MacGregor; Y. Mao; N. Markov; M. Mayer; J. McAndrew; B. McKinnon; C. A. Meyer; T. Mineeva; M. Mirazita; V. Mokeev; B. Moreno; H. Moutarde; E. Munevar; P. Nadel-Turonski; A. Ni; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; M. Osipenko; A. I. Ostrovidov; L. Pappalardo; R. Paremuzyan; K. Park; S. Park; E. Pasyuk; S. Anefalos Pereira; E. Phelps; S. Pisano; S. Pozdniakov; J. W. Price; S. Procureur; D. Protopopescu; B. A. Raue; P. E. Reimer; G. Ricco; D. Rimal; M. Ripani; B. G. Ritchie; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; F. Sabatie; M. S. Saini; C. Salgado; D. Schott; R. A. Schumacher; H. Seraydaryan; Y. G. Sharabian; E. S. Smith; G. D. Smith; D. I. Sober; D. Sokhan; S. S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; P. Stoler; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; W. Tang; C. E. Taylor; D. J. Tedeschi; S. Tkachenko; M. Ungaro; B . Vernarsky; M. F. Vineyard; H. Voskanyan; E. Voutier; D. Watts; L. B. Weinstein; D. P. Weygand; M. H. Wood; N. Zachariou; B. Zhao; Z. W. Zhao

    2012-05-11

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive $A(e,e'\\rho^0)$ process in $^{12}$C and $^{56}$Fe targets relative to $^2$H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced $\\rho^0$'s on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to $\\rho A$ interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length ($l_c$), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared ($Q^2$). While the transparency for both $^{12}$C and $^{56}$Fe showed no $l_c$ dependence, a significant $Q^2$ dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included the color transparency effects.

  3. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  4. Measurement of nuclear transparency from A(e,e'[pi]?) reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clasie, Benjamin Michael Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The color transparency phenomenon refers to the suppression of final-state interactions of a hadron propagating through the nuclear medium at large momentum transfer when the hadron is produced with small transverse size. ...

  5. Programmable window : a large-scale transparent electronic display using SPD film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Martin (Ramos Rizo-Patron)

    2004-01-01

    This research demonstrates that Suspended Particle Device (SPD) film is a viable option for the development of large-scale transparent display systems. The thesis analyzes the SPD film from an architectural display application ...

  6. Transparent process rollback recovery: some new techniques and a portable implementation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellenberger, Ernest Lloyd

    1995-01-01

    Processes in a distributed system can be made transparently recoverable through the use of process checkpointing, which periodically introduces a relatively large but temporary overhead, or message logging, which introduces ...

  7. Synthesis of mono-to-multi-layer graphene for transparent electrode applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Minseok

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, mono-to-multilayer graphene for transparent electrode applications was synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) and the key factors that determine the electrical and optical ...

  8. Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Richard R.

    We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous ...

  9. Polymer material selection and testing of resistive wire arrangement for a transparent infant warming blanket

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Madeline

    2013-01-01

    The ThermoCloud was designed as a portable, scalable, transparent electrical blanket to warm and insulate infants, while permitting hassle-free medical transportation and maximum visualization of a patient's thorax and ...

  10. Demonstration of a hitless bypass switch using nanomechanical perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Rohit

    We demonstrate an optical hitless bypass switch based on nanomechanical proximity perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks. Embedded in a single-level ?-imbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two ...

  11. Evidence for the onset of color transparency in ?0 electroproduction off nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Hicks, K.; Holt, R. J.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalker, S. S.; et al

    2012-05-11

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive A(e,e'?0) process in 12C and 56Fe targets relative to 2H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced {rho}{sup 0}'s on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to ?A interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length (Ic), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared (Q2). Thus, while the transparency for both 12C and 56Fe showed no Ic dependence, a significant Q2 dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included themore »color transparency effects.« less

  12. GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consistent with the Administration's commitment to transparency, DOE General Counsel Scott Blake Harris has decided that all future determinations as to the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund fee...

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - 9_David Thomas_WR Transparency at NMMSS...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    be converted to LEU and delivered to USEC Deliveries of "WR" LEU from USEC to the fuel fabricators are likely to continue into CY 2015 Transparency in U.S. facilities...

  14. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  15. Atomic layer deposited second order nonlinear optical metamaterial for back-end integration with CMOS-compatible nanophotonic circuitry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmen, StÉphane; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Koskinen, Kalle; Kauranen, Martti; Brainis, Edouard; Detavernier, Christophe; Baets, Roel

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of artificial unidimensional crystals exhibiting an effective bulk second-order nonlinearity. The crystals are created by cycling atomic layer deposition of three dielectric materials such that the resulting metamaterial is non-centrosymmetric in the direction of the deposition. Characterization of the structures by second-harmonic generation Maker-fringe measurements shows that the main component of their nonlinear susceptibility tensor is about 5 pm/V which is comparable to well-established materials and more than an order of magnitude greater than reported for a similar crystal [1-Alloatti et al, arXiv:1504.00101[cond-mat.mtrl- sci

  16. Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

  17. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  18. Magnetic transparent conducting oxide film and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2004-07-13

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 .OMEGA..multidot.cm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450.degree. C. in air. Films deposited on sapphire substrates exhibit a refractive index of about 1.7 and are relatively transparent in the wavelength region from 0.6 to 10.0 .mu.m. They are also magnetic. The electrical and spectroscopic properties of the oxides have been studied as a function of x=Co/(Co+Ni) ratio. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo.sub.2 O.sub.4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x<0.67, NiO forms leading to an increase in resistivity; when x>0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity. The influence of cation charge state and site occupancy in the spinel structure markedly affects calculated electron band structures and contributes to a reduction of p-type conductivity, the formation of polarons, and the reduction in population of mobile charge carriers that tend to limit transmission in the infrared.

  19. Resonant nonlinear optics of backward waves in negative-index metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander K. Popov; Sergei A. Myslivets; Vladimir M. Shalaev

    2008-08-14

    The extraordinary properties of resonant four-wave mixing of backward waves in doped negative-index materials are investigated. The feasibility of independent engineering of negative refractive index and nonlinear optical response as well as quantum control of the nonlinear propagation process in such composites is shown due to the coherent energy transfer from the control to the signal field. Laser-induced transparency, quantum switching, frequency-tunable narrow-band filtering, amplification, and realizing a miniature mirrorless optical parametric generator of the entangled backward and ordinary waves are among the possible applications of the investigated processes.

  20. ALTERNATING CURRENT LOSSES IN AG-SHEATHED BSCCO (2212 AND 2223) TAPES AND WIRES AND YBCO (123) COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. John S. Hurley

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the examination of ac losses in conductors utilizing Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O [BSCCO (2223)] high TC superconductors (HTS). In addition, we seek to assist other facilities such as the University of Wisconsin-Madison Applied Superconductivity Center (UW-ASC), Brookhaven National Laboratory, and other DoE facilities investigating the use of HTS in electric power applications (e.g., generators, motors, and transformers). To accomplish this we will develop an ac losses capability at Clark Atlanta University to complement the established ac losses efforts at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BSCCO) on BSCCO/Ag and various material characterization efforts taking place at the UW-ASC. Our goal is through this effort to gain a greater understanding of the effects on ac losses due to parameters such as ac/dc current, J{sub c}, tape geometry, voltage tap placement, field orientation, material anisotropy, surface irregularities, percolations and filament coupling effects. As a result, we expect to better understand how to minimize ac losses in applications requiring real or practical conductors. HTS conductors based on BSCCO-2223 are now being routinely produced in industrial lengths of high quality. Vendors such as Southwire and ASC are producing multi-filamentary tapes in lengths of 6 km or more carrying critical current densities of up to 3 kA/cm**2 at 77 K. While this is approaching the level of performance where some large-scale applications are considered to be economically viable, a number of problems remain to be solved. The remaining issues include: rapid reduction in JC in magnetic fields; and power dissipation due to varying magnetic fields or currents (ac losses).

  1. Local structure analysis of solid state ionic conductors, perovskite-derived structures by NMR and computational studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dervisoglu, Riza

    2013-10-08

    Analysis of Solid State Ionic Conductors, Perovskite-derived Structures by NMR and Computational StudiesR?za Dervis¸og?lu Department of Chemistry / Darwin College University of Cambridge A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 20/09/2013 I... with perovskite and perovskite-derived crystallographic structures, i.e. Ba2In2O5, Ba2(In1-xGax)2O5 and Ba2In2O4(OH)2, were investigated for their high ionic (O2– and H+) mobility at elevated tem- peratures. Two general methods were employed in this investigation...

  2. Nitrogen-doped graphene as transparent counter electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guiqiang, E-mail: wgqiang123@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)] [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Xing, Wei; Zhuo, Shuping [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? NG sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide. ? The transparent NG counter electrodes of DSCs are fabricated at room temperature. ? Transparent NG electrode exhibits excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sub 3}{sup ?}. ? The DSC with NG electrode achieves a comparable efficiency to that of the Pt-based cell. ? The efficiency of rear illumination is about 85% that of front illumination. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide in the presence of ammonia and applied to fabricate the transparent counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. The atomic percentage of nitrogen in doped graphene sample is about 2.5%, and the nitrogen bonds display pyridine and pyrrole-like configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies demonstrate a much higher electrocatalytic activity toward I{sup ?}/I{sub 3}{sup ?} redox reaction for nitrogen-doped graphene, as compared with pristine graphene. The dye-sensitized solar cell with this transparent nitrogen-doped graphene counter electrode shows conversion efficiencies of 6.12% and 5.23% corresponding to front-side and rear-side illumination, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell with a Pt counter electrode shows a conversion efficiency of 6.97% under the same experimental condition. These promising results highlight the potential application of nitrogen-doped graphene in cost-effective, transparent dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Fabrication of Transparent Capacitive Structure by Self-Assembled Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Shing, Y. J.; Hua, Feng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Matson, Dean W.

    2008-06-01

    An approach to fabricating transparent electronic devices by using nanomaterial and nanofabrication is presented in this paper. A see-through capacitor is constructed from selfassembled silica nanoparticle layers that are stacked on the transparent substrate. The electrodes are made of indium tin oxide. Unlike the traditional processes used to fabricate such devices, the self-assembly approach enables one to synthesize the thin film layers at lower temperature and cost, and with a broader availability of nanomaterials. The vertical dimension of the selfassembled thin films can be precisely controlled, as well as the molecular order in the thin film layers. The shape of the capacitor is generated by planar micropatterning. The quartz crystal demonstrates the steady growth of the silica nanoparticle multilayer. In addition, because the nanomaterial synthesis and the device fabrication steps are separate, the device is not affected by the harsh conditions required for the material synthesis. A clear pattern is allowed over a large area on the substrate. The prepared capacitive structure has an optical transparency higher than 92% over the visible spectrum. The capacitive impedance is measured at different frequencies and fit the theoretical results. As one of the fundamental components, this type of capacitive structure can serve in the transparent circuits, interactive media and sensors, as well as being applicable to other transparent devices.

  4. Stress-induced martensitic transformation during tensile test of full-size TF conductor jacket tube at 4.2 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, H. H.; Li, S. P. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, 100049, P.R. (China); Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J.; Huang, R. J.; Li, L. F. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. (China)

    2014-01-27

    The toroidal-field (TF) conductor jacket of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is made of modified 316LN stainless steel, which is influenced by heat treatment at approximately 650 °C for 200 h to produce Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting materials at the final stage. Due to the high electromagnetic forces arising during magnet operation, higher mechanical properties of the jacket materials at cryogenic temperatures are required. In our work, mechanical properties of the full-size TF conductor jacket tube were investigated, which satisfied the ITER requirements. Stress-induced martensitic transformation mechanism during tensile test of the conductor jacket material at 4.2 K was characterized by means of in-situ temperature dependent XRD, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile behavior related to the amount of stress-induced phase transformation at cryogenic temperature was also discussed.

  5. 3D scalar model as a 4D perfect conductor limit: Dimensional reduction and variational boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edery, Ariel [Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Graham, Noah [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); MacDonald, Ilana [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    Under dimensional reduction, a system in D spacetime dimensions will not necessarily yield its D-1-dimensional analog version. Among other things, this result will depend on the boundary conditions and the dimension D of the system. We investigate this question for scalar and Abelian gauge fields under boundary conditions that obey the symmetries of the action. We apply our findings to the Casimir piston, an ideal system for detecting boundary effects. Our investigation is not limited to extra dimensions and we show that the original piston scenario proposed in 2004, a toy model involving a scalar field in 3D (2+1) dimensions, can be obtained via dimensional reduction from a more realistic 4D electromagnetic (EM) system. We show that for perfect conductor conditions, a D-dimensional EM field reduces to a D-1 scalar field and not its lower-dimensional version. For Dirichlet boundary conditions, no theory is recovered under dimensional reduction and the Casimir pressure goes to zero in any dimension. This ''zero Dirichlet'' result is useful for understanding the EM case. We then identify two special systems where the lower-dimensional version is recovered in any dimension: systems with perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and Neumann boundary conditions. We show that these two boundary conditions can be obtained from a variational procedure in which the action vanishes outside the bounded region. The fields are free to vary on the surface and have zero modes, which survive after dimensional reduction.

  6. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  7. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  8. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  9. Performance of Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide, Transparent Ceramics and Bismuth-loaded Polymer Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Sturm, Benjamin; O’Neal, S P; Seeley, Zachary; Drury, Owen; Haselhorst, L K; Rupert, B. L.; Sanner, Robert; Thelin, P; Fisher, S E; Hawrami, Rastgo; Shah, Kanai; Burger, Arnold; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Boatner, Lynn A

    2011-01-01

    Recently discovered scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy, single crystal SrI2(Eu), GYGAG(Ce) transparent ceramic and Bismuth-loaded plastics offer resolution and fabrication advantages compared to commercial scintillators, such as NaI(Tl) and standard PVT plastic. Energy resolution at 662 keV of 2.7% is obtained with SrI2(Eu), while 4.5% is obtained with GYGAG(Ce). A new transparent ceramic scintillator for radiographic imaging systems, GLO(Eu) offers high light yield of ~75,000 Ph/MeV, high stopping, and low radiation damage. Implementation of single crystal SrI2(Eu), Gd-based transparent ceramics, and Bi-loaded plastic scintillators can advance the state-of-the art in ionizing radiation detection systems.

  10. Performance of Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide, Transparent Ceramics and Bismuth-loaded Polymer Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepy, N J; Payne, S A; Sturm, B W; O'Neal, S P; Seeley, Z M; Drury, O B; Haselhorst, L K; Rupert, B L; Sanner, R D; Thelin, P A; Fisher, S E; Hawrami, R; Shah, K S; Burger, A; Ramey, J O; Boatner, L A

    2011-08-30

    Recently discovered scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy, single crystal SrI{sub 2}(Eu), GYGAG(Ce) transparent ceramic and Bismuth-loaded plastics, offer resolution and fabrication advantages compared to commercial scintillators, such as NaI(Tl) and standard PVT plastic. Energy resolution at 662 keV of 2.7% is obtained with SrI{sub 2}(Eu), while 4.5% is obtained with GYGAG(Ce). A new transparent ceramic scintillator for radiographic imaging systems, GLO(Eu) offers high light yield of 70,000 Photons/MeV, high stopping, and low radiation damage. Implementation of single crystal SrI{sub 2}(Eu), Gd-based transparent ceramics, and Bi-loaded plastic scintillators can advance the state-of-the art in ionizing radiation detection systems.

  11. Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-09-01

    Conventional silica sol-gel chemistry is limited for the production of transparent ultralow-density aerogels because (1) gelation is either slow or unachievable, and (2) even when gelation is achieved, the large pore sizes result in loss of transparency for aerogels <.020 g/cc. We have developed a two-step sol-gel process that circumvents the limitations of the conventional process and allows the formation of ultralow-density gels in a matter of hours. we have found that the gel time is dependent on the catalyst concentration. After supercritical extraction, the aerogels are transparent, uncracked tiles with densities as low as .003 g/cc. 6 figs., 11 refs.

  12. Control of microwave signals using bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in three-mode circuit electromechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Jiang; Yuanshun Cui; Xiaowei Li

    2014-08-17

    We theoretically investigate the tunable slowing and advancing of microwave signals based on bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in a three-mode circuit electromechanical system, where two mechanical oscillators with closely spaced frequencies are independently coupled to a common microwave cavity. In the presence of a strong microwave pump field, we obtain two transparency windows accompanied by steep phase dispersion in the transmitted microwave probe field. The width of the transparency window and the group delay of the probe field can be controlled effectively by the power of the pump field. It is shown that the maximum group delay of 0.12 ms and the advance of 0.27 ms can be obtained in the current experiments.

  13. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C(p,2p) Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Leksanov; J. Alster; G. Asryan; Y. Averichev; D. Barton; V. Baturin; N. Bukhtoyarova; A. Carroll; S. Heppelmann; T. Kawabata; Y. Makdisi; E. Minina; I. Navon; A. Malki; H. Nicholson; A. Ogawa; Yu. Panebratsev; E. Piasetzky; A. Schetkovsky; S. Shimanskiy; A. Tang; J. W. Watson; H. Yoshida; D. Zhalov

    2001-07-20

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasi-elastic events was measured at beam energies ranging from 6 to 14.5 GeV at 90 degrees c.m. The four momentum transfer squared q*q ranged from 4.8 to 16.9 (GeV/c)**2. We present the observed energy dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to normalize this transparency ratio. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam energy is increased to 9 GeV and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  14. Disorder-induced transparency in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with optical cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yongyou Dong, Guangda; Zou, Bingsuo

    2014-05-07

    Disorder influence on photon transmission behavior is theoretically studied in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with a series of optical cavities. For this sake, we propose a concept of disorder-induced transparency appearing on the low-transmission spectral background. Two kinds of disorders, namely, disorders of optical cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases in the waveguide side coupled with optical cavities are considered to show the disorder-induced transparency. They both can induce the optical transmission peaks on the low-transmission backgrounds. The statistical mean value of the transmission also increases with increasing the disorders of the cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases.

  15. Sun-tracking optical element realized using thermally activated transparency-switching material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apostoleris, Harry; Lilliu, Samuele; Chiesa, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present a proof of concept demonstration of a novel optical element: a light-responsive aperture that can track a moving light beam. The element is created using a thermally-activated transparency-switching material composed of paraffin wax and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Illumination of the material with a focused beam causes the formation of a localized transparency at the focal spot location, due to local heating caused by absorption of a portion of the incident light. An application is proposed in a new design for a self-tracking solar collector.

  16. Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

    2011-12-11

    The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency from two-phonon processes in quadratically coupled membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Sumei; Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We describe how electromagnetically induced transparency can arise in quadratically coupled optomechanical systems. Due to quadratic coupling, the underlying optical process involves a two-phonon process in an optomechanical system, and this two-phonon process makes the mean displacement, which plays the role of atomic coherence in traditional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), zero. We show how the fluctuation in displacement can play a role similar to atomic coherence and can lead to EIT-like effects in quadratically coupled optomechanical systems. We show how such effects can be studied using the existing optomechanical systems.

  18. Optical properties of transparent glass–ceramics containing lithium–mica nanocrystals: Crystallization effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khani, V.; Alizadeh, P.; Shakeri, M.S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Optical properties of transparent Li{sub 2}O–MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}–F glasses containing lithium–mica nanocrystals are studied and crystallization condition has been evaluated and optimized to produce transparent glass–ceramics. Crystallization temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and crystalline phases were identified and quantified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used for morphological variations and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy for comparative analysis of transparency. In order to investigate the optical properties of transparent glass–ceramics, optical band gap, Fermi energy level and Urbach energy are calculated. The results of the investigation illustrate that band gap is reduced with increases in crystallization time and temperature. Enhanced orderliness in the arrangement of atoms might be regarded as possible reasons for the above changes. - Highlights: • The optimum temperature and time of crystallization were determined. • Li–mica nanocrystals with size of <30 nm were formed using a two-step heat-treatment. • Optical band gap and Fermi energy of nanocrystalline materials decreased with increasing of crystallization temperature and time. • Urbach band tailing was decreased with increasing of crystallization condition. - Abstract: Optical properties of transparent Li{sub 2}O–MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}–F glasses containing lithium–mica nanocrystals were studied. The crystallization condition of these glasses was evaluated and optimized to produce transparent glass–ceramics. Crystallization temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and crystalline phases were identified and quantified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used to detect morphological changes and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy was used for comparative analysis of transparency. In order to investigate the optical properties of the transparent glass–ceramics, optical band gap, Fermi energy level and Urbach energy were calculated. The results of the investigation illustrate that the band gap is reduced with increases in crystallization time and temperature. Enhanced orderliness in the arrangement of atoms might be regarded as possible reasons for the above changes.

  19. Method for sputtering a PIN amorphous silicon semi-conductor device having partially crystallized P and N-layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Annandale, NJ); Maruska, H. Paul (Annandale, NJ)

    1985-07-09

    A high efficiency amorphous silicon PIN semiconductor device having partially crystallized (microcrystalline) P and N layers is constructed by the sequential sputtering of N, I and P layers and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode. The method of construction produces a PIN device, exhibiting enhanced electrical and optical properties, improved physical integrity, and facilitates the preparation in a singular vacuum system and vacuum pump down procedure.

  20. Energy density above a resonant metamaterial in the GHz: an alternative to near-field thermal emission detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an experiment to easily detect radiative heat transfer in the microwave range. Following an idea given by Pendry more than a decade ago [1], we show that a 3D array of tungsten 2micron radius wires with a 1 cm period makes a low cost material exhibiting a surface plasmon in the microwave range around 2.9 GHz. Such a heated material should exhibit an emission peak near the plasmon frequency well above ambient emission. Analysis of the signal detected in the near-field should also be a tool to analyze how homogenization theory applies when the distance to the material is of the order of the metamaterial period. It could also be give a model to non-local dielectric properties in the same conditions.