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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Plasmonic graphene transparent conductors.  

SciTech Connect

Plasmonic graphene is fabricated using thermally assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on graphene. The localized surface-plasmonic effect is demonstrated with the resonance frequency shifting from 446 to 495 nm when the lateral dimension of the Ag nanoparticles increases from about 50 to 150 nm. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to confirm the experimentally observed light-scattering enhancement in the solar spectrum in plasmonic graphene and the decrease of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and amplitude with increasing graphene thickness. In addition, plasmonic graphene shows much-improved electrical conductance by a factor of 2-4 as compared to the original graphene, making the plasmonic graphene a promising advanced transparent conductor with enhanced light scattering for thin-film optoelectronic devices.

Xu, G.; Liu, J.; Wang, Q.; Hui, R.; Chen, Z.; Maroni, V. A.; Wu, J. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Kansas)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advancements in metamaterials and plasmonics have promised a number of exciting applications, in particular at terahertz and optical frequencies. Unfortunately, the noble metals used in these photonic structures are not particularly good conductors at high frequencies, resulting in significant dissipative loss. Here, we address the question of what is a good conductor for metamaterials and plasmonics. For resonant metamaterials, we develop a figure-of-merit for conductors that allows for a straightforward classification of conducting materials according to the resulting dissipative loss in the metamaterial. Application of our method predicts that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors are not viable alternatives for metals in metamaterials. We also provide an overview of a number of transition metals, alkali metals and transparent conducting oxides. For plasmonic systems, we predict that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors cannot outperform gold as a platform for surface plasmon polaritons, because graphene has a smaller propagation length-to-wavelength ratio.

Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Nanostructured Transparent Conductors Have Potential for Thin-Film Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Possible alternatives to transparent conductors show promise for enabling new processes and reducing costs.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Ag Nanowire Based Transparent Conductor for CIGS PV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coated silver nanowires (AgNW) have been considered as a replacement for transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) in CIGS based photovoltaic devices. The advantages of AgNW over TCOs are discussed, and optical and electrical characteristics of AgNWs on glass are presented. Similarly fabricated AgNWs with varying sheet resistance on CIGS devices were tested against ITO transparent conductor controls. The CIGS was produced using a roll-to-roll technique on a flexible polymer substrate. Variations in the ZnO layer resistivity that are adjacent to the AgNW layer in the CIGS device were also tested. Device results indicate similar Jsc, but a reduced FF for cells made with the AgNWs, and Voc dependence on the resistivity of the coated AgNW and ZnO window layers. FF and Voc losses associated with the use of AgNWs are discussed.

Woods, L. M.; Wolk, J.; Smith, M.; Davande, H.; Ribelin, R. M.; Perkins, C. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Transparent Conductors and Barrier Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells:  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the research undertaken to increase the efficiency of thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon in the so-called''superstrate structure'' (glass front surface/transparent electrically conductive oxide (TCO)/pin amorphous silicon/metal back electrode). The TCO layer must meet many requirements: high optical transparency in the wavelength region from about 350 to 900 nm, low electrical sheet resistance, stability during handling and deposition of the subsequent layers and during use, a textured (rough) surface to enhance optical absorption of red and near-infrared light, and low-resistance electrical contact to the amorphous silicon p-layer. Fluorine-doped tin oxide has been the TCO used in most commercial superstrate amorphous silicon cells. Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) was later shown to be even more transparent than fluorine-doped tin oxide, as well as being more resistant to the strongly reducing conditions encountered during the deposition of amorphous silicon. Solar cells based on ZnO:F showed the expected higher currents, but the fill factors were lower than standard cells grown on tin oxide, resulting in no consistent improvement in efficiency. This problem was recently mitigated by using a new proprietary p/buffer layer combination developed at BP Solar.

Gordon, R. G.; Broomhall-Dillard, R.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Barton, J.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

DOE Science Showcase - Metamaterials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DOE Science Showcase - Metamaterials DOE Science Showcase - Metamaterials Metamaterials are a new class of artificially-structured materials that provides the ability to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic energy in ways that are not achievable with natural materials. These materials represent a new frontier in materials science. For more information about new devices being developed with these metamaterials, see In the OSTI Collections: Metamaterials, by Dr. William Watson, Physicist, OSTI staff. Metamaterial Optical Cavities Image credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory First 3-D nanoscale optical cavities from metamaterials, Eureka Alert Improving on the amazing: Ames Laboratory scientists seek new conductors for metamaterials, Ames Laboratory Related Metamaterials research results documents from DOE Databases

8

Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Metamaterial structures are taught which provide for the modulation of terahertz frequency signals. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Metamaterial structures are taught which provide for the modulation of terahertz frequency signals. Each element within an array of metamaterial (MM) elements comprises multiple loops and at least one gap. The MM elements may comprise resonators with conductive loops and insulated gaps, or the inverse in which insulated loops are present with conductive gaps; each providing useful transmissive control properties. The metamaterial elements are fabricated on a semiconducting substrate configured with a

9

Nanostructured Transparent Conductors Have Potential for Thin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that require flexibility and solution processing. Key Result Metallic NWs and graphene thin films, although not yet at performance levels of TCOs, demonstrate a much better...

10

Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Terahertz Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . .CRLH Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Terahertz CRLH Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . .

Tavallaee, Amir Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Metamaterial Flattens Bulky Optical Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 14, 2013 ... The LANL team demonstrated broadband, high-performance linear polarization conversion using ultrathin planar metamaterials, enabling ...

12

Active terahertz metamaterial devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metamaterial structures are taught which provide for the modulation of terahertz frequency signals. Each element within an array of metamaterial (MM) elements comprises multiple loops and at least one gap. The MM elements may comprise resonators with conductive loops and insulated gaps, or the inverse in which insulated loops are present with conductive gaps; each providing useful transmissive control properties. The metamaterial elements are fabricated on a semiconducting substrate configured with a means of enhancing or depleting electrons from near the gaps of the MM elements. An on to off transmissivity ratio of about 0.5 is achieved with this approach. Embodiments are described in which the MM elements incorporated within a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) to provide surface emitting (SE) properties.

Chen, Houtong (Los Alamos, NM); Padilla, Willie John (Newton, MA); Averitt, Richard Douglas (Newton, MA); O' Hara, John F. (Los Alamos, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

13

Three-dimensional metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

14

Overhead Conductor Management Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As transmission systems age, utilities are increasingly concerned about the reliability of aging conductors, especially ACSR conductors, which cannot be assessed visually because of the layers of aluminum strand that cover their cores. Utilities wishing to determine how much core strength remains in these conductors can only do so by sampling the conductor and subsequently subjecting it to tensile testing or by looking at the significant circuits that pose a reliability risk using the Cormon Device or El...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

15

Assessment of Phase Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As transmission systems age, utilities are increasingly concerned about the reliability of aging conductors, especially ACSR conductors. Traditional methods for assessing conductors involve identifying the circuits that pose the greatest reliability risk and subjecting samples from suspect lines to tensile testing, but a range of corrosion detection methods have become available that increase the options available to utilities. This report describes several methods available for conductor assessment.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

16

Cerenkov radiation in metallic metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic response of a metallic metamaterial to fast-moving electrons is studied by numerical simulations. The considered metamaterial is a one-dimensional array of slits perforated on a metallic film and is found to generate Cerenkov wakes when the electron beam travels near its surface. There is no energy threshold for the generation of such wakes, which would be promising to lower the operation energy of the electron beam in compact Cerenkov free-electron-lasers. Moreover, by analyzing the spectral dependence of the Cerenkov light, it is possible to map the dispersion relation of the guided modes supported by the metamaterial.

So, Jin-Kyu; Won, Jong-Hyo; Sattorov, M. A.; Bak, Seung-Ho; Jang, Kyu-Ha; Park, Gun-Sik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for THz-Bio Application Systems, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Subwavelength Optics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Garcia-Vidal, F. J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

17

WIPP Nuclear Facilities Transparency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparency Technologies Other Transparency Activities Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) in conjunction with WIPP is providing this Nuclear...

18

DC Conductor Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the conceptual development of promising conductors and line configurations for HVDC overhead transmission lines. It details analytic and experimental work conducted to determine the performance of the proposed concepts and ranks the most promising concepts.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Silver Ink for Conductor Printing  

Many applications require the ability to print conductors on devices that cannot tolerate high temperatures. Current methods for making printable ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Distribution Conductor Burndown Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On overhead distribution circuits, conductor burndown is a well-documented phenomenon. Two systems are especially vulnerable to burndown: covered conductors (also known as tree wires or coated conductors) and small bare wires. In a burndown scenario, a power-follow arc develops on the system, with at least one end of the arc attached to a conductor. The arc heats the conductor, which causes the strands to anneal and lose tensile strength. The burndown event results in the strands breaking and the conduct...

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

22

TRANSPARENCY RECYCLING PROGRAM PROCEDURES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRANSPARENCY RECYCLING Don't throw out your used overhead transparencies! RECYCLE them for REUSE. It's Easy! Follow these simple procedures: 1.) COLLECT used transparencies to be recycled. 2.) SEPARATE the transparencies from ringed binders, plastic or paper folders, envelopes, and/or files. 3.) PLACE the transparencies (only) into an intra-laboratory mail envelope. 4.) SEND the envelope to: Terri Schneider, Building 201, 1D-10. Terri will prepare a

23

3D metamaterials for the thermal infrared.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metamaterials form a new class of artificial electromagnetic materials that provides the device designer with the ability to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic energy in ways that are not achievable with naturally occurring materials. However, progress toward practical implementation of metamaterials, particularly at infrared and visible frequencies, has been hampered by a combination of absorptive losses; the narrow band nature of the resonant metamaterial response; and the difficulty in fabricating fully 3-dimensional structures. They describe the progress of a recently initiated program at Sandia National Laboratories directed toward the development of practical 3D metamaterials operating in the thermal infrared. They discuss their analysis of fundamental loss limits for different classes of metamaterials. In addition, they discuss new design approaches that they are pursuing which reduce the reliance on metallic structures in an effort to minimize ohmic losses.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Wendt, Joel Robert; Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Realization and modeling of rf superconducting quantum interference device metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have prepared meta-atoms based on radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices (RF SQUIDs) and examined their tunability with dc magnetic field, rf current, and temperature. RF SQUIDs are superconducting split ring resonators in which the usual capacitance is supplemented with a Josephson junction, which introduces strong nonlinearity in the rf properties. We find excellent agreement between the data and a model which regards the Josephson junction as the resistively and capacitively-shunted junction. A magnetic field tunability of 80 THz/Gauss at 12 GHz is observed, a total tunability of 56$%$ is achieved, and a unique electromagnetically-induced transparency feature at intermediate excitation powers is demonstrated for the first time. An RF SQUID metamaterial is shown to have qualitatively the same behavior as a single RF SQUID with regards to DC flux and temperature tuning.

M. Trepanier; Daimeng Zhang; Oleg Mukhanov; Steven M. Anlage

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

25

A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent metamaterial (MM) research faces several problems when using metal-based plasmonic components as building blocks for MMs. The use of conventional metals for MMs is limited by several factors: metals such as gold and silver have high losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) ranges and very large negative real permittivity values, and in addition, their optical properties cannot be tuned. These issues that put severe constraints on the device applications of MMs could be overcome if semiconductors are used as plasmonic materials instead of metals. Heavily doped, wide bandgap oxide semiconductors could exhibit both a small negative real permittivity and relatively small losses in the NIR. Heavily doped oxides of zinc and indium were already reported to be good, low loss alternatives to metals in the NIR range. Here, we consider these transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) as alternative plasmonic materials for many specific applications ranging from surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides to MMs with hype...

Naik, Gururaj V; 10.1016/j.metmat.2010.11.001

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

27

Assessment of Conductor Aging for a Composite Core Conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the demand for power grows, utilities are searching for ways to increase power transmission capacity on existing lines and thereby avoid the high costs and environmental and regulatory challenges of building new lines. One approach would involve upgrading the transfer capacity by reconductoring selected network lines with conductors capable of transmitting greater capacity. In recent years, conductor manufacturers have begun producing new conductors that are able to operate at higher temperatures with...

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

28

Transparent Conducting Oxide Development for Electronics Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have employed both combinatorial composition spread and conventional single composition approaches to determine the relative roles of metals and oxygen stoichiometries on the opto-electronic properties of amorphous In-Zn-O (a-IZO) thin film transparent conductors. Two major results were found. First, that the optimization of conductivity in a-IZO is a coupled process with the best metals composition depending upon the oxygen content of the sputter gas. Second, that the electron mobility as a function of carrier concentration is given by a common curve for all a-IZO films independent of the metals composition.

Perkins, J. D.; Berry, J. H.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Cavendor, A. N.; Leenheer, A. J.; O'Hayre, R. P.; Ginley, D. S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optimization of Conductivity and Transparency in Amorphous In-Zn-O Transparent Conductors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amorphous mixed metal oxide TCOs are of increasing interest due to the excellent opto-electronic properties and smoothness (RRMS < 0.5 nm) obtained for sputtered films deposited at less than 100 ..deg..C. Here, we have investigated the combined materials phase space of oxygen stoichiometry and metals composition (In:Zn ratio) and made two key discoveries.

Perkins, J.; Berry, J.; van Hest, M.; Alleman, J.; Dabney, M.; Gedvilas, L.; Ginley, D. S.; Leenheer, A.; O'Hayre, R.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Tailoring photonic metamaterial resonances for thermal radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective solar absorbers generally have limited effectiveness in unconcentrated sunlight, because of reradiation losses over a broad range of wavelengths and angles. However, metamaterials offer the potential to limit ...

Bermel, Peter A.

31

Sputtered pin amorphous silicon semi-conductor device and method therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency amorphous silicon PIN semi-conductor device is constructed by the sequential sputtering of N, I and P layers of amorphous silicon and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode. A method of construction produces a PIN device, exhibiting enhanced physical integrity and facilitates ease of construction in a singular vacuum system and vacuum pump down procedure.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Friedman, Robert A. (Milford, NJ)

1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

32

Conductor and Shield Wire Inspection and Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With thousands of miles of transmission lines nearing the end of their expected service life, conductor life and reliability are of increasing concern to many utilities. The consequences of conductor failure can be significant and its impacts widespread. ACSR conductors have been identified as the most problematic of all the conductors because the conductor core cannot be assessed visually. ACSR conductors have a steel stranded core to carry the wire tension load and two or more layers of aluminum strand...

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

Active negative-index metamaterial powered by an electron beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An active negative index metamaterial that derives its gain from an electron beam is introduced. The metamaterial consists of a stack of equidistant parallel metal plates perforated by a periodic array of holes shaped as ...

Shapiro, Michael

34

Levitated crystals and quasicrystals of metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New scientific and technological opportunities exist by marrying dusty plasma research with metamaterials. Specifically, by balancing control and self-assembly, certain laboratory plasmas can become a generic levitation platform for novel structure formation and nanomaterial synthesis. We propose to experimentally investigate two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) levitated structures of metamaterials and their properties. Such structures can self assemble in laboratory plasmas, similar to levitated dust crystals which were discovered in the mid 1990's. Laboratory plasma platform for metamaterial formation eliminates substrates upon which most metamaterials have to be supported. Three types of experiments, with similar setups, are discussed here. Levitated crystal structures of metamaterials using anisotropic microparticles are the most basic of the three. The second experiment examines whether quasicrystals of metamaterials are possible. Quasicrystals, discovered in the 1980's, possess so-called forbidden symmetries according to the conventional crystallography. The proposed experiment could answer many fundamental questions about structural, thermal and dynamical properties of quasicrystals. And finally, how to use nanoparticle coated microparticles to synthesize very long carbon nanotubes is also described. All of the experiments can fit inside a standard International Space Station locker with dimensions of 8-inch x 17-inch X 18-inch. Microgravity environment is deemed essential in particular for large 3D structures and very long carbon nanotube synthesis.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goree, John A [Dept Phys and Astron., University of Iowa

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

35

Novel Metamaterial 'Flat Lens' Creates 3D Images in Free ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel Metamaterial 'Flat Lens' Creates 3D Images in Free Space. From NIST Tech Beat: May 28, 2013. ...

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

36

Live Work with High Temperature Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines issues that may arise when live work is undertaken on conductors that operate at high temperatures (HT conductors) and provides the results from selected tests on the temperature levels reached by tools in contact with hot conductors. It also discusses possible concerns that may arise during de-energized work on lines that use HT conductors.

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS: III: YBCO Conductor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS: Session III: YBCO Conductor Development. Sponsored by: Jt: EMPMD/SMD Superconducting Materials ...

38

'Tuning' Graphene Drums Might Turn Conductors to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'Tuning' Graphene Drums Might Turn Conductors to Semiconductors. From NIST Tech Beat: June 27, 2012. ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

39

Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

Kenney, Walter J. (Clinton, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

ELASTIC CONDUCTOR - Energy Innovation Portal  

Elastic conductors made of ribbons of aligned carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix of ... Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 awarded by the U.S. ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Interaction between graphene and metamaterials: split rings vs. wire pairs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have recently shown that graphene is unsuitable to replace metals in the current-carrying elements of metamaterials. At the other hand, experiments have demonstrated that a layer of graphene can modify the optical response of a metal-based metamaterial. Here we study this electromagnetic interaction between metamaterials and graphene. We show that the weak optical response of graphene can be modified dramatically by coupling to the strong resonant fields in metallic structures. A crucial element determining the interaction strength is the orientation of the resonant fields. If the resonant electric field is predominantly parallel to the graphene sheet (e.g., in a complementary split-ring metamaterial), the metamaterial’s resonance can be strongly damped. If the resonant field is predominantly perpendicular to the graphene sheet (e.g., in a wire-pair metamaterial), no significant interaction exists.

Zou, Yanhong; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

42

Wire Making Techniques - HTS Coated Conductors - Fact Sheet ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wire Making Techniques - HTS Coated Conductors - Fact Sheet Wire Making Techniques - HTS Coated Conductors - Fact Sheet Wire Making Techniques - HTS Coated Conductors - Fact Sheet...

43

Plasmonic metamaterial enhanced axionic magnetoelectric effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Axionic electrodynamics predicts many peculiar magnetoelectric-based properties. Hitherto, simple structures such as one-dimensional multilayers were employed to explore these axionic magnetoelectric responses, and Fabry-P\\'{e}rot interference mechanism was frequently applied to augment these effects. In this Letter, we propose a new mechanism, metamaterial-enhanced axionic magnetoelectric response, by taking advantage of intense enhancement of localized electromagnetic fields associated with plasmonic resonances. Through numerical simulations, we show that plasmonic metamaterial can enhance axionic magnetoelectric effect by two orders of magnitude.

Zeng, Yong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Climate Research Center for Geospatial Analysis Program Highlights Index Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program EVS staff members helped to implement transparency and...

45

Focusing, Power Tunneling and Rejection from Chiral and/or Chiral Nihility/Nihility Metamaterials Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Focusing of electromagnetic plane wave from a large size paraboloidal reflector, composed of layers of chiral and/or chiral nihility metamaterials, has been studied us- ing Maslov's method. First, the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic plane wave from two parallel layers of chiral and/or chiral nihility metamaterials are cal- culated using transfer matrix method. The effects of change of angle of incidence, chirality parameters and impedances of layers are noted and discussed. Special cases by taking very large and small values of permittivity of second layer, while assuming value of corresponding chirality equal to zero, are also treated. These special cases are equivalent to reflection from a perfect electric conductor backed chiral layer and nihility backed chiral layer, respectively. Results of reflection from parallel layers have been utilized to study focusing from a large size paraboloidal reflector. The present study, on focusing from a paraboloidal re{\\deg}ector, not only unifies several published works conducted by different researchers but also provides better understanding of new cases.

Syed Touseef Hussain Shah; Faiz Ahmad; Aqeel A. Syed; Qaisar Abbas Naqvi

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

46

A transparent grid filesystem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Existing data management solutions fail to adequately support data management needs at the inter-grid (interoperability) level. We describe a possible solution, a transparent grid filesystem, and consider in detail a challenging use case.

Brian Coghlan; Geoff Quigley; Soha Maad; Gabriele Pierantoni; John Ryan; Eamonn Kenny; David O'Callaghan

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

A Dictionary for Transparency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

Kouzes, Richard T.

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a heat shield based on a metamaterial engineering approach to shield a region from transient diffusive heat flow. The shield is designed with a multilayered structure to prescribe the appropriate spatial profile for heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity of the effective medium. The heat shield was experimentally compared to other isotropic materials.

Narayana, Supradeep; Sato, Yuki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

The ethics of information transparency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper investigates the ethics of information transparency (henceforth transparency). It argues that transparency is not an ethical principle in itself but a pro-ethical condition for enabling or impairing other ethical practices or principles. A ... Keywords: Computer ethics, Information transparency, Semantic information, Software design

Matteo Turilli; Luciano Floridi

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrated giant optical activity using a chiral metamaterial composed of an array of conjugated bilayer metal structures. The chiral metamaterials were further integrated with photoactive inclusions to accomplish a wide tuning range of the optical activity through illumination with near-infrared light. The strong chirality observed in our metamaterials results in a negative refractive index, which can also be well controlled by the near-infrared optical excitation.

Zhou, Jiangfeng; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Zhao, Rongkuo; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; O'Hara, John F.

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

51

Conductor Development for High Field Dipole Magnets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the development of an "armored cable" conductor. Bi-2212AMU [25] is developing an armored cable of Bi- 2212 strands

Scanlan, R.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Analytic theory of optical nano-plasmonic metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances in nano-fabrication techniques allow for the manufacture of optical metamaterials, bringing their unique and extra-ordinary properties to the visible regime and beyond. However, an analytical description of optical nano-plasmonic metamaterials is challenging due to the characteristic optical behaviour of metals. Here we present an analytical theory that allows to bring established microwave metamaterials models to optical wavelengths. This method is implemented for nano-scaled plasmonic wire-mesh and tri-helical metamaterials, and we obtain an accurate prediction for their dispersive behaviour at optical and near-IR wavelengths.

Demetriadou, Angela

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

High Critical Current Coated Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

54

Transparent solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

Infrared solar radiation is absorbed by a transparent converter glass for conversion of the infrared radiation into thermal energy. Liquid or air forms a transparent fluid medium that is conducted into heat transfer contact with the glass to carry the thermal energy away from the glass to a point of utilization. In one embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of sintered particles of infrared absorptive glass located within a collector space formed within an all-glass panel. The panel includes glass walls extending outwardly of the walls forming the collector space. In a further embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of elongated strips of infrared absorptive glass carried by support members so that the strips extend in a parallel, spaced-apart relation to form a venetian blind-like structure between glass panels. In a still further embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of a slab of infrared absorptive glass extending vertically within a building structure to form a passageway for the flow of convectivelydriven air between the glass slab and two window panels forming a dry airspace therebetween. Instead of a thick unitary glass slab, smaller bricks of infrared absorptive glass are arranged to form courses of an internal wall within a building structure adjacent a glass window.

Deminet, C.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

55

Optomechanically induced transparency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coherent interaction of laser radiation with multilevel atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the electronic excitation pathways. A prominent example observed in atomic three-level-systems is the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), in which a control laser induces a narrow spectral transparency window for a weak probe laser beam. The concomitant rapid variation of the refractive index in this spectral window can give rise to dramatic reduction of the group velocity of a propagating pulse of probe light. Dynamic control of EIT via the control laser enables even a complete stop, that is, storage, of probe light pulses in the atomic medium. Here, we demonstrate optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT)--formally equivalent to EIT--in a cavity optomechanical system operating in the resolved sideband regime. A control laser tuned to the lower motional sideband of the cavity resonance induces a dipole-like interaction of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. Under these conditions, the destructive interference of excitation pathways for an intracavity probe field gives rise to a window of transparency when a two-photon resonance condition is met. As a salient feature of EIT, the power of the control laser determines the width and depth of the probe transparency window. OMIT could therefore provide a new approach for delaying, slowing and storing light pulses in long-lived mechanical excitations of optomechanical systems, whose optical and mechanical properties can be tailored in almost arbitrary ways in the micro- and nano-optomechanical platforms developed to date.

S. Weis; R. Riviere; S. Deleglise; E. Gavartin; O. Arcizet; A. Schliesser; T. J. Kippenberg

2010-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

56

Transparent partial order reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Partial Order Reduction (POR) techniques improve the basic model checking algorithm by reducing the numbers of states and transitions explored in verifying a property of the model. In the "ample set" POR framework for the verification of an LTL¿X ... Keywords: Invisibility, Model checking, Partial order reduction, Transparent, Verification

Stephen F. Siegel

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fabrication of cubic micron-scale 3D metamaterial resonators.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new fabrication technique called Membrane Projection Lithography for the production of three-dimensional metamaterials at infrared wavelengths. Using this technique, multilayer infrared metamaterials that include both in-plane and out-of-plane resonators can be fabricated.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Wendt, Joel Robert; Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor  

SciTech Connect

A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

59

Maintenance Issues Related to Operation of HTLS Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new High-Temperature Low-Sag conductors (HTLS) are used to raise current capacity of an existing transmission line. As the use of these conductors increases, it is crucial to address some of the outstanding issues that arise with these conductors. One such issue, as revealed during a field demonstration carried out by EPRI to gain experience on the design and handling of this type of conductors, is conductor maintenance. HTLS conductors are more complex than conventional Aluminum Conductor Steel Rein...

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

Experimental demonstration of metamaterial multiverse in a ferrofluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extraordinary light rays propagating inside a hyperbolic metamaterial look similar to particle world lines in a 2+1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime [1]. Magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid are known to form nanocolumns aligned along the magnetic field, so that a hyperbolic metamaterial may be formed at large enough nanoparticle concentration nH. Here we investigate optical properties of such a metamaterial just below nH. While on average such a metamaterial is elliptical, thermal fluctuations of nanoparticle concentration lead to transient formation of hyperbolic regions (3D Minkowski spacetimes) inside this metamaterial. Thus, thermal fluctuations in a ferrofluid look similar to creation and disappearance of individual Minkowski spacetimes (universes) in the cosmological multiverse. This theoretical picture is supported by experimental measurements of polarization-dependent optical transmission of a cobalt based ferrofluid at 1500 nm.

Igor I. Smolyaninov; Bradley Yost; Evan Bates; Vera N. Smolyaninova

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites  

Indium Tin Oxide, the most widely used commercial transparent conducting coating, has severe limitations such inflexibility, high processing ...

62

Phase Conductor and Shield Wire Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As new inspection technologies for conductors and shield wires develop and mature, the assessment process becomes more accurate in identifying and quantifying flaws. With better accuracy, condition assessment can be less conservative, thus allowing utilities to save money by keeping conductors in service for longer periods. This report, which includes the results of a survey of EPRI member utilities on phase conductor and shield wire installations, inspections, and failures, updates recent EPRI work on c...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

63

Live Work on High Temperature Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedback from field personnel working with high-temperature conductors indicates that when a dead-end compression yoke assembly (DCYA) is installed on the conductor according to normal utility procedures, the soft aluminum strands are deformed and "birdcage." This is of course a concern to the field crews and the utility operating the line. This report presents results of research and tests performed on selected conductors operating at high temperature (approximately 250-260°C) with selected live wor...

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

64

Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low-particle-count clean-room facilities and multimillion-dollar equipment. On the other hand, the novel process we developed uses a method that makes use of polymer molds and standard deposition techniques in an ambient laboratory environment. The final structure consists of tall ribbons of metal (standing on edge) that are so thin that they do not block light but are very good conductors. The advantage of this design is that it avoids the competition between conductivity and transparency inherent in transparent oxide electrodes. By making the structure taller, conductivity can be increased without impacting transparency. We have measured both electrical conductivity and transparency for these structures. We performed two-wire electrical measurements to quantify the structures resistance using metal contacts deposited on each end. The total sample area was 4 x 4mm{sup 2}. We measured a resistance of structures with 40nm gold sidewalls of 7.3{Omega}, which is lower than that of ITO glass (which has a sheet resistance around 10O/square). We investigated the structures optical properties based on both specular- and total-transmission measurements. Specular transmission is measured by collecting the transmitted light at normal incidence, while total transmission is obtained by collecting transmitted light at normal incidence and diffracted light using an integrating sphere. Figure 3 shows the total transmission of a grating with 40nm gold or silver sidewalls on a glass substrate compared to that of ITO. Additionally, the transparency changes very little within 30{sup o} off normal incidence. This high visible-light transmission of our metal-patterned structures is very promising for their application as transparent electrodes, because most visible light was allowed to propagate through the patterned metallic/polymeric structures. Researchers in our group continue to refine the fabrication methods and are investigating methods to make large-scale structures for use in a variety of applications that require both transparency and high electrical conductivity. We are also applying these fab

Constant, Kristen

2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

65

Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

Tench, D. Morgan (Camarillo, CA); Cunningham, Michael A. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Kobrin, Paul H. (Newbury Park, CA)

2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

66

Qualification Test on a Carbon Fiber Composite Core Conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carbon-fiber composite-core conductor is the most recently developed high-temperature low-sag (HTLS) advanced conductor. Consequently, the electric power industry has the least experience with this type of conductor. In past years, the "Advanced Conductor" project has been developing a testing protocol to qualify this type of conductor. The validity of the qualification test was confirmed by extensive testing of the protocol on various carbon-fiber composite-core conductors and at different test temp...

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

67

Effect of High Temperature Cycling on Conductor Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the alternatives for increasing power flow on an existing transmission line is to raise the operating temperature of its conductor. The effects of high operating temperature on the conductor, however, include loss in conductor strength and reduction in conductor clearance to ground. The high temperature also affects the short- and long-term performance of the conductor connections and conductor accessories. All of these effects must be assessed for an overhead line to operate safely and reliably a...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

68

Solid-state proton conductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN); Schoop, Urs (Westborough, MA); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Verebelyi, Darren T. (Oxford, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

70

Corona losses dependence from the conductor diameter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents possibility to decrease the corona power losses in overhead transmission lines. Corona power losses can be reduced by increasing the diameter of the conductor and used bundled conductors per phase. The objectives were to determine ... Keywords: corona model, critical disruptive voltage, electric discharge, electric field, power losses, transmission line

Isuf Krasniqi; Vjollca Komoni; Avni Alidemaj; Gazmend Kabashi

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Design and analysis of MEMS-based metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metamaterials, materials that are constructed with arrays of small elements have significant potential to provide material properties that are useful for electromagnetic applications but are not found in nature. Slight ...

Varsanik, Jonathan S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an ultrabroadband thin-film infrared absorber made of sawtoothed anisotropic metamaterial. Absorptivity of higher than 95% at normal incidence is supported in a wide range of frequencies, where the full absorption ...

Cui, Yanxia

73

Measurement and device design of left-handed metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The properties of a variety of left-handed metamaterial (LHM) structures are analyzed and measured to verify consistent behavior between theory an measurements. The structures are simulated using a commercial software ...

Thomas Zachary M. (Zachary Michael)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Correlation effects in nuclear transparency  

SciTech Connect

The Glauber approximation is used to calculate the contribution of nucleon correlations in high-energy {ital A}({ital e},{ital e}{prime}{ital N}) reactions. When the excitation energy of the residual nucleus is small, the increase of the nuclear transparency due to correlations between the struck nucleon and the other nucleons is mostly compensated by a decrease of the transparency due to the correlations between nondetected nucleons. We derive Glauber model predictions for nuclear transparency for the differential cross section when nuclear shell level excitations are measured. The role of correlations in color transparency is briefly discussed.

Frankfurt, L.L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel); Moniz, E.J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics III, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Sargsyan, M.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel)]|[Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan, 375036 (Armenia); Strikman, M.I. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)]|[St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188350 (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

76

Solving metamaterial Maxwell's equations via a vector wave integro-differential equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we discuss the time-domain metamaterial Maxwell's equations. One major contribution of this paper is that after some effort we find that the metamaterial Maxwell's equations can be beautifully reduced to a vector wave integro-differential ... Keywords: Finite element method, Maxwell's equations, Metamaterials, Vector wave equation

Yunqing Huang; Jichun Li; Wei Yang

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Cupronickel Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Nanowire Networks  

SciTech Connect

Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

Rathmall, Aaron [Duke University; Nguyen, Minh [Duke University; Wiley, Benjamin J [Duke University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Conductor assembly formed about a curved axis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductor assembly of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In the assembly a first layer, tubular in shape, is formed about an axis. The axis includes a curved portion along which a conductor may be positioned to define a first conductor path. The first layer also includes a curved portion having a shape that includes a curve extending along the curved portion of the axis. A first conductor is arranged about the curved portion of the first layer in a first helical configuration including a curved segment, helical in shape and formed about the curved portion of the axis. The configuration is capable of sustaining a magnetic field having multipole components oriented in directions transverse to the axis.

Meinke, Rainer (Melbourne, FL)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Assessment of Phase Conductor Inspection Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A feasibility study was completed in 2003 to determine if iron oxide deposits can be identified on the surface of aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) conductors. Results were promising and demonstrated that the presence of steel core corrosion may be identified by the ratio of reflected light intensities at specific wavelengths. This report describes recent work undertaken to further develop and demonstrate this concept. Previous testing of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy sensing equipment in a s...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

80

Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal metamaterials; (2) Superconductors for temperature tunable metamaterials; (3) Ultrafast optical switching in superconductor metamaterials; (4) Controlling the conductivity with infrared pump beam; (5) Complex metal oxides as active substrates - Strontium Titanate; and (6) Conclusion. Conclusions are: (1) High Tc superconductors good for tunable and ultrafast metamaterials; (2) Large frequency and amplitude tunability in ultrathin superconductor films; (3) Such tunable properties cannot be accessed using metals; (4) Complex metal oxides can be used as active substrates - large tunability; (5) Complex oxides fail to address the issue of radiation losses in THz metamaterials.

Singh, Ranjan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xiong, Jie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Md A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Hao [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Power conductor rail expansion joint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A power conductor rail system is described, comprising: a first rail section linearly aligned with a second rail section, the first and second rail sections each having a rail web, the rail web having an upper flange, a lower flange, an intermediate portion connecting the upper flange and the lower flange, and metal cladding on the intermediate portion between the upper flange and the lower flange; a first half rail web extending longitudinally from the first rail section, the first half rail web including an elongated first slot extending in a longitudinal direction of the rail section; a second half rail web extending from the second rail section, the second half rail including an elongated second slot extending in longitudinal direction of the rail section; a slide plate; and a means for securing the first and second half rail webs longitudinally slidably together wherein a portion of the first half rail web and the second half rail web overlap and sandwich the slide plate therebetween.

Plichta, D.G.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

82

Superhydrophobic Transparent Glass Thin Films  

Glass used in building materials (curtain walls), windshields, goggles, glasses,optical lenses, and similar applications must be durable and transparent. To meetthis challenge, ORNL researchers have invented a method to produce ...

83

Conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed perpendicular to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

Conductor fatigue-life research. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report of Research Project RP 1278-1 sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and carried out at the Civil Engineering Department of Auburn University (Auburn, Alabama). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing vibration amplitudes of ACSR conductors which had been minimally damaged by aeolian vibration. The aeolian vibration was simulated by mechanical means in a controlled laboratory situation and the reduction in vibration amplitudes was a simulation of the addition of amplitude limiting devices (dampers). Conductors were vibrated at high amplitudes until a predetermined number of strand breaks occurred, after which the vibration was continued at reduced amplitudes. Three different ACSB conductors were tested: 795 KCM 26/7, 795 KCM 45/7, and 397.5 KCM 26/7. These conductors were chosen to establish the effects of conductor size and stranding on the amplitude reduction tests. Two different amplitude reductions were used to establish a threshold value for a maximum reduced amplitude. Previous preliminary research by others indicated that amplitude reductions extended the working life of conductors. This research expanded the amplitude reduction values and conductor sizes and strandings tested. For each set of parameters, four duplicative tests were performed to give statistical credence to the data. The results of the investigation indicated that amplitude reductions arrested fatigue strand breakage in each case. Electric utilities can utilize the results of this EPRI project in assessing the fatigue life of minimally damaged transmisson lines and in evaluating techniques for mitigating fatigue damage.

Ramey, G.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity > 3000 S/cm.

Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Adv. Sci. Technol. (Faenza, Italy) 33, 1037-1050 (2003) TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES FOR TRANSPARENT CONDUCTORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

these limiting properties are also discussed. 1. INTRODUCTION A few materials, mostly oxides of tin, indium and to etch TCs. Zinc oxide is the easiest material to etch, tin oxide is the most difficult, and indium oxide in part by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. #12;2 2. OPTICAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES 2

Gordon, Roy

87

Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity {sigma} >; 3000 S/cm.

Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Conductor fatigue life research. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective of this Phase II work was to experimentally evaluate the long-term effectiveness of amplitude reductions in arresting the aeolian fatigue deterioration of minimally damaged ACSR conductors supported in standard short-radius suspension clamps. The aeolian vibration was simulated by mechanical means in a controlled laboratory situation and the reduction in vibration amplitudes was a simulation of the addition of amplitude limiting devices (dampers). Conductors were vibrated at high amplitudes until a predetermined number of strand breaks occurred, after which the vibration was continued at reduced amplitudes. The Phase II research expanded the number of cycles of vibration and amplitude reduction values for the conductors used in the Phase I effort. The results indicated that the amplitude reductions arrested long-term fatigue strand breaks in every case tested. Additionally, the maximum fatigue damage arrestment amplitude was expanded and evaluated to be 20 mils at the 3-1/2 inch location for Drake ACSR conductor. Electric utilities can utilize the results of this EPRI project in assessing the fatigue life of minimally damaged transmission lines and in evaluating techniques for mitigating fatigue damage. A secondary objective of the Phase II effort was to develop aeolian vibration Load-N curves (dynamic bending stress versus number of cycles of vibration curves) for some ACSR conductors based on Ontario-Hydro recorder and wind data. The wind data generated Load-N curves developed appear to be too conservative. The modified worst-case Ontario-Hydro recorder Load-N curve developed is recommended as a design guideline curve for aeolian fatigue troubled lines in Georgia. The development and use of Load-N curves in conjunction with S-N curves are required for rational aeolian fatigue design of overhead conductors, and for estimating line fatigue lives.

Ramey, G.E.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Live Working Tools for High Temperature Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In long-duration (several days) tests, strain link sticks used for live work were removed from service and exposed to conductors operating at high temperature of about 250-260C. Only strain link sticks were tested to date. Results obtained do not indicate damage or deterioration of the tested sticks. The research is a joint effort between project 35.010 Live Working Research for Overhead Transmission Equipment, Techniques, Procedures and Protective Grounding and project 35.015 Advanced Conductors to inve...

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

91

Stators with improved conductor assembly and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stator includes a stator core, a plurality of slots, and a conductor. The plurality of slots are formed within the stator core. The conductor is disposed continuously within at least two of the plurality of openings.

Dang, Dang Dinh; Blissenbach, Rolf; Schauer, David; Wattleworth, John; Milani, Michael; Hatch, Erik

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

Resistive coating for current conductors in cryogenic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a resistive or semiconducting coating for use on current conductors in cryogenic applications. This includes copper-clad superconductor wire, copper wire used for stabilizing superconductor magnets, and for hyperconductors. The coating is a film of cuprous sulfide (Cu.sub.2 S) that has been found not to degrade the properties of the conductors. It is very adherent to the respective conductors and satisfies the mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements of coatings for the conductors.

Hirayama, Chikara (Murrysville, PA); Wagner, George R. (Murrysville, PA)

1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

93

Accelerated Aging Test of High-Temperature Conductor and Connectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the research on high-temperature low-sag (HTLS) advanced conductors, this project investigates the long-term performance of commercially available advanced conductors to complement the field demonstration project, which provided information on handling and stringing of these conductors. The report provides preliminary results from the accelerated aging tests conducted on various types of HTLS conductors and their connectors. The objective of the accelerated aging tests is to determine the ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

94

Guide for Selection and Application of High-Temperature Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extensive research has been conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on high-temperature low-sag (HTLS) conductors. Much knowledge has been gained on this type of conductor since EPRI initiated its first HTLS conductor research project in 2004. The projects on HTLS conductors completed to date include field demonstration, material study, and short-term to long-term performance evaluations. These projects were conducted under different funding arrangements and were sometimes ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Overhead Conductor and Shield Wires Management Guide (Draft)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As transmission systems age, utilities are increasingly concerned about the reliability of aging conductors, especially ACSR conductors, which cannot be assessed visually because of the layers of aluminum strand that cover their cores. Utilities wishing to determine how much core strength remains in these conductors can only do so by sampling the conductor and subsequently subjecting it to tensile testing or by looking at the significant circuits that pose a reliability risk using the Cormon Device or El...

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

96

Endurance Test on Two Carbon Fiber Composite Core Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since organic matrix core (carbon fiber composite core) conductors may be able to operate at higher temperatures than conventional conductors, they could offer utilities the potential to upgrade the transfer capacity of selected lines through reconductoring. However, the industry has had little experience with the design and installation of these new conductors and little knowledge of how the conductors will perform over time. This report describes a study that applied endurance tests to two organic matr...

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Parameters that Influence the Aging and Degradation of Overhead Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been investigating degradation mechanisms, inspection methods, and condition assessment methods for overhead line conductors for a few years. This report identifies conductor failure modes and discusses the associated degradation mechanisms. It further discusses methods of inspection and assessment that may be used to establish the current condition of conductors. Finally, it discusses how this data can be used to develop end-of-life criteria and estimate remaining useful life for conductors.

2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

98

Super-Planckian Near-Field Thermal Emission with Phonon-Polaritonic Hyperbolic Metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study super-Planckian near-field heat exchanges for multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials using exact S-matrix calculations. We investigate heat exchanges between two multilayer hyperbolic metamaterial structures. We show that the super- Planckian emission of such metamaterials can either come from the presence of surface phonon-polaritons modes or from a continuum of hyperbolic modes depending on the choice of composite materials as well as the structural configuration.

Biehs, Svend-Age; Messina, Riccardo; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sympathetic Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Sympathetic Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency Laser Cooling of Motional Modes in an Ion Chain Y. Lin ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

100

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program | National Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Effect of Elevated Conductor and Ambient Temperatures on Polymer Insulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greater demand for power throughput on new and existing transmission lines will result in conductors being operated at progressively higher temperatures due to increased currents. The effect of these elevated conductor temperatures on polymer suspension insulators attached to the conductor is of concern. The maximum permissible conductor temperature has been generally limited by the maximum allowable conductor sag, which in turn is determined by conductor clearance regulations. Conductor sag is a functio...

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Transparent electrode for optical switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Myles, K.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Assessment of Phase Conductor Inspection Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A feasibility study was completed in 2003 to determine if iron oxide deposits can be identified on the surface of ACSR conductors. Results were promising and demonstrated that the presence of steel core corrosion may be identified by a ratio of reflected light intensity at specific wavelengths. Early "Near Infrared Spectroscopy" testing in a semi-controlled environment and in the field revealed many environmental conditions must be overcome in order to gather accurate reflectance light spectra. The late...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

105

Transparent Cost Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transparent Cost Database Transparent Cost Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transparent Cost Database Agency/Company /Organization: Department of Energy Partner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, Transportation Topics: Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Resource assessment, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Dataset, Lessons learned/best practices, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Web Application Link: en.openei.org/apps/TCDB/ Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/united-states-transparent-cost-databa Language: English The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

106

Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Harmonic generation and wave mixing in nonlinear metamaterials and photonic crystals (Invited paper)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basic concepts and phenomenology of wave mixing and harmonic generation are reviewed in context of the recent advances in the enhanced nonlinear activity in metamaterials and photonic crystals. The effects of dispersion, field confinement and phase ... Keywords: bandgap, dispersion, harmonic generation, nonlinear metamaterial, pulses

O. Shramkova; A. Schuchinsky

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

Pleva, E. F. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Mehrotra, V. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Single ion conductor cross-linked polymeric networks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Single ion conductors comprising polymer electrolytes prepared by grafting a salt compound onto a comb-branch polymer or dendrimer are disclosed having superior properties.

Kerr, John Borland (Oakland, CA); Wang, Shanger (Fairfield, CA); Han, Yong Bong (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Gao (Oakland, CA); Hou, Jun (Painted Post, NY); Sloop, Steven Edward (Berkeley, CA)

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

110

Single ion conductor cross-linked polymeric networks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Single ion conductors comprising polymer electrolytes prepared by grafting a salt compound onto a comb-branch polymer or dendrimer are disclosed having superior properties.

Kerr, John Borland (Oakland, CA); Wang, Shanger (Fairfield, CA); Hou, Jun (Painted Post, NY); Sloop, Steven Edward (Berkeley, CA); Han, Yong Bong (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Gao (Oakland, CA)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

111

On electromagnetic induction in electric conductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental validation of the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction (EMI) is performed when an electromotive force is generated in thin copper turns, located inside a large magnetic coil. It has been established that the electromotive force (emf) value should be dependent not only on changes of the magnetic induction flux through a turn and on symmetry of its crossing by magnetic power lines also. The law of EMI is applicable in sufficient approximation in case of the changes of the magnetic field near the turn are symmetrical. Experimental study of the induced emf in arcs and a direct section of the conductor placed into the variable field has been carried out. Linear dependence of the induced emf on the length of the arc has been ascertained in case of the magnetic field distribution symmetry about it. Influence of the magnetic field symmetry on the induced emf in the arc has been observed. The curve of the induced emf in the direct section over period of current pulse is similar to this one for the turns and arcs. The general law of EMI for a curvilinear conductor has been deduced. Calculation of the induced emf in the turns wrapped over it and comparison with the experimental data has been made. The proportionality factor has been ascertained for the law. Special conditions have been described, when the induced emf may not exist in the presence of inductive current. Theoretical estimation of the inductive current has been made at a induced low voltage in the turn. It has been noted the necessity to take into account the concentration of current carriers in calculation of the induced emf in semiconductors and ionized conductors.

Alexander I. Korolev

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

112

SSPC (Solid State Proton Conductors 15 Meeting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The field of solid state protonics has had a small but dedicated following for the past several decades. The collection of papers compiled in this special issue of Solid State Ionics were presented at the most recent international conference focused specifically on this topic, the 15th International Conference on Solid State Proton Conductors (SSPC-15) held in Santa Barbara, California, United States, August 15-20, 2010. Early recognition of the importance of proton transport in solids led to the establishment of the first meeting in this series in 1981, held in Paris in the form of a Danish-Frenchworkshop. The subsequent thirteen meetingswere all held inWestern Europe,with increasing participation from Asian, Eastern European and North and South American researchers. In recognition of the growing international interest in the field, SSPC-14 was held in Kyoto, Japan. SSPC-15, the first North American meeting in this series, built on the momentum of internationalization achieved in SSPC-14, ensuring that the best and brightest minds continue to contribute to the important problems still facing the understanding and manipulation of proton transport in solids. This occasion warrants an update to the SSPC history, and is given. Overall, the oxide proton conductors were the topic of greatest interest, reflecting the deep history of Japanese involvement in these materials. Critical advances were described in both the understanding of the transport properties and the fabrication of technological devices, with particular emphasis on fuel cells. Interest in polymer and oxyacid proton conductors was also high, as with previous meetings. Again, advances in fundamental mechanistic understanding of proton transport pathways were reported in parallel with advances in device development. While only a subset of papers presented at SSPC-15 are included in this special issue, the articles reflect the breadth of topics covered. The reader is encouraged to browse the papers beyond his or her area of expertise to experience directly the remarkable breakthroughs reported at SSPC-15.

Speakers; Shu Yamaguchi; George Rossman; M. Saiful Islam; Maria Gomez; Stephen Paddison

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

113

Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality  

SciTech Connect

Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity {epsilon}, magnetic permeability {mu} are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective {mu} < 1 or even {mu} < 0. Varactor based nonlinear SRRs are built and modeled to study the nonlinearity in magnetic metamaterials and the results will be presented in Chapter 3. Negative refractive index n is one of the major target in the research of metamaterials. Negative n can be obtained with a metamaterial with both {epsilon} and {mu} negative. As an alternative, negative index for one of the circularly polarized waves could be achieved with metamaterials having a strong chirality ?. In this case neither {epsilon} nor {mu} negative is required. My work on chiral metamaterials will be presented in Chapter 4.

Wang, Bingnan

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

114

Building Energy Transparency: A Framework for Implementing.....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Energy Rating & Disclosure Policy Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and...

115

NIST Scientists Address 'Wrinkles' in Transparent Film ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Scientists Address 'Wrinkles' in Transparent Film Development. ... High on the wish list of the solar power industry is a cheap, flexible ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

116

Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and an aluminum-zirconium alloy to improve the outer strands. The result is a cable that can carry more current than steelaluminum lines without sagging as much at higher temperatures. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by 3M have been successfully test at ORNL – small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E. (3M Comp.)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Guide for Maintenance of High-Temperature Low-Sag Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-Temperature Low-Sag conductors (HTLS) are used to raise the current capacity of an existing transmission line. As the use of this new type of conductors increases, it is crucial to address some of the outstanding issues that arise with these conductors. One such issue is conductor maintenance. HTLS conductors are more complex than conventional ACSR conductors, and, as a result, require special training on installation, special tools for splicing and terminating, and unique terminations and fittings....

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

118

Application of the Global Positioning System to the Measurement of Overhead Power Transmission Conductor Sag  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, incident solar radiation, limiting physical conductor characteristics, and conductor configuration case weather condi- tion is assumed while in the dynamic case the actual weather condition is taken

119

Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

N-detection under transparent-scan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the quality of test sequences under a test application scheme called transparent-scan as n -detection test sequences. We obtain transparent-scan sequences from combinational test sets. We show that for the same number of clock cycles ... Keywords: n-detection test sets, scan design, test generation

Irith Pomeranz

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

In the OSTI Collections: Metamaterials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Metamaterials Metamaterials Negative refractive index Varying the response to terahertz light Other devices Solving technical problems References Research Organizations Reports available from OSTI's Information Bridge Any material's physical properties are determined by what types of atoms it is made of and how those atoms are arranged. In an ordinary solid material, the atoms are arranged in basic, roughly nanometer-size units of a few atoms each, repeated over and over in an extensive wallpaper-like pattern. Metamaterials are artificially structured materials with much larger repeating units that contain more atoms per unit. Since there are more possible ways to arrange larger sets of atoms than smaller sets, metamaterials have a greater possible range of physical properties than ordinary solids do.

122

Localization of electric field distribution in graded core-shell metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The local electric field distribution has been investigated in a core-shell cylindrical metamaterial structure under the illumination of a uniform incident optical field. The structure consists of a homogeneous dielectric core, a shell of graded metal-dielectric metamaterial, embedded in a uniform matrix. In the quasi-static limit, the permittivity of the metamaterial is given by the graded Drude model. The local electric potentials and hence the electric fields have been derived exactly and analytically in terms of hyper-geometric functions. Our results showed that the peak of the electric field inside the cylindrical shell can be confined in a desired position by varying the frequency of the optical field and the parameters of the graded profiles. Thus, by fabricating graded metamaterials, it is possible to control electric field distribution spatially. We offer an intuitive explanation for the gradation-controlled electric field distribution.

Wei, En-Bo; 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.046607

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Interaction between metamaterial resonators and inter-subband transitions in quantum wells.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the coupling and interaction between the fundamental resonances of planar metamaterials (split ring resonators) and inter-subband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells structures in the mid-infrared. An incident field polarized parallel to the sample surface is converted by the metamaterial resonators into a field with a finite component polarized normal to the surface, and interacts strongly with the large dipole moment associated with quantum well inter-subband transitions.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Wanke, Michael Clement; Brener, Igal; Reno, John Louis; Gin, Aaron V.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Gabbay, Alon

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Microsoft PowerPoint - IPRC_Transparent_Phongikaroon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Ryan W....

126

Methodology for Aging Evaluation of a High-Temperature Low-Sag (HTLS) Conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development and application of a test protocol to evaluate the performance of a composite core conductor. The conductor is made of new materials not previously used in overhead line conductors, including an organic matrix core. The results provide information on a possible effective test protocol to predict the long-term performance of the conductor in the field.

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

Transparent ion trap with integrated photodetector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluorescence collection sets the efficiency of state detection and the rate of entanglement generation between remote trapped ion qubits. Despite efforts to improve light collection using various optical elements, solid angle capture is limited to ~10% for implementations that are scalable to many ions. We present an approach based on fluorescence detection through a transparent trap using an integrated photodetector, combining collection efficiency approaching 50% with scalability. We microfabricate transparent surface traps with indium tin oxide and verify stable trapping of single ions. The fluorescence from a cloud of ions is detected using a photodiode sandwiched with a transparent trap.

Amira M. Eltony; Shannon X. Wang; Gleb M. Akselrod; Peter F. Herskind; Isaac L. Chuang

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

128

Transparent ion trap with integrated photodetector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluorescence collection sets the efficiency of state detection and the rate of entanglement generation between remote trapped ion qubits. Despite efforts to improve light collection using various optical elements, solid angle capture is limited to ~10% for implementations that are scalable to many ions. We present an approach based on fluorescence detection through a transparent trap using an integrated photodetector, combining collection efficiency approaching 50% with scalability. We microfabricate transparent surface traps with indium tin oxide and verify stable trapping of single ions. The fluorescence from a cloud of ions is detected using a photodiode sandwiched with a transparent trap.

Eltony, Amira M; Akselrod, Gleb M; Herskind, Peter F; Chuang, Isaac L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

Kenney, W.J.

1981-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

Freezing Rain Simulations for Fixed, Unheated Conductor Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper reports on extensive experiments performed on short, fixed, unheated conductor samples in an outdoor freezing rain simulator. Their purpose is to relate the weight of ice (or, alternatively, the equivalent radial ice thickness) ...

M. L. Lu; N. Popplewell; A. H. Shah

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Lawrence Pack, train conductor, and Y-12s uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lawrence Pack, train conductor, and Y-12's uranium? Trains were the primary means of long haul transportation in the 1940's. Many trains brought building materials to Y-12 and...

132

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent, light-harvesting material Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact James E. Rickman Communications Office (505) 665-9203

133

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Transparent Batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent Batteries: Seeing Straight Through to the Future? By Stanford News Service July 25, 2011 It sounds like something out of a cheesy science fiction movie, but thanks to...

134

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote...

135

Transparent Consistent Replication of Java RMI Objects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Java Remote Method Invocation (JRMI) specification simplifies the development of distributed Java applications, but provides little support to guarantee reliable, highly available operation. The Aroma System is middleware that transparently enhances ...

N. Narasimhan; L. E. Moser; P. M. Melliar-Smith

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Beyond transparency : collective engagement in sustainable design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a timely answer to the question of sustainability, or how to provide for future generations, there needs to be shared accounting of our social and physical resources. Supply chain transparency makes it possible to map ...

Bonanni, Leonardo Amerigo, 1977-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Demonstration of Advanced Conductors for Overhead Transmission Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a collaborative research project to evaluate the operational performance of advanced High-Temperature, Low-Sag (HTLS) conductors through approximately three years of field experience. The results of the project provide general information on installing, sagging, and clipping HTLS conductors and about their long-term behavior at different electrical current levels and in various geographical locales. Key information is provided on design, installation, operation, and maintenance of s...

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

138

Test and evaluation of conductors for superconducting magnetic energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pancake coils of a monolithic conductor and several different types of braid and cable, using a variety of insulating tapes and bonding resins were constructed. The coils were tested to quench in self-field at currents up to 2700 A. Results are presented for the training behavior of the various coils as compared to short-sample tests. A conductor composed of several braids or cables in parallel, which will be suitable for the in situ fabrication of large magnets is described.

Schermer, R.I.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Member Survey of Industry Issues for Hardware and Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a survey to obtain information on atmospheric corrosion issues associated with overhead transmission line hardware and conductors exposed to the environment. Atmospheric corrosion is a natural and unavoidable phenomenon that can lead to the premature failure of conductors, shield wires, hardware or components and result in momentary or even sustained outages. Survey results will help support research and development activities to extend the capabilities of ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

140

High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON CONDUCTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The morphological and electrical properties of yttrium (Y) and indium (In) doped barium cerate perovskites of the form BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} (with x=0-0.3) prepared by a modified Pechini method were investigated as potential high temperature proton conductors with improved chemical stability. The sinterability increased with the increase of In-doping, and the perovskite phase was found in the BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions over the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.3. The conductivities decreased (from x to x, insert quantitative values) while the tolerance to wet CO{sub 2} improved for BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} samples with an increase of In-doping.

Brinkman, K.

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

Multimode circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum transmission lines are a central to superconducting and hybrid quantum computing. Parallel to these developments are those of left-handed meta-materials. They have a wide variety of applications in photonics from the microwave to the visible range such as invisibility cloaks and perfect flat lenses. For classical guided microwaves, left-handed transmission lines have been proposed and studied on the macroscopic scale. We combine these ideas in presenting a left-handed/right-handed hybrid transmission line for applications in quantum optics on a chip. The resulting system allows circuit QED to reach a new regime: multi-mode ultra-strong coupling. Out of the many potential applications of this novel device, we discuss two; the preparation of multipartite entangled states and its use as a quantum simulator for the spin-boson model where a quantum phase transition is reached up to finite size-effects.

Daniel J. Egger; Frank K. Wilhelm

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

143

Microwave and THz sensing using slab-pair-based metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

In this work the sensing capability of an artificial magnetic metamaterial based on pairs of metal slabs is demonstrated, both theoretically and experimentally, in the microwave regime. The demonstration is based on transmission measurements and simulations monitoring the shift of the magnetic resonance frequency as one changes a thin dielectric layer placed between the slabs of the pairs. Strong dependence of the magnetic resonance frequency on both the permittivity and the thickness of the dielectric layer under detection was observed. The sensitivity to the dielectrics? permittivity (?) is larger for dielectrics of low ? values, which makes the approach suitable for sensing organic materials also in the THz regime. The capability of our approach for THz sensing is also demonstrated through simulations.

Kenanakis, G.; Shen, Nianhai; Mavidis, Ch.; Katsarakis, N.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, E.N.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Self-organization approach for THz polaritonic metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss the fabrication and the electromagnetic (EM) characterization of anisotropic eutectic metamaterials, consisting of cylindrical polaritonic LiF rods embedded in either KCl or NaCl polaritonic host. The fabrication was performed using the eutectics directional solidification self-organization approach. For the EM characterization the specular reflectance at far infrared, between 3 THz and 11 THz, was measured and also calculated by numerically solving Maxwell equations, obtaining good agreement between experimental and calculated spectra. Applying an effective medium approach to describe the response of our samples, we predicted a range of frequencies in which most of our systems behave as homogeneous anisotropic media with a hyperbolic dispersion relation, opening thus possibilities for using them in negative refractive index and imaging applications at THz range.

Reyes-Coronado, A.; Acosta, M.F.; Merino, R.I.; Orera,, V.M.; Kenanakis, G.; Katsarakis, n.; Kafesaki, M.; Mavidis, Ch.; Garcia de Abajo, J.; Economou, E.N.; Soukoulis, Costas M.

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO[sub 2] oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a [beta]-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca[sup o] used for reducing UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to U and Pu. 2 figures.

Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO.sub.2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a .beta.-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca.degree. used for reducing UO.sub.2 and PuO.sub.2 to U and Pu.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

148

Splice Resistance Measurements in 2G YBCO Coated Conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating the electrical splice resistance of second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductor. The purpose of the experimental investigation is to study the splice resistance of 2G YBCO coated conductor as a function of: a) operating temperature, b) magnetic field strength (B-field), and c) magnetic field orientation ( ). Understanding the splice resistance with its corresponding variation as a function of surface preparation and operating conditions is essential to the practical implementation of electric utility devices; e.g., motors, generators, transformers, cables, and fault-current limiters, etc. Preliminary test results indicate that the 2G YBCO splice resistance shows a weak temperature dependence and a significantly stronger dependence upon magnetic field strength and magnetic field orientation. Surface preparation conditions are also briefly discussed. Index Terms coated conductor, splice, critical current, YBCO

Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Zhang, Yifei [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Towards loss compensated and lasing terahertz metamaterials based on optically pumped graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is evidenced by numerical calculations that optically pumped graphene is suitable for compensating inherent loss in terahertz (THz) metamaterials. In a first step, the complex conductivity of graphene under optical pumping is calculated and the proper conditions for terahertz amplification in single layer graphene are determined. It is shown that amplification in graphene occurs for temperatures up to room temperature and for moderate pump intensities when pumped at a telecommunication wavelength $\\lambda=1.5~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$. Furthermore, the amplification properties of graphene are evaluated and discussed at a temperature as low as $T=77~\\mathrm{K}$ and a pump intensity $I=300~\\mathrm{mW/mm^2}$ to investigate the coupling between graphene and a plasmonic split ring resonator (SRR) metamaterial. The contributions of ohmic and dielectric loss mechanisms are studied by full wave simulations. As a result, it is found that the loss of a split-ring resonator metamaterial can be compensated by optically stimulat...

Weis, Peter; Rahm, Marco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

1985-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

151

Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo in capillaries. Adv Mater 8:245­247. 24. Kim DK, et al. (2008) Spinel LiMn2O4 nanorods as lithium ion battery voltage window. For example, LiCoO2 and graphite, the most common cathode and anode in Li-ion batteries

Cui, Yi

152

Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

Tewari, Param H. (Milpitas, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

Kempf, C.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bieniawski, A. [USDOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Transparency in complex dynamic food supply chains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Food supply chains are increasingly complex and dynamic due to (i) increasing product proliferation to serve ever diversifying and globalising markets as a form of mass customisation with resulting global flows of raw materials, ingredients and products, ... Keywords: Consumer and governmental demands, Food supply chain, Governance, Information systems, Quality and safety standards, Transparency

J. H. Trienekens; P. M. Wognum; A. J. M. Beulens; J. G. A. J. van der Vorst

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications  

SciTech Connect

Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Tools for Conductor Evaluation: State of the Art Review and Promising Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has investigated degradation modes and inspection and assessment methods for overhead lines. This report provides an overview of the findings of this investigation. Primary degradation modes that have been identified include broken strands due to vandalism or conductor motion, corrosion of steel shield wires and the steel core and adjacent aluminum strands on conductors, degradation of conductor joints from corrosion and high temperature operation, and loss of strength in conductors due to high temp...

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Soap Manufacturing TechnologyChapter 6 Transparent and Translucent Soaps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soap Manufacturing Technology Chapter 6 Transparent and Translucent Soaps Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press Downloadable pdf of\tChapter 6 Transparent and Translucent Soaps from ...

158

Microstructure of Ice Accretions Grown on Aluminum Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study the microstructure of glaze and rime deposits formed on the conductors of power lines, ice accretions are grown on a slowly rotating aluminum cylinder placed in the working section of a wind tunnel. The growth conditions cover ...

Jean-Louis Laforte; Luan C. Phan; Béatrice Felin

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same  

SciTech Connect

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, Thomas (Seattle, WA); Klamut, Carl (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

160

Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same  

SciTech Connect

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu.sub.5 Sn.sub.6 with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, Thomas (Seattle, WA); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY)

1984-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Multiwire conductor having increased interwire resistance and good mechanical stability and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature sufficient to make the solder brittle, but below the melting point of the solder. While still hot, the conductor is flexed, causing the solder to separate from the wires comprising the conductor, thereby increasing the interwire resistance. In one embodiment the conductor may be heated to a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the solder so that a controlled amount of solder is removed. The subject invention is particularly suited for use with braided, ribbon-type, solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.

1982-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler is described. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu/sub 5/Sn/sub 6/ with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.

1982-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Evaluation of Efficiency and Utilization Benefits from Trapezoidal Wire Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR/TW) Conductor for High Voltage Transmission Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A trapezoidal wire (TW) aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR/TW) conductor consists of a stranded steel core with one or more layers of trapezoidal shaped aluminum wires. The use of compact trapezoidal strands for a line results in a resistance reduction of 15-20 compared to a round wire ACSR conductor of the same diameter. If some increase in conductor diameter over the original is possible with limited tower structural reinforcement, the resistance reduction can be in excess of 20; and the increas...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

164

Controlling terahertz waves with meta-materials and photonic bandgap structures  

SciTech Connect

We will describe research conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory towards developing components for controlling terahertz waves. We employ meta-materials and, particularly, meta-films, as very compact absorbers for controlling quasioptical beams. We believe that dielectric photonic bandgap structures could replace ordinary metal waveguide devices at THz, since metal structures become extremely lossy in this frequency range.

Shchegolkov, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, Nathan A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simakov, Evgenya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultra-high effective refractive index over broad bandwidth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The authors introduce a general mechanism, based on electrostatic and magnetostatic considerations, for designing three-dimensional isotopic metamaterials that possess an enhanced refractive index over an extremely large frequency range. The mechanism allows nearly independent control of effective electric permittivity and magnetic permeability without the use of resonant elements.

Jonghwa Shin; Jung-Tsung Shen; Shanhui Fan

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

166

CNM Highlight: Quantum Dot-Induced Transparency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Dot-Induced Transparency Quantum Dot-Induced Transparency Using rigorous and realistic numerical simulations, staff in the Nanophotonics and Theory and Modeling groups have recently demonstrated that a single semiconductor nanocrystal, or quantum dot, can cancel the scattering and absorption by a much larger metal nanostructure. Placing a quantum dot near a metal is known to strongly modify the rate at which the dot emits light. If the interaction between the dot and the metal is strong enough, scattering and absorption by the metal can be nearly eliminated at the quantum-dot resonance frequency, according to the simulations. This occurs even though the dot by itself simply absorbs light, and even though this absorption is nearly 100,000 times smaller than absorption by the metal nanostructure.

167

Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement June 3, 2011 - 1:14pm Addthis "NEPA is, at its core, a transparency statute," said Katie Scharf, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Deputy General Counsel, in opening a panel discussion on using information technology to support open government initiatives, engage the public, and add value to NEPA analysis. At the March 9, 2011, event - hosted by CEQ for Federal NEPA and legal staff - speakers promoted the benefits of enhancing transparency and offered practical implementation advice. Ms. Scharf asked the speakers to address why transparency is essential to the NEPA process and describe innovative approaches and achievements. NEPA's value, especially with regard to EISs, is based on transparency,

168

Assessing Transparency in Small Arms Exports: The Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer WEAPONS & MARKETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two main factors continue to hamper our understanding of international small arms and light weapons transfers: states ’ limited transparency and inadequate reporting practices. The July 2012 negotiations on an Arms Trade Treaty—during which states failed to approve the anticipated instrument— illustrated just how difficult it is to reach agreement on binding standards in both areas. This Research Note focuses on the Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer. Introduced in the Small Arms Survey 2004, the annual Barometer is designed to encourage individual states to make public information about their transfers of small arms and light weapons, 1 their parts, accessories, and ammunition. 2 While the Transparency Barometer does not independently verify the accuracy of provided information, it evaluates the data and assesses changes in states ’ transparency over time. It relies on guidelines to evaluate the quantity, detail, and usefulness of the data, thereby promoting best practices. Each set of requirements contained in these categories has been fulfilled by at least one state, meaning that states can fulfil all the criteria set out in the Transparency Barometer guidelines.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon���® enabled solar cells.

Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

170

Transmission Loss Reduction Derived from the Use of Trapezoidal Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The New York State Transmission Assessment and Reliability Study Working Group, in coordination with the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO), has developed an Age-Based In-Kind Replacement plan of aging infrastructure and other low-cost upgrades necessary to maintain existing thermal capability levels and meet reliability needs. The plan includes the refurbishment of several hundred miles of transmission lines across the NYISO footprint and assumes that conventional aluminum conductor, ...

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fallen conductor accidents: The challenge to improve safety  

SciTech Connect

What is the worst nightmare of an electric utility manager or engineer Many respond that it is an electrocution resulting from a fallen conductor accident. Few subjects in the operation of an electric utility are more emotional and sobering than this. Traditionally, a utility could do little to prevent such accidents, but some answers from research are emerging, calling for a new look at this old problem.

Aucoin, B.M.; Russell, B.D.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

HTC (High-Temperature Conductor) Matrix: Version 4.1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI’s HTC Matrix software is a Windows application designed to provide the user with quick and directed access to all of the information developed under several EPRI projects investigating the effects of high temperature operation of conductors. The research results have been published in several technical reports.  Benefits & ValueThe user can determine whether a certain type of connectors can be used at a specific ...

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

173

Effect of High Temperature Cycling on Conductor Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Faced with difficulties in acquiring rights-of-way, and reduced capital budgets for new lines, many electric energy companies are seeking ways to squeeze more capacity out of existing systems. One option to increase power flow is to operate lines at higher temperatures than originally designed. However, if utilities are to take this approach, it is important to understand the short- and long-term effects of high operating temperatures on the conductor and its accessories, as the accumulation of cyclic lo...

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

174

Effects of High-Temperature Cycling on Conductor Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Faced with difficulties in acquiring rights-of-way and reduced capital budgets for new lines, many electric energy companies are seeking ways to squeeze more capacity out of existing systems. One option to increase power flow is to operate lines at higher temperatures than originally designed. However, if utilities are to take this approach, it is important to understand the short- and long-term effects of high operating temperatures on the conductor and its accessories, as the accumulation of cyclic the...

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

175

High-Voltage Direct Current Line Conductor Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overhead transmission lines are designed to last for 40 years. Many ac lines in service today in North America are 70 or more years old. This survival rate is a result of conservative utility design practices and detailed product specifications. This reliability record has occurred despite a wide range of conductor types and sizes. In the present transmission system, there are far fewer high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines, but those that have been designed and built have been similarly successful in...

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

176

Development of Substrate for RABiTS-based HTS Conductors  

SciTech Connect

During its fifteen years of life, this CRADA has evolved in both scope and purpose. Early efforts to develop high performance bismuth-based powder-in-tube first generation high temperature superconductors (HTS) have shifted toward efforts to understand and develop technologies required to fabricate second generation HTS coated conductors. Since the two original longstanding principal investigators from UT-Battelle and Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) are not presently employed by their respective organizations, this final report shall focus primarily on results of the more recent past involving research and development of the deformation and annealing processes required to fabricate metallic substrates for RABiTS-based second generation coated conductors. The specific objectives of this recent work involve the development of OST Ni/3%W tape for HTS coated conductors and include: (a) to improve uniformity of cube texture through control of deformation and annealing parameters, (b) to minimize delamination and other buffer deposition problems through understanding and control of key parameters related to the metal substrate, (c) to ensure that the textured metal substrate allows well textured buffers with no delamination, and (d) to prepared a final report.

None

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

177

Inspection and Assessment of Overhead Transmission Line Hardware, Conductors and Shield Wires: Technology Overview of Conductor Inspection Tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes in detail the theory and operation of technologies for the inspection of overhead transmission line conductors and evaluates their effectiveness. It covers existing technologies and technologies that are commercially available but have the promise of becoming effective screening and, in some cases, predictive tools in the future. Technologies described and assessed include:The Cormon overhead line corrosion detectorThe Cross-Checker ...

2013-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

178

Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent. 3 figs.

Kommineni, P.R.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

180

Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent.

Kommineni, Prasad R. (Westboro, MA)

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent ...  

Metallic structures that can be used as transparent electrodes or to enhance the performance of solar ... more energy efficient ... indium tin oxide ...

182

Femtosecond laser processing of photovoltaic and transparent materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photovoltaic semiconducting and transparent dielectric materials are of high interest in current industry. Femtosecond laser processing can be an effective technique to fabricate such… (more)

Ahn, Sanghoon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Novel Synthesis and Processing Methods Enable Flexible, Transparent...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Novel Synthesis and Processing Methods Enable Flexible, Transparent and Cheaper Solar Cells University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign Team's Research Funded by Office of...

184

DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Appendix B of the Department's NEPA implementing procedures, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021. DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness More Documents & Publications NEPA...

185

Improved Transparent Conducting Oxides Boost Performance of Thin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to electricity in solar cells by absorbing light within a specific wavelength. Today's thin-film solar cells could not function without transparent conducting oxides (TCOs)....

186

Graphene-CNT Hybrid Structure Based Transparent and Flexible ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present here our recent research efforts in developing all-graphene based cathode and anode structures as flexible and transparent field emission device.

187

Radial Temperature Gradients of Overhead Conductors: Impact on Sag and Rating Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is critical for power companies to have a good understanding of the temperatures at which the bare phase conductors in their overhead transmission lines operate, particularly during system emergencies. Overhead lines are designed to have adequate clearance and normal aging for a maximum allowable conductor temperature (MACT). At or near the MACT, the electrical clearances to people, objects, buildings, and other lower-voltage conductors are at their minimum, and the design limit on loss of ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

188

Amplitude and phase-resolved measurements of optical metamaterials in the mid-infrared by phase matched electro-optic sampling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a time-domain spectroscopy system in the thermal infrared used for complete transmission and reflection characterization of metamaterials in amplitude and phase. The system uses a triple-output near-infrared ultrafast fiber laser, phase-locked difference frequency generation and phase-matched electro-optic sampling. We will present measurements of several metamaterials designs.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Wendt, Joel Robert; Bender, Daniel A.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discussed.

Bijunath Patla; Robert J. Nemiroff

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

190

Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

Patla, Bijunath

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Capacitive coupling of atomic systems to mesoscopic conductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a technique that enables a strong, coherent coupling between isolated neutral atoms and mesoscopic conductors. The coupling is achieved by exciting atoms trapped above the surface of a superconducting transmission line into Rydberg states with large electric dipole moments, that induce voltage fluctuations in the transmission line. Using a mechanism analogous to cavity quantum electrodynamics an atomic state can be transferred to a long-lived mode of the fluctuating voltage, atoms separated by millimeters can be entangled, or the quantum state of a solid state device can be mapped onto atomic or photonic states.

Sørensen, A S; Childress, L; Lukin, M D; Sorensen, Anders S.; Wal, Caspar H. van der; Childress, Lilian; Lukin, Mikhail D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Capacitive coupling of atomic systems to mesoscopic conductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a technique that enables a strong, coherent coupling between isolated neutral atoms and mesoscopic conductors. The coupling is achieved by exciting atoms trapped above the surface of a superconducting transmission line into Rydberg states with large electric dipole moments, that induce voltage fluctuations in the transmission line. Using a mechanism analogous to cavity quantum electrodynamics an atomic state can be transferred to a long-lived mode of the fluctuating voltage, atoms separated by millimeters can be entangled, or the quantum state of a solid state device can be mapped onto atomic or photonic states.

Anders S. Sorensen; Caspar H. van der Wal; Lilian Childress; Mikhail D. Lukin

2003-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

195

Design of a 16T Nb{sub3}Sn Twin Bore Accelerator Dipole with a Window-frame Conductor Layout  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accelerator Dipole with a Window-Frame Conductor Layout*Accelerator Dipole with a Window-frame Conductor Layout, J.Nb3Sn Twin Dipole with a Window-Frame Conductor Layout J.M.

van Oort, J.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thin?film conducting microgrids as transparent heat mirrors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of transparent heat mirror for solar?energy applications has been fabricated by chemically etching a Sn?doped In2O3 film to form a transparent conducting microgrid. For square openings 2.5 ?m on a side

John C. C. Fan; Frank J. Bachner; R. A. Murphy

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales Agency/Company /Organization: Forest Carbon Portal Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.forestcarbonportal.com/resource/nested-approach-redd-structuring-e A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales Screenshot References: A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales[1]

198

Preparation and extrusion of multifilamentary NbTi conductor billets  

SciTech Connect

In a cooperative program with industrial superconducting wire manufacturers for the purpose of studying billet preparation and extrusion, a total of twenty billets were assembled. Fourteen of these contained no superconductor but were ''dummy'' billets to evaluate methods of stacking to achieve the best packing density. These billets were not extruded but were sectioned transversely and longitudinally for evaluation of billet preparation techniques. The remaining six billets were assembled with NbTi stacking elements in a copper/copper nickel matrix using a standard conductor configuration. Two of these billets were instrumented with thermocouples and used to evaluate preheating techniques. The other four were extruded and drawn to finished conductor size for critical current measurement. This study showed that hexagonal stacking elements, contoured billet jackets and hot isostatic pressing resulted in high density uniform billets for extrusion. Rotary forging was found to be unacceptable for billet compacting. Fast billet heating was achieved in both the salt bath and by induction heating, but the induction method gave a more uniform temperature distribution during the heating cycle. Asymmetry from poor packing density in the billet resulted in nonuniform filament size distributions and poor critical current performance. Billet yield was increased as much as 16 percent by contouring the stacking element positions within the billet. (auth)

Fietz, W.A.; McDonald, R.E.; Miller, J.R.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Science and applications of mixed conductors for lithium batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed conductors show significant mobility of both electronic and ionic species and were the subject of an earlier review in MRS Bulletin. The current review is restricted to those mixed conductors of interest for use in lithium batteries, with an emphasis on commercialization. The first lithium batteries were primary cells using pure lithium anodes and carbon monofluoride or manganese oxide as the cathode. Both were developed in Japan, the former for use in fishing floats and the latter for calculators and similar small devices. Such primary cells based mainly on MnO{sub 2} or FeS{sub 2} cathodes are still extensively used in watches, cameras, and so on. Lithium primary cells are also the main power source for many medical devices, such as pacemakers. In some of these applications, silver vanadate is the cathode. The recognition of the role of intercalation/ insertion reactions in battery electrodes just over 25 years ago allowed significant progress to be made in secondary (rechargeable) lithium batteries. From the first prototypical titanium disulfide cells, the technology has more recently been commercialized by Sony Corp. in the Li-ion cell, using a cobalt oxide insertion cathode and a carbon insertion anode. In the former, commercialized by Exxon, the reaction is the simple intercalation of lithium ions between sheets of TiS{sub 2}.

Thackeray, M. M.; Thomas, J.; Whittingham, M. S.; Chemical Engineering

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Thin magnetic conductor substrate for placement-immune, electrically-small antennas.  

SciTech Connect

An antenna is considered to be placement-immune when the antenna operates effectively regardless of where it is placed. By building antennas on magnetic conductor materials, the radiated fields will be positively reinforced in the desired radiation direction instead of being negatively affected by the environment. Although this idea has been discussed thoroughly in theoretical research, the difficulty in building thin magnetic conductor materials necessary for in-phase field reflections prevents this technology from becoming more widespread. This project's purpose is to build and measure an electrically-small antenna on a new type of non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor. This problem has not been previously addressed because non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor materials have not yet been discovered. This work proposed the creation of an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with in-phase field reflections without using internal electric conductors, the placement of an electrically-small antenna on this magnetic conductor, and the development of a transmit-receive system that utilizes the substrate and electrically-small antenna. By not using internal electric conductors to create the AMC, the substrate thickness can be minimized. The electrically-small antenna will demonstrate the substrate's ability to make an antenna placement immune, and the transmit-receive system combines both the antenna and the substrate while adding a third layer of system complexity to demonstrate the complete idea.

Eubanks, Travis Wayne; McDonald, Jacob J.; Loui, Hung

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

14 IAEI NEWS July . August 2012 www.iaei.org the conductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

14 IAEI NEWS July . August 2012 www.iaei.org the conductors The Conductors, Getting Solar Energy. The rooftop, outdoor environment is harsh. Unlike HVAC equipment, which requires peri- odic inspections and maintenance, PV modules and the rooftop wiring and equipment may not be examined for the life of the system

Johnson, Eric E.

202

Effective material parameter retrieval for thin sheets: theory and application to graphene, thin silver films, and single-layer metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important tool in the field of metamaterials is the extraction of effective material parameters from simulated or measured scattering parameters of a sample. Here we discuss a retrieval method for thin-film structures that can be approximated by a two-dimensional scattering sheet. We determine the effective sheet conductivity from the scattering parameters and we point out the importance of the magnetic sheet current to avoid an overdetermined inversion problem. Subsequently, we present two applications of the sheet retrieval method. First, we determine the effective sheet conductivity of thin silver films and we compare the resulting conductivities with the sheet conductivity of graphene. Second, we apply the method to a cut-wire metamaterial with an electric dipole resonance. The method is valid for thin-film structures such as two-dimensional metamaterials and frequency-selective surfaces and can be easily generalized for anisotropic or chiral media.

Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

203

Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of high-performance transparent conducting oxides is critical to many technologies from transparent electronics to solar cells. Whereas n-type transparent conducting oxides are present in many devices, their ...

Hautier, Geoffroy

204

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

205

2009 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2009 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. LLNL also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2009, there were 159 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 159 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 4 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2009, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency Program now has over fifteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

Radev, R

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

2009 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2009 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. LLNL also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2009, there were 159 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 159 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 4 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2009, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency Program now has over fifteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

Radev, R

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

207

2011 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2008 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. They also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2008, there were 158 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 158 person-trips, 148 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 6 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 8 to UEIE itself. There were three monitoring visits (source changes) that were back-to-back with a total of 24 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2008, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency now has thirteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

Radev, R

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

Verification and transparency in future arms control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

Pilat, J.F.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Improving the Transparency of IAEA Safeguards Reporting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data.

Toomey, Christopher; Hayman, Aaron M.; Wyse, Evan T.; Odlaug, Christopher S.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

210

Wire Making Techniques - HTS Coated Conductors - Fact Sheet  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS TM ) coated conductors, characterized by their low cost and simple architecture, promise to meet industry price and performance targets. Introduction Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTS), notably YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO), researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) national laboratories have searched for ways to manufacture affordable flexible wires with high current density. One of the chief obstacles to the manufacture of commercial lengths of YBCO wire has been the phenomenon of weak links, which exist where current crosses a non-superconducting region such as a grain boundary. By aligning grains carefully, low angle boundaries between superconducting grains are assured, which

211

Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented.

Leuer, James A. (Encinitas, CA)

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented. 5 figs.

Leuer, J.A.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Solderability Study of RABiTS-Based YBCO Coated Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solderability of commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Polynorbornene as a low loss matrix material for IR metamaterial applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel low loss photopatternable matrix materials for IR metamaterial applications were synthesized using the ring opening metathesis polymerization reaction (ROMP) of norbornene followed by a partial hydrogenation to remove most of the IR absorbing olefin groups which absorb in the 8-12 {micro}m range. Photopatterning was achieved via crosslinking of the remaining olefin groups with alpha, omega-dithiols via the thiol-ene coupling reaction. Since ROMP is a living polymerization the molecular weight of the polymer can be controlled simply by varying the ratio of catalyst to monomer. In order to determine the optimum photopattenable IR matrix material we varied the amount of olefin remaining after the partial hydrogenation. Hydrogenation was accomplished using tosyl hydrazide. The degree of hydrogenation can be controlled by altering the reaction time or reaction stoichiometry and the by-products can be easily removed during workup by precipitation into ethanol. Several polymers have been prepared using this reduction scheme including two polymers which had 54% and 68% olefin remaining. Free standing films (approx. 12 {micro}m) were prepared from the 68% olefin material using draw-down technique and subsequently irradiated with a UV lamp (365 nm) for thirty minutes to induce crosslinking via thiol-ene reaction. After crosslinking, the olefin IR-absorption band disappeared and the Tg of the matrix material increased; both desirable properties for IR metamaterial applications. The polymer system has inherent photopatternable behavior primarily because of solubility differences between the pre-polymer and cross-linked matrix. Photopatterned structures using the 54% as well as the 68% olefin material were easily obtained. The synthesis, processing, and IR absorption data and the ramifications to dielectric metamaterials will be discussed.

Arrington, Christian Lew; Sinclair, Michael B.; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Lee, Yun-Ju; Sanchez, Andrea E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Hines, Paul; Dirk, Shawn M.; Rasberry, Roger D.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) Home > Blogs > Graham7781's blog Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2002) Super contributor 2 August, 2012 - 13:30 advanced vehicles electric generation NREL OpenEI renewables tcdb This new web application collects cost and performance estimates and makes it available to everyone to perform analysis. Utilities, policy makers, consumers, and academics can all take advantage of the app that makes electric generation, advanced vehicles, and renewable fuel technologies' performance estimates transparent and open. The Obama Administration has been committed to making data open and transparent. As part, the DOE developed the TCDB through a grant from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The platform that hosts

216

Powerpedia - Using Technology to Increase Transparancy | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Using Technology to Increase Transparancy - Using Technology to Increase Transparancy Powerpedia - Using Technology to Increase Transparancy May 18, 2011 - 4:42pm Addthis The OCIO established a Department-wide wiki, Powerpedia, in early 2010 to help facilitate knowledge capture, collaboration, and increased efficiency. Leveraging many of the lessons learned from the intelligence community's Intellipedia effort, the Department implemented Powerpedia to increase the level of transparency and connect people and information together. Built on the same open source software underpinning Wikipedia, called MediaWiki, the Department is rapidly building a large corpus of information that is enabling the organization to "know what it knows". As of May 2011, Powerpedia has over 7,500 total pages and 45,000 page

217

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Practices on Residential Water Use Speaker(s): Sylvestre Gaudin Date: November 29, 2004 - 12:00pm Location:...

218

A Step toward Transparent Boundary Conditions for Meteorological Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent boundary conditions for the linearized shallow water equations are constructed by incorporating the boundary conditions into equations that describe unidirectional waves. The shallow water equations are then discretized using a semi-...

A. McDonald

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Device Transparency: a New Model for Mobile Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new storage model, device transparency, in which users view and manage their entire data collection from any of their devices, even from disconnected storage-limited devices holding only a subset of ...

Strauss, Jacob A.

220

Transparency demonstration of underground radiation and environmental monitoring  

SciTech Connect

One of the legacies of the nuclear weapon and nuclear power cycles has been the generation of large quantities of nuclear waste and fissile materials. As citizens of this planet, it is everyone's responsibility to provide for safe, secure, transparent, disposal of these waste nuclear materials. The Sandia Cooperative Monitoring Center sponsored a Transparency Monitoring Workshop where the use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was identified as a possible transparency demonstration test bed. Three experiments were conceived as jumpstart activities to showcase the effective use of the WIPP infrastructure as a Transparency Demonstration Test Bed. The three experiments were successfully completed and demonstrated at the International Atomic Energy Association sponsored International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver Colorado November 1999. The design and coordination of these efforts is the subject of this paper.

SCHOENEMAN,BARRY D.; HOFER,DENNIS

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes for Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent and electrically conductive coatings and films have a variety of uses in the fast-growing field of optoelectronic applications. Transparent electrodes typically include semiconductive metal oxides such as indium tin oxide (ITO), and conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), doped and stabilized with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). In recent years, Eikos, Inc. has conceived and developed technologies to deliver novel alternatives using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). These technologies offer products having a broad range of conductivity, excellent transparency, neutral color tone, good adhesion, abrasion resistance as well as mechanical robustness. Additional benefits include ease of ambient processing and patterning capability. This paper reports our recent findings on achieving 2.6% and 1.4% efficiencies on nonoptimized organic photovoltaic cells employing SWNT as a transparent electrode.

Weeks, C.; Peltola, J.; Levitsky, I.; Glatkowski, P.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Barnes, T.; Coutts, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hot-electron refluxing enhanced relativistic transparency of overdense plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new phenomenon of enhancing the relativistic transparency of overdense plasmas by the influence of hot-electron refluxing has been found via particle-in-cell simulations. When a p-polarized laser pulse, with intensity below the self-induced-transparency (SIT) threshold, obliquely irradiates a thin overdense plasma, the initially opaque plasma would become transparent after a time interval which linearly relies on the thickness of the plasma. This phenomenon can be interpreted by the influence of hot-electron refluxing. As the laser intensity is higher than the SIT threshold, the penetration velocity of the laser in the plasma is enhanced when the refluxing is presented. Simulation data with ion motion considered is also consistent with the assumption that hot-electron refluxing enhances transparency. These results have potential applications in laser shaping.

Yu, Yong; Chen, Zi-Yu; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Zhu, Wen-Jun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fabrication techniques for 3D metamaterials in the mid-infrared.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed two versions of a flexible fabrication technique known as membrane projection lithography that can produce nearly arbitrary patterns in '212 D' and fully three-dimensional (3D) structures. The authors have applied this new technique to the fabrication of split ring resonator-based metamaterials in the midinfrared. The technique utilizes electron beam lithography for resolution, pattern design flexibility, and alignment. The resulting structures are nearly three orders of magnitude smaller than equivalent microwave structures that were first used to demonstrate a negative index material. The fully 3D structures are highly isotropic and exhibit both electrically and magnetically excited resonances for incident transverse electromagnetic waves.

Ellis, A. Robert; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Wendt, Joel Robert; Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

All-optical Hall effect by the dynamic toroidal moment in a cavity-based metamaterial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic dipolar toroidal response is demonstrated by an optical plasmonic metamaterial composed of double disks. This response with a hotspot of localized E-field concentration is a well-behaved toroidal cavity mode that exhibits a large Purcell factor due to its deep-subwavelength mode volume. All-optical Hall effect (photovoltaic) due to this optical toroidal moment is demonstrated numerically, in mimicking the magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic systems. The result shows a promising avenue to explore various optical phenomena associated with this intriguing dynamic toroidal moment.

Dong, Zheng-Gao; Yin, Xiaobo; Li, Jiaqi; Lu, Changgui; Zhang, Xiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

All-Dielectric Rod-Type Metamaterials Operating at Optical Frequencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light propagation in all-dielectric rod-type metamaterials is studied theoretically. The electric and magnetic dipole moments of the rods are derived analytically in the long-wavelength limit. The photonic band structure of a square array of rods is retrieved by homogenizing the corresponding array of dipoles. It is found that such a structure exhibits a true left-handed behavior, confirming previous experimental results [L. Peng \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{98}, 157403 (2007)]. A scaling analysis proves that this effect holds at optical frequencies and can be obtained, for instance, by using silicon rods.

Vynck, K; Centeno, E; Cuabuz, A I; Cassagne, D; Guizal, B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

Designing of transparency windows by quantum interference of wave packets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been shown that control over the design of single- or multimode-transparency windows can be achieved by control-probe quantum interferometry using two delayed phase-locked ultrashort pulses. We have investigated how single- or multimode-transparency windows can be designed by eliminating the absorption to a set of odd or even vibrational levels of a molecule covered by the spectral bandwidth of the pulses. Suppression of absorption can be achieved by controlling the quantum interference of two vibrational wave packets excited by these two pulses, leading to destructive interference of transition amplitudes for one set of vibrational levels even or odd. Simuntaneously the interference becomes constructive for the other set of odd or even vibrational levels, leading to absorption to these levels. Thus, a set of transparency windows is designed in between two absorption peaks at two consecutive odd (even) vibrational levels by eliminating absorption at even (odd) vibrational levels between two absorption peaks. If the spectral bandwidth of the pulse [full width at half maximum (FWHM)] is less than the energy difference between two consecutive absorption peaks, the pulse will be transmitted without absorption through the transparency window. However, for pulses with a larger spectral bandwidth (FWHM), a set of broad transparency windows will be generated and different bands of pulse frequencies will be transmitted through these windows. We have shown that coherent control of the design of transparency windows can be achieved by controlling pulse duration, carrier frequency, delay, and the phase difference of two ultrashort pulses.

Dastidar, Krishna Rai [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharjee, Anindita [1035 Aster Ave., Apt. 2131, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP  

SciTech Connect

Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ``The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a unique opportunity to serve as an international cooperative test bed for developing and demonstrating technologies and processes in a fully operational repository system setting. To address the substantial national security implications for the US resulting from the lack of integrated, transparent management and disposition of nuclear materials at the back-end of the nuclear fuel and weapons cycles, it is proposed that WIPP be used as a test bed to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable the transparent and proliferation-resistant geologic isolation of nuclear materials. The objectives of this initiative are to: (1) enhance public confidence in safe, secure geologic isolation of nuclear materials; (2) develop, test, and demonstrate transparency measures and technologies for the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle; and (3) foster international collaborations leading to workable, effective, globally-accepted standards for the transparent monitoring of geological repositories for nuclear materials. Test-bed activities include: development and testing of monitoring measures and technologies; international demonstration experiments; transparency workshops; visiting scientist exchanges; and educational outreach. These activities are proposed to be managed by the Department of Energy/Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) as part of The Center for Applied Repository and Underground Studies (CARUS).

BETSILL,J. DAVID; ELKINS,NED Z.; WU,CHUAN-FU; MEWHINNEY,JAMES D.; AAMODT,PAUL

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government, Environmental Law Institute, 2010.

230

Spin-selective Peierls transition in interacting one-dimensional conductors with spin-orbit interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Physics, Tamarashvili 6, 0177 Tbilisi, Georgia 3Ilia State University, Cholokashvili Ave. 3-5, 0162 Tbilisi, Georgia Received 7 July 2010; published 29 July 2010 Interacting one-dimensional conductors

Braunecker, Bernd

231

Qualification of the US Made Conductors for ITER TF Magnet System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Domestic Agency (USDA) is one of the six suppliers of the TF conductor for ITER. In order to qualify conductors according to ITER requirements we prepared several lengths of the CICC and short samples for testing in the SULTAN facility in CRPP, Switzerland. We also fully characterized the strands that were used in these SULTAN samples. Fabrication experience and test results are presented and discussed.

Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Hatfield, Daniel R [ORNL; Miller, John R [ORNL; Bruzzone, P. [CRPP, Switzerland; Stepanov, B. [CRPP, Switzerland; Seber, B. [University of Geneva

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Doped Y.sub.2O.sub.3 buffer layers for laminated conductors  

SciTech Connect

A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the metallic substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and a dopant for blocking cation diffusion through the Y.sub.2O.sub.3, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN); Schoop, Urs (Westborough, MA); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Verebelyi, Darren T. (Oxford, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA)

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

Transport Devices for Overhead Conductors: State of the Art Review and Promising Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes activities surrounding the possible development of a transmission line inspection robot as a transport device for overhead conductors. EPRI research on technologies for inspection of transmission line conductors had identified the need for a highly automated transport device to apply available inspection technologies along the length of a transmission line with minimal human intervention. A literature search was performed to identify past robotics work applied to overhead power lin...

2003-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

Assessment of Phase Conductor Inspection Technologies: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A feasibility study was completed in 2003 to determine if iron oxide deposits can be identified on the surface of aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) conductors. Results were promising and demonstrated that the presence of steel core corrosion may be identified by a ratio of reflected light intensities at specific wavelengths. Early “Near Infrared Spectroscopy” testing in a semi-controlled environment and in the field revealed many environmental conditions must be ...

2013-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

235

Live Work on High Temperature Conductors: Feedback from Field Crews and Contractors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Live work (LW) requires contact with energized conductors. Depending on the method used for LW on overhead transmission lines, the contact is made with special LW insulating tools (hotsticking), directly with the lineman’s hands (barehanding), or both. This report documents the results of two surveys examining concerns associated with LW on high-temperature (HT) conductors, which are designed to operate—temporarily or for extended periods of time—at temperatures on the order of ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

236

2007 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2007 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2007, there were 172 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 172 person-trips, 160 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 12 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 14 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Division laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors.

Radev, R

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

237

Microsoft PowerPoint - IPRC_Transparent_Phongikaroon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Ryan W. Bezzant and Supathorn Phongikaroon Chemical Engineering Department and Nuclear Engineering Program University of Idaho, Idaho Falls Center for Advanced Energy Studies Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory Ryan W. Bezzant and Supathorn Phongikaroon Chemical Engineering Department and Nuclear Engineering Program University of Idaho, Idaho Falls Center for Advanced Energy Studies Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory Alternative Proposed Processes Chopped Fuel Uranium Metal Metal Waste Ceramic Waste Electrorefiner and Product Refinement Ion Exchange Zone Freezing High Purity Electrolyte High

238

Building Energy Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Energy Rating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Energy Rating & Disclosure Policy Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

239

Surface-Plasmon Enhanced Transparent Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Random silver nanohole films were created through colloidal lithography techniques and metal vapor deposition. The transparent electrodes were characterized by uv-visible spectroscopy and incorporated into an organic solar cell. The test cells were evaluated for solar power-conversion efficiency and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra displayed evidence that a nanohole film with 92 nm diameter holes induces surface-plasmon-enhanced photoconversion. The nanohole silver films demonstrate a promising route to removing the indium tin oxide transparent electrode that is ubiquitous in organic optoelectronics.

Reilly III, T. H.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Tenent, R. C.; Morfa, A. J.; Rowlen, K. L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Analytical coupled vibroacoustic modeling of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials: plate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By considering the membrane's dissipation, the membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) has been demonstrated as a super absorber for low-frequency sound. In the paper, a theoretical vibroacoustic plate model is developed to reveal sound energy absorption mechanism within the MAM under a plane normal incidence. Based on the plate model in conjunction with the point matching method, the in-plane strain energy of the membrane due to the resonant and antiresonant motion of the attached masses can be accurately captured by solving the coupled vibroacoustic integrodifferential equation. Therefore, the sound absorption of the MAM is obtained and discussed, which is also in good agreement with the prediction from the finite element method. In particular, microstructure effects including eccentricity of the attached masses, the depth, thickness and loss factor of the membrane on sound absorption peak values are quantitatively investigated.

Yangyang Chen; Xiaoming Zhou; Gengkai Hu; Chin-Teh Sun; Guoliang Huang

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

On the Relation between Perfect Tunneling and Band Gaps for SNG Metamaterial Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we have proposed a compact classification of isotropic and homogenous single negative (SNG) electromagnetic metamaterial based perfect tunneling unit cells. This has been made by means of the band gap theories and properties of the arrays made up of these unit cells. Based on their reported characteristics, we have proposed new structures that simultaneously show perfect tunneling band and complete band gap (CBG - omni directional stop band for both polarizations). Besides, we have identified perfect tunneling which can be considered as "phase shifted perfect tunneling". Several interesting and new phenomena like Complete Perfect Tunneling (CPT - omni-directional perfect tunneling for both polarizations), Band Gap Shifting, CBG in Double Positive (DPS) material range, etc. have been reported with proper physical and mathematical explanations.

Mahdy, M R C; Shawon, Jubayer; Al-Quaderi, Golam Dastegir; Matin, M A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Identification of transparent, compact, accurate and reliable linguistic fuzzy models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparency, accuracy, compactness and reliability all appear to be vital (even though somewhat contradictory) requirements when it comes down to linguistic fuzzy modeling. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneous optimization of these criteria ... Keywords: Complexity reduction, Fuzzy modeling, Interpretability of fuzzy systems

Andri Riid; Ennu Rüstern

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Transparent heat mirrors for passive solar heating applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent progress in the development of transparent heat mirror coatings for energy-efficient windows and passive solar applications is reviewed. It appears that cost-efficient coatings promising savings of 25 to 75%, depending upon application, may be available to window manufacturers and homeowners in the next one to three years. Performance, applications, and limitations are discussed.

Selkowitz, S.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Reaction Barrier Transparency for Cold Fusion with Deuterium and Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An improved parametric representation of Coulomb barrier penetration is presented. These detailed calculations are improvements upon the conventionally used Gamow tunneling coefficient. This analysis yields a reaction barrier transparency (RBT) which may have singular ramifications for cold fusion, as well as significant consequences in a wide variety of fusion settings. 1.

Yeong E. Kim; Jin-hee Yoon; Alexander L. Zubarev; Mario Rabinowitz

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Transparent Accelerator Migration in a Virtualized GPU Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a framework to support transparent, live migration of virtual GPU accelerators in a virtualized execution environment. Migration is a critical capability in such environments because it provides support for fault tolerance, on-demand ... Keywords: GPU, Virtualization, OpenCL, Migration, VOCL

Shucai Xiao; Pavan Balaji; James Dinan; Qian Zhu; Rajeev Thakur; Susan Coghlan; Heshan Lin; Gaojin Wen; Jue Hong; Wu-chun Feng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Electromagnetically induced transparency over spectral hole-burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electromagnetically induced transparency over spectral hole-burning temperature in a rare the spectral hole-burning temperature. The transmission of the probe laser beam is increased by a factor of exp over the spectral hole-burning temperature in a rare-earth­doped solid represents important progress

Shahriar, Selim

247

Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

248

A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A metafilm (also referred to as a metasurface) is the surface equivalent of a metamaterial. More precisely, a metafilm is a surface distribution of suitable chosen electrically small scatterers. Metafilms are becoming popular as an alternative to full three-dimensional metamaterials. Unfortunately, many papers in the literature present incorrect interpretations and mischaracterizations of these metafilms. In fact, some of the characterizations presented in the literature result in non-unique parameters for a uniquely defined metafilm. In this paper we discuss an appropriate interpretation and characterization of metafilms and present a correct manner to characterize a metafilm. Additionally, we illustrate the error that results from an incorrect characterization of metafilms. We present various examples to emphasize these points. Finally we present a retrieval approach for determining the uniquely defined quantities (the electric and magnetic susceptibilities of its constituent scatterers) that characterize a metafilm.

O'hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

DISCRETE TRANSPARENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR WIDE ANGLE PARABOLIC EQUATIONS IN UNDERWATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISCRETE TRANSPARENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR WIDE ANGLE PARABOLIC EQUATIONS IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS "parabolic" equations (WAPEs) in underwater acoustics (assuming cylindrical symmetry). Existing the discretization of transparent bottom boundary conditions. In oceanography one wants to calculate the underwater

Ehrhardt, Matthias

250

Structural characteristics of proposed ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) TF (toroidal field) coil conductor  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the effect of transverse loading on a cable-in-conduit conductor which has been proposed for the toroidal field coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The primary components of this conductor are a loose cable of superconducting wires, a thin-wall tube for helium containment, and a U-shaped structural channel. A method is given where the geometry of this conductor can be optimized for a given set of operating conditions. It is shown, using finite-element modeling, that the structural channel is effective in supporting loads due to transverse forces and internal pressure. In addition, it is shown that the superconducting cable is effectively shielded from external transverse loads that might otherwise degrade its current carrying capacity. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Gibson, C.R.; Miller, J.R.

1988-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

Measurements of Nb3Sn conductor dimension changes during heat treatment  

SciTech Connect

During the heat treatment of Nb{sub 3}Sn coils the conductor material properties change significantly. These effects together with the changes of the conductor dimensions during heat treatment may introduce large strain in the coils for accelerator magnets. The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has initiated a study aiming at understanding the thermal expansion and contraction of Nb3Sn strands, cables and coils during heat treatment. Several measurements on strands and cables were performed in order to have sufficient inputs for finite element simulation of the dimensional changes during heat treatment. In this paper the results of measurements of OST-RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor used in the LARP magnet program are discussed.

Bocian, D.; Ambrosio, G.; Whitson, G.M.; /Fermilab

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

253

HEU Transparency Implementation Program and its Radiation Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

In February 1993, the Governments of the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (R.F.) signed a bilateral Agreement for the U.S. purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from 500 metric tons (MT) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of Russian nuclear weapons. The HEU Purchase Agreement serves important national security and nonproliferation policy imperatives for both countries since its implementation reduces the quantity of surplus Russian HEU that could be stolen and diverted for weapons use. In return, Russia receives much needed U.S. dollars over a 20-year delivery period. In 2001, Russia received over half a billion US dollars from the purchase of the LEU blended from 30 MT HEU. As part of this Agreement, transparency rights were agreed upon that provide confidence to both governments that the nonproliferation objectives of the Agreement are being fulfilled. While the U.S. Department of State, in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is responsible negotiating transparency rights associated with this nuclear material, the NNSA is responsible for implementing those rights. These rights allow U.S. and R.F., personnel (called ''monitors'') to visit the processing facilities and observe the steps for processing the HEU into fuel for nuclear reactors. In this fashion, the processing of HEU to LEU is made ''transparent.'' For DOE, there are three transparency objectives: (1) that the HEU is extracted from nuclear weapons, (2) that this same HEU is oxidized, and (3) that the HEU is blended into LEU. For MINATOM, the transparency objective is: (1) that the LEU is fabricated into fuel for commercial nuclear power reactors: The transparency is based on visits by designated transparency monitors (100 preapproved U.S. and Russian monitors) with specific rights to monitor and to access storage and processing areas to provide confidence that the nonproliferation goals of the agreement are met. The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within NNSA implements the transparency provisions of the bilateral agreement. It is constantly making progress towards meeting its objectives and gathering the information necessary to confirm that Russian weapons-usable HEU is being blended into LEU. Since the first shipment in 1995 through December 2001, a total of 141 MT of weapons-grade HEU, about 28% of the agreed total and equivalent to 5,650 nuclear weapons, was converted to LEU, further reducing the threat of this material returning back into nuclear weapons. In the year 2001, the LEU sold to electric utility customers for fuel was sufficient to supply the annual fuel needs for about 50 percent of the U.S. installed nuclear electrical power generation capacity. There are four primary uranium processing activities involved in converting HEU metal components extracted from dismantled nuclear weapons into fuel for power reactors: (1) Converting HEU metal to purified HEU oxide; (2) Converting purified HEU oxide to HEU hexafluoride; (3) Downblending HEU hexafluoride to LEU hexafluoride; and (4) Converting LEU hexafluoride into reactor fuel. The first three processes are currently being performed at four Russian nuclear processing facilities: Mayak Production Association (MPA), Electrochemical Plant (ECP), Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), and Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP). Following the blending down of HEU, the LEU hexafluoride is loaded into industry, standard 30B cylinders at the downblending facilities and transported to St. Petersburg, Russia. From there the LEU is shipped by sea to the United States where it is converted into fuel to be used in nuclear power plants. There are six U.S. facilities processing LEU subject to the HEU purchase agreement: the Portsmouth uranium enrichment plant, Global Nuclear Fuel -America, Framatome-Lynchburg, Framatome-Richland, Westinghouse-Hematite, and Westinghouse Fuel Fabrication Facility.

Radev, R

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability  

SciTech Connect

It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

255

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

256

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level flow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

257

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12; 2 #12; Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

258

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level ¤ow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

259

Bipolar resistive switching effect in Gd2O3 films for transparent memory application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transparent resistive random access memory based on ITO/Gd"2O"3/ITO capacitor structure is fabricated on glass substrate. The transparent memory exhibits reliable resistive switching for more than 1000 cycles, low operation voltage of -2V/+2V, and ... Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, Gd2O3, RRAM, Resistive memory, TRRAM, Transparent memory

Kou-Chen Liu; Wen-Hsien Tzeng; Kow-Ming Chang; Yi-Chun Chan; Chun-Chih Kuo

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Three-dimensional finite element modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drag forces due to eddy currents induced by the relative motion of a conductor and a magnetic field occur in many practical devices: motors, brakes, magnetic bearings, and magnetically levitated vehicles. Recently, finite element codes have included solvers for 3-D eddy current geometries and have the potential to be very useful in the design and analysis of these devices. In this paper, numerical results from three-dimensional modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor are compared to experimental results in order to assess the capabilities of these codes.

Lorimer, W.L.; Lieu, D.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Rossing, T.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Quasi-Static Conductor Loss Calculations in Transmission Lines using a New Conformal Mapping Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- A new approximation technique to find the total series impedance per unit length for quasi-TEM transmission lines including conductor loss has been developed. It is shown through the use of conformal mapping that both frequency dependent skin-depth and proximity effects can be accurately modeled. Comparison between experimental measurements and calculations for twin-lead, coplanar strips, parallel square bars, and coplanar waveguide all show excellent agreement. This technique is easily generalized to any transmission line making use of polygonal cross-section conductors. I.

Emre Tuncer; Beom-taek Lee; M. Saiful Islam; Dean P. Neikirk

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Practices on Residential Water Use Speaker(s): Sylvestre Gaudin Date: November 29, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: John Busch Jr. Economic Research shows overwhelmingly that residential consumers do not pay much attention to price changes when they make decisions about water use. This weak price sensitivity is often attributed to the intrinsic nature of water as a necessity. However, a large part of water use is the result of choices that could easily be altered without affecting basic welfare. Economic theory points to at least two other reasons why consumers would not be responsive to price changes for water use: the fact that water bills constitute a small portion of their budgets, and the fact that price

263

Compound transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a method for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform includes forming a first suspension of oxide particles in a first solvent which includes a first dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the first suspension to a first mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the first suspension in the first mold until stable. The method also includes forming a second suspension of oxide particles in a second solvent which includes a second dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the second suspension to the stable first suspension in a second mold of a desired shape encompassing the first suspension and the second suspension, and uniformly curing the second suspension in the second mold until stable. Other methods for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several other embodiments. Structures are also disclosed.

Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard L.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

264

2004 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2004 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Implementation Program (HEU-TIP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2004, there were 200 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 200 person-trips, 183 person-trips were SMVs and 17 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Eight person-trips from the SMV trips were continuation trips of TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIP. The LLNL Safety Laboratories' Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TIP monitors.

Radev, R

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

Radev, R

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

266

Transparent composite laminar structure, solar collector and method  

SciTech Connect

An improved transparent laminar structure useful as a window in a solar collector having an absorber characterized with a low absorption/emission ratio is described. The structure includes a glass substrate, a particularly defined infrared-reflecting (Irr) layer provided on a major surface of the substrate, and a solar reflection-reducing layer of polymethacrylate composition provided on the irr layer. Also described are an improved solar collector and method for collecting solar radiation, wherein the laminar structure is employed.

Silverstein, S.D.

1981-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

267

Three Successful Tests of Color Transparency and Nuclear Filtering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the theoretical formalism for hard exclusive processes in a nuclear medium. Theory suggests that these processes will show the very interesting phenomena of color transparency and nuclear filtering. The survival probability in nuclear media has also been predicted to show a scaling behavior at large momentum and large nuclear number. We show that all of these effects may have already been seen experimentally.

Pankaj Jain; John P. Ralston

1993-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

268

Correlated Quantum Memory: Manipulating Atomic Entanglement via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a feasible scheme of quantum state storage and manipulation via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in flexibly $united$ multi-ensembles of three-level atoms. For different atomic array configurations, one can properly steer the signal and the control lights to generate different forms of atomic entanglement within the framework of linear optics. These results shed new light on designing the versatile quantum memory devices by using, e.g., an atomic grid.

H. Jing; X. -J. Liu; M. -L. Ge; M. -S. Zhan

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Towards High Performance p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

P-type transparent conductive oxides would have potential applications in photovoltaics, transparent electronics and organic opto-electronics. In this paper we present results on the synthesis of Cu2SrO2, a p-type transparent conducting oxide, by a chemical solution route as well as the conventional pulse laser deposition (PLD) method. For Cu2SrO2 by the chemical solution route, samples were made by spraying deposition on quartz substrates using an aqueous solution of Copper formate and Strontium acetate. Phase pure materials were obtained by an optimum two stage annealing sequence. This initial work led to the development of good quality homogeneous films by a related sol-gel approach. We have also used pulsed laser depostion (PLD) to deposit Cu2SrO2 and CuInO2 thin films on quartz substrates. We have obtained improved conductivities in the CuInO2 thin films over previously published work. We present details on the nature of the relationship of process parameters to the opto-electronic properties of the films.

Roy, B.; Ode, A.; Readey, D.; Perkins, J.; Parilla, P.; Teplin, C.; Kaydanova, T.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C.; Martinson, A.; Coutts, T.; Ginley, D.; Hosono, H.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Lithium Hectorite Clay as the Ionic Conductor in LiCoO2 Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hectorite Clay as the Ionic Conductor in LiCoO2 Cathodes Michael W. Riley,* Peter S. Fedkiw Carolina 27695-7905, USA Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species lithium hectorite, lithium Laponite, and lithium- exchanged Nafion are studied in conjunction with lithium metal

Khan, Saad A.

271

Evaluation of the Results of Several Full-Scale Conductor Wind Loading Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1991, EPRI's Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center (TLMRC) conducted an experiment that instrumented a transmission tower and two spans of conductors. The instrumentation collected the wind data in a form that could be processed using some of the data reduction methods adopted in previous wind loading experiments conducted by Ontario Hydro, Bonneville Power Administration, and Hydro Quebec.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

272

A framework and methodology for nuclear fuel cycle transparency.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key objective to the global deployment of nuclear technology is maintaining transparency among nation-states and international communities. By providing an environment in which to exchange scientific and technological information regarding nuclear technology, the safe and legitimate use of nuclear material and technology can be assured. Many nations are considering closed or multiple-application nuclear fuel cycles and are subsequently developing advanced reactors in an effort to obtain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Proliferation resistance features that prevent theft or diversion of nuclear material and reduce the likelihood of diversion from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. IAEA Safeguards have been effective in minimizing opportunities for diversion; however, recent changes in the global political climate suggest implementation of additional technology and methods to ensure the prompt detection of proliferation. For a variety of reasons, nuclear facilities are becoming increasingly automated and will require minimum manual operation. This trend provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring proliferation risk, especially in future facilities. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation associated with these activities. Additionally, a framework designed to monitor processes will ensure the legitimate use of nuclear material. This report describes recent efforts to develop a methodology capable of assessing proliferation risk in support of overall plant transparency. The framework may be tested at the candidate site located in Japan: the Fuel Handling Training Model designed for the Monju Fast Reactor at the International Cooperation and Development Training Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

McClellan, Yvonne; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Foam flow through a transparent rough-walled rock fracture  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of nitrogen, water, and aqueous foam flow through a transparent replica of a natural rough-walled rock fracture with a hydraulic aperture of roughly 30 {mu}m. It is established that single-phase flow of both nitrogen and water is well described by analogy to flow between parallel plates. Inertial effects caused by fracture roughness become important in single-phase flow as the Reynolds number approaches 1. Foam exhibits effective control of gas mobility. Foam flow resistances are approximately 10 to 20 times greater than those of nitrogen over foam qualities spanning from 0.60 to 0.99 indicating effective gas-mobility control. Because previous studies of foam flow have focused mainly upon unfractured porous media, little information is available about foam flow mechanisms in fractured media. The transparency of the fracture allowed flow visualization and demonstrated that foam rheology in fractured media depends upon bubble shape and size. Changes in flow behavior are directly tied to transitions in bubble morphology.

Kovscek, A.; Tretheway, D.; Radke, C. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Explicit reconstruction of line-currents and their positions in a two-dimensional parallel conductor structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetic inverse source problem of reconstructing the positions and currents of very long parallel conductors is considered in a two-dimensional situation, with applications to power line measurements. The input data is the magnetic field on a contour surrounding the conductors to be reconstructed. Using a scalar-vector Green identity, an explicit reconstruction algorithm is derived. The numerical implementation of the algorithm is described and simulation results are presented, demonstrating the influences from numerical errors and uncertainties in measurement data. The algorithm can handle an arbitrary number of conductors, but stability problems associated with the illposedness accelerate with increasing number of conductors. Mathematically, the Green identity approach removes the influence of external disturbances and thus have potential usefulness in current reconstruction for determining optimal sensor positions and how to process measurement data.

Martin Norgren

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

275

Microsoft Word - CX-BigEddy-Redmond-ConductorMaintenance-FY13_WEB  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2013 4, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Stacy Hensley Project Manager - TEP-CSB-2 Proposed Action: Conductor maintenance on Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Big Eddy-Redmond transmission line Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance activities Location: Approximately six miles southeast of The Dalles in Wasco County, Oregon. T1N, R14E, Sec 4, 5, 9, 20, 28, 29, and 33 Proposed by: BPA Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to perform routine maintenance on the Big Eddy-Redmond, 230-kilovolt transmission line conductor. The proposed work includes re-sagging the transmission line, and replacing the transmission line hardware and transmission

276

Microsoft Word - CX-Monroe-Snohomish-ExpandedConductorReplacement_FY13_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

June 13, 2013 June 13, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Frank Weintraub Mechanical Engineer - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Replacement of expanded conductor from Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Monroe Substation to structure 2/1 on the Monroe-Snohomish transmission line PP&A Project No.: 2682 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.6 Additions/ modifications to transmission facilities Location: Snohomish County, Washingto.n, in BPA's Snohomish District Proposed by: BPA Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to replace 2.5 inch expanded conductor from Monroe Substation to structure 2/1 on the Monroe-Snohomish 230-kilovolt transmission

277

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for SOFC Cathodes Matthew E. Lynch, Lei Yang, Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Porous cathodes are of primary importance to the electrochemical operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The compound La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF) is a candidate material for the cathode, and shows good mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as good activity toward the oxygen reduction

278

Low AC Loss YBCO Coated Conductor Geometry by Direct Inkjet Printing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The second generation (2G) high temperature superconductors (HTS) wire offers potential benefits for many electric power applications, including ones requiring filamentized conductors with low ac loss, such as transformers and fault current limiters. However, the use of 2G wire in these applications requires the development of both novel multi-filamentary conductor designs with lower ac losses and the development of advanced manufacturing technologies that enable the low-cost manufacturing of these filamentized architectures. This Phase I SBIR project focused on testing inkjet printing as a potential low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturing technique to fabricate potential low ac loss filamentized architectures directly on the 2G template strips.

Rupich, Martin, Dr. [American Superconductor Corporation; Duckworth, Robert, Dr. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Calculation of electric field and audible noise from transmission lines with non-parallel conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to investigate the feasibility of using new transmission line configurations with non-parallel conductors, for managing magnetic field in critical areas, techniques are needed to assess the effects of different three-dimensional line arrangements on other important design parameters. A new method for calculation of electric field and corona-generated audible noise from non-parallel conductors is described and implemented as a computer tool. This method uses linearly varying line charges to simulate charge distribution along the axial direction of the transmission line. New algorithms are developed for calculating electric field and audible noise due to non-uniform line charges and illustrated by examples of low magnetic field transmission line designs.

Liu, Y. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zaffanella, L.E. [Enertech Consultants, Lee, MA (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Apparatus and method for measuring critical current properties of a coated conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transverse critical-current uniformity in a superconducting tape was determined using a magnetic knife apparatus. A critical current I.sub.c distribution and transverse critical current density J.sub.c distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured nondestructively with high resolution using a magnetic knife apparatus. The method utilizes the strong depression of J.sub.c in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low, including zero, magnetic field in a surrounding higher field is moved transversely across a sample of coated conductor. This reveals the critical current density distribution. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J.sub.c distribution in the sample.

Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Haenisch, Jens (Dresden, DE)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Particle trap to sheath non-binding contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-binding particle trap to outer sheath contact for use in gas insulated transmission lines having a corrugated outer conductor. The non-binding feature of the contact according to the teachings of the invention is accomplished by having a lever arm rotatably attached to a particle trap by a pivot support axis disposed parallel to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulator/particle trap assembly.

Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

282

Effect of Structure on P-type Conduction and Optical Transparency ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Effect of Structure on P-type Conduction and Optical Transparency of ... DC Arc Plasma Jet Growth of Large Area High Quality Freestanding ...

283

Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells  

Argonne has developed a new method for applying thin film coatings of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) to large panel displays and photovoltaic (PV) cells.

284

An NDE Study of Impact Damage in Multi-Layered Transparent ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For both transparent and opaque protective systems, low velocity impact damage compromises the structural integrity and increases the likelihood of further ...

285

EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion (Orange Book) Revision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an updated edition of the longtime industry standard on vibration, EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book: Wind-Induced Conductor Motion, the "Orange Book," which was last issued in 1979. Publication of this new edition is the culmination of three years of research by an international team of experts in the field. The report includes the latest information on research, technology, and materials and represents a significant contribution to the global industry of electric power transmission.

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

286

AC Loss Reduction in Filamentized YBCO Coated Conductors with Virtual Transverse Cross-cuts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO)-based coated conductors under dc currents has improved significantly in recent years, filamentization is being investigated as a technique to reduce ac loss so that the 2nd generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires can also be utilized in various ac power applications such as cables, transformers and fault current limiters. Experimental studies have shown that simply filamentizing the superconducting layer is not effective enough to reduce ac loss because of incomplete flux penetration in between the filaments as the length of the tape increases. To introduce flux penetration in between the filaments more uniformly and further reduce the ac loss, virtual transverse cross-cuts were made in superconducting filaments of the coated conductors fabricated using the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The virtual transverse cross-cuts were formed by making cross-cuts (17 - 120 {micro}m wide) on the IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition)-MgO templates using laser scribing followed by depositing the superconducting layer ({approx} 0.6 {micro}m thick). AC losses were measured and compared for filamentized conductors with and without the cross-cuts under applied peak ac fields up to 100 mT. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of filament decoupling and the feasibility of using this method to achieve ac loss reduction.

Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; X, Xiong, [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Nuclear Transparency in 90 Degree c.m. Quasielastic A(p,2p) Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90 Deg .in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 nuclear transparency near 90 Deg. c.m., and the nuclear transparency for deuterons was studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the Carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for Li, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei as well as for C. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e,e'p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as predicted by Glauber calculations. The A(p,2p) nuclear transparency for C and Al increases by a factor of two between 5.9 and 9.5 GeV/c incident proton momentum. At its peak the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency is about 80% of the constant A(e,e'p) nuclear transparency. Then the nuclear transparency falls back to the Glauber level again. This oscillating behavior is generally interpreted as an interplay between two components of the pN scattering amplitude; one short ranged and perturbative, and the other long ranged and strongly absorbed in the nuclear medium. We suggest a number of experiments for further studies of nuclear transparency effects.

J. Aclander; J. Alster; G. Asryan; Y. Averiche; D. S. Barton; V. Baturin; N. Buktoyarova; G. Bunce; A. S. Carroll; N. Christensen; H. Courant; S. Durrant; G. Fang; K. Gabriel; S. Gushue; K. J. Heller; S. Heppelmann; I. Kosonovsky; A. Leksanov; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malki; I. Mardor; Y. Mardor; M. L. Marshak; D. Martel; E. Minina; E. Minor; I. Navon; H. Nicholson; A. Ogawa; Y. Panebratsev; E. Piasetzky; T. Roser; J. J. Russell; A. Schetkovsky; S. Shimanskiy; M. A. Shupe; S. Sutton; M. Tanaka; A. Tang; I. Tsetkov; J. Watson; C. White; J-Y. Wu; D. Zhalov

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

288

A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Slowing Down Near the Glass Transition New Light on Improving Engine Efficiencies The Crystal Structure of a Meta-stable Intermediate Particle in Virus Assembly Increasing Magnetic Response of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors under High Pressure Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure APRIL 20, 2009 Bookmark and Share Sodium clamped in a metallic rhenium gasket between diamond anvils. The photographs were taken through a diamond anvil under combined transmitted and reflected illumination. Sodium, a white metal at pressures below 1.1 Mbar (1 Mbar = 1 million atm), turns black at 1.3 Mbar and becomes

289

Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1985-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

291

Transparent Humidity Sensor Using Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte Membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the fabrication of a porous cross-linked polyelectrolyte membrane and the characterization of its humidity sensitivity performance. Electrostatic self-assembly, combined with acid treatment, and post-deposition annealing produced the membrane. The fabrication process offers the ability to control the thickness of the membrane, as well as enabling the engineering of the humidity sensitivity properties. A transparent humidity sensor was fabricated by integrating the membrane between two parallel electrodes. In order to improve the moisture absorption and diffusion, both the polyelectrolyte layer and the electrode were made porous. The membrane was cross-linked to enhance the durability in high humid environments. Such a polyelectrolyte membrane showed high sensitivity to relative humidity variation over a range of 25%–99%. The see-through property of the structure adds extra features and benefits to the sensor.

Zhang, Q.; Smith, James R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Hua, Feng

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

292

Combinatorial Exploration of Novel Transparent Conducting Oxide Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-throughput combinatorial approaches have been used for the discovery and optimization of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials for PV applications. We report on current investigations in In-Zn-O, In-Ti-O and In-Mo-O systems. The InZnO system is shown to be amorphous in the best conducting range with a conductivity of ~ 3000 ?-cm-1 for 50%-70% In/Zn. The amorphous InZnO films are very smooth (2..ANG.. rms). In-Ti-O is found to be an excellent high-mobility TCO with mobilities of greater than 80 cm2/v-sec and conductivities of more than 6000 ?-cm-1 for sputtered thin film materials.

Ginley, D. S.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Young, D.; Teplin, C. W.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney, M. S.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Keyes, B. M.; To, B.; Perkins, J. D.; Taylor, M. P.; Readey, D.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation is disclosed. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment. 1 fig.

Bunshah, R.; Nath, P.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

294

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

Bunshah, Rointan (Los Angeles, CA); Nath, Prem (Troy, MI)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Flexible and transparent supercapacitor based on In2O3 nanowire/carbon nanotube heterogeneous films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flexible and transparent supercapacitor based on In2O3 nanowire/carbon nanotube heterogeneous films; accepted 17 December 2008; published online 28 January 2009 In this paper, a supercapacitor galvanostatic measurements. In addition, to study the stability of flexible and transparent supercapacitor

Zhou, Chongwu

296

First Principles Study of the Li[subscript 10]GeP[subscript 2]S[subscript 12] Lithium Super Ionic Conductor Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The continued drive for high performance lithium batteries has imposed stricter requirements on the electrolyte materials. Solid electrolytes comprising lithium super ionic conductor materials exhibit good safety and ...

Mo, Yifei

297

RPEMSC | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centers » Centers » RPEMSC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications Contact BES Home Centers RPEMSC Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency Through Molecule Scale Control Director(s): James Yardley Lead Institution: Columbia University Mission: To develop the enabling science needed to realize breakthroughs in the efficient conversion of sunlight into electricity in nanometer sized thin films. Research Topics: solar (photovoltaic), electrodes - solar, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials) Materials Studied: MATERIALS: semiconductor, organic semiconductor, metal, polymer, optoelectronic and metamaterial, transparent conductor

298

Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Composite mixed conductors comprising one electronic conducting phase, and one ionic conducting phase (MIECs) have been developed in this work. Such MIECs have applications in generating and separating hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels at high process rates and high purities. The ionic conducting phase comprises of rare-earth doped ceria and the electronic conducting phase of rare-earth doped strontium titanate. These compositions are ideally suited for the hydrogen separation application. In the process studied in this project, steam at high temperatures is fed to one side of the MIEC membrane and hydrocarbon fuel or reformed hydrocarbon fuel to the other side of the membrane. Oxygen is transported from the steam side to the fuel side down the electrochemical potential gradient thereby enriching the steam side flow in hydrogen. The remnant water vapor can then be condensed to obtain high purity hydrogen. In this work we have shown that two-phase MIECs comprising rare-earth ceria as the ionic conductor and doped-strontium titanate as the electronic conductor are stable in the operating environment of the MIEC. Further, no adverse reaction products are formed when these phases are in contact at elevated temperatures. The composite MIECs have been characterized using a transient electrical conductivity relaxation technique to measure the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient. Oxygen permeation and hydrogen generation rates have been measured under a range of process conditions and the results have been fit to a model which incorporates the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient from the transient measurements.

Srikanth Gopalan

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Methods of fabricating a conductor assembly having a curvilinear arcuate shape  

SciTech Connect

A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly along a curvilinear axis. The assembly may be of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In one example, the assembly includes a structure having a curved shape extending along the axis. A surface of the structure is positioned for formation of a channel along the curved shape. The structure is rotated about a second axis. While rotating the structure, a channel is formed in the surface that results in a helical shape in the structure. The channel extends both around and along the first axis.

Meinke, Rainer (Melbourne, FL)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

300

Modeling the Critical Current Decrease in Coated Conductors with Film Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

YBCO-based Coated Conductors (CC) are touted as the next generation of high current=carrying capacity High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) wires. If commercially viable, CC will signal a revolution in power trnasmission, with enormous economic consequences. It has been recently reported that the observed ciritical current in such CC is decreasing with the fil thickness d, roughly as d-1/2. The origin of this decrease is not understood. This work is aimed at developing a simple model to explain this feature.

D. Agassi; D.K. Christen; S.J. Pennycook

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Utilization of Advanced Conductors to Improve Transmission System Utilization and Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Entergy has recently carried out a project on utilization of an advanced conductor to solve a reliability issue related to components overloading at N-1 conditions. The 230-kV Line 195 (Hartburg Inland Orange McLewis Helbig) in Entergy's system is one of the primary sources into the Beaumont/Port Arthur area. The single contingency loss of 500-kV Line 547 (Cypress Hartburg) causes thermal overloads of this line. To prevent conditions from overloading and potential cascading effects, the power transmitted...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

302

ITER Model Coil Tests Overview: Nb3Sn Strand Properties in Cable-in-Conduit-Conductors  

SciTech Connect

During the ITER Model Coil Program two large coils and three Insert coils were built and tested. The test campaigns provided very valuable data on the Conductor in Conduit Cable (CICC) properties. The tests showed that the Nb3Sn strands in CICC behave differently than so-called witness strands, which underwent the same heat treatment. The paper describes Volt-temperature characteristics (VTC) and Volt-Ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in the tests, presents comparisons with the witness strands, and interprets the test results.

Martovetsky, N N

2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

303

Process for the production of thermodynamically stable solid ion conductor materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention provides a process for the production of solid in conductor materials based on the following formula: A3 /SUB u/ /sub +/2 /SUB v/ /sub +/ /SUB w/ XuYuZw wherein A is lithium or sodium, X is nitrogen, phosphorus or arsenic, Y is nitrogen, sulphur, tellurium or selenium, Z is hydrogen or a halogen, and u, v, and w each represent a number from 0 to 1 inclusive, with the proviso that only one of u, v, and w can assume the value of 0.

Hartwig, P.; Wepper, W.; Winfried, W.

1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

304

Development of a Multifilament PIT V3Ga Conductor for Fusion Applications  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies on V{sub 3}Ga assert its suitability for use in proposed fusion reactors. V{sub 3}Ga may outperform Nb{sub 3}Sn in a fusion reactor environment based on its relatively flat critical-current profile in the 15 T-20 T range, resilience to applied strain, and reduced risk of induced radioactivity. A multifilament powder-in-tube V{sub 3}Ga conductor was designed, fabricated and tested with a focus on evaluating critical current versus applied field and applied strain performance, wire drawing difficulties, heat-treatment optimization, and overall feasibility of the concept.

Distin, J.S.; Ghosh, A.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Lu, X.F.; Cheggour, N.; Stauffer, T.C.; Goodrich, L.F.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

305

Transparent heat mirrors for solar-energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Transparent heat-mirror films, which transmit solar radiation but reflect ir thermal radiation, have potentially important applications in solar/thermal/electric conversion, solar heating, solar photovoltaic conversion, and window insulation. We have used rf sputtering to prepare two types of films: TiO/sub 2//Ag/TiO/sub 2/ and Sn-doped In/sub 2/O/sub 3/. To characterize the properties of heat-mirror films for solar-energy collection, we define the parameters ..cap alpha../sub eff/, the effective solar absorptivity, and epsilon/sub eff/, the effective ir emissivity. For our Sn-doped In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films, ..cap alpha../sub eff//epsilon/sub eff/ is comparable to the values of ..cap alpha../epsilon reported for the leading selective absorbers. Even higher values of ..cap alpha../sub eff//epsilon/sub eff/ are obtained for the TiO/sub 2//Ag/TiO/sub 2/ films.

Fan, J.C.C.; Bachner, F.J.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

ATTRIBUTES AND THRESHOLDS IN MEASUREMENTS FOR TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVES  

SciTech Connect

The collection of programs broadly termed Transparency Initiatives frequently involves physics measurements that are applied to items with sensitive or classified properties. The inability or reluctance to perform quantitative measurements, in the safeguards tradition, to such items, and then to expose the results to international examination, has impelled development of an attributes approach to measurements, following the philosophy if it looks like a duck, walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, call it a duck, This approach avoids certain of the classification issues that would otherwise be associated with such measurements. Use of the attributes approach, however, continues to pose problems of interpretation, in light of the need to establish numerical thresholds whereby data obtained from the measurements can be evaluated to determine whether the attribute is present. In this paper we examine the foundations of the attributes approach and the steps used to determine appropriate attributes and thresholds, using examples from contemporary threat-reduction initiatives where possible. Implications for the detector technologies used in the measurements will be discussed, as will the characteristics of so-called information barriers intended to prevent inadvertent release of sensitive information during attributes measurements.

M. W. JOHNSON

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Colour transparency: a novel test of QCD in nuclear interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colour transparency is a cute and indispensable property of QCD as the gauge theory of strong interaction. CT tests of QCD consist of production of the perturbative small-sized hadronic state and measuring the strngth of its non-perturbative diffraction nteraction in a nuclear matter. The energy depenednce of the final- state interaction in a nuclear matter probes a dynamical evolution from the perturbative small-sized state to the full-sized nonperturbative hadron. QCD observables of CT experiments correspond to a novel mechanism of scanning of hadronic wave functions from the large nonperturbative to the small perturbative size. In these lectures, which are addressed to experimentalists and theorists, I discuss the principle ideas of CT physics and the physics potential of the hadron and electron facilities in the > 10 GeV energy range. The special effort was made to present the material in the pedagigical and self-consistent way, with an emphasis on the underlying rich quantum-mechanical interference phenomena.

N. N. Nikolaev

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

308

Large-scale, nonsubtractive patterning of transparent conducting oxides by ion bombardment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While significant progress has been achieved in the fabrication and performance of transparent electronic devices, substantially less research effort has been devoted to transparent interconnects, despite their critical importance for transparent integrated circuitry. Here, we exploit the crystal disorder induced by Ar{sup +} ion bombardment to achieve efficient fabrication of electrically conductive patterns on indium oxide surfaces. The resulting ion-induced patterns are characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and four-point charge transport measurements. Massively parallel patterning is demonstrated over square centimeter areas with a patterned electrical conductivity of {approx}10{sup 4} S cm{sup -1}.

Sosa, Norma E.; Chen, Christopher; Liu Jun; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

309

A MORE EFFICIENT ANODE MICROSTRUCTURE FOR SOFCs BASED ON PROTON CONDUCTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the desired microstructure of the state-of-the-art Ni-YSZ anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on YSZ is well known, the anode microstructure for a SOFC based on a proton conductor is yet to be optimized. In this study, we examined the effect of anode porosity on the performance of a SOFC based on BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3??} (BZCYYb), a mixed ion (proton and oxygen anion) conductor with high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. Three cells with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anodes of different porosities (37%, 42%, and 50%) and identical electrolytes and cathode components were fabricated and tested. Under typical fuel cell operating conditions, the cell with anode of the lowest porosity (37%), prepared without pore former, achieved the highest performance, demonstrating a peak power density of 1.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 750 °C. This is radically different from the results of Ni-YSZ anodes for YSZ based cells, where high anode porosity (?55%) is necessary to achieve high performance. The observed increase in performance (or electrocatalytic activity for anode reactions) is attributed primarily to the unique microstructure of the anode fabricated without the use of pore forming precursors.

Rainwater, Ben H; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Meilin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

An experimental evaluation of S-N curves and validity of miner's cumulative damage hypothesis for an ACSR conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory simulation of aeolian vibrations was used in determining the fatigue characteristics of an ACSR conductor subjected to constant and varied amplitude loadings. Using linear regression analyses, S-N curves for first through fifth strand breaks were fit to the data, and a pseudo endurance limit of 21.31 MPa (3.09 ksi) estimated. Subjecting the conductor to three different types of load sequences revealed that Miner's Cumulative Damage hypothesis is somewhat conservative, but can be assumed valid for design purposes. This information, in conjunction with the actual load histories, will allow electric utility companies to more accurately design transmission lines.

Brunair, R.M.; Ramey, G. (Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (US)); Duncan, R.R. III (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (US))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Flexible, transparent, and conductive film based on random networks of Ag nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flexible, transparent, and conductive films based on randomnetworks ofAg nanowireswere prepared by vacuum-filtratingmethod. The size of Ag nanowires prepared by hydrothermal method is uniform, with a relatively smaller diameter and a longer length, thereby ...

Shunhua Wang, Xu Zhang, Weiwei Zhao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Measurement of nuclear transparency from A(e,e'[pi]?) reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The color transparency phenomenon refers to the suppression of final-state interactions of a hadron propagating through the nuclear medium at large momentum transfer when the hadron is produced with small transverse size. ...

Clasie, Benjamin Michael Patrick

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous ...

Lunt, Richard R.

314

Transparent Conducting Contacts Based on Zinc Oxide Substitutionally Doped with Gallium: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a critical element in photovoltaic devices. This paper describes research on Ga:ZnO (a TCO candidate) using a high-throughput combinatorial approach.

Gorrie, C. W.; Reese, M.; Perkins, J. D.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney M. S.; To, B.; Ginley, D. S.; Berry, J. J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Transparent yttrium aluminium garnet obtained by spark plasma sintering of lyophilized gels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lyophilized YAG gel, synthesized by the coprecipitation technique, has been sintered to transparency by spark plasma sintering method at 1500°C. Whereas conventionally dried gels show large agglomerates, over 1 µm, powders from lyophilized ...

M. Suárez; A. Fernández; J. L. Menéndez; R. Torrecillas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Determination of Semi-Transparent Cirrus Cloud Temperature from Infrared Radiances: Application to METEOSAT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of simultaneous infrared measurements to derive the temperature and emissivity of semi-transparent cirrus clouds is experimentally investigated. Results from the NASA/CONVAIR-990 Winter Experiment Program, 1977 (WEP) are discussed. It is ...

Gerard Szejwach

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions February 26, 2010 - 3:17pm Addthis Consistent with the Administration's commitment to transparency, DOE General Counsel Scott Blake Harris has decided that all future determinations as to the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund fee will be made available to the public on DOE's website shortly after DOE makes a determination. The report relied upon in determining fee adequacy for 2008, the most recent year for which DOE has made a determination, is available here: (2008 Fee Adequacy Letter Report). Addthis Related Articles DOE Completes Annual Determination of the Adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Department of Energy Files Motion to Withdraw Yucca Mountain License

318

Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

NONE

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

319

The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

320

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session-layer services to be developed using a high-level flow-based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic library interposition and can be composed by chaining event handlers in a graph structure. We show how TESLA can be used to implement several session-layer services including encryption, SOCKS, application-controlled routing, flow migration, and traffic rate shaping, all with acceptably low performance degradation

Jon Salz; Alex C. Snoeren; Hari Balakrishnan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Effect of infrared transparency on the heat transfer through windows: a clarification of the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

The various radiative, convective, and conductive components of the net heat transfer are calculated and illustrated for various infrared transparencies of covers such as would be used in architectural, greenhouse, or solar collector windows. It is shown that in the limiting cases of infrared opacity and infrared transparency the relative contributions of the three modes of heat transfer are altered, but all contribute significantly. The radiation shielding arguments pertain to the analogous greenhouse effect in the atmosphere.

Silverstein, S.D.

1976-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

322

Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

323

A novel upgrade path for transparent optical networks based on wavelength reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive optical networks (PONs) provide an economical method of delivering a wide variety of services to a small number of customers. Using optical fibre amplifiers, PONs can be aggregated to form transparent optical networks (TONs) serving a very large ... Keywords: WDM TON upgrade, dynamic allocation, effective bandwidth per user, high bandwidth services, optical fibre amplifiers, optical fibre networks, optical filters, passive optical networks, passive routing, telecommunication network routing, transparent optical networks, upgrade path, upstream direction, wavelength division multiplexing, wavelength reuse

V. Tandon; M. Wilby; F. Burton

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Pitfalls of Transparency: Lessons Learned from the Milford Flats Fire  

SciTech Connect

The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) consists of a network of 29 radiation and weather monitoring stations located over a 160,000-km2 area of southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and southeastern California. The program provides stakeholders with a hands-on role in the monitoring for airborne radioactivity that could result from ongoing or past activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CEMP’s mission includes provisions for the transparency of the monitoring data as well as public accessibility to these data. This is accomplished through direct stakeholder participation, public outreach, and near real-time uploads of monitoring data to a publicly accessible web site located at http://cemp.dri.edu/. In early July 2007, a lightning strike ignited a wildfire just outside the city of Milford in southeastern Utah. This fire, named the Milford Flats Fire, grew rapidly and eventually became the largest wildfire in recorded history in the state, burning approximately 567 square miles. At about the same time, the pressurized ion chamber (PIC) located at the CEMP station in Milford began reporting average exposure rates that ranged from four to seven times normal for the area. Initially, it was believed that elevated readings could be a result of gamma-emitting radon progeny released by the fire and transported in smoke plumes. The U.S. Department of Energy issued a press release offering this as a possible first explanation, and the release received a great amount of attention, particularly in the state of Utah, where concerns were expressed that the fire could be causing re-suspension of radionuclides associated with fallout from past nuclear testing at the NTS. Subsequent analyses of particulate air filter samples obtained from the Milford station, as well as an examination of the data reported by the PIC, the timing of the incident, and diagnostic testing on the PIC, showed that the abnormal gamma readings were a result of instrument malfunction. WM2008 Conference, February 24-28, 2008, Phoenix, AZ This paper will review the data from the PIC and the analytical results of air filter samples collected at Milford, and present lessons learned from the Milford Flats Fire Incident on providing real-time access to monitoring data for the public.

T. Hartwell; D. Shafer; J. Tappen; G. McCurdy; B. Hurley; D. Farmer

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

325

Dynamics of Charged-particle Between the DC Voltage Biased Plane-Parallel Conductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analytic description to an oscillating charged-particle between the DC voltage biased plane-parallel conductors is presented. Contrary to the traditional belief in which the oscillatory behavior of the charged-particle in a uniform DC field is attributed to the reversal in the sign of the particle's charge polarity as it rebounds between the two electrodes, the analytic description of the phenomenon presented in this work reveals that such requirement is not necessary for the charged-particle oscillation. Since the system involves a spatially oscillating charged-particle, it represents a natural prototype for illuminating electric dipole radiation. By varying the DC bias voltage across the plane-parallel electrodes, the frequency of radiated electromagnetic waves can be adjusted. The device based on charged-particle oscillation is predicted to generate the coherent electromagnetic waves in the microwave to the X-ray regions of the spectrum, which includes the technologically important terahertz, the infra...

Cho, Sung Nae

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Portable NDA Equipment for Enrichment Measurements in the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program has used portable nondestructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the transparency agreement since 1997. The equipment is based on the 'enrichment meter' method and uses low-resolution sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors. Although systems using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors can produce more accurate results we have found that the results with NaI(Tl) detectors are quite adequate for the requirements of the transparency agreement. This paper will describe the details of the equipment's operation, calibration, testing, and deployment in Russia. We will also provide a comparison of the units originally deployed in 1997 with the upgraded systems that were deployed in 2003.

Decman, D J; Bandong, B B; Wong, J L; Valentine, J D; Luke, S J

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

327

NREL: Awards and Honors - PowerView Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PowerView(tm) Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module PowerView(tm) Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module Developers: Harrin Ullal, Ken Zweibel, and Bolko von Roedern, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Robert S. Oswald and Frank Liu, BP Solar The PowerView(tm) module - a BP Solar commercial product - represents the coming of a new era in photovoltaics for buildings. Because it is semi-transparent, it can be used in lieu of architectural glass for many applications, particularly for those that call for sloped glazing, such as awnings, canopies, or slanted roofs. And because it is photovoltaics, the module uses sunlight to generate clean electricity to power a building's electrical needs. As testimony to the PowerView's utility BP Solar has already installed it on canopies of hundreds of its Connect stores -

328

Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C(p,2p) Scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasi-elastic events was measured at beam energies ranging from 6 to 14.5 GeV at 90 degrees c.m. The four momentum transfer squared q*q ranged from 4.8 to 16.9 (GeV/c)**2. We present the observed energy dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to normalize this transparency ratio. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam energy is increased to 9 GeV and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

A. Leksanov; J. Alster; G. Asryan; Y. Averichev; D. Barton; V. Baturin; N. Bukhtoyarova; A. Carroll; S. Heppelmann; T. Kawabata; Y. Makdisi; E. Minina; I. Navon; A. Malki; H. Nicholson; A. Ogawa; Yu. Panebratsev; E. Piasetzky; A. Schetkovsky; S. Shimanskiy; A. Tang; J. W. Watson; H. Yoshida; D. Zhalov

2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

329

Electronic Structure and Doping of P-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a group of materials that are widely used in solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. Recently, Cu-containing p-type TCOs such as MII Cu2 O2 (MIII=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and CuMIII O2 (MIII=Al, Ga, In) have been proposed. Using first-principles band structure methods, we have systematically studied the electronic and optical properties of these p-type transparent oxides. For MII Cu2 O2 , we predict that adding a small amount of Ca into Sr Cu2 O2 can increase the transparency and conductivity. For CuMIII O2 , we explained the doping and band gap anomalies in this system and proposed a new approach to search for bipolar dopable wide-gap materials.

Wei, S.-H.; Nie, X.; Zhang, S. B.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

332

The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser  

SciTech Connect

The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

333

Improved Transparent Conducting Oxides Boost Performance of Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Today?s thin-film solar cells could not function without transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). TCOs act as a window, both protecting the cell and allowing light to pass through to the cell?s active layers. Until recently, TCOs were seen as a necessary, but static, layer of a thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell. But a group of researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified a pathway to producing improved TCO films that demonstrate higher infrared transparency. To do so, they have modified the TCOs in ways that did not seem possible a few years ago.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Physalis method for heterogeneous mixtures of dielectrics and conductors: Accurately simulating one million particles using a PC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prosperetti's seminal Physalis method, an Immersed Boundary/spectral method, had been used extensively to investigate fluid flows with suspended solid particles. Its underlying idea of creating a cage and using a spectral general analytical solution ... Keywords: Accuracy, efficiency, and convergence rate, Cage, Complex geometry, Discontinuous boundary conditions, Heterogeneous mixtures of dielectrics and conductors, Immersed Boundary Method, O(N) method, One million particles, Physalis method, Second-order accuracy, Spectral general analytical solution, Spectral method, Spectrally accurate, Spectrally convergent

Qianlong Liu

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Particle trap to sheath contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particle trap to outer elongated conductor or sheath contact for gas-insulated transmission lines. The particle trap to outer sheath contact of the invention is applicable to gas-insulated transmission lines having either corrugated or non-corrugated outer sheaths. The contact of the invention includes an electrical contact disposed on a lever arm which in turn is rotatably disposed on the particle trap and biased in a direction to maintain contact between the electrical contact and the outer sheath.

Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

336

Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal using photovoltaic (PV) cells, light trapping and enhanced absorbance by surface plasmons have beenMetamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems

Shvets, Gennady

337

Distributed measurement of conductor temperatures in mine trailing cables using fiber-optic technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mine trailing cables operated above safe thermal limits can cause premature insulation failure, increasing electrocution and fire hazards. Previous US Bureau of Mines Pittsburgh Research Center research showed that, under static test conditions, electrical current levels permitted under present regulations may not limit cable temperatures to less than the 90 C rating of reeled trailing cable. Continuing research under the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) addresses thermal characteristics of reeled trailing cable under dynamic test conditions more representative of field conditions, where operators constantly reel in and pay out cable. This research is in support of efforts by industry associations and the Mine Safety and Health Administration to establish safety guidelines for cyclically rated reeled machines. This paper describes a unique approach to measuring temperatures within reeled cable under dynamic test conditions. Fiber-optic sensors embedded within the metallic conductors measure temperatures at 1-m intervals along the entire length of cable. Temperature measurements are reported to be accurate to within {+-}1 C. The test setup requires access to only one end of the trailing cable, allowing researchers to freely reel in and pay out cable while temperature measurements are made, simulating field conditions. Manufacture of a fiber-optic-embedded trailing cable is described, along with initial test results that indicate the fiber-optic approach is viable.

Dubaniewicz, T.H. Jr.; Kovalchik, P.G.; Scott, L.W. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Research Lab.] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Research Lab.; Fuller, M.A. [AmerCable, Sewickley, PA (United States)] [AmerCable, Sewickley, PA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connectors and methods of connecting electrical conductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connection comprises an insulated, sheathed instrument lead having electrical conductors extending from one end thereof to provide two exposed lead wires, a watertight cable having electrical conducting wires therein and extending from one end of the cable to provide two lead wires therefrom, two butt splice connectors each connecting the ends of respective ones of the lead wires from the instrument lead and cable, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing positioned over each butt splice connector and an adjacent portion of a respective lead wire from the cable and heat shrunk into position, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing on the end portion of the instrument lead adjacent the lead wires therefrom and heat shrunk thereon and a length of outer heat shrinkable plastic tubing extending over the end portion of the instrument lead and the heat shrinkable tubing thereon and over the butt splice connectors and a portion of the cable adjacent the cable lead lines, the outer heat shrinkable tubing being heat shrunk into sealing position on the instrument lead and cable.

Powell, J.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Opening the `black box' of simulations: increased transparency and effective communication through the systematic design of experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many still view simulation models as a black box. This paper argues that perceptions could change if the systematic design of experiments (DOE) for simulation research was fully realized. DOE can increase (1) the transparency of simulation model behavior ... Keywords: Communication, Design of experiments, Simulation, Standards, Transparency

Iris Lorscheid; Bernd-Oliver Heine; Matthias Meyer

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Fabrication of nano-hole array patterns on transparent conducting oxide layer using thermally curable nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, periodic array of nano-sized holes was fabricated in an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, deposited onto a glass substrate with nanoimprint lithography. As a result of a thermally curing imprint process, hole array patterns with a diameter ... Keywords: Indium tin oxide (ITO), Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), Patterned transparent electrode, Photonic crystals, Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer

Kyeong-Jae Byeon; Seon-Yong Hwang; Heon Lee

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Market Transparency and Forward Contracts: an Application to the Wholesale Market for Natural Gas ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a n-firm oligopoly model of strategic behavior in forward and spot markets that incorporates explicitly (i) firm heterogeneity in costs and in aversion to risk, and (ii) the extent to which the forward market is transparent. We show that the equilibrium hedge ratio of a firm is independent of the demand intercept parameter and of the marginal cost of the firm, increases as the firm becomes more risk-averse and as demand volatility goes up, while it decreases as the rival firms become more risk-averse. Moreover, the hedge ratio of a firm decreases as the forward market becomes more transparent and increases as the number of competitors goes up. Using data from the Dutch wholesale market for natural gas where we observe the number of players, spot and forward sales, churn rates and spot prices, we find evidence that strategic reasons play an important role at explaining the observed firms ’ inverse hedge ratios. In order to assess how transparent the market really is, we estimate the model structurally. According to our estimates, the Dutch market for forward natural gas contracts appears to be quite transparent,

Remco Eijkel; José L. Moraga-gonzález

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Information strategies for open government: challenges and prospects for deriving public value from government transparency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information-based strategies to promote open government offer many opportunities to generate social and economic value through public use of government information. Public and political expectations for the success of these strategies are high but they ... Keywords: government information strategies, open government, public value, transparency

Sharon S. Dawes; Natalie Helbig

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Point defects and transport mechanisms in transparent conducting oxides of intermediate conductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and indium-tin oxide (ITO), would enable all-oxide and all-transparent electronics and optoelectronics [3-type TCO with properties (especially mobility) comparable to the best n-type TCOs, such as tin oxide Renewable Energy Laboratory. References [1] H. Kawazoe, M. Yasukawa, H. Hyodo, M. Kurita, H. Yanagi, H

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

344

Highly ordered TiO2 macropore arrays as transparent photocatalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly ordered transparent TiO2 macropore arrays were synthesized via a simple glass-clamping method at room temperature. The as-synthesized TiO2 macropore arrays show high transmittance in the visible light region and can be used ...

Yuan Dong; Junfeng Chao; Zhong Xie; Xin Xu; Zhuoran Wang; Di Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of these highly conducting and transparent electrodes in flexible, stretchable, foldable electronics8,9 . Graphene growth provides high-quality multilayer graphene samples interacting strongly with their substrates method to grow and transfer high-quality stretchable graphene films on a large scale using CVD on nickel

Kim, Philip

346

Systems for sustainability and transparency of food supply chains - Current status and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after several food incidents and scandals that have taken place in the past. Consumers increasingly wish to be informed about the safety of their food, its origin, and the ... Keywords: Food supply chain, Sustainability, Traceability, Transparency, e-Communication

P. M. (Nel) Wognum; Harry Bremmers; Jacques H. Trienekens; Jack G. A. J. van der Vorst; Jacqueline M. Bloemhof

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Statistical multiplexing of data and encoded voice in a transparent intelligent network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes the work done thus far in the development of a means of statistically multiplexing data and encoded voice in a transparent and intelligent network called TI-NET. A review of previous work in packetized voice transmission in a conventional ...

M. E. Ulug; J. G. Gruber

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

E-governance in trade facilitation: transparency and ICT as prerequisites for free and fair trade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trade facilitation is a generic term applied to the procedures and technologies used to integrate domestic trade into global supply chains. While there are other aspects to trade facilitation, ICT is becoming progressively more important. The objective ... Keywords: customs, data standards, e-governance, interconnection, interoperability, single window, supply chain security, technical controls, trade, transparency

Paul Kimberley

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

TRANSPARENCY: Tracking Uranium under the U.S. / Russian HEU Purchase Agreement  

SciTech Connect

By the end of August, 2005, the Russia Federation delivered to the United States (U.S.) more than 7,000 metric tons (MT) of low enriched uranium (LEU) containing approximately 46 million SWU and 75,000 MT of natural uranium. This uranium was blended down from weapons-grade (nominally enriched to 90% {sup 235}U) highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement that provides for the blend down of 500 MT HEU into LEU for use as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Transparency Program, under the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), monitored the conversion and blending of the more than 250 MT HEU used to produce this LEU. The HEU represents more than half of the 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the elimination of more than 10,000 nuclear devices. The HEU Transparency Program has made considerable progress in its mission to develop and implement transparency measures necessary to assure that Russian HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons is blended down into LEU for delivery to the United States. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of in process containers, observation of plant operations, nondestructive assay measurements to determine {sup 235}U enrichment, as well as the examination of Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) documents. During 2005, HEU Transparency Program personnel will conduct 24 Special Monitoring Visits (SMVs) to four Russian uranium processing plants, in addition to staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) at one Russian site.

Benton, J B; Decman, D J; Leich, D A

2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

350

Health and safety considerations for U. S. monitors in the Russian transparency program.  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 the US and the Russian Federation signed an agreement allowing the US to purchase highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia over a 20-year period. This Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement permits the purchase of 500 metric tons of HEU from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons in the form of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for use as power reactor fuel in the US. Under the HEU Agreement, the US and Russia are cooperating in a ''Transparency Program'' to ensure that arms control and nonproliferation objectives are being met. The Transparency Program measures, which are a departure from traditional, intrusive measures of verification, include sending individuals from the US to Russia to monitor the processing of the HEU.

Boggs, C. J.

1998-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

351

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis argues that session-layer services for enhancing functionality and improving network performance are gaining in importance in the Internet; examples include connection multiplexing, congestion state sharing, application-level routing, mobility/migration support, encryption, and so on. To facilitate the development of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services to be developed using a high-level flow-based abstraction (rather than sockets), enables them to be deployed transparently using dynamic library interposition, and enables them to be composed by chaining event handlers in a graph structure. We show how Tesla can be used to design several interesting sessionlayer services including encryption, SOCKS and application-controlled routing, flow migration, and traffic rate shaping, all with acceptably low performance degradation.

Jonathan Michael Salz

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Application of Combinatorial Tools for Solar Cell Improvement -- New High Performance Transparent Conducting Oxides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) can serve a variety of important functions in thin film photovoltaics such as transparent electrical contacts, antireflection coatings and chemical barriers. Two areas of particular interest are TCOs that can be deposited at low temperatures and TCOs with high carrier mobilities. We have employed combinatorial high-throughput approaches to investigate both these areas. Conductivities of s = 2500 W-1-cm-1 have been obtained for In-Zn-O (IZO) films deposited at 100 C and s > 5000 W-1-cm-1 for In-Ti-O (ITiO) and In-Mo-O (IMO) films deposited at 550 C. The highest mobility obtained was 83 cm2/V-sec for ITiO deposited at 550 C.

Perkins, J.; Taylor, M.; van Hest, M.; Teplin, C.; Alleman, J.; Dabney, M.; Gedvilas, L.; Keyes, B.; To, B.; Delahoy, A.; Guo, S.; Readey, D.; Ginley, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Development of transparent silica aerogel over a wide range of densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have succeeded in developing hydrophobic silica aerogels over a wide range of densities (i.e. refractive indices). A pinhole drying method was invented to make possible producing highly transparent aerogels with entirely new region of refractive indices of 1.06-1.26. Obtained aerogels are more transparent than conventional ones, and the refractive index is well controlled in the pinhole drying process. A test beam experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the pinhole-dried aerogels as a Cherenkov radiator. A clear Cherenkov ring was successfully observed by a ring imaging Cherenkov counter. We also developed monolithic and hydrophobic aerogels with a density of 0.01 g/cm^3 (a low refractive index of 1.0026) as a cosmic dust capturer for the first time. Consequently, aerogels with any refractive indices between 1.0026 and 1.26 can be produced freely.

Makoto Tabata; Ichiro Adachi; Yoshikazu Ishii; Hideyuki Kawai; Takayuki Sumiyoshi; Hiroshi Yokogawa

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

354

Development of transparent silica aerogel over a wide range of densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have succeeded in developing hydrophobic silica aerogels over a wide range of densities (i.e. refractive indices). A pinhole drying method was invented to make possible producing highly transparent aerogels with entirely new region of refractive indices of 1.06-1.26. Obtained aerogels are more transparent than conventional ones, and the refractive index is well controlled in the pinhole drying process. A test beam experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the pinhole-dried aerogels as a Cherenkov radiator. A clear Cherenkov ring was successfully observed by a ring imaging Cherenkov counter. We also developed monolithic and hydrophobic aerogels with a density of 0.01 g/cm^3 (a low refractive index of 1.0026) as a cosmic dust capturer for the first time. Consequently, aerogels with any refractive indices between 1.0026 and 1.26 can be produced freely.

Tabata, Makoto; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Hideyuki; Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Yokogawa, Hiroshi; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.241

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Implementation of U.S. transparency monitoring under the U.S./Russian HEU purchase agreement  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years US monitoring at Russian nuclear facilities, subject to the HEU Purchase Agreement, has evolved as MINATOM and DOE negotiators worked to improve transparency rights and as additional Russian facilities began processing HEU. The number of Russian nuclear facilities subject to US monitoring has increased from two in 1996 to the current four. In that time, physical monitoring, which only permitted visual inspections and access to process forms is being supplemented by instrumentation which detects U-235 enrichment of material in containers and instrumentation which is used to confirm that blending of HEU into LEU at the blending facilities is taking place. This paper summarizes the US HEU Transparency monitoring activities performed in Russian facilities. It then summarizes the process used to certify the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) that is currently in use at one of these facilities.

Benton, J B; Glaser, J W; Mastal, E F

1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

356

DC sputtered indium-tin oxide transparent cathode for organic light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—The performance of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes depends not just on the choice of the transparent cathodes but also on their techniques of formation. Compared to the damage induced by radio frequency sputtering of indium-tin oxide cathode, that induced by dc sputtering was verified to be less severe and relatively independent of the sputtering power. Consequently, a high dc sputtering power of 120 W could be employed to achieve a high deposition rate of 0.1 nm/s. Adequate emission efficiency was maintained, even with a relatively thin 7-nm copper (II) phthalocyanine buffer layer. Index Terms—Indium-tin oxide, organic light-emitting diodes, sputtering, top-emission, transparent cathode. I.

Haiying Chen; Chengfeng Qiu; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Transparent p-ZnO by oxidation of Zn-based compounds  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of ZnO:N by thermal oxidation of Zn-based compounds. In particular, we achieved p-type conductivity with carrier concentration in mid 1017 cm-3 range and mobility of {approx}10 cm2/Vs using sputter-deposited zinc nitride as starting material. The transmittance of p-ZnO:N in the whole visible spectrum is 70-80% making it very interesting for transparent electronics.

Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Kowalczyk, E. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kossut, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); ERATO Semiconductor Spintronics (Poland); Przezdziecka, E.; Dobrowolski, W.; Dynowska, E.; Butkute, R.; Jakiela, R.; Aleszkiewicz, M.; Janik, E. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Barcz, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw, (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Demand Component of Electric Service: Linkages to Service Reliability and Need for Transparency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This white paper distinguishes the demand component of electric service (measured in kilowatts)distinct from the energy component (measured in kilowatthours)and emphasizes the need for power demand cost transparency. Customers' experience with electric service reliability is described in terms of continuity of electric service, availability of service, and restoration time after service interruption. The paper discusses the connection between power demand and electric service reliability, as experienced ...

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

359

Color transparency after the NE18 and E665 experiments: Outllok and perspectives at CEBAF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEBAF is a high-luminocity factory of virtual photons with variable virtuality $Q^{2}$ and transverse size. This makes CEBAF, in particular after the energy upgrade to (8-12)GeV, an ideal facility for uncovering new phenomena, and opening new windows, at the interface of the perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. We discuss color transparency as the case for a broad program on electroproduction of vector mesons $\\rho^{0},\\,\\omega^{0},\\,\\phi^{0}$ and their radial excitations $\\rho',\\,\\omega',\\,\\phi'$ at CEBAF. We also comment on the second generation of experiments on color transparency in $^{4}He(e,e'p)$ scattering, which are also feasible at CEBAF. In 1994, we can make more reliable projections into future because our understanding of the onset of color transparency has greatly been augmented by two experiments completed in 1993:\\\\ i) no effect of CT was seen in the SLAC NE18 experiment on $A(e,e'p)$ scattering at virtualities of the exchanged photon $Q^{2} \\lsim 7$ GeV$^{2}$, \\\\ ii) strong signal of CT was observed in the FNAL E665 experiment on exclusive $\\rho^{0}$- meson production in deep inelastic scattering in the same range of $Q^{2}$. \\\\ We discuss the impact of these observations on the CEBAF experimental program. We argue they both are good news, both were anticipated theoretically, and both rule in the correct QCD mechanism of the onset of CT.

J. Nemchik; N. N. Nikolaev; B. G. Zakharov

1994-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

360

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium-free transparent conducting oxides may provide a lower cost solution for the transparent anode in flexible displays and energy efficient solid state lighting. We report herein a near room temperature sputtering process for generating an indium-free transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coating on a flexible substrate. Specifically, we deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) uniformly over a 12” diameter area at room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). During deposition, the system heats to about 60oC due to the energetic sputtering conditions, without any noticeable damage to the PET substrate. The GZO films exhibit excellent physical, optical and electrical properties: roughness ~7 nm, transmittance >85% and resistivity ~ 10-3 ohm• cm. Phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated on these substrates with comparable performance (16% external quantum efficiency and 33 lm/W power efficiency at 1mA/cm2) to that of devices fabricated on GZO (or ITO) deposited on glass substrates, suggesting flexible GZO/PET substrates may be used instead of high-cost and rigid ITO and glass for flexible displays and solid state lighting.

Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Matson, Dean W.; Bonham, Charles C.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

3D scalar model as a 4D perfect conductor limit: Dimensional reduction and variational boundary conditions  

SciTech Connect

Under dimensional reduction, a system in D spacetime dimensions will not necessarily yield its D-1-dimensional analog version. Among other things, this result will depend on the boundary conditions and the dimension D of the system. We investigate this question for scalar and Abelian gauge fields under boundary conditions that obey the symmetries of the action. We apply our findings to the Casimir piston, an ideal system for detecting boundary effects. Our investigation is not limited to extra dimensions and we show that the original piston scenario proposed in 2004, a toy model involving a scalar field in 3D (2+1) dimensions, can be obtained via dimensional reduction from a more realistic 4D electromagnetic (EM) system. We show that for perfect conductor conditions, a D-dimensional EM field reduces to a D-1 scalar field and not its lower-dimensional version. For Dirichlet boundary conditions, no theory is recovered under dimensional reduction and the Casimir pressure goes to zero in any dimension. This ''zero Dirichlet'' result is useful for understanding the EM case. We then identify two special systems where the lower-dimensional version is recovered in any dimension: systems with perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and Neumann boundary conditions. We show that these two boundary conditions can be obtained from a variational procedure in which the action vanishes outside the bounded region. The fields are free to vary on the surface and have zero modes, which survive after dimensional reduction.

Edery, Ariel [Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Graham, Noah [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); MacDonald, Ilana [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Method for sputtering a PIN amorphous silicon semi-conductor device having partially crystallized P and N-layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency amorphous silicon PIN semiconductor device having partially crystallized (microcrystalline) P and N layers is constructed by the sequential sputtering of N, I and P layers and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode. The method of construction produces a PIN device, exhibiting enhanced electrical and optical properties, improved physical integrity, and facilitates the preparation in a singular vacuum system and vacuum pump down procedure.

Moustakas, Theodore D. (Annandale, NJ); Maruska, H. Paul (Annandale, NJ)

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

363

Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparent electrodes made from metal oxides suffer from poor flexibility and durability. Highly transparent and electrically conductive thin films based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were assembled as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The ultimate objective of this dissertation work is to produce CNT-based assemblies with sheet resistance below 100 Omega/sq and visible light transmission greater than 85 percent. The alternate deposition of positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) [PDDA] and CNTs stabilized with negatively charged deoxycholate (DOC) exhibit linear film growth and thin film properties can be precisely tuned. Ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and UV-vis were used to measure the growth of these films as a function of PDDA-CNT bilayers deposited, while TEM, SEM, and AFM were used to visualize the nanostructure of these films. Following a literature review describing potential ITO substitutes and LbL technology, the influence of CNT type on optoelectronic performance of LbL assemblies is described. Three different types of nanotubes were investigated: (1) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), (2) few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNT), and (3) purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs produced the most transparent (>85 percent visible light transmittance) and electrically conductive (148 S/cm, 1.62 kOmega/sq) 20-bilayer films with a 41.6 nm thickness, while MWNT-based films are much thicker and more opaque. A 20-bilayer PDDA/(MWNT DOC) film is approximately 103 nm thick, with a conductivity of 36 S/cm and a transmittance of 30 percent. In an effort to improve both transparency and electrical conductivity, heat and acid treatments were studied. Heating films to 300 degree C reduced sheet resistance to 701 Omega/sq (618 S/cm conductivity, 38.4 nm thickness), with no change in transparency, owing to the removal of insulating component in the film. Despite improving conductivity, heating is not compatible with most plastic substrates, so acid doping was investigated as an alternate means to enhance properties. Exposing SWNT-based assemblies to HNO3 vapor reduced sheet resistance of a 10 BL film to 227 Omega/sq. Replacing SWNTs with double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) provided further reduction in sheet resistance due to the greater metallic of DWNT. A 5 BL DWNT film exhibited the lowest 104 Omega/sq sheet resistance (4200 S/cm conductivity, 22.9 nm thickness) with 84 percent transmittance after nitric acid treatment. DWNT-based assemblies maintained their low sheet resistance after repeated bending and also showed electrochemical stability relative to ITO. This work demonstrates the excellent optoelectronic performance, mechanical flexibility, and electrochemical stability of CNT-based assemblies, which are potentially useful as flexible transparent electrodes for a variety of flexible electronics.

Park, Yong Tae

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

HEU Transparency Program: Monitoring at the U.S. Permanent Presence Office in Russia  

SciTech Connect

In February 1993, the US and the Russian Federation signed an agreement that allows the US to purchase 500 tonnes of Russian low-enriched uranium (LEU) that has been blended down from the high-enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons. The agreement calls for the HEU to be blended down to LEU at Russian facilities and then shipped to the United states to be used for making commercial reactor fuel. This HEU Agreement was crafted to avoid the rigid verification procedures of previous arms control and nonproliferation treaties. In the United States, it is being implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the HEU Transparency Program. Transparency refers to agreed-upon measures intended to build confidence that the objectives of the HEU Agreement are being met. The objectives of the HEU Transparency Program are to ensure that (a) the HEU subject to the agreement is extracted from Russian nuclear weapons; (b) this same extracted HEU enters an oxidation facility and is oxidized therein; (c) the declared quantity of HEU is blended down to LEU; and (d) the LEU that is delivered to the United states, pursuant to the agreement, is fabricated into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Agreement gives Russian monitors access to the US Enrichment Corporation's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio, and to the five US fuel fabrication facilities receiving the Russian uranium. In turn, US monitors have access to the four principal Russian plants that convert HEU to LEU. Currently, monitoring at three Russian facilities--the Mayak Production Association near Ozersk, Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE) near Tomsk, and Electrochemical Integrated Plant (ECP) near Zelenogorsk--is confined to periodic visits. However, US monitors have continuous access to the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Enterprise (UEIE) in Novouralsk through the US Permanent Presence Office (PPO) located there. This paper summarizes the monitoring activities and challenges involved in managing and coordinating the PPO.

Boggs, C.J.; Monette, F.A.; Hensley, J.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

The role of opacity and transparency in achieving strategic stability in South Asia.  

SciTech Connect

According to international relations theory, deterrence can be used as a tool to achieve stability between potentially hostile nations. India and Pakistan's long history of periodic crises raises the question of how they can achieve deterrence stability. 'Transparency' describes the flow of information between parties and plays a key role in establishing a deterrence relationship. This paper studies the balance needed between opacity and transparency in nuclear topics for the maintenance of deterrence stability between India and Pakistan. States with nuclear weapons are postulated to implement transparency in four categories: potential, capability, intent, and resolve. The study applies these categories to the nuclear components of the ongoing India-Pakistan Composite Dialogue Working Group for Peace and Security including CBMs. To focus our efforts, we defined four scenarios to characterize representative strategic/military/political conditions. The scenarios are combinations of these two sets of opposite poles: competition - cooperation; extremism - moderation (to be understood primarily in a religious/nationalistic sense). We describe each scenario in terms of select focal areas (nuclear doctrine, nuclear command and control, nuclear stockpile, nuclear delivery/defensive systems, and conventional force posture). The scenarios help frame the realm of possibilities, and have been described in terms of expected conditions for the focal areas. We then use the conditions in each scenario to prescribe a range of information-sharing actions that the two countries could take to increase stability. We also highlight the information that should not be shared. These actions can be political (e.g., declarations), procedural (e.g., advance notice of certain military activities), or technologically based (e.g., seismic monitoring of the nuclear test moratorium).

Rajain, Arpit (New Delhi, India); Ashraf, Tariq Mahmud (Islamabad, Pakistan)

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Thin, X-ray-Transparent Windows for Imaging Applications with a Pneumatically Pressurized Enclosure  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 10 bar. The windows allow for x-ray access to fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions. The design of the window system and its experimental test results are presented in this paper, as well as its further development for in situ x-ray imaging applications in a high-pressure and high-temperature environment.

Shu Deming; Wang Jin; Preissner, Curt [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

367

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

368

Transparent Conductive Coating Based on Carbon Nanotubes Using Electric Field Deposition Method  

SciTech Connect

The transparent conductive coating based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) had been fabricated using the electric field deposition method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show a quite uniform CNTs on Corning glass substrates. Moreover the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results shows the peak at around 25 deg. which proves the existence of CNT materials. The CNT thin films obtained with different deposition times have different transmittance coefficients at wavelength of 550 nm. I-V measurement results shows higher sheet resistance value which relates with bigger transmittance coefficients and vice versa.

Latununuwe, Altje [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia); Department of Physics Education, Pattimura University, Jl. Ir.M.Putuhena Poka Ambon (Indonesia); Hattu, Nikmans [Chemistry Deparment, Pattimura University, Jl. Ir.M.Putuhena Poka Ambon (Indonesia); Setiawan, Andhy [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia); Physics Department, Indonesia University of Education (UPI) Jl.Dr.Setiabudi No. 229, Bandung (Indonesia); Winata, Toto; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Darma, Yudi [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

369

MetaVM: A Transparent Distributed Object System Supported by Runtime Compiler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MetaVM is a distributed object system for Java virtual machine. It allows programmers to deal with remote objects in the same way they do local objects. Therefore, it can provide a single machine image to programmers. We implemented a runtime compiler of Java bytecode to provide the facilities. The runtime compiler generates a native code which can handle remote objects beyond the network besides the local objects. The compiler uses semantic expansion, which is a technique that changes the original semantics of a Java bytecode. Keywords: distributed object system, network transparency, Java Just-In-Time compiler 1

Kazuyuki Shudo Yoichi; Yoichi Muraoka

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Theory of Thermal Motion in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Diffusion, Doppler, Dicke and Ramsey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical model for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in vapor, that incorporates atomic motion and velocity-changing collisions into the dynamics of the density-matrix distribution. Within a unified formalism we demonstrate various motional effects, known for EIT in vapor: Doppler-broadening of the absorption spectrum; Dicke-narrowing and time-of-flight broadening of the transmission window for a finite-sized probe; Diffusion of atomic coherence during storage of light and diffusion of the light-matter excitation during slow-light propagation; and Ramsey-narrowing of the spectrum for a probe and pump beams of finite-size.

Firstenberg, O; Pugatch, R; Fredkin, D R; Davidson, N; Ron, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Theory of Thermal Motion in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency: Diffusion, Doppler, Dicke and Ramsey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical model for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in vapor, that incorporates atomic motion and velocity-changing collisions into the dynamics of the density-matrix distribution. Within a unified formalism we demonstrate various motional effects, known for EIT in vapor: Doppler-broadening of the absorption spectrum; Dicke-narrowing and time-of-flight broadening of the transmission window for a finite-sized probe; Diffusion of atomic coherence during storage of light and diffusion of the light-matter excitation during slow-light propagation; and Ramsey-narrowing of the spectrum for a probe and pump beams of finite-size.

O. Firstenberg; M. Shuker; R. Pugatch; D. R. Fredkin; N. Davidson; A. Ron

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

372

Slow light of an amplitude modulated Gaussian pulse in electromagnetically induced transparency medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The slow light effects of an amplitude modulated Gaussian (AMG) pulse in a cesium atomic vapor are presented. In a single-$\\Lambda$ type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium, more severe distortion is observed for an AMG pulse than a Gaussian one. Using Fourier spectrum analysis, we find that the distortion, as well as the loss, is dominantly caused by linear absorption than dispersion. Accordingly, a compensation method is proposed to reshape the slow light pulse based on the transmission spectrum. In addition, we find a novel way to obtain simultaneous slow and fast light.

Wenzhuo Tang; Bin Luo; Yu Liu; Hong Guo

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

373

Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Improved Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Final Research Report, 1 May 1999--31 December 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This subcontract focused on next-generation transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for improved PV performance. More specifically, there were two research foci: (1) improved Sn-based, n-type TCOs aimed at enhanced CdTe PV cell performance, and (2) novel Cu-based, p-type TCOs applicable to a variety of PV designs. The objective of the research under this subcontract was to identify, explore, evaluate, and develop future generations of photovoltaic technologies that can meet the long-term goal of producing low-cost electricity from sunlight.

Mason, T. O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Marks, T. J.; Poeppelmeier, K. R.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Intra- and inter-grain currents in coated conductors with arbitrary grain boundary properties from magnetic measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generalized methodology is described for determining both the intragranular and through-grain-boundary critical current densities in practical coated conductors from contact-free magnetic hysteresis measurements. The model incorporates the vector nature of current density J within the superconducting grains and current conservation with respect to the grain boundaries. Using physically observed values for the grain aspect ratio as input, the analysis yields the low-field intragranular critical current density J{sub c}{sup G} from a single field-dependent measurement of the global J{sub c} and provides a consistent description that spans the entire range from the weak-link (J{sub c}/J{sub c}{sup G}) to the single-grain (J{sub c}/J{sub c}{sup G} {yields} 1) limit. Results are given for ex situ processed RBCO coatings on RABiTS.

Feenstra, Roeland [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Portable NDA equipment for enrichment measurements for the HEU transparency program  

SciTech Connect

In October 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) and MINATOM agreed to use portable non-destructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the HEU Transparency agreement. A system based on the ''enrichment meter'' method and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors had been previously developed for this application. Instead, sodium iodide (NaI) detectors were chosen to measure {sup 235}U enrichment because HPGe systems might reveal sensitive information. Although the accuracy of the NaI systems is less than an HPGe system, it still satisfies the transparency requirements. The equipment consists of a collimated NaI detector, a Canberra Inspector Multi-channel Analyzer, and a laptop computer. The units have been used to confirm the enrichment of material at Russian facilities since January 1997. This paper compares the performance of the NaI systems with the HPGe system and discusses some significant differences.

Decman, D J; Glaser, J; Hernandez, J M; Luke, S J

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

377

Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

Blengini, Gian Andrea, E-mail: blengini@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); CNR-IGAG - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo-Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fantoni, Moris, E-mail: moris.fantoni@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Busto, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.busto@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Genon, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.genon@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Zanetti, Maria Chiara, E-mail: mariachiara.zanetti@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

U.S. Transparency monitoring under the U.S./Russian HEU purchase agreement  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) metal to low enriched uranium (LEU) takes place at four Russian sites. HEU metal to oxide processing began in 1994 with shipments of HEU oxide from the Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE) to the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) fluorination and blending facility. U.S. transparency monitoring at these facilities began in February 1996. In 1996, fluorination and blending operations began at the Electrochemical Plant (ECP). In 1997, additional HEU metal to oxide was added at the Mayak Production Association (MPA), and additional fluorination and blending operations have been performed at SChE. U.S. transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU weapons components are received, that the HEU metal is converted to HEU oxide, and that the HEU is blended to LEU prior to shipment to the U.S. Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The monitoring begins with observation of HEU weapon components in sealed containers, including confirmation of the {sup 235}U enrichment using U.S. nondestructive assay (NDA) equipment. The feeding of HEU metal shavings to the oxidation process and the subsequent packaging of the HEU oxide for shipment to the fluorination and blending facilities are then monitored. At those facilities, monitors are allowed to witness the fluorination and blending of the HEU into LEU. Monitors are allowed to use the NDA instrumentation to confirm that HEU is being processed. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to U.S. monitors.

Benton, J; Dougherth, D R; Glaser, J W; Thomas, D C

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

379

Incorporation of a risk analysis approach for the nuclear fuel cycle advanced transparency framework.  

SciTech Connect

Proliferation resistance features that reduce the likelihood of diversion of nuclear materials from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. A framework that monitors process information continuously can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation by measuring and reducing diversion risk, thus ensuring the legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation makes this possible by generating instantaneous system state data that can be used to track and measure the status of the process and material at any given time. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are working in cooperation to develop an advanced transparency framework capable of assessing diversion risk in support of overall plant transparency. The ''diversion risk'' quantifies the probability and consequence of a host nation diverting nuclear materials from a civilian fuel cycle facility. This document introduces the details of the diversion risk quantification approach to be demonstrated in the fuel handling training model of the MONJU Fast Reactor.

Mendez, Carmen Margarita (Sociotecnia Solutions, LLC); York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko (Japan Atomic Energy Agency); Kitabata, Takuya (Japan Atomic Energy Agency); Vugrin, Eric D.; Vugrin, Kay White; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Report to Congress on the Use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant to Develop and Demonstrate Transparency Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the the Use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant to Develop and Demonstrate Transparency Technologies Introduction This report describes the Department of Energy's plan for evaluating the use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository system to develop transparency technologies. This report fulfills the requirement of Senate Report 106-50 on the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 for the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a plan to establish a nuclear waste disposal demonstration test bed facility. Congressional Request In Report 106-50 the Senate Armed Services Committee directed DOE to develop a plan to establish a demonstration and training program using the WIPP repository system as a test bed facility to develop transparent monitoring technologies for waste storage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Aggregation Kinetics of Metal Chalcogenide Nanocrystals: Generation of Transparent CdSe(ZnS) Core(Shell) Gels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent CdSe (ZnS) core (shell) sol–gel materials have potential uses in optoelectronic applications such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) due to their strong luminescence properties and the potential for charge transport through the prewired nanocrystal (NC) network of the gel. However, typical syntheses of metal chalcogenide gels yield materials with poor transparency. In this work, the mechanism and kinetics of aggregation of two sizes of CdSe (ZnS) core (shell) NCs, initiated by removal of surface thiolate ligands using tetranitromethane (TNM) as an oxidant, were studied by means of time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TRDLS); the characteristics of the resultant gels were probed by optical absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). At low concentrations of NCs (ca. 4 × 10{sup –7} M), the smaller, green-emitting NCs aggregate faster than the larger, orange-emitting NCs, for a specific oxidant concentration. The kinetics of aggregation have a significant impact on the macroscopic properties (i.e., transparency) of the resultant gels, with the transparency of the gels decreasing with the increase of oxidant concentration due the formation of larger clusters at the gel point and a shift away from a reaction-limited cluster-aggregation (RLCA) mechanism. This is further confirmed by analyses of the gel structures by SAXS and TEM. Likewise, the larger orange-emitting particles also produce larger aggregates at the gel point, leading to lower transparency. The ability to control the transparency of chalcogenide gels will enable their properties to be tuned in order to address application-specific needs in optoelectronics.

Korala, Lasantha; Brock, Stephanie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the re quest, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

Moore, Reagan W. (San Diego, CA); Rajasekar, Arcot (Del Mar, CA); Wan, Michael Y. (San Diego, CA)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

383

Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Transparent Parallel Image Processing by way of a Familiar Sequential API  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an infrastructure that enables transparent development of image processing software for parallel computers. The infrastructure's main component is an image processing library containing operations capable of running on distributed memory MIMD-style parallel hardware. Since the library has a programming interface identical to that of a familiar sequential image processing library, the parallelism is completely hidden from the user. All library functions are based on an abstract parallel image processing machine (APIPM), introduced in this paper. To guide the process of automatic parallelization and optimization, a performance model is defined for operations implemented using APIPM instructions. Experiments show that for realistic image operations performance predictions are highly accurate. These results suggest that the infrastructure 's core forms a powerful basis for automatic parallelization and optimization of complete applications.

Seinstra And Koelma; F. J. Seinstra; D. Koelma

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Coordination Between the HEU Transparency Program and the Material Protection, Control and Accountability Program  

SciTech Connect

DOE sponsored programs such as Material Protection Control and Accountability (MPC&A) and implementation of the Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program send US personnel into Russian nuclear facilities and receive Russian representatives from these programs. While there is overlap in the Russian nuclear facilities visited by these two programs, there had not been any formal mechanism to share information between them. Recently, an MPC&A/HEU Working Group was developed to facilitate the sharing of appropriate information and to address concerns expressed by Minatom and Russian facility personnel such as US visit scheduling conflicts. This paper discusses the goals of the Working Group and ways it has helped to allow the programs to work more efficiently with the Russian facilities.

Glaser, J.; Hernandez, J.; Dougherty, D.; Bieniawski, A.; Cahalane, P.; Mastal, E.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

What's mine is mine; what's yours is mine: private ownership of ICTs as a threat to transparency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the face of ubiquitous information communication technology, the presence of blogs, personal websites, and public message boards give the illusion of uncensored criticism and discussion of the ethical implications of business activities. However, ... Keywords: Internet access, Privatization, Public trust, Transparency

Ronnie Cohen; Janine S. Hiller

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Performance Evaluation of K-DEMO Cable-in-conduit Conductors Using the Florida Electro-Mechanical Cable Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for design of the Toroidal Field (TF) insert coil, which will allow validation of the performance of significant lengths of the conductors to be used in the full scale TF coils in relevant conditions of field, current density and mechanical strain. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) will build the TF insert which will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test facility at JAEA, Naka, Japan. Three dimensional mathematical model of TF Insert was created based on the initial design geometry data, and included the following features: orthotropic material properties of superconductor material and insulation; external magnetic field from CSMC, temperature dependent properties of the materials; pre-compression and plastic deformation in lap joint. Major geometrical characteristics of the design were preserved including cable jacket and insulation shape, mandrel outline, and support clamps and spacers. The model is capable of performing coupled structural, thermal, and electromagnetic analysis using ANSYS. Numerical simulations were performed for room temperature conditions; cool down to 4K, and the operating regime with 68kA current at 11.8 Tesla background field. Numerical simulations led to the final design of the coil producing the required strain levels on the cable, while simultaneously satisfying the ITER magnet structural design criteria.

Zhai, Yuhu

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

Magnetic field and field orientation dependence of the critical current density in Bi-2212 round wires and other HTS conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have performed measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J{sub c} of Bi-2212/Ag round wire produced by isothermal melt processing. In contrast to the case for flat tape, there is very little dependence of J{sub c} on the direction of the magnetic field as it is rotated normal to the wire axis, which is the direction of the nominal current flow. However, when the angle of the magnetic field direction is rotated from normal to the wire axis to parallel to that axis, J{sub c} at 64 K and 0.2 T increases by more than a factor of four. Again, this is in contrast to the results observed for Bi-2212/Ag and Bi-2223/Ag flat tapes, which show no anisotropy under similar experimental conditions. They can explain these differences in angular anisotropy by referring to the microstructure of these two conductor types, which have distinctly different types of grain alignment. They discuss the general behavior of the dependence of J{sub c} on the orientation of a magnetic field for high temperature superconductors.

Willis, J.O.; Holesinger, T.G.; Coulter, J.Y.; Maley, M.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Superconductivity Technology Center

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Excitation of surface plasma waves by a density modulated electron beam at a conductor-dusty plasma interface  

SciTech Connect

A density modulated electron beam propagating through a conductor-dusty plasma interface drives electromagnetic surface plasma waves (SPWs) to instability via Cerenkov and cyclotron interaction. The SPWs propagate across an external magnetic field parallel to the interface. Numerical calculations of the growth rate and unstable mode frequencies have been carried out for the typical parameters of the SPWs. The frequency and the growth rate of the unstable wave instability increase with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains {delta} (= n{sub io}/n{sub eo}, where n{sub io} is the ion plasma density and n{sub eo} is the electron plasma density). The phase velocity of the unstable waves also increases with {delta}. In addition, the growth rate of the instability increases with the beam density and scales as one-third power of the beam density in Cerenkov interaction and square root of beam density in fast cyclotron interaction. Moreover, the dispersion relation of SPWs has been retrieved in the absence of the modulated beam and without dust grains.

Gupta, Ruby [Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi, Alipur, Delhi-110036 (India); Sharma, Suresh C. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Rohini, Delhi-110086 (India); Prakash, Ved [India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Science, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003 (India)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Improving Transparency in the Reporting of Safeguards Implementation: FY11 Update  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data and available for viewing at http://safeguardsportal.pnnl.gov.

Toomey, Christopher; Odlaug, Christopher S.; Wyse, Evan T.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

VOCL: An Optimized Environment for Transparent Virtualization of Graphics Processing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphics processing units (GPUs) have been widely used for general-purpose computation acceleration. However, current programming models such as CUDA and OpenCL can support GPUs only on the local computing node, where the application execution is tightly coupled to the physical GPU hardware. In this work, we propose a virtual OpenCL (VOCL) framework to support the transparent utilization of local or remote GPUs. This framework, based on the OpenCL programming model, exposes physical GPUs as decoupledvirtualresourcesthatcanbetransparentlymanaged independent of the application execution. The proposed framework requires no source code modifications. We also propose various strategies for reducing the overhead caused by data communication and kernel launching and demonstrate about 85 % of the data write bandwidth and 90 % of the data read bandwidth compared to data write and read, respectively, in a native nonvirtualized environment. We evaluate the performance of VOCL using four real-world applications with various computation and memory access intensities and demonstrate that compute-intensive applications can execute with negligible overhead in the VOCL environment.

Shucai Xiao; Pavan Balaji; Qian Zhu; Rajeev Thakur; Susan Coghlan; Heshan Lin; Gaojin Wen; Jue Hong; Wu-chun Feng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Structural stability of transparent conducting films assembled from length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films show significant promise for transparent electronics applications that demand mechanical flexibility, but durability remains an outstanding issue. In this work, thin membranes of length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are uniaxially and isotropically compressed by depositing them on prestrained polymer substrates. Upon release of the strain, the topography, microstructure, and conductivity of the films are characterized using a combination of optical/fluorescence microscopy, light scattering, force microscopy, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Above a critical surface mass density, films assembled from nanotubes of well-defined length exhibit a strongly nonlinear mechanical response. The measured strain dependence reveals a dramatic softening that occurs through an alignment of the SWCNTs normal to the direction of prestrain, which at small strains is also apparent as an anisotropic increase in sheet resistance along the same direction. At higher strains, the membrane conductivities increase due to a compression-induced restoration of conductive pathways. Our measurements reveal the fundamental mode of elasto-plastic deformation in these films and suggest how it might be suppressed.

J. M. Harris; G. R. S. Iyer; D. O. Simien; J. A. Fagan; J. Y. Huh; J. Y. Chung; S. D. Hudson; J. Obrzut; J. F. Douglas; C. M. Stafford; E. K. Hobbie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Designing interlayers to improve the mechanical reliability of transparent conductive oxide coatings on flexible substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we investigate the effect of interlayers on the mechanical properties of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on flexible polymer substrates. Indium tin oxide (ITO), which is the most widely used TCO film, and Ti, which is the most widely used adhesive interlayer, are selected as the coating and the interlayer, respectively. These films are deposited on the polymer substrates using dc-magnetron sputtering to achieve varying thicknesses. The changes in the following critical factors for film cracking and delamination are analyzed: the internal stress ({sigma}{sup i}) induced in the coatings during deposition using a white light interferometer, the crystallinity using a transmission electron microscope, and the surface roughness of ITO caused by the interlayer using an atomic force microscope. The resistances to the cracking and delamination of ITO are evaluated using a fragmentation test. Our tests and analyses reveal the important role of the interlayers, which significantly reduce the compressive {sigma}{sup i} that is induced in the ITO and increase the resistance to the buckling delamination of the ITO. However, the relaxation of {sigma}{sup i} is not beneficial to cracking because there is less compensation for the external tension as {sigma}{sup i} further decreases. Based on these results, the microstructural control is revealed as a more influential factor than {sigma}{sup i} for improving crack resistance.

Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Chan-Woo; Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

MetaVM: A transparent distributed object system supported by runtime compiler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract MetaVM is a distributed object system for Java virtual machine. It allows programmers to deal with remote objects in the same way they do local objects. Therefore, it can provide a single machine image to programmers. We implemented a runtime compiler of Java bytecode to provide the facilities. The runtime compiler generates a native code which can handle remote objects beyond the network besides the local objects. The compiler uses semantic expansion, which is a technique that changes the original semantics of a Java bytecode. This paper presents the simple programming interface, the code generation method of MetaVM, and our experimental performance results. The results demonstrate efficiency of remote operations. Keywords: distributed object system, network transparency, Java Just-In-Time compiler 1 Introduction A distributed object system is an instrument to develop a network distributed system in object-oriented programming languages. One of important benefits of such systems is to release programmers from the burden of exchanging information via a network. Programmers can write a distributed system in an object-oriented manner without concern for communication protocols.

Kazuyuki Shudo; Yoichi Muraoka

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fabrication of transparent [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] from nanosize particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compaction and heat-treatment behavior of nanosize [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] powder (average diameter = 20 nm) was studied. A diamond anvil high-pressure cell was used to compact the powder at pressures up to 3 GPa, both in air at room temperature and under liquid nitrogen, followed by pressureless heat treatment at 800 C. For all conditions studied, the fabricated compacts were optically transparent. X-ray diffraction confirmed retention of the [gamma]-phase. The compacts were also characterized before and after heat treatment by microhardness measurements and by transmission electron microscopy. For both ambient and cryogenic compaction, sample hardness increased with pressure, and heat treatment resulted in about a 50% increase in hardness independent of the initial green-state value. Samples compacted in LN[sub 2] were significantly harder (up to 9.6 GPa) than those compacted in air. TEM examination revealed a random-dense-packed particle structure and interconnected porosity; interstitial void dimensions, however, were always less than the average particle diameter (20 nm). Observed effects on the increase in hardness could not be explained by microstructural changes normally attributed to increased compaction pressure or heat treatment, most notably densification. Alternative explanations are proposed.

Gallas, M.R.; Hockey, B.; Pechenik, A.; Piermarini, G.J. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Heat transfer simulation and thermal measurements of microfabricated x-ray transparent heater stages  

SciTech Connect

A microfabricated amorphous silicon nitride membrane-based nanocalorimeter is proposed to be suitable for an x-ray transparent sample platform with low power heating and built-in temperature sensing. In this work, thermal characterization in both air and vacuum are analyzed experimentally and via simulation. Infrared microscopy and thermoreflectance microscopy are used for thermal imaging of the sample area in air. While a reasonably large isothermal area is found on the sample area, the temperature homogeneity of the entire sample area is low, limiting use of the device as a heater stage in air or other gases. A simulation model that includes conduction, as well as radiation and convection heat loss, is presented with radiation and convection parameters determined experimentally. Simulated temperature distributions show that the homogeneity can be improved by using a thicker thermal conduction layer or reducing the pressure of the gas in the environment but neither are good solutions for the proposed use. A new simple design that has improved temperature homogeneity and a larger isothermal area while maintaining a thin thermal conduction layer is proposed and fabricated. This new design enables applications in transmission x-ray microscopes and spectroscopy setups at atmospheric pressure.

Baldasseroni, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Queen, D. R.; Cooke, David W.; Hellman, F. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Maize, K.; Shakouri, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films prepared by pulsed plasma deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films were prepared by pulsed plasma deposition from a ceramic target (90 wt. % In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 10 wt. % ZnO). The dependences of film properties upon the substrate temperature was investigated using characterization methods including x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, Hall measurement, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The films grown at room temperature had a rather smooth surface due to the amorphous structure, with a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm. The atomic ratio of Zn/(Zn + In) in these films is 15.3 at. %, which is close to that in the target, and the chemical states of indium and zinc atoms were In{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. The films deposited on a substrate with a temperature of 200 Degree-Sign C exhibited polycrystalline structure and a preferred growth orientation along the (222) plane. Here the electrical properties were improved due to the better crystallinity, with the films exhibiting a minimum resistivity value of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm, a maximum carrier mobility of 45 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and an optical transmittance over 80% in the visible region.

Wan Runlai; Yang Ming; Zhou Qianfei; Zhang Qun [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels.

Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent and reflecting electrodes are important parts of the structure of amorphous silicon solar cells. We report improved methods for depositing zinc oxide, deposition of tin nitride as a potential reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between the a-Si and back metal electrodes. Highly conductive and transparent fluorine-doped zinc oxide was successfully produced on small areas by atmospheric pressure CVD from a less hazardous zinc precursor, zinc acetylacetonate. The optical properties measured for tin nitride showed that the back-reflection would be decreased if tin nitride were used instead of zinc oxide as a barrier layer over silver on aluminum. Niobium-doped titanium dioxide was produced with high enough electrical conductivity so that normal voltages and fill factors were obtained for a-Si cells made on it.

Gordon, R.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Nuclear correlation and finite interaction-range effects in high-energy $(e,e'p)$ nuclear transparency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear transparency is calculated for high-energy, semi-inclusive $(e,e'p)$ reactions, by accounting for all orders of Glauber multiple-scattering and by using realistic finite-range $p N$ interaction and (dynamically and statistically) correlated nuclear wave functions. The nuclear correlation effect is reduced due to the $p N$ finite-range effect. The net effect is small, and depends sensitively on details of the nuclear correlations in finite nuclei, which are poorly known at present.

Ryoichi Seki; T. D. Shoppa; Akihisa Kohama; Koichi Yazaki

1995-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

405

The “BOUSSOLE” Buoy—A New Transparent-to-Swell Taut Mooring Dedicated to Marine Optics: Design, Tests, and Performance at Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new concept of oceanographic data buoy is described, which couples a taut mooring and a “transparent-to-swell” superstructure, and is specifically designed for the collection of radiometric quantities in offshore environments. The design of the ...

David Antoine; Pierre Guevel; Jean-François Desté; Guislain Bécu; Francis Louis; Alec J. Scott; Philippe Bardey

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to improve the performance of solar cells by improving the electrical and optical properties of their transparent conducting oxides (TCO) layers. Boron-doped zinc-oxide films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition in a laminar-flow reactor from diethyl zinc, tert-butanol, and diborane in the temperature range between 300[degrees]C and 420[degrees]C. When the deposition temperature was above 320[degrees]C, both doped and undoped films have highly oriented crystallites with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate plane. Films deposited from 0.07% diethyl zinc and 2.4% tert-butanol have electron densities between 3.5 [times] 10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3] and 5.5 [times] 10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3], conductivities between 250 [Omega][sup [minus]1] and 2500 [Omega][sup [minus]1] and mobilities between 2.5 cm[sup 2]/V-s and 35.0 cm[sup 2]/V-s, depending on dopant concentration, film thickness, and deposition temperature. Optical measurements show that the maximum infrared reflectance of the doped films is close to 90%, compared to about 20% for undoped films. Film visible absorption and film conductivity were found to increase with film thickness. The ratio of conductivity to visible absorption coefficient for doped films was between 0.1 [Omega] and 1.1 [Omega][sup [minus]1]. The band gap of the film changes from 3.3 eV to 3.7 eV when the film is doped with 0.012% diborane.

Gordon, R.G. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting fluorine doped zinc oxide was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at substrate temperatures of 460 to 500 degrees C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. This solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 degrees C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and these vapors were then mixed to form a homogeneous vapor mixture. Good reproducibility was achieved using this new CVD method. Uniform thicknesses were obtained by moving the heated glass substrates through the deposition zone. The best electrically and optical properties were obtained when the precursor solution was aged for more than a week before use. The films were polycrystalline and highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. More than 90% of the incorporated fluorine atoms were electrically active as n-type dopants. The electrical resistivity of the films was as low as 5 x 10/sup -4/ Omega cm. The mobility was about 45 cm ²/Vs. The electron concentration was up to 3 x 10 %sup20;/cm³. The optical absorption of the films was about 3-4% at a sheet resistance of 7 ohms/square. The diffuse transmittance was about 10% at a wavelength of 650 nm. Amorphous ilicon solar cells were deposited using the textured fluorine doped zinc oxide films as a front electrode. The short circuit current was increased over similar cells made with fluorine doped tin oxide, but the open circuit voltages and fill factors were reduced. The voltage was restored by overcoating the fluorine-doped zinc oxide with a thin layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide.

Gordon, R.G.; Kramer, K.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Teff, D.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric current gain obtained from higher built-in electric field. Light trapping schemes can increase the effective optical absorption length and thus enhance the electric current for thinner solar cells. Here a new light trapping scheme based on light trapping transparent conducting oxide layer (LT-TCO) is proposed to enhance the performance of thin film solar cells. Three different configurations of integrating the LT-TCO layer in solar cells are proposed and evaluated. This research aims to develop the LT-TCO layer with surface texture and good conductivity by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique at low temperature. The LT-TCO layer is fabricated by PLD deposition of Al-doped ZnO to achieve multilayer films by tuning of oxygen pressure. The light trapping effect is examined by optical transmittance measurement and the surface texture is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The conductivity of LT-TCO layer is measured by resistivity measurement. Thin film CdTe/CdS solar cells are fabricated by PLD technique to develop baseline solar cells for integration of LT-TCO layer. The as-deposited thin film solar cells show relatively low performance and are further processed with various post-deposition treatments to seek efficiency enhancement. The effects of different processes on cell performance are examined by electrical, optical, and microstructure studies. Air annealing of CdS layer and CdCl2 treatment of CdTe layer combined are found to yield the best cell performance. The fabrication issues that limit the cell performance are discussed and future optimizations in fabrication processes are suggested.

Lu, Tianlin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Nuclear Transparency and Single Particle Spectral Functions from Quasielastic A(e,e'p) Reactions up to Q2=8.1 GeV2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High statistics elastic and quasielastic scattering measurements were performed on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, and iron at squared momentum transfers up to 8.1 GeV2. Both the nuclear transparency and the single particle spectral functions were extracted by means of comparison with a Plane- Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. Our data provide no evidence of the onset of color transparency within our kinematic range.

David McKee

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL  

SciTech Connect

An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaledâ??s HIL material instead of Plextronicsâ??. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are the obvious advantages of this technology. The project has shown that this nanowire technology is a viable option to achieve OLED devices with good lifetime and efficiency and we are currently working with manufacturers to utilize this technology in a production setting.

None

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the near-term (1-4) years and longer-term (5-10) years planning horizons. Some final observations include acknowledging the enduring nature of several key objectives on the Obama Administration's arms control and nonproliferation agenda. The CTBT, FMCT, bilateral nuclear arms reductions and strengthening the NPT have been sought by successive U.S. Administrations for nearly thirty years. Efforts towards negotiated arms control, although de-emphasized by the G.W. Bush Administration, have remained a pillar of U.S. national security strategy for decades and are likely to be of enduring if not increasing importance for decades to come. Therefore revitalization and expansion of USG capabilities in this area can be a positive legacy no matter what near-term arms control goals are achieved over the next four years. This is why it is important to reconstruct integrated bureaucratic, legislative, budgetary and diplomatic strategies to sustain the arms control and nonproliferation agenda. In this endeavor some past lessons must be taken to heart to avoid bureaucratic overkill and keep interagency policy-making and implementation structures lean and effective. On the Technical side a serious, sustained multilateral program to develop, down select and performance test nuclear weapons dismantlement verification technologies and procedures should be immediately initiated. In order to make this happen the United States and Russia should join with the UK and other interested states in creating a sustained, full-scale research and development program for verification at their respective nuc1ear weapons and defense establishments. The goals include development of effective technologies and procedures for: (1) Attribute measurement systems to certify nuclear warheads and military fissile materials; (2) Chain-of-custody methods to track items after they are authenticated and enter accountability; (3) Transportation monitoring; (4) Storage monitoring; (5) Fissile materials conversion verification. The remainder of this paper focuses on transparency and verification for nuclear arms a

Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meek, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

413

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

414

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

415

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of economically-produced and environmentally-stable transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coatings is critical for the development of a variety of electronic devices requiring transparent electrodes. Such devices include liquid crystal display pixels and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),[1, 2] solar cell applications,[3, 4] and electrically heated windows.[5, 6] The materials fulfilling these requirements are usually wide band gap inorganic transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Tin-doped indium oxide, or ITO, has traditionally been used for electronic TCO applications because of its low resistivity, high work function and transparency. Due to the increasing cost and limited supply of indium and its tendency to migrate in to the device, there has been increasing research interest to substitute ITO with an indium-free material. A number of alternative metal oxides and doped oxides have been evaluated as TCO materials with varying degrees of success.[7, 8] Among these alternatives to ITO, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) [2, 9] and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) [10, 11] have drawn particular attention. These materials have been demonstrated to have resistivities and transparencies approaching those of the best ITO, low toxicity, and much lower materials cost. Although AZO is attractive as a TCO electrode material, GZO features a greater resistance to oxidation as a result of gallium’s greater electronegativity compared to Submitted to 2 aluminum.[12, 13

Wang, Liang (Frank); Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants  

SciTech Connect

The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

Leich, D., LLNL

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

Conducting and Optical Properties of Transparent Conducting Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Sol-Gel Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides were successfully prepared from mixed zinc nitrate hexahydrate and indium nitrate hydrate solutions in ethylene glycol using sol-gel technique. The In content in the film was varied (0, 2, 10, 20, 40, 75 and 100 atom %). Films were prepared by spin coating of the liquid precursors followed by thermal decomposition at 400° C after each layer. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the pure ZnO and pure InO films (0 and at 100 % In) were crystalline as-deposited. The crystallinity was suppressed in mixed compositions such that the films with compositions between 10 and 75 at % were amorphous. All the films were transparent with the transmission cut-off frequency near 400 nm, which is characteristic of TCO materials. All as-deposited films were conductive with 0 and 100 atom % In having the lowest resistivities. The resistivity of all compositions were improved by post-deposition reducing anneal in pure Ar at 300° C. The lowest resistivity of 0.2 ?cm was obtained for the pure ZnO after Ar anneal. It was two-orders of magnitude higher than reported in the literature for the In-doped ZnO, which was attributed to the low processing temperature. The resistivities of as-deposited and annealed in Ar films were increased by consequent air anneal at 300° C.

Huang, S.; Kaydanova, T.; Miedaner, A.; Ginley, D.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

AlGaInN-based light emitting diodes with a transparent p-contact based on thin ITO films  

SciTech Connect

A method for obtaining transparent conductive ITO (indium-tin oxide) films aimed for use in light emitting diodes of the blue spectral range is developed. The peak external quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes with a p-contact based on the obtained films reaches 25%, while for similar light-emitting diodes with a standard semitransparent metal contact, it is <10%. An observed increase in the direct voltage drop from 3.15 to 3.37 V does not significantly affect the possibility of applying these films in light-emitting diodes since the optical power of light-emitting diodes with a transparent p-contact based on ITO films exceeds that of chips with metal semitransparent p-contacts with a working current of 20 mA by a factor of almost 2.5. Light-emitting diodes with p-contacts based on ITO films successfully withstand a pumping current that exceeds their calculated working current by a factor of 5 without the appearance of any signs of degradation.

Smirnova, I. P., E-mail: irina@quantum.ioffe.ru; Markov, L. K.; Pavlyuchenko, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, M. V. [ZAO Innovation Company 'TETIS' (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

420

All-optical loadable and erasable memory cell design based on inversionless lasing and electromagnetically induced transparency effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A loadable and erasable all-optical memory cell is designed by using two coupled micro-ring resonators with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and lasing without inversion (LWI). To read out stored data, an additional phase is introduced in the upper ring resonator due to EIT. To compensate the fibre loss, use is made of LWI. The EIT is induced by inserting {Lambda}-type three level quantum dots in the right-hand half of the upper ring and LWI is implemented by inserted Y-type four level quantum dots in the left-hand half of both rings. This optical memory cell can operate at a low light power level corresponding to several photons.

Gholipour Verki, N; HajiBadali, A; Abbasian, K; Rostami, A

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency.1088/0957-4484/22/42/425701 Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency S Tongay1 display high transmittance in the visible and near-infrared spectrum, preserving graphene's optical

Tanner, David B.

422

Engineered Metamaterials Enable Remarkably Small ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... than it really is, because the antenna structure stores energy and re ... by adding bulky “matching network” components to boost efficiency, but the ...

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

423

Highly IR-transparent microfluidic chip with surface-modified BaF2 optical windows for Infrared Microspectroscopy of living cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this contribution we present the first example of a microfluidic chip based on BaF"2 for Infrared Microspectroscopy (IRMS) of living cells. The advantage in using barium fluoride as platform relies on its high IR transparency, especially in the spectral ... Keywords: Barium fluoride, IRMS, Living cells, Microfluidic

E. Mitri, A. Pozzato, G. Coceano, D. Cojoc, L. Vaccari, M. Tormen, G. Grenci

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Defects and Transport in Ceramics IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2011... Oxide Transparent Conductors: Gabriela Gonzalez Aviles1; Rofeideh Mansourian1; Bryan Hardnacke1; Anna Wesolik1; Jordan Gardner1; ...

425

The investigation of interactions between single walled carbon nanotubes and flexible chain molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anisotropic nanoparticles, such as inorganic nanowires and carbon nanotubes, are promising materials for a wide range of technological applications including transparent conductors, thin film transistors, photovoltaic ...

Jeng, Esther Shu-Hsien

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Characterizing transport current defects in 1-cm-wide YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-delta] coated conductors.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have used a low temperature magnetic imaging system to determine current pathways in 5 cm long 'good' and 'bad' regions of a 1-cm-wide YBa2Cu3O7-{delta} coated conductor. The good and bad regions were identified with 4 point probe measurements taken at 1 cm intervals along the tape length. The current density map from the good region showed the expected edge peaked structure, similar to that seen in previous work on high quality test samples grown on single crystal substrates. The structure was also consistent with theoretical understanding of thin film superconductors where demagnetizing effects are strong. The maps from the bad region showed that the current was primarily confined to the right half of the sample. The left half carried only a small current that reached saturation quickly. Effectively halving the sample width quantitatively explains the critical current measured in that section. Spatially resolved xray analysis with 1 mm resolution was used to further characterize the bad section and suggested an abnormally large amount of a-axis YBCO present. This may be the result of non-uniform heating leading to a low deposition temperature in that area.

Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Peterson, E. J. (Eric J.); Coulter, J. Y. (James Y.); Dowden, P. C. (Paul C.); Arendt, P. N. (Paul N.); Foltyn, S. R. (Stephen R.); Mueller, F. M. (Fred M.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Two-phase flow visualization and relative permeability measurement in transparent replicas of rough-walled rock fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding and quantifying multi-phase flow in fractures is important for mathematical and numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, and petroleum reservoirs. While the cubic law for single-phase flow has been well established for parallel-plate fractures theoretically and experimentally, no reliable measurements of multi-phase flow in fractures have been reported. This work reports the design and fabrication of an apparatus for visualization of two-phase flow and for measurement of gas-liquid relative permeability in realistic rough-walled rock fractures. A transparent replica of a natural rock fracture from a core specimen is fabricated by molding and casting in clear epoxy. Simultaneous flow of gas and liquid with control of capillary pressure at inlet and outlet is achieved with the Hassler sandwich'' design: liquid is injected to the fracture through a porous block, while gas is injected directly to the edge of the fracture through channels in the porous block. A similar arrangement maintains capillary separation of the two phases at the outlet. Pressure drops in each phase across the fracture, and capillary pressures at the inlet and outlet, are controlled by means of pumps and needle valves, and are measured by differential and absolute pressure transducers. The clear epoxy cast of the natural fracture preserves the geometry of the fracture and permits visual observation of phase distributions. The fracture aperture distribution can be estimated by filling the fracture with a dyed liquid, and making pointwise measurements of the intensity of transmitted light.

Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.; Myer, L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Does Search-facilitating Technology Improve the Transparency of Financial Reporting?" The Accounting Review 79(3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) is an emerging technology that facilitates directed searches and simultaneous presentation of related financial statement and footnote information. We investigate whether using an XBRL-enhanced search engine helps nonprofessional financial statement users acquire and integrate related financial information when making an investment decision. We conduct our investigation in the context of recognition versus disclosure of stock option compensation. Our results reveal that many users do not access the technology, but those who do use it are better able to acquire and integrate information. Specifically, we find that when stock option accounting varies between firms, the use of an XBRL-enhanced search engine increases the likelihood that individuals acquire information about stock option compensation disclosed in the footnotes. We also find that XBRL helps individuals integrate the implications of this information, resulting in different investment decisions between individuals who use and do not use the search engine. Our results suggest that search-facilitating technologies, such as XBRL, aid financial statement users by improving the transparency of firms ’ financial statement information and managers’

Frank D. Hodge; Jane Jollineau Kennedy; Laureen A. Maines

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

The RACER (risk analysis, communication, evaluation, and reduction) stakeholder environmental data transparency project for Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The RACER (Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction) project was created in 2003, as an effort to enhance the Los Alamos National Laboratory's ability to effectively communicate the data and processes used to evaluate environmental risks to the public and the environment. The RACER project staff consists of members of Risk Assessment Corporation, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). RACER staff worked closely with members of the community, tribal governments, and others within NMED and LANL to create innovative tools and a process that could provide information to regulators, LANL and the community about the sources of public health risk and ecological impact from LAN L operations. The RACER Data Analysis Tool (DA T) provides the public with webbased access to environmental measurement data collected in and around the LANL site. Its purpose is to provide a 'transparent' view to the public of all data collected by LANL and NMED regarding the LANL site. The DAT is available to the public at 'www.racernm.com'.

Echohawk, John Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dorries, Alison M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhart, Craig F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werdel, Nancy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ingrain and grain boundary scattering effects on electron mobility of transparent conducting polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conducting polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with different thicknesses were deposited on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C by ion-plating deposition with direct current arc-discharge. The dependences of crystal structure, electrical, and optical properties of the GZO films on thickness have been systematically studied. Optical response due to free electrons of the GZO films was characterized in the photon energy range from 0.73 to 3.8 eV by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The free electron response was expressed by the simple Drude model combined with the Tauc-Lorentz model. From the SE analysis and the results of Hall measurements, electron effective mass, m{sup *}, and optical mobility, {mu}{sub opt}, of the GZO films were determined, based on the assumptions that the films are homogeneous and optically isotropic. By comparing the {mu}{sub opt} and Hall mobility, {mu}{sub Hall}, an indication on the effect of ingrain and grain boundary scattering limiting the electron mobility has been obtained. Moreover, the variation in scattering mechanism causing thickness dependence of {mu}{sub Hall} was correlated with the development of polycrystalline grain structure.

Yamada, Takahiro; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya [Materials Design Center, Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/12: ENTNEA: A Concept for Enhancing Nuclear Transparency for Confidence Building in Northeast Asia  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties.

Nam, Man-Kwon; Shin, Sung-Tack

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Ti-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films for Transparent Field-Effect Transistors: Control of Charge-Carrier Density and Crystalline Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are representative transparent conducting oxide media for organic light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, and solar cell applications. Extending the utility of ITO films from passive electrodes to active channel layers in transparent field-effect transistors (FETs), however, has been largely limited because of the materials' high carrier density (>1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup 03}), wide band gap, and polycrystalline structure. Here, we demonstrate that control over the cation composition in ITO-based oxide films via solid doping of titanium (Ti) can optimize the carrier concentration and suppress film crystallization. On 120 nm thick SiO{sub 2}/Mo (200 nm)/glass substrates, transparent n-type FETs prepared with 4 at % Ti-doped ITO films and fabricated via the cosputtering of ITO and TiO{sub 2} exhibited high electron mobilities of 13.4 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, a low subthreshold gate swing of 0.25 V decade{sup -1}, and a high I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio of >1 x 10{sup 8}.

J Kim; K Ji; M Jang; H Yang; R Choi; J Jeong

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Why MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not a transparent conducting oxide?  

SciTech Connect

The title compound has been synthesized by a citrate technique. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3-bar m, Z=8, with a=9.0008(1) A at 295 K. It exhibits a crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively, with a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08. MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} shows antiferromagnetic interactions below T{sub N} Almost-Equal-To 40 K, due to the statistical distribution of Mn ions over the two available sites. Unlike the related MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels, well known as transparent conducting oxides, MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is not transparent and shows a poor conductivity ({sigma}=0.38 S cm{sup -1} at 1123 K): the presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed valence states, localizes the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band. - Graphical Abstract: From NPD data the crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, shows a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08 and a certain In deficiency. The presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed oxidation states, localize the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band; the presence of localized Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions provides the characteristic brown color. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accurate structural determination from NPD data: inversion degree (8%), and In deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bond-valence indicates Mn{sup 2+}-Mn{sup 3+} ions; edge-sharing octahedra contain 90% In{sup 3+}+10% Mn{sup 3+} cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductivity several orders of magnitude lower than those of MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} or CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variability of Mn oxidation states cancels any electron-doping effect, emptying conduction band of mobile charge carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curie-Weiss behavior confirming the determined charge distribution.

Martinez-Lope, M.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Retuerto, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Rutgers State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8087 (United States); Calle, C. de la [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Porcher, Florence [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif Sur Ivette Cedex, France. (France); Alonso, J.A., E-mail: ja.alonso@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films prepared using oxide targets sintered by millimeter-wave heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The preparation of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films by both pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) using impurity-doped ZnO targets sintered with a newly developed energy saving millimeter-wave (28 GHz) heating technique is described. Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and V-co-doped AZO (AZO:V) targets were prepared by sintering with various impurity contents for 30 min at a temperature of approximately 1250 degree sign C in an air or Ar gas atmosphere using the millimeter-wave heating technique. The resulting resistivity and its thickness dependence obtainable in thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO targets were comparable to those obtained in thin films prepared by PLD using conventional furnace-sintered AZO targets; a low resistivity on the order of 3x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm was obtained in AZO thin films prepared with an Al content [Al/(Al+Zn) atomic ratio] of 3.2 at. % and a thickness of 100 nm. In addition, the resulting resistivity and its spatial distribution on the substrate surface obtainable in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a millimeter-wave-sintered AZO target were almost the same as those obtained in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a conventional powder AZO target. Thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO:V targets exhibited an improved resistivity stability in a high humidity environment. Thin films deposited with a thickness of approximately 100 nm using an AZO:V target codoped with an Al content of 4 at. % and a V content [V/(V+Zn) atomic ratio] of 0.2 at. % were sufficiently stable when long-term tested in air at 90% relative humidity and 60 degree sign C.

Minami, Tadatsugu; Okada, Kenji; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Juni-chi; Hara, Youhei; Abe, Hiroshi [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Fuji Dempa Kogyo Co. Ltd., 26 Kasuminosato, Ami, Inashiki, Ibaragi 300-0315 (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Comparison of the effect of outdoor exposure on the optical properties of solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of outdoor exposure on solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials are assessed and compared. The encapsulant materials tested included glasses, polymers and silicones. Samples of the materials were placed on stationary exposure racks in six locations that represented urban, desert, oceanside and high altitude mountain areas. Samples were removed periodically for optical characterizations. The spectral hemispherical and diffuse reflectance of the mirror samples and the spectral hemispherical transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the encapsulant materials was measured. The relative normal hemispherical transmittance of the encapsulant materials was measured. Correlations between the glass and mirror data showed that the average diffuse reflectance losses were six times larger for the mirrors than for the glass samples. The average specular reflectance losses for the mirror samples were seven times as large as the average hemispherical transmittance losses for the glass samples. These correlations may enable one to predict the performance of mirrors made using the other encapsulant materials for superstrates. It was found that the urban and oceanside sites were the dirtiest, while the desert and mountain sites were the cleanest. Average specular reflectance losses varied from 4% at the cleanest site to 50% at the dirtiest site. The range in hemispherical transmittance losses for the encapsulant materials varied between 0% and 6%. At one site, the average daily specular reflectance losses were .04% for the mirror samples and average daily hemispherical transmittance losses were about .01% for the glass samples. The polymer materials degraded somewhat more rapidly than the glasses, and the silicones irreversible degraded too rapidly and severely to be useful for either photovoltaic or solar thermal applications.

Dake, L.S.; Lind, M.A.; Maag, C.R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation for Transparency in HEU Blenddown at the URAL Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) in Novouralsk  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) was deployed at the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) highly enriched uranium (HEU) blending facility in January and February 1999 at Novouralsk in Russia for the DOE HEU Transparency Program. The FMFM provides unattended monitoring of the fissile mass flow of the uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas in the process lines of HEU, the low enriched uranium (LEU) blend stock, and the product LEU (P-LEU) of the blending tee non-intrusively. To do this, uranium-235 (U-235) fissions are induced in the UF{sub 6} by a thermalized and modulated californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron source placed on each process line. A set of detectors, located downstream of source, measure delayed gamma rays emitted by the resulting fission fragments. The observed delay in the time correlated measurement between the source and the detector signal provides the velocity of UF{sub 6} and its amplitude is related to the U- 235 content in UF{sub 6}. An on-line computer controls the source modulator, processes the collected detector data, and displays the results. The UEIP Main and the Reserved process lines were implemented with minor modifications. The FMFM monitors the HEU blending operation by measuring UF{sub 6} flows in the process blending lines, and the traceability of the HEU flow from the blend point to the P-LEU. The detail operational characteristics of the FMFM software (FM2) and the measurement methodology used are presented.

March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, B.

1999-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Demonstration of High Current Density YBCO Coated Conductors on RE2O3-Buffered Ni Substrates with Two New Alternative Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In continuation of our effort to develop single buffer layer architectures for YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-g) coated tape conductors, we have studied RE2O3 (RE = Y, and rare earths) as candidate materials. Three types of crystal structures including the preferred cubic phase are known for the rare earth oxides. High quality simple cubic RE2O3 buffer layers were grown epitaxiahy on {100} textured Ni substrates using both reactive evaporation and sol-gel processing. Detailed X-ray studies have shown that the Y2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Yb2O3 were grown with a single epitaxial orientation. SEM micrographs indicated that both e-beam and sol-gel grown films were dense, continuous and crack free. High Jc YBCO films were grown on RE2O3-buffered Ni substrates with sputtered cap layers. Two new alternative buffer layer architectures were developed. A high Jc of 1.8 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films with a layer sequence of YBCO (pulsed laser deposition)/Yb2O3 (sputtered)/Y2O3 (e-beam)/Ni. Also, a high Jc of over 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films with a layer sequence of YBCO (ex-situ BaF2 process)/CeO2 (sputtered)YSZ sputtered)/RE2O3 (sol-gel or e-beam)Ni. The performance of sol-gel grown buffers approached the quality of e-beam grown buffers.

Beach, D.B.; Chirayil, T.G.; Christen, D.K.; Cui, X.; Feenstra, R.; Goyal, A.; Kroeger, D.M.; Lee, D.F.; Martin, P.M.; Mathis, J.E.; Morrell, J.S.; Norton, D.P.; Paranthaman, M.; Specht, E.D.; Verebelyi, D.T.

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

438

Development of Biaxially Textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} Coated Conductors in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Two new processes have been under development since 1991 that promise a new, cost-effective way to manufacture flexible, high current density wires made from YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO). The key is to prepare a textured substrate, or ''template,'' on which the YBCO may be deposited as a biaxially aligned thick film. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of yttria stabilized zirconia or magnesium oxide on alloy tapes enables a final superconducting layer with grain-to-grain, in-plane alignment to within 3-5 degrees. Similar results are achieved on rolling-assisted, biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) using a variety of oxide layers on textured nickel tapes. The performance of research lengths of prototype wires in strong magnetic fields at 65 K already exceeds that of NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn in liquid helium. A scalable, ex-situ process for the YBCO coating has been demonstrated on both types of substrates. Consistent values of critical current density (J{sub c }) greater than 1 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} are now obtained on RABiTS, and J{sub c}'s in excess of 2 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} have been obtained on both substrates. A nonmagnetic variation of RABiTS (Ni-13% Cr) has also been shown to yield Jc greater than 1.5 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} . Six private companies in the U.S. are scaling up YBCO coated conductors for power and physics applications.

Christen, D.K.; Hawsey, R.A.; Kroeger, D.M.

1999-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

439

Security and Transparency Teleconference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... If we agree that these approaches do produce good ATs that consist of VV+P, then I think we do them a service by letting them take advantage of op ...

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

440

Flexible and Transparent Memory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relevant to the power consumption of MEMS devices. As showndynamic power consumption in electronic switching devices. 6

KIM, SUNG MIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metamaterial transparent conductor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development of Conductor Deicing Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice damage to overhead transmission lines costs utilities an estimated 10 to 50 million dollars annually. This project investigated methods of minimizing ice accretion through the use of low surface energy surface modification and coating systems.

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

442

Grain boundaries in coated conductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

|?| . (2.10) As T approaches Tc both ? and ? diverge. The ratio of these two lengths, ? = ?? , (2.11) which is approximately independent of temperature, is called the Ginzburg-Landau para- meter and determines if a material is a type I or a type II... Lorentz force density F = Jt ×B (2.21) 15 2. Superconductivity x yJt F Figure 2.3: The density gradient in the x dir- ection of the flux lines (point- ing in the z direction, out of the paper) leads to a net current in the y direction where the circu...

Weigand, Marcus

2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

443

Transport in Mixed Conductors II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Perovskite for High Temperature Electrochemical Devices: Sapna Gupta1; Manoj Mahapatra1; Prabhakar Singh1; 1University of Connecticut, Storrs

444

NCNR Diffusion in Superprotonic Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... biological functions to the production of electricity ... for use as electrolytic membranes (Refer ... are particularly sensitive to hydrogen, neutron scattering ...

445

Buffer layers for coated conductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite structure is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, and a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material. Additionally, an article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and a thick film upon the cubic metal oxide material. Finally, a superconducting article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and an yttrium barium copper oxide material upon the cubic metal oxide material.

Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Carbon Nanotube Coated Conductor Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Secure Energy for America (RPSEA) via subcontract 09121-3300-10 and the ... Hollow Fiber Solar Cells: Processing, Morphology, and Property Correlations.

447

Improved current saturation and shifted switching threshold voltage in In2O3 nanowire based, fully transparent NMOS inverters via femtosecond laser annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transistors based on various types of non-silicon nanowires have shown great potential for a variety of applications, especially for those require transparency and low-temperature substrates. However, critical requirements for circuit functionality such as saturated source-drain current, and matched threshold voltages of individual nanowire transistors in a way that is compatible with low temperature substrates, have not been achieved. Here we show that femtosecond laser pulses can anneal individual transistors based on In2O3 nanowires, improve the saturation of the source-drain current, and permanently shift the threshold voltage to the positive direction. We applied this technique and successfully shifted the switching threshold voltages of NMOS based inverters and improved their noise margin, in both depletion and enhancement modes. Our demonstration provides a method to trim the parameters of individual nanowire transistors, and suggests potential for large-scale integration of nanowire-based circuit bloc...

Lee, Chunghun; Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Kim, Seongmin; Zhou, Chongwu; Janes, David B; Xu, Xianfan; Roy, Kaushik; Ju, Sanghyun; Qi, Minghao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

SUPERGLASS. Engineering field tests - Phase 3. Production, market planning, and product evaluation for a high-thermal-performance insulating glass design utilizing HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HEAT MIRROR transparent window insulation consists of a clear polyester film two mils (.002'') thick with a thin, clear low-emissivity (.15) coating deposited on one side by state-of-the-art vacuum deposition processes. This neutral-colored invisible coating reflects long-wave infrared energy (heat). When mounted by being stretched with a 1/2'' air-gap on each side of the film, the resulting unit reduces heat loss by 60% compared to dual insulating glass. Southwall Corporation produces HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation and markets it to manufacturers of sealed insulating glass (I.G.) units and window and building manufacturers who make their own I.G. These companies build and sell the SUPERGLASS sealed glazing units. Units made and installed in buildings by six customers were visited. These units were located in many geographic regions, including the Pacific Northwest, Rocky Mountains, New England, Southeast, and West Coast. As much as could be obtained of their history was recorded, as was their current condition and performance. These units had been in place from two weeks to over a year. All of the units were performing thermally very well, as measured by taking temperature profiles through them and through adjacent conventional I.G. units. Some units had minor visual defects (attributed to I.G. assembly techniques) which are discussed in detail. Overall occupant acceptance was enthusiastically positive. In addition to saving energy, without compromise of optical quality or appearance, the product makes rooms with large glazing areas comfortable to be in in cold weather. All defects observed were present when built; there appears to be no in-field degradation of quality at this time.

Tilford, C L

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Anisotropic and Negative Acoustic Index Metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

layers of air and brass is then shown theoretically andfrom alternating layers of brass (white) and air (color) toy-direction perpendicular to a brass layer. The air regions

Fok, Lee Ren

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption (magenta dashed line) is also present as a result of graphene absorption outside the fabricated as gate voltage Vg 2 VCNP varies from 20.3 to 22.2 V. The voltages corresponding to the unlabelled lines. Li, X. S. et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils

Martin, Michael C.

451

Antennas and Metamaterials for Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The emergence of microwave energy harvesting systems, commonly referred to as rectenna or Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems, has enabled numerous applications in many areas… (more)

Almoneef, Thamer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Light propagation and Imaging in Indefinite Metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photolithography by polarized light,” Applied PhysicsZhang, “Imaging visible light using anisotropic metamaterialcross-sectional review of the light propagation of TE mode (

Yao, Jie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in inconsistent proportions of metal and glassy phase particles present during the subsequent firing process. The consequences were subtle, intermittent changes to the thick film microstructure that gave rise to the reaction layer and, thus, the low pull strength phenomenon. A mitigation strategy would be the use of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques to create thin film bond pads; this is multi-chip module, deposited (MCM-D) technology.

Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to improve the performance of solar cells by improving the electrical and optical properties of their transparent conducting oxides (TCO) layers. Boron-doped zinc-oxide films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition in a laminar-flow reactor from diethyl zinc, tert-butanol, and diborane in the temperature range between 300{degrees}C and 420{degrees}C. When the deposition temperature was above 320{degrees}C, both doped and undoped films have highly oriented crystallites with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate plane. Films deposited from 0.07% diethyl zinc and 2.4% tert-butanol have electron densities between 3.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3} and 5.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}, conductivities between 250 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} and 2500 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} and mobilities between 2.5 cm{sup 2}/V-s and 35.0 cm{sup 2}/V-s, depending on dopant concentration, film thickness, and deposition temperature. Optical measurements show that the maximum infrared reflectance of the doped films is close to 90%, compared to about 20% for undoped films. Film visible absorption and film conductivity were found to increase with film thickness. The ratio of conductivity to visible absorption coefficient for doped films was between 0.1 {Omega} and 1.1 {Omega}{sup {minus}1}. The band gap of the film changes from 3.3 eV to 3.7 eV when the film is doped with 0.012% diborane.

Gordon, R.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

K{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}: A transparent nonlinear optical crystal with frustrated magnetism  

SciTech Connect

A new noncentrosymmetric ferroborate crystal, K{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been grown from high temperature melt. Structure solution from single crystal X-ray diffraction shows that the title compound crystallizes in a trigonal space group P321 with cell dimensions of a=8.7475(12) A and c=8.5124(17) A. In the structure, FeO{sub 4} tetrahedron shares its three basal oxygen atoms with BO{sub 3} triangles forming a two-dimensional layer in the ab plane and the layers are connected by the apical Fe-O bonds along the c direction. The crystal is transparent in the visible and near infrared region from 500 to 2000 nm with three pronounced absorption bands ascribed to d-d transitions of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe{sup 3+} ions. Though, structurally analog to K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}, the further twisting of the BO{sub 3} groups between adjacent layers reduces its optical nonlinearity to a second-harmonic generation intensity of about 0.4 times that of KDP. Spin-glass behavior is observed at 20 K which is probably due to geometrically magnetic frustration of the triangular Fe net in the ab plane. - Graphical abstract: Single crystal of a new ferroborate K{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}, space group P321, a=8.7475(3) A, c=8.5124(3) A, was obtained and characterized. It exhibits considerable SHG efficiency and frustrated magnetism originated from the triangular Fe net in the ab plane.

Wang Yonggang [Beijing Center for Crystal Research and Development, Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, R.K., E-mail: rkli@mail.ipc.ac.c [Beijing Center for Crystal Research and Development, Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Interfaces - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 9, 2012 ... Many oxygen ion conductors exhibit similar distortions, opening a new direction .... 1Northwestern University; 2National Renewable Energy Laboratory; ... e.g., in solar cells), alternatives to indium-tin oxide (ITO) as transparent ...

457

Light-induced Electrokinetics: A path to a versatile micro total analysis system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

silicon (a-Si:H) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glassthe transparent conductor indium tin oxide (ITO). The bottoma top, Teflon-coated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode and a

Valley, Justin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z