Sample records for metals fluid coking

  1. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  2. Solidification/stabilization of toxic metal wastes using coke and coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vempati, R.K.; Mollah, M.Y.A.; Chinthala, A.K.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States); Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of a special rubber waste, NISCO Cyclone Ash (NCA), which contains substantial calcium oxide and calcium sulfites/sulfates for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of toxic metal wastes. The mineralogical compositions of the NCA and a class ``C`` fly ash have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrated mixtures of these wastes have been examined by XRD and found to form ettringite. Low concentrations of As (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Ba (500 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Pb (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), and Zn (1,000 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}) were added to these hydrated mixtures and found to be successfully immobilized and solidified, as determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). In addition, the mineralogy, chemistry and leaching characteristics of these combined waste products and their interactions with toxic metals are discussed.

  3. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  4. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  5. Development of New Biphasic Metal Organic Working Fluids for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biphasic Metal Organic Working Fluids for Subcritical Geothermal Systems Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

  6. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  7. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  8. The effect of diabietic acid on the coking of oxidised solvent-extracted coal.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludere, Margaret Tshimangadzo

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Refcoal is a refined carbon source obtained by extraction of coal with dimethylformamide (DMF). During the coking process, Refcoal goes through a mesophase (fluid) stage… (more)

  9. Coke formation during pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmen, A. [Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Lindvag, O.A. [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most processes involving hydrocarbons or carbon oxides at high temperatures suffer from the disadvantage of coke formation. The formation of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is of significant practical importance. Examples of such processes are the steam cracking of alkanes to produce olefins and the thermal decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC) for the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Even id the rate of coke production is low, the cumulative nature of the solid product will result in reactor fouling. The present work deals with the thermal decomposition of EDC. Coke formation has been studied on metal surfaces in a quartz tubular reactor. The rate of coke deposition was measures on metal foils hanging from one arm of a microbalance. A complete analysis of the product gas was accomplished using on-line gas chromatography. The results show that coke deposition during thermal decomposition of EDC depends on the composition of the feed as well as on the nature of the surface of the metal foil. Small amounts of other components (contamination with other chlorinated hydrocarbons as an example) may have a large influence on the rate of coke formation. The results are discussed in terms of surface composition/morphology of the metal foil and the free radical mechanism for thermal decomposition of FDC.

  10. Method and apparatus for dissociating metals from metal compounds extracted into supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Hunt, Fred H. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dissociating metal-ligand complexes in a supercritical fluid by treating the metal-ligand complex with heat and/or reducing or oxidizing agents is described. Once the metal-ligand complex is dissociated, the resulting metal and/or metal oxide form fine particles of substantially uniform size. In preferred embodiments, the solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the ligand is a .beta.-diketone such as hexafluoroacetylacetone or dibutyldiacetate. In other preferred embodiments, the metals in the metal-ligand complex are copper, silver, gold, tungsten, titanium, tantalum, tin, or mixtures thereof. In preferred embodiments, the reducing agent is hydrogen. The method provides an efficient process for dissociating metal-ligand complexes and produces easily-collected metal particles free from hydrocarbon solvent impurities. The ligand and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated to provide an economic, efficient process.

  11. Met coke world summit 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  12. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  13. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  14. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  15. Metallization of Fluid Hydrogen 3.1 Introduction to Metallic Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Ard

    Chapter 3 Metallization of Fluid Hydrogen 3.1 Introduction to Metallic Hydrogen 3.1.1 Some background on dense hydrogen Hydrogen, out of it the Universe evolved, every atom and leaf, marine iguana and apricot­smelling chanterelle. But my, my, what alchemy: nondescript H 2 --Diane Ackerman 1 -- Hydrogen

  16. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  18. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  19. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  20. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.T.

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO[sub x] and optionally SO[sub 2] from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe[sup 2+]) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution. 26 figures.

  1. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  2. Magnetic Fields of Uranus and Neptune: Metallic Fluid Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nellis, W J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic fields of the Ice Giant Planets Uranus and Neptune (U/N) are unique in the solar system. Based on a substantial database measured on Earth for representative planetary fluids at representative dynamic pressures up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar) and a few 1000 K, the complex magnetic fields of U/N are (i) probably made primarily by degenerate metallic fluid H (MFH) at or near the crossover from the H-He envelopes to Ice cores at ~100 GPa (Mbar) pressures and normalized radii of ~90% of the radii of U/N; (ii) because those magnetic fields are made relatively close to the surfaces of U/N, non-dipolar fields can be expected; (iii) the Ice cores are most probably a heterogeneous fluid mixture of H, N, O, C, Fe/Ni and silicate-oxides and their mutual reaction products at high pressures and temperatures; (iv) the shapes of the magnetic fields are probably caused by weak coupling between rotational motions of U/N and convective motions of conducting fluids in dynamos that make those magnetic fields. Ironically, the...

  3. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

  4. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming legand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  5. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming ligand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Laintz, K.E.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated {beta}-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  6. Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.

    contributes 80% of this total. As crude oil coke is a cement kiln, where the alkaline quality deteriorates, and the market for residual components in cement will absorb the sulfur oil. becomes less profitable due to increasingly released by the coke during.... The higher value has been amply demonstrated by the Combustion Power Units, and by commercial gasification systems producing syngas for chemicals We do not anticipate a major system availability debit for adding an industrial-scale, base loaded...

  7. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  8. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  9. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  10. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    plant. A successful candidate fluid would allow for the reduction of the levelized cost of energy by increasing the operating temperature for the CSP plant power cycle, which...

  11. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  12. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  13. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  14. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E. [British Steel plc, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Scunthorpe Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  16. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  17. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  18. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  19. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  20. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. ESS liquid-metal target design using computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dury, T.V. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal-hydraulic performance of a spallation neutron source target limits the highest neutron fluxes that can be generated. The current design for the European spallation source consists of a liquid metal encased within a containing shell, wedge-shaped in the direction of the incoming proton beam, with rounded sides in a cross section through a plane normal to the beam.

  2. Development of New Biphasic Metal Organic Working Fluids for Subcritical

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump to:52c8ff988c1Dering Harbor, New York:Supercritical CO2 and Fluid,Geothermal

  3. Corrosion performances in simulated body fluids and cytotoxicity evaluation of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Corrosion performances in simulated body fluids and cytotoxicity evaluation of Fe-based bulk December 2011 Available online 27 December 2011 Keywords: Bulk metallic glass Corrosion Biocompatibility Electrochemical characterization Biomedical applications The aim of this work is to investigate the corrosion

  4. Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute, C205 Coal Utilization Laboratory

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  6. Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, A.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

  7. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  8. Possibilities of coke manufacture in nonpollutant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barca, F.; Panaitescu, C.; Vidrighin, C.; Peleanu, I. [Politehnica Univ. Bucharest (Romania); Albastroiu, P. [S.C. ICEM S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents some possibilities to obtain coke briquettes from anthracite, using as binders petroleum pitch, wheat flour, cement, plaster, ashes from power-plants dried from the electrofilters. Specific thermal post-treatment were proposed for each case, such as: oxidation or heating at low temperatures (under 300 C). As a result the authors obtained coke briquettes to be used in small equipment, with no pollutant pyrogenetic treatment.

  9. METAL FILTERS FOR PRESSURIZED FLUID BED COMBUSTION (PFBC) APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. As part of the demonstration effort, SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field-tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous commercial metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions.

  10. Physical, chemical and thermal changes of coals and coal maceral concentrates during coke formation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Wei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Research Doctorate - Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) The measured coke reactivity index (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) determined in experiments based on coke… (more)

  11. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  12. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B. [Hoogovens IJmuiden B.V. (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  13. Supercritical Fluid Immersion Deposition: A New Process for Selective Deposition of Metal Films on Silicon Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Young, James S.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical CO2 is used as a new solvent for immersion deposition, a galvanic displacement process traditionally carried out in aqueous HF solutions containing metal ions, to selectively develop metal films on featured or non-featured silicon substrates. Components of supercritical fluid immersion deposition (SFID) solutions for fabricating Cu and Pd films on silicon substrates are described along with the corresponding experimental setup and procedure. Only silicon substrates exposed and reactive to SFID solutions can be coated. The highly pressurized and gas-like supercritical CO2, combined with the galvanic displacement property of immersion deposition, enables the SFID technique to selectively deposit metal films in small features. SFID may also provide a new method to fabricate palladium silicide in small features or to metallize porous silicon.

  14. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Stephen [SIMBOL Materials

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Simbol Materials studied various methods of extracting valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California, focusing on the extraction of lithium, manganese, zinc and potassium. New methods were explored for managing the potential impact of silica fouling on mineral extraction equipment, and for converting silica management by-products into commercial products.` Studies at the laboratory and bench scale focused on manganese, zinc and potassium extraction and the conversion of silica management by-products into valuable commercial products. The processes for extracting lithium and producing lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide products were developed at the laboratory scale and scaled up to pilot-scale. Several sorbents designed to extract lithium as lithium chloride from geothermal brine were developed at the laboratory scale and subsequently scaled-up for testing in the lithium extraction pilot plant. Lithium The results of the lithium studies generated the confidence for Simbol to scale its process to commercial operation. The key steps of the process were demonstrated during its development at pilot scale: 1. Silica management. 2. Lithium extraction. 3. Purification. 4. Concentration. 5. Conversion into lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products. Results show that greater than 95% of the lithium can be extracted from geothermal brine as lithium chloride, and that the chemical yield in converting lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products is greater than 90%. The product purity produced from the process is consistent with battery grade lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Manganese and zinc Processes for the extraction of zinc and manganese from geothermal brine were developed. It was shown that they could be converted into zinc metal and electrolytic manganese dioxide after purification. These processes were evaluated for their economic potential, and at the present time Simbol Materials is evaluating other products with greater commercial value. Potassium Silicotitanates, zeolites and other sorbents were evaluated as potential reagents for the extraction of potassium from geothermal brines and production of potassium chloride (potash). It was found that zeolites were effective at removing potassium but the capacity of the zeolites and the form that the potassium is in does not have economic potential. Iron-silica by-product The conversion of iron-silica by-product produced during silica management operations into more valuable materials was studied at the laboratory scale. Results indicate that it is technically feasible to convert the iron-silica by-product into ferric chloride and ferric sulfate solutions which are precursors to a ferric phosphate product. However, additional work to purify the solutions is required to determine the commercial viability of this process. Conclusion Simbol Materials is in the process of designing its first commercial plant based on the technology developed to the pilot scale during this project. The investment in the commercial plant is hundreds of millions of dollars, and construction of the commercial plant will generate hundreds of jobs. Plant construction will be completed in 2016 and the first lithium products will be shipped in 2017. The plant will have a lithium carbonate equivalent production capacity of 15,000 tonnes per year. The gross revenues from the project are expected to be approximately $ 80 to 100 million annually. During this development program Simbol grew from a company of about 10 people to over 60 people today. Simbol is expected to employ more than 100 people once the plant is constructed. Simbol Materials’ business is scalable in the Imperial Valley region because there are eleven geothermal power plants already in operation, which allows Simbol to expand its business from one plant to multiple plants. Additionally, the scope of the resource is vast in terms of potential products such as lithium, manganese and zinc and potentially potassium.

  16. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Lin, Yuehe (Moscow, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  17. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  18. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  19. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  20. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  1. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  2. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  3. Method for separating metal chelates from other materials based on solubilities in supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating a desired metal or metalloi from impurities using a supercritical extraction process based on solubility differences between the components, as well as the ability to vary the solvent power of the supercritical fluid, is described. The use of adduct-forming agents, such as phosphorous-containing ligands, to separate metal or metalloid chelates in such processes is further disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones; phosphine oxides, such as trialkylphosphine oxides, triarylphosphine oxides and alkylarylphosphine oxides; phosphinic acids; carboxylic acids; phosphates, such as trialkylphosphates, triarylphosphates and alkylarylphosphates; crown ethers; dithiocarbamates; phosphine sulfides; phosphorothioic acids; thiophosphinic acids; halogenated analogs of these chelating agents; and mixtures of these chelating agents. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated.

  4. Initial coke deposition on a NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bitumen hydroprocessing catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, S.M.; Nagaishi, Hiroshi; Gray, M.R. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Athabasca bitumen was hydrocracked over a commercial NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in two reactors, a microbatch reactor and a 1-L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Coke deposition on catalyst was measured as a function of hydrogen pressure, time on stream, and liquid composition by measuring the carbon content of the cleaned spent catalyst. The carbon content ranged from 11.3% to 17.6% over the pressure range 6.9--15.2 MPa in CSTR experiments. Batch and CSTR experiments showed a rapid approach to a constant coke content with increasing oil/catalyst ratio. Coke deposition was independent of product composition for residue concentrations ranging from 8% to 32% by weight. Removal of the coke by tetralin at reaction conditions suggested reversible adsorption of residue components on the catalyst surface. A physical model based on clearance of coke by hydrogen in the vicinity of metal crystallites is presented for the coke deposition behavior during the first several hours of hydrocracking use. This model gives good agreement with experimental data, including the effect of reaction time, the ratio of total feed weight to catalyst weight, hydrogen pressure, and feed composition, and it agrees with general observations from industrial usage. The model implies that except at the highest coke levels, the active surfaces of the metal crystallites remain exposed. Severe mass-transfer limitations are caused by the overall narrowing of the pore structure, which in {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} would give very low effective diffusivity for residuum molecules in micropores.

  5. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's commercially proved technology to recover oil from the Athabasca oil sands, as practiced by Suncor and Syncrude, involves two major operations, namely: separation of the bitumen from the sand and upgrading of the bitumen to refinery oil. Significant amounts of petroleum coke are produced during the bitumen upgrading process. Suncor burns the bulk of its petroleum coke in boilers to fulfill the energy requirements of the entire operation, still meeting government regulations restricting the amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released to the environment. In contrast, Syncrude is able to burn only 20% of its coke production because of high sulphur dioxide emissions from elsewhere in its operations. The boiler ash (Fly ash) which contains appreciable amounts of metals, such as vanadium, nickel, titianium, iron, aluminum and other elements, is collected in the boiler hoppers and cyclones of the petroleum coke fired steam generation plants. There has been relatively little effort made towards the understanding of the chemical or physical nature of these materials. Knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of these materials will be helpful in assessing their beneficiation and potential use as fuel or metallurigcal coke and the feasibility of extracting some metals, especially Ni and V. In this communication the authors report studies of acid demineralization as a means of reducing ash content of these materials for /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  6. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  7. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  8. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  9. Coking properties of perhydrous low-rank vitrains. Influence of pyrolysis conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    generally lead to increased coking potential of coals characterised in the resulting cokes by large sizes equivalent to natural coking coals, since the cokes from these residues are always made of smaller MOD than those obtained for coking coals. For comparison, a similar characterisation, carried out

  10. Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 23. Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division...

  11. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  12. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  13. DELAYED COKING OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED COAL FOR PRODUCTION OF ANODE GRADE COKE: CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PRODUCTS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karri, Vamsi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study investigates the feasibility of using high temperature solvent extraction of coal to produce feedstock for the production of anode grade coke through delayed… (more)

  14. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  15. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  16. Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per...

  17. Natural Circulation and Linear Stability Analysis for Liquid-Metal Reactors with the Effect of Fluid Axial Conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Qiao Wu; James J. Sienicki

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of fluid axial thermal conduction on one-dimensional liquid metal natural circulation and its linear stability was performed through nondimensional analysis, steady-state assessment, and linear perturbation evaluation. The Nyquist criterion and a root-search method were employed to find the linear stability boundary of both forward and backward circulations. The study provided a relatively complete analysis method for one-dimensional natural circulation problems with the consideration of fluid axial heat conduction. The results suggest that fluid axial heat conduction in a natural circulation loop should be considered only when the modified Peclet number is {approx}1 or less, which is significantly smaller than the practical value of a lead liquid metal-cooled reactor.

  18. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  19. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  20. An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  2. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  3. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  4. Common components of industrial metal-working fluids as sources of carbon for bacterial growth. [Acinetobacter; Pseudomonas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall-vanAken, S.; Brown, J.A. Jr.; Young, W.; Salmeen, I.; McClure, T.; Napier, S. Jr.; Olsen, R.H.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-based metal-working fluids in large-scale industrial operations consist of many components, but in the most commonly used formulations only three classes of components are present in high enough concentrations that they could, in principle, provide enough carbon to support the high bacterial densities (10/sup 9/ CFU/ml) often observed in contaminated factory fluids. These components are petroleum oil (1 to 5%), petroleum sulfonates (0.1 to 0.5%), and fatty acids (less than 0.1%, mainly linoleic and oleic acids supplied as tall oils). Pure strains of predominating bacteria were isolated from contaminated reservoirs of two metal-working systems and randomly selected 12 strains which were tested in liquid culture for growth with each of the metal-working fluid components as the sole source of carbon. Of the 12 strains, 7 reached high density (10/sup 9/ CFU/ml from an initial inoculum of less than 2 x 10/sup 3/) in 24 h, and 1 strain did the same in 48 h with 0.05% oleic or linoleic acid as the carbon source. These same strains also grew on 1% naphthenic petroleum oil but required up to 72 h to reach densities near 10/sup 8/ CFU/ml. One strain grew slightly and the others not at all on the petroleum sulfonates. The four remaining strains did not grow on any of the components, even though they were among the predominating bacteria in the contaminated system. Of the seven strains that grew best on the fatty acids and on the naphthenic petroleum oil, five were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter species and two were identified as Pseudomonas species. Four of the bacteria that did not grow were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas, and one could not be identified.

  5. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  6. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  7. Effects of select fluids on the friction of metal-on-polyethylene joint replacement surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Timothy C. (Timothy Chan), 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lubricants are important factors in the tribology of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surfaces, which are primarily comprised of a polished metallic or ceramic component articulating on an Ultra-High Molecular Weight ...

  8. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  9. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to investigate the coke profile with respect to time on stream and the change of product distribution due to catalyst deactivation. A fixed bed reactor was used to conduct this investigation. A series of runs were...

  10. Fluid origins, paths, and fluid-rock reactions at convergent margins, using halogens, Cl stable isotopes, and alkali metals as geochemical tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Wei

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    range kg/yr Cl sources and sinks Water or rock mass mol/kgtemperature at the source of fluid-rock reactions, asto identify the fluid-rock reactions at source. In addition,

  11. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  12. An overview of crisis management in the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, D.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Members of the American Coke and Coal Chemicals Institute (ACCCI), as responsible corporate citizens, have embraced the concepts of crisis management and progress down the various paths of planning and preparation, monitoring, media communications, community outreach, emergency response, and recovery. Many of the concepts outlined here reflect elements of crisis management guidelines developed by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). At a coke plant, crises can take the form of fires, chemical releases, labor strikes, feedstock supply disruptions, and excessive snowfall, just to name a few. The CMA defines a crisis as: ``an unplanned event that has the potential to significantly impact a company`s operability or credibility, or to pose a significant environment, economic or legal liability``; and crisis management as: ``those activities undertaken to anticipate or prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from any incident that has the potential to greatly affect the way a company conducts its business.

  13. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  14. New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov [Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

  15. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  16. Fluid catalytic cracking of heavy petroleum fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHenry, K.W.

    1981-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is claimed for fluid catalytic cracking of residuum and other heavy oils comprising of gas oil, petroleum residue, reduced and whole crudes and shale oil to produce gasoline and other liquid products which are separated in various streams in a fractionator and associated vapor recovery equipment. The heat from combustion of coke on the coked catalyst is removed by reacting sulfur-containing coke deposits with steam and oxygen in a separate stripper-gasifier to produce a low btu gas stream comprising of sulfur compounds, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide at a temperature of from about 1100/sup 0/F. To about 2200/sup 0/F. The partially regenerated catalyst then undergoes complete carbon removal in a regeneration vessel. The regenerated catalyst is recycled for re-use in the cracking of heavy petroleum fractions. The liquid products are gasoline, distillates, heavy fuel oil, and light hydrocarbons.

  17. How to implement a quality program in a coking plant. The AHMSA experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes M, M.A.; Perez, J.L.; Garza, C. de la; Morales, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AHMSA (Altos Hornos de Mexico) is the largest integrated Steel Plant in Mexico, with its 3.1 MMMT of Liquid Steel production program for 1995. AHMSA operates two coke plants which began operations in 1955 and 1976. Total coke monthly production capacity amounts to as much as 106,000 Metric Tons (MT). The coke plants working philosophy was discussed and established in 1986 as part of the Quality Improvement Program, where its ultimate goal is to give the best possible coke quality to its main client--the blast furnaces. With this goal in mind, a planned joint effort with their own coal mines was initiated. This paper deals with the implementation process of the Quality Program, and the results of this commitment at the coal mines, coke plants and blast furnaces. The coke quality improvement is shown since 1985 to 1994, as well as the impact on the blast furnace operation.

  18. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Kobe Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  19. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  20. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  1. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  2. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  3. Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumadue, Matthew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

  4. 888Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aserosol. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Areiron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (,100The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

  6. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  7. Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

  8. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  9. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  10. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - 1 - Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven of walls, roof and larry car, pre-stresses (anchoring system), lateral pressure due to coal pushing A 3D

  11. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  12. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  13. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  14. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  15. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Sykora, Frank (Caledon, ON, CA); Dorbeck, Mark (Brighton, MI)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  16. Investigation of the effects of heating rate on coking of shale during retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guffey, F.D.; Hunter, D.E.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The retorting of oil shale distributes organic carbon among three possible products: the liquid product, the noncondensible product, and the residual carbon (coke). The production of coke is detrimental because of the economic effects caused by the loss of organic carbon to this relatively intractable carbon form. Two reference oil shales, a Mahogany zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation oil shale from Colorado and a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany oil shale from Kentucky, were studied to evaluate the conditions that affect coke production during retorting. The variable that was studied in these experiments was the heating rate during retorting because heating rate has been indicated to have a direct effect on coke production (Burnham and Clarkson 1980). The six heating rates investigated covered the range from 1 to 650/degree/C/h (1.8 to 1169/degree/F/h). The data collected during these experiments were evaluated statistically in order to identify trends. The data for the eastern reference oil shale indicated a decrease in coke formation with increases in the heating rate. The liquid and noncondensible product yields both increased with increasing heating rate. The distribution of products in relation to retort heating rate follows the model suggested by Burnham and Clarkson (1980). Coke production during the retorting of western reference oil shale was found to be constant in relation to heating rate. The liquid product yield increased with increasing heating rate but the trend could not be verified at the 95% confidence level. The coke production observed in these experiments does not follow the prediction of the model. This may indicate that coke formation occurs early in the retorting process and may be limited by the availability of organic materials that form coke. 6 refs., 10 tabs.

  17. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  18. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  19. Producing and controlling of the pollutant in the coal`s coking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China); Fan, Z. [Shanxi Central Environmental Monitoring Station (China)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the process of heating and coke shaping, different pollutants and polluting factors will be produced and lost to the environment due to the different coking methods. The paper analyzes the production mechanism, type, emission, average quantity, and damage to the environment of the major pollutants and polluting factors produced in several kinds of coking processes in China at the present. Then, the paper concludes that an assessment for any coking method should include a comprehensive beneficial assessment of economical benefit, environmental benefit and social benefit. The items in the evaluation should consist of infrastructure investment, which includes production equipment and pollution control equipment, production cost, benefit and profit produced by one ton coal, whether the pollution complies with the environmental requirement, extent of the damage, influence to the social development, and etc.

  20. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  1. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D. [Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau, Forbach (France)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  2. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  3. Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wai, C.M.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

  4. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  5. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  6. Coking phenomena in the pyrolysis of ethylene dichloride into vinyl chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotowa, Chiaki; Korai, Yozo; Mochida, Isao [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis of ethylene dichloride (EDC) into vinyl chloride (VCM) which is the monomer for polyvinyl chloride, one of the most popular polymers, has been established commercially for quite a time. The process around 500{degrees}C has been proved to give VCM of high purity at very high selectivity about 99% and a reasonable conversion about 50%. However, the coking is a major problem in the long run, requiring decoking treatment every two months. The present paper describes features of carbons produced in the pyrolysis process. Coke of respective features was found in the reactor, the transfer line, the heat exchanger and the rapid quencher. Typical pyrolytic carbon, anisotropic coke produced in the liquid phase, isotropic carbon was produced on the reactor wall as low as 500{degrees}C. The mechanisms for their formation are discussed.

  7. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    García-Chocano, Victor M. [Universitat Polit#18;ecnica de Val#18;encia (Spain); López-Rios, Tomás [CNRS and University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Krokhin, Arkadii [Universitat Polit#18;ecnica de Val#18;encia (Spain) and University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Universitat Polit#18;ecnica de Val#18;encia (Spain)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.

  8. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A. [National Steel Corp., Granite City, IL (United States). Granite City Div.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  9. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  10. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  11. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  12. Fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  13. 6. Fluid mechanics: fluid statics; fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1/96 6. Fluid mechanics: fluid statics; fluid dynamics (internal flows, external flows) Ron and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland 2/96 6.1 Fluid statics Ã?bo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/96 Fluid statics, static pressure /1 Two types

  14. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore Torquatob)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore of a Brownian particle diffusing among a, digitized lattice-based domain of traps. Following the first, the inverse of the trapping rate, is obtained for a variety of configurations involving digitized spheres

  16. Coke oven doors: Historical methods of emission control and evaluation of current designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettrey, J.O.; Greene, D.E. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The containment of oven door leakage has presented challenges to coke producers for many years as the requirements of environmental regulatory agencies have become increasingly stringent. A description and evaluation of past door modifications, leakage control methodologies and luting practices on Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Ashland No. 4 Battery is detailed to provide a background for recent work, and to expand the industry's technology base. The strict door leakage standards of the 1990 amendments to the USA Clean Air Act has prompted additional technical studies. Both a joint Armco committee's evaluation of successful systems world wide and test door installations at Ashland were incorporated to determine compliance strategy. The eventual installation of Ikio Model II coke oven doors, along with modifications to ancillary equipment, has resulted in door leakage rates approaching zero. Associated methods, problems, results and evaluations are discussed.

  17. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  18. Linings with optimum heat-emission surfaces for cars receiving and transporting incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotlyar, B.D.; Pleshkov, P.I.; Gadyatskii, V.G. [and others

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The least reliable components of the cars which receive and transport incandescent coke are the lining plates. This applies to both the quenching cars used for wet quenching and the hot-coke cars used in the dry cooling process. Technical advances have been described whereby the life of car linings is prolonged by increasing heat emission from the lining plate surfaces. As the heat emission level is enhanced the mean plate temperature is lowered and the lining life thereby prolonged; moreover, the between-servicings period is prolonged. This involves providing fins on the non-working (outer) plate surfaces. The problem of optimizing the size and shape of the fins with reference to heat emission remains unsolved: the requirement is maximum heat emission from plates of a given weight, or conversely minimum plate weight for a given heat emission level. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  1. Operating temperature effects on nozzle coking in a cottonseed oil fueled diesel engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarbrough, Charles Michael

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE COKING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree cf... MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE CORING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Approved as to style and content by: ayne A. Le...

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths.

  3. Fluid varieties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewa Graczynska; Dietmar Schweigert

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We invent the notion of a derived and fluid variety. Fluid variety has no proper derived variety as its subvariety. We examine some properties of fluid and derived varieties. Examples of such varieties of bands are presented.

  4. Thermal Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Fluids The Thermal Fluids and Heat Transfer program works on thermal hydraulic reactor safety code development and experimental heat transferthermal hydraulics. The...

  5. Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

  6. Experience and results of new heating control system of coke oven batteries at Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanljung, J.; Palmu, P. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest development and results of the heating control system at Raahe Steel are presented in this paper. From the beginning of coke production in Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (October 1987) the heating control systems have been developed. During the first stage of development work at the coking plant (from year 1987 to 1992), when only the first coke oven battery consisting of 35 ovens was in production, the main progress was in the field of process monitoring. After commissioning of the second stage of the coking plant (November 1992), the development of the new heating control model was started. Target of the project was to develop a dynamic control system which guides the heating of batteries through the various process conditions. Development work took three years and the heating control system was commissioned in the year 1995. Principle of the second generation system is an energy balance calculation, coke end temperature determination and dynamic oven scheduling system. The control is based on simultaneous feedforward and feedback control. The fuzzy logic components were added after about one year experience.

  7. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  8. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  9. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  10. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigations into the particular features of the process of converting coal gas hydrocarbons on incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zubilin, I.G.; Umanskii, V.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prospects of the use of reducing gases in ferrous metallurgy and the possibilities for using them as a basis for coke production have been presented by the authors of the present article in the past. In the present report, the authors present certain results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the process of converting coal gas hydrocarbons on incandescent coke. The modification of the present-day method of thermodynamically calculating stable compositions of coking products, which was developed by the authors, has made it possible to apply it to specific chemical systems and process conditions not met with before, such as the conversion of hydrocarbons in mixtures of actual industrial gases (coal gas and blast furnace gas) in the presence of carbon and considerable amounts of hydrogen.

  12. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Colloidal metal particles as probes of nanoscale thermal transport in fluids Orla M. Wilson, Xiaoyuan Hu, David G. Cahill,* and Paul V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    the heat capacity of the particle to the heat capacity of a layer of the surrounding fluid is given by the ratio of the heat capacity of the particle to the total thermal conductance of the particle quantitative studies of G for solid-liquid interfaces but re- ported values11,12 for the thermal conductance

  14. Petroleum Coke

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-MonthCoalbedPricethe PricetheCity Gate Price81,811

  15. Petroleum Coke

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomicper8,170 8,310 8,304PricePriceby81,811 82,516 82,971

  16. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  17. Immobilization of vanadia deposited on catalytic materials during carbo-metallic oil conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, H.W.; Carruthers, J.D.; Cornelius, E.B.; Hettinger, Jr., W.P.; Kovach, S.M.; Palmer, J.L.; Zandona, O.J.

    1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for the cracking of a hydrocarbon oil feed having a significant content of at least 0.1 ppm vanadium to lighter oil products. The process consists of contacting the feed under conversion conditions in a conversion zone with a catalyst containing a precipitated metal additive to immobilize vanadium compounds by forming compounds therewith that have melting points above temperatures found in regenerating a coked catalyst; and having catalytic cracking characteristics, coke and vanadium being deposited on the catalyst by the contact; regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of an oxygen containing gas at a temperature sufficient to remove at least some of the coke, and, recycling the regenerated catalyst to the conversion zone for contact with fresh feed; the metal additive being present on the catalyst in an amount sufficient to immobilize at least a portion of the vanadium compound in the presence of the oxygen containing gas at the catalyst regeneration temperature; wherein the metal additive to immobilize vanadium compounds deposited on the catalyst is selected from the group consisting of Sr, Sc, Y, Nb, and Ta elements, and an element in the actinide series, or a combination of two or more of the elements.

  18. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  19. Corrosion behavior of several metals in ethylene glycol-base heat-transfer fluids under conditions encountered in solar energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeman, G.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion behavior of aluminum, copper, and iron in inhibited ethylene glycol-ASTM corrosive water solutions was evaluated in a laboratory loop under isothermal and heat-flux conditions for 1000 h at temperatures between 378 and 413/sup 0/K, in static autoclave tests at 450/sup 0/K for 500 h, and by potentiodynamic polarization measurements at temperatures between 298 and 348/sup 0/K. The effect of time, temperature, and ethylene glycol concentration of the heat-transfer fluid on the extent of inhibitor depletion was determined from analyses of the reserve alkalinity, pH, and inhibitor content of the solutions. The performance of an electrochemical sensor as a monitor of fluid quality was also evaluated. A heat flux of 0.4 to 1.0 kW/m/sup 2/ did not have a significant effect on the corrosion behavior of the various materials at temperatures between 378 and 413/sup 0/K. The corrosion rates of aluminum, copper, and iron in the 50 volume percent inhibited ethylene glycol-corrosive water solution decreased as a function of time during the 1000-h test. At 413/sup 0/K, the corrosion rate of copper was considerably higher than that of iron or aluminum at low flow velocity. Significant degradation of the fluid quality, as indicated by the measurement of the pH, reserve alkalinity, and inhibitor concentrations, occurred after several hundred hours at temperatures of approx. 450/sup 0/K.

  20. Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHenry, E.R.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

  1. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  2. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  3. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiizu Nakanishi; Shin-ichiro Nagahiro; Namiko Mitarai

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a sever shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, instantaneous hardening upon external impact. Analysis of the model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits {\\it the shear thickening oscillation}, i.e. the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states. Results of numerical simulations are presented for one and two-dimensional systems.

  4. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  5. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X. [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Firouzjahi, H. [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Namjoo, M.H. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sasaki, M., E-mail: x.chen@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: mh.namjoo@ipm.ir, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  6. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  7. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  8. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  9. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  10. Noncommutative Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexios P. Polychronakos

    2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the connection between noncommutative gauge theory, matrix models and fluid mechanical systems. The noncommutative Chern-Simons description of the quantum Hall effect and bosonization of collective fermion states are used as specific examples.

  11. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  13. R fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Caimmi

    2007-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating figures with anisotropic random velocity component distributions and rotating figures with isotropic random velocity component distributions, make adjoints configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined and mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The definition of figure rotation is extended to R fluids. The generalized tensor virial equations are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002). The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components, implies the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components, implies the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic (imaginary) motion rotation kinetic energy. A procedure is sketched for deriving the spin parameter distribution (including imaginary rotation) from a sample of observed or simulated large-scale collisionless fluids i.e. galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  14. Serpentine metal gasket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothgeb, Timothy Moore (Norfolk, VA); Reece, Charles Edwin (Yorktown, VA)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

  15. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  17. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  18. Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    commercial application. Goal: Demonstrate feasibility of employing chemically reacting fluids (CRFW) as heat transfer fluids (HTF) for CSP systems operating at 650C-1200C....

  20. Simulating Fluids Exhibiting Microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... fluids containing elastic particles, and polymer fluids, all exhibit non-trivial macroscopic behavior due to interactions occurring on micro/mesoscopic scales.

  1. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  2. Coated metal fiber coalescing cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutz, W.D.; Swain, R.J.

    1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A cell is described for coalescing oil droplets dispersed in a water emulsion including an elongated perforated tube core into which the emulsion is injected, layers of oleophilic plastic covered metal mat wound about the core through which the emulsion is forced to pass, the fibers of the metal mat being covered by oleophilic plastic such as vinyl, acrylic, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, the metal being in the form of layers of expanded metal or metal fibers, either aluminum or stainless steel. In manufacturing the cell a helix wound wire is formed around the cylindrical plastic coated metal to retain it in place and resist pressure drop of fluid flowing through the metal fibers. In addition, the preferred arrangement includes the use of an outer sleeve formed of a mat of fibrous material such as polyester fibers, acrylic fibers, modacrylic fibers and mixtures thereof.

  3. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  4. Fluid transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  5. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  6. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Rudiger

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo-Fluid Systems, Modelica 2003 Conference, Linköping,H. Tummescheit: The Modelica Fluid and Media Library forThermo-Fluid Pipe Networks, Modelica 2006 Conference, Vi-

  7. Effects of polymerization and briquetting parameters on the tensile strength of briquettes formed from coal coke and aniline-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.; Simsek, T. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the utilization of aniline (C{sub 6}H{sub 7}N) formaldehyde (HCHO) resins as a binding agent of coke briquetting was investigated. Aniline (AN) formaldehyde (F) resins are a family of thermoplastics synthesized by condensing AN and F in an acid solution exhibiting high dielectric strength. The tensile strength sharply increases as the ratio of F to AN from 0.5 to 1.6, and it reaches the highest values between 1.6 and 2.2 F/AN ratio; it then slightly decreases. The highest tensile strength of F-AN resin-coke briquette (23.66 MN/m{sup 2}) was obtained from the run with 1.5 of F/AN ratio by using (NH4){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} catalyst at 310 K briquetting temperature. The tensile strength of F-AN resin-coke briquette slightly decreased with increasing the catalyst percent to 0.10%, and then it sharply decreased to zero with increasing the catalyst percent to 0.2%. The effect of pH on the tensile strength is irregular. As the pH of the mixture increases from 9.0 to 9.2, the tensile strength shows a sharp increase, and the curve reaches a plateau value between pH 9.3 and 9.9; then the tensile strength shows a slight increase after pH = 9.9.

  8. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The deposition of carbon from carbonaceous gaseous environments is prevalent in many chemical and petrochemical processes such as, hydrogen-, ammonia-, and methanol-reforming systems, syngas production systems, and iron-ore reduction plants. One of the major consequences of carbon deposition is the degradation of structural materials by a phenomenon known as ''metal dusting''. There are two major issues of importance in metal dusting. First is formation of coke and subsequent deposition of coke on metallic structural components. Second is the initiation and subsequent propagation of metal dusting degradation of the structural alloy. In the past, we reported on the mechanism for metal dusting of Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present metal dusting data on both Fe- and Ni-base alloys after exposure in high and atmospheric pressure environments that simulate the gas chemistry in operating hydrogen reformers. We have also measured the progression of pits by measuring the depth as a function of exposure time for a variety of Fe- and Ni-base structural alloys. We have clearly established the role of transport of iron in forming a non-protective spinel phase in the initiation process and presence of carbon transfer channels in the oxide scale for the continued propagation of pits, by nano-beam X-ray analysis using the advance photon source (APS), Raman scattering, and SEM/EDX analysis. In this report, we have developed correlations between weight loss and pit progression rates and evaluated the effects of carbon activity, system pressure, and alloy chemistry, on weight loss and pit propagation. To develop pit propagation data for the alloys without incurring substantial time for the initiation of pits, especially for the Ni-base alloys that exhibit incubation times of thousands of hours, a pre-pitting method has been developed. The pre-pitted alloys exhibited pit propagation rates similar to those of materials tested without pre-pitting. We have also developed a substantial body of metal-dusting data on the performance of Fe- and Ni-base weldments. During the course of this project, we have developed new Ni-base and Cu-base alloys and tested them in simulated metal dusting environments at 1 atm and at high pressures. Results clearly showed superior performance of both classes of alloys in resisting metal dusting. We also developed an approach to mitigate metal dusting by performing an intermediate oxidation step for extending the life of alloys in which metal dusting has initiated and pits are in progression. Finally, we have analyzed several components that have failed in plants such as hydrogen plant, pilot plant reformer, and a gas boiler.

  9. Graduate Studies Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storici, Francesca

    Graduate Studies Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Water Resources Engineering GRADUATE COURSESResourcesManagement · IntermediateFluidMechanics · AdvancedFluidMechanics · EnvironmentalFluidMechanics · AdvancedEnvironmental FluidMechanics · FluidMechanicsofOrganisms · OpenChannelHydraulics · SedimentTransport · ComputationalFluidMechanics

  10. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  11. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  12. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  13. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  14. Viscous fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2007-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly discuss the phenomenological theory of dissipative fluid. We also present some numerical results for hydrodynamic evolution of QGP fluid with dissipation due to shear viscosity only. Its effect on particle production is also studied.

  15. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  16. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Bigler, Nicolas (Morin Heights, CA); Arnaud, Guy (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  17. Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

  18. Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Stenkamp, Victoria S. (Richland, WA)

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

  19. Graduate Studies Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Laurence J.

    Graduate Studies Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Water Resources Engineering ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS AND WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING (EFMWR) The environmental fluid mechanics and water resources Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Engineering research focuses on turbulent entrainment, transport

  20. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  1. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. G. Ivanov

    2005-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two different methods to describe membrane (string) fluids, which use different field content. The relation between the methods is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  2. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  4. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  5. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  6. Purely radiative perfect fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Bastiaensen; H. R. Karimian; N. Van den Bergh; L. Wylleman

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study `purely radiative' (div E = div H = 0) and geodesic perfect fluids with non-constant pressure and show that the Bianchi class A perfect fluids can be uniquely characterized --modulo the class of purely electric and (pseudo-)spherically symmetric universes-- as those models for which the magnetic and electric part of the Weyl tensor and the shear are simultaneously diagonalizable. For the case of constant pressure the same conclusion holds provided one also assumes that the fluid is irrotational.

  7. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  8. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  9. MECH 386 INDUSTRIAL FLUID MECHANICS INDUSTRIAL FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MECH 386 ­ INDUSTRIAL FLUID MECHANICS 1 INDUSTRIAL FLUID MECHANICS MECH 386 Contact information Dr This course is an introduction to industrial fluid mechanics. According to J. C. R. Hunt (a famous fluid mechanics specialist): "industrial fluid mechanics broadly covers those aspects of the design, manufacture

  10. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  11. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Thomas W. (964 Cork Dr., Bethel Park, PA 15102); Hamill, Jr., Paul E. (R.D. #1, Box 173A1, Jeannette, PA 15644); Ozgu, Mustafa R. (790 Yorkshire Rd., Bethlehem, PA 18017); Padfield, Ralph C. (1918 Paul Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18018); Rego, Donovan N. (1703 W. Brown St., Allentown, PA 18104); Brita, Guido P. (3225 Edna Terrace Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18017)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  12. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance G. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  13. Microscale fluid transport using optically controlled marangoni effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G (Knoxville, TN); Passian, Ali (Knoxville, TN); Farahi, Rubye H (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Low energy light illumination and either a doped semiconductor surface or a surface-plasmon supporting surface are used in combination for manipulating a fluid on the surface in the absence of any applied electric fields or flow channels. Precise control of fluid flow is achieved by applying focused or tightly collimated low energy light to the surface-fluid interface. In the first embodiment, with an appropriate dopant level in the semiconductor substrate, optically excited charge carriers are made to move to the surface when illuminated. In a second embodiment, with a thin-film noble metal surface on a dispersive substrate, optically excited surface plasmons are created for fluid manipulation. This electrode-less optical control of the Marangoni effect provides re-configurable manipulations of fluid flow, thereby paving the way for reprogrammable microfluidic devices.

  14. Thermodynamic Model for Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Areas in Porous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (free) and isolated (entrapped) nonwetting fluids. The model is restricted to two-fluid systems in which (1) no significant conversion of mechanical work into heat occurs,...

  15. Method for absorbing an ion from a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Huizhen (Carlsbad, NM); Wang, Yifeng (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for absorbing an ion from a fluid by using dispersing an organic acid into an anion surfactant solution, mixing in a divalent-metal containing compound and a trivalent-metal containing compound and calcining the resulting solid layered double hydroxide product to form an absorbent material and then contacting the absorbent material with an aqueous solution of cations or anions to be absorbed.

  16. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  17. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  18. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  19. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  20. Circulating Fluid Bed Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraley, L. D.; Do, L. N.; Hsiao, K. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The circulating bed combustor represents an alternative concept of burning coal in fluid bed technology, which offers distinct advantages over both the current conventional fluidized bed combustion system and the pulverized coal boilers equipped...

  1. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Semans, Joseph P. (Uniontown, PA); Johnson, Peter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F. (Clairton, PA); Kromka, Joseph A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goron, Ronald H. (Connellsville, PA); Hay, George D. (Venetia, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  2. Phoresis in fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, Howard

    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise ...

  3. Valve for fluid control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  4. R3 fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Caimmi

    2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    With regard to large-scale astrophysical systems, the current paper deals with (i) formulation of tensor virial equations from the standpoint of analytical mechanics; (ii) investigation on the role of systematic and random motions for virial equilibrium configurations; (iii) extent to which systematic and random motions are equivalent in changing a fluid shape. The tensor virial equations are formulated using analytical mechanics, and the self potential-energy tensor is shown to be symmetric. The role of systematic and random motions in collisionless, ideal, self-gravitating fluids, is analysed in detail including radial and tangential velocity dispersion on the equatorial plane. R3 fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids in virial equilibrium, with systematic rotation around a principal axis of inertia, and ihe related virial equations are formulated. A unified theory of systematic and random motions is developed for R3 fluids, taking into consideration imaginary rotation. The effect of random motion excess is shown to be equivalent to an additional real or imaginary rotation, respectively, inducing flattening or elongation. R3 fluids are found to admit adjoint configurations with isotropic random velocity distribution. Further constraints are established on the amount of random velocity anisotropy along the principal axes, for triaxial configurations. A necessary condition is formulated for the occurrence of bifurcation points from axisymmetric to triaxial configurations in virial equilibrium, which is independent of the anisotropy parameters. In the special case of homeoidally striated Jacobi ellipsoid, some previously known results are reproduced.

  5. WDM school, January 14, 2008 Equation of State for Fluid Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 WDM school, January 14, 2008 Equation of State for Fluid Mercury Based on Interatomic Many, Fluid Metals (Princeton, 1999) elements Tc (K) Pc (bar) c (g/cm3) Mercury (Hg) Cesium (Cs) Rubidium (Rb.30 divalent monovalent (alkali) Importance of mercury -- lowest critical temperature -- critical point

  6. Lecture notes Introductory fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malham, Simon J.A.

    Lecture notes Introductory fluid mechanics Simon J.A. Malham Simon J.A. Malham (22nd February 2013 of fluid mechanics and along the way see lots of interesting applications. 2 Fluid flow 2.1 Flow A material essential to all modern car braking mechanisms. Fluids can be further subcatergorized. There are ideal

  7. Lecture notes Introductory fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malham, Simon J.A.

    Lecture notes Introductory fluid mechanics Simon J.A. Malham Simon J.A. Malham (17th March 2014 of fluid mechanics and along the way see lots of interesting applications. 2 Fluid flow, the Continuum are generally incompressible--a feature essential to all modern car braking mechanisms. Fluids can be further

  8. Fluid Mechanics and Homeland Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    Fluid Mechanics and Homeland Security Gary S. Settles Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department. 2006. 38:87­110 The Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is online at fluid.annualreviews.org doi: 10 security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research

  9. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, N.G.; Wai, C.M.; Lin, Y.; Kwang, Y.H.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO{sub 2}, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO{sub 2} and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process. 1 fig.

  10. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Lin, Yuehe (Moscow, ID); Kwang, Yak Hwa (Moscow, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  11. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  12. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report. Report No. 5 for reporting period May 1, 1999 through August 1, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high-temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. The objective of work during this period was to enhance the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the probe measurement. Testing identified that the primary source of signal noise was traced to imperfections in the sacrificial stand-off, which was formed using a casting procedure. Laminations, voids, and impurities contained in the casting result in attenuation and dispersion of the ultrasonic signal. This report describes the work performed to optimize the signal conductance of the sacrificial stand-off.

  13. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  14. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  15. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  16. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance.

  17. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance. 9 figs.

  18. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance.

  19. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  20. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Eric R. (Redwood City, CA); Perl, Martin L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  1. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  2. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  3. View dependent fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barran, Brian Arthur

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    VIEW DEPENDENT FLUID DYNAMICS A Thesis by BRIAN ARTHUR BARRAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2006 Major Subject: Visualization... Sciences VIEW DEPENDENT FLUID DYNAMICS A Thesis by BRIAN ARTHUR BARRAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Donald...

  4. TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  5. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masafumi Fukuma; Yuho Sakatani

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski spacetime become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  6. Supersymmetric Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jackiw; A. P. Polychronakos

    2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    When anticommuting Grassmann variables are introduced into a fluid dynamical model with irrotational velocity and no vorticity, the velocity acquires a nonvanishing curl and the resultant vorticity is described by Gaussian potentials formed from the Grassmann variables. Upon adding a further specific interaction with the Grassmann degrees of freedom, the model becomes supersymmetric.

  7. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  8. Fluid Flow Modeling in Fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Sudipta

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study fluid flow in fractures using numerical simulation and address the challenging issue of hydraulic property characterization in fractures. The methodology is based on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ...

  9. Lecture notes Ideal fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malham, Simon J.A.

    Lecture notes Ideal fluid mechanics Simon J.A. Malham Simon J.A. Malham (6th Feb 2010) Maxwell and in the process learn about the subtleties of fluid mechanics and along the way see lots of interesting are generally incompressible--a feature essential to all modern car braking mechanisms. Fluids can be further

  10. Fluid Mechanics 25 March 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    Journal of Fluid Mechanics 25 March 2009 VOLUME 623 Journal of Fluid Mechanics 25 Mar. 2009 VOLUME 623 #12;J. Fluid Mech. (2009), vol. 623, pp. 75­84. c 2009 Cambridge University Press doi:10.1017/SLCS and the capture region enable analysis of the effect of several physiological and mechanical parameters

  11. Geochemical tracers of processes affecting the formation of seafloor hydrothermal fluids and deposits in the Manus back-arc basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craddock, Paul R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systematic differences in trace element compositions (rare earth element (REE), heavy metal, metalloid concentrations) of seafloor vent fluids and related deposits from hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin ...

  12. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

  13. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  14. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  15. Oscillating fluid power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  16. Fluid-fluid versus fluid-solid demixing in mixtures of parallel hard hypercubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis Lafuente; Yuri Martinez-Raton

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that the increase of the spatial dimensionality enhances the fluid-fluid demixing of a binary mixture of hard hyperspheres, i.e. the demixing occurs for lower mixture size asymmetry as compared to the three-dimensional case. However, according to simulations, in the latter dimension the fluid-fluid demixing is metastable with respect to the fluid-solid transition. According to the results obtained from approximations to the equation of state of hard hyperspheres in higher dimensions, the fluid-fluid demixing might becomes stable for high enough dimension. However, this conclusion is rather speculative since none of the above works have taken into account the stability of the crystalline phase (nor by a minimization of a given density functional, neither spinodal calculations or MC simulations). Of course, the lack of results is justified by the difficulty for performing density functional calculations or simulations in high dimensions and, in particular, for highly asymmetric binary mixtures. In the present work, we will take advantage of a well tested theoretical tool, namely the fundamental measure density functional theory for parallel hard hypercubes (in the continuum and in the hypercubic lattice). With this, we have calculated the fluid-fluid and fluid-solid spinodals for different spatial dimensions. We have obtained, no matter of the dimensionality, the mixture size asymmetry nor the polydispersity (included as a bimodal distribution function centered around the asymmetric edge-lengths), that the fluid-fluid critical point is always located above the fluid-solid spinodal. In conclusion, these results point to the existence of demixing between at least one solid phase rich in large particles and one fluid phase rich in small ones, preempting a fluid-fluid demixing, independently of the spatial dimension or the polydispersity.

  17. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  18. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Demonstrate geothermal mineral extraction; Demonstrate technical and economic feasibility; Produce products for market development; Generate operational data and scale up data so a commercial scale plant can be designed and built.

  19. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health and Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ)Department of Energy Metalof

  20. Drilling fluids and reserve pit toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuterman, A.J.J.; Jones, F.V.; Chandler, J.E. (M-I Drilling Fluids Co. (US))

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling fluids are now classified as exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste laws. Since 1986, however, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been studying reserve pit contents to determine whether oilfield wastes should continue under this exemption. Concerns regarding reserve pit contents and disposal practices have resulted in state and local governmental regulations that limit traditional methods of construction, closure, and disposal of reserve pit sludge and water. A great deal of attention and study has been focused on drilling fluids that eventually reside in reserve pits. In-house studies show that waste from water-based drilling fluids plays a limited role (if any) in possible hazards associated with reserve pits. Reserve pit water samples and pit sludge was analyzed and collated. Analyses show that water-soluble heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn and Mn) in reserve pits are generally undetectable or, if found in the total analysis, are usually bound to clays or organics too tightly to exceed the limitations as determined by the EPA toxicity leachate test. The authors' experience is that most contamination associated with reserve pits involves high salt content from produced waters and/or salt formations, lead contamination from pipe dope, or poorly designed pits, which could allow washouts into surface waters or seepage into groundwater sources. The authors' analyses show that reserve its associated with water-based drilling fluid operations should not be classified as hazardous; however, careful attention attention should be paid to reserve pit construction and closure to help avoid any adverse environmental impact.

  1. An improved viscosity equation to characterize shear-thinning fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved viscosity equation is proposed for shear-thinning polymer solutions, using a kinetic approach to model the rate of formation and loss of interactive bonding during shear flow. The bonds are caused by temporary polymer entanglements in polymer solutions, and by coordination bonding in metal ion cross-linked gels. The equation characterizes the viscosity of shear-thinning fluids over a wide range of shear rates, from the zero shear region through to infinite shear viscosity. The equation has been used to characterize fluid data from a wide range of fluids. Recent work indicates that a range of polymer solutions, polymer-based drilling fluids and frac-gels do not have a measurable yield stress, and that the equations which use extrapolated values of yield stress can be significantly in error. The new equation is compared with the Carreau and Cross equations, using the correlation procedure of Churchill and Usagi. It gives a significantly better fit to the data (by up to 50%) over a wide range of shear rates. The improved equation can be used for evaluating the fluid viscosity during the flow of polymeric fluids, in a range of oilfield applications including drilling, completion, stimulation and improved recovery (IOR) processes.

  2. Department of Ecosystem Science & SOIL RESEARCH CLUSTER LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    , Organometallics, Gasoline and fuels, Coal and coke, Graphite and carbides, Metals and alloys · Operator: Julie

  3. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopmentTechnologies |Charles Page -toMetabolic PathwaysMetal

  4. Graphite fountain: Modeling of growth on transition metals under a thermal Jongpil Ye and Rodney S. Ruoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    petroleum cokes and coal tar pitch at high temperatures around 3000 K to 3300 K.3 Uniaxial stress is also

  5. LUBRICANTS AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineer Manual Department

    Contents) Major General, USA Chief of Staff i Table of Contents Purpose ........................................................ 1-1 1-1 Applicability .................................................... 1-2 1-1 References ...................................................... 1-3 1-1 Distribution Statement ............................................. 1-4 1-1 Scope ......................................................... 1-5 1-2 Friction ........................................................ 2-1 2-1 Wear .......................................................... 2-2 2-4 Lubrication and Lubricants ......................................... 2-3 2-6 Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film Lubrication ............................... 2-4 2-6 Boundary Lubrication ............................................. 2-5 2-8 Extreme Pressure (EP) Lubrication ................................... 2-6 2-9 Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) Lubrication ................................ 2-7 2-9 Oil R

  6. Mixture of anisotropic fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wojciech Florkowski; Radoslaw Maj

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  7. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  8. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  9. Progressive flow cracking of coal/oil mixtures with high metals content catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandona, O.J.

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for economically producing liquid fuel products at least partly from coal. It comprises: introducing a progressive flow catalytic cracking zone a charge stock comprising a pumpable mixture of solid, particulate coal and carbo-metallic oil and forming within the zone a stream having a linear velocity of at least about 25 feet per second. The stream comprising the charge stock and a hydrocarbon zeolite cracking catalyst promoting dehydrogenation of the charge stock; forming mobile hydrogen within the zone by the dehydrogenation; introducing the mobile hydrogen into the stream by dehydrogenation of the charge stock in the absence of added molecular hydrogen, thereby producing liquid products from the charge stock while laying down coke on the hydrocarbon cracking catalyst in the range of about 0.3% to about 3% and thereby producing spent catalyst; separating from the spent catalyst the liquid products.

  10. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of filtercake cleanup techniques and metallic-screens plugging mechanisms in horizontal wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Orrego, Gloria Stella

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were conducted to evaluate the plugging mechanisms of metallic screens after cleaning up the altercate developed on an unconsolidated core by two exiting drill-in fluids (DIF's). Two simulated drill solids, clay or 75-[]m reservoir sand were...

  12. Experimental verification of the opposite effect of fluid loading on the velocity of dilatational waves in thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    , optical fibers, and reinforce- ment filaments used in epoxy, metal, and ceramic matrix composites Directorate, Metals, Ceramics, and NDE Division, WPAFB, Ohio 45433-7817 Peter B. Nagy Department of Aerospace of composite laminates, when the density ratio between the solid and the fluid is relatively low, the change

  13. Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

  14. Apparatus And Method For Producing Single Crystal Metallic Objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Shyh-Chin (Latham, NY); Gigliotti, Jr., Michael Francis X. (Scotia, NY); Rutkowski, Stephen Francis (Duanesburg, NY); Petterson, Roger John (Fultonville, NY); Svec, Paul Steven (Scotia, NY)

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mold is provided for enabling casting of single crystal metallic articles including a part-defining cavity, a sorter passage positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the part-defining cavity, and a seed cavity positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the sorter passage. The sorter passage includes a shape suitable for encouraging a single crystal structure in solidifying molten metal. Additionally, a portion of the mold between the sorter passage and the part-defining cavity includes a notch for facilitating breakage of a cast article proximate the notch during thermal stress build-up, so as to prevent mold breakage or the inclusion of part defects.

  15. Spin and Madelung fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Salesi

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting from the Pauli current we obtain the decomposition of the non-relativistic local velocity in two parts: one parallel and the other orthogonal to the momentum. The former is recognized to be the ``classical'' part, that is the velocity of the center-of-mass, and the latter the ``quantum'' one, that is the velocity of the motion in the center-of-mass frame (namely, the internal ``spin motion'' or {\\em Zitterbewegung}). Inserting the complete expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the classical non-relativistic (i.e., Newtonian) Lagrangian, we straightforwardly derive the so-called ``quantum potential'' associated to the Madelung fluid. In such a way, the quantum mechanical behaviour of particles appears to be strictly correlated to the existence of spin and Zitterbewegung.

  16. Fluid-filled bomb-disrupting apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for disarming improvised bombs are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a fluid-filled bottle or container made of plastic or another soft material which contains a fixed or adjustable, preferably sheet explosive. The charge is fired centrally at its apex and can be adjusted to propel a fluid projectile that is broad or narrow, depending upon how it is set up. In one embodiment, the sheet explosive is adjustable so as to correlate the performance of the fluid projectile to the disarming needs for the improvised explosive device (IED). Common materials such as plastic water bottles or larger containers can be used, with the sheet explosive or other explosive material configured in a general chevron-shape to target the projectile toward the target. In another embodiment, a thin disk of metal is conformably mounted with the exterior of the container and radially aligned with the direction of fire of the fluid projectile. Depending on the configuration and the amount of explosive and fluid used, a projectile is fired at the target that has sufficient energy to penetrate rigid enclosures from fairly long stand-off and yet is focused enough to be targeted to specific portions of the IED for disablement.

  17. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  18. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  19. BE436 FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS (Spring 2014) Fluid mechanics is the study of how and why fluids move. The behavior of fluids plays a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    BE436 FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS (Spring 2014) Fluid mechanics is the study of how and why fluids move. The behavior of fluids plays a fundamental role in the function of living biological, and microfluidic devices. Course info: We will examine all of the usual topics in fluid mechanics. This course

  20. Fluid inflation with brane correction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratbay Myrzakulov; Lorenzo Sebastiani

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the possibility to have inflation from inhomogeneous viscous fluids by taking into account the brane correction coming from string-inspired five dimensional Einsten's gravity. We have realized several kinds of viable solutions for early-time acceleration. At the end of inflation, the classical Einstein's gravity is recovered and fluids produce decelerated expansion.

  1. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  2. LECTURES IN ELEMENTARY FLUID DYNAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonough, James M.

    LECTURES IN ELEMENTARY FLUID DYNAMICS: Physics, Mathematics and Applications J. M. McDonough Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0503 c 1987, 1990, 2002, 2004, 2009 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Importance of Fluids

  3. Process and apparatus for cooling during regeneration of fluid cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, P.W.; Raiche, H.A.; Harness, R.L.; Quodala, G.M.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for the regeneration of coke contaminated fluid cracking catalyst. The combination comprises: A. an elongated upflow regeneration vessel, containing a dense bed of catalyst and a regeneration gas grid located within the bed; B. a vertical heat exchanger mounted to the lower side of the vessel adapted to receive hot catalyst directly from the regeneration vessel and adapted to cool the hot catalyst as it passes downwardly through the exchanger; C. a Y junction positioned below the lower end of the heat exchanger; D. a first conduit means for passing cool catalyst downwardly to the Y junction; E. second conduit means for passing cool catalyst from the Y junction upwardly into the dense bed of catalyst in the regeneration vessel, and F. regeneration gas supply means, separate from the second conduit means, for supplying regeneration gas to the gas grid; G. lift gas supply means, separate from the regeneration gas supply means, for introducing lift gas into the second conduit means so as to lift the cool catalyst up through the second conduit means to the regenerator.

  4. Factorial tests on process operating conditions and bed fines on the circulating fluid bed performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadle, L.J.; Spenik, James; Sarra, Angela; Ontko, J.S.

    2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A cold-flow circulating fluid bed (CFB) was operated using coke breeze with a packed-bed standpipe over a range of riser and standpipe air flows. The bed materials were selected to simulate solids flow in a CFB gasifier (carbonizer) but are generally relevant to most CFB processes. CFB tests were conducted primarily in the transport mode with sufficient gas velocity to achieve a uniform axial riser pressure profiles over most of the riser height. The independent variables tested included the riser gas velocity, aeration at the base of the standpipe, and concentration of fines (average particle size). The solids inventory and riser outlet pressure were maintained constant. Factorial tests were conducted in randomized order and in duplicate to provide and an unbiased estimate of the error. Fines were tested as a blocked variable. The gas velocity, standpipe aeration, and relative amount of fine particles were all found to be significant factors affecting both the riser solids holdup and solids flux. The riser pressure drop and mass circulation increased at the higher level of fines contrary to some earlier reports in the literature. The riser pressure drop was fitted using the general linear model (GLM), which explained more than 98% of the variation within the data, while a GLM for the mass circulation rate explained over 90%. The uncertainty of process operating variables was characterized independently through a series of duplicated flow proving experiments.

  5. Inserting Group Variables into Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jackiw

    2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid, like a quark-gluon plasma, may possess degrees of freedom indexed by a group variable, which retains its identity even in the fluid/continuum description. Conventional Eulerian fluid mechanics is extended to encompass this possibility.

  6. Finite element simulation of electrorheological fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhyou, Chanryeol, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids change their flow properties dramatically when an electric field is applied. These fluids are usually composed of dispersions of polarizable particles in an insulating base fluid or composed ...

  7. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  8. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  9. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D. (1426 Socastee Dr., North Augusta, SC 29841); Sweeney, Chad E. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907-3036); Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel (2715 Margate Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  10. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  11. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  12. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  13. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

  14. Violation of Bell's inequality in fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Brady; Ross Anderson

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a classical fluid mechanical system can violate Bell's inequality because the fluid motion is correlated over large distances.

  15. Fluid Gravity Engineering Rocket motor flow analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Mahesh

    Fluid Gravity Engineering Capability · Rocket motor flow analysis -Internal (performance) -External young scientists/engineers Fluid Gravity Engineering Ltd #12;

  16. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  17. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NV)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  18. Nonlinear Fluid Dynamics from Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Veronika E Hubeny; Shiraz Minwalla; Mukund Rangamani

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Black branes in AdS5 appear in a four parameter family labeled by their velocity and temperature. Promoting these parameters to Goldstone modes or collective coordinate fields -- arbitrary functions of the coordinates on the boundary of AdS5 -- we use Einstein's equations together with regularity requirements and boundary conditions to determine their dynamics. The resultant equations turn out to be those of boundary fluid dynamics, with specific values for fluid parameters. Our analysis is perturbative in the boundary derivative expansion but is valid for arbitrary amplitudes. Our work may be regarded as a derivation of the nonlinear equations of boundary fluid dynamics from gravity. As a concrete application we find an explicit expression for the expansion of this fluid stress tensor including terms up to second order in the derivative expansion.

  19. The Quantum Theory of Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Gripaios; Dave Sutherland

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behaviour is radically different to both classical fluids and quantum fields, with interesting physical consequences for fluids in the low temperature regime.

  20. Fluid Mixing from Viscous Fingering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jha, Birendra

    Mixing efficiency at low Reynolds numbers can be enhanced by exploiting hydrodynamic instabilities that induce heterogeneity and disorder in the flow. The unstable displacement of fluids with different viscosities, or ...

  1. Bio-inspired fluid locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Brian, 1980-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed several novel methods of locomotion at low Reynolds number, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids: Robosnails 1 and 2, which operate on a lubrication layer, and the three-link swimmer which moves ...

  2. Structural performance of metallic sandwich beams with hollow truss cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    the core [13,14]. Any open cell metallic structure that allows coolant flow can be used as a heat exchange to possess high thermal conductivity and efficiently transfer heat to the cooling fluid [15,16]. One approach, high heat fluxes are deposited onto one of the face sheets of a sandwich panel; the heat is conducted

  3. Heavy metal biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  4. LETTER TO THE EDITOR AC Electric-Field-Induced Fluid Flow in Microelectrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    glass substrates. The electrodes were made from a series of metal layers: 10 nm Ti, 10 nm Pd, 100 nm Au relaxation time, with a reproducible pattern occurring close to and across the electrode surface. This paper reports measurements of the fluid velocity as a function of frequency and position across the electrode

  5. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA); Harris, Robert V. (Pasco, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  6. FLUID MECHANICS AND MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES PHILIP BOYLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyland, Philip

    FLUID MECHANICS AND MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES PHILIP BOYLAND Department of Mathematics University in the most basic models of fluid motion. 1. Introduction Fluid mechanics is the source of many of the ideas, Lagrange, . . .. Mathematicians have abstracted and vastly generalized ba- sic fluid mechanical concepts

  7. Mechanical Engineering ME 3720 FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panchagnula, Mahesh

    Mechanical Engineering ME 3720 FLUID MECHANICS Pre-requisite: ME 2330 Co-requisite: ME 3210) to develop an understanding of the physical mechanisms and the mathematical models of fluid mechanics of fluid mechanics problems in engineering practice. The basic principles of fluid mechanics

  8. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  9. Fluid Mechanics IB Lecturer: Dr Natalia Berloff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -efficient aircraft design, hydroelectric power, chemical processing, jet-driven cutting tools · our fluid environment

  10. Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    - gineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1637366] Subject terms: 157-nm lithography; immersion fluid; perfluoropolyether

  11. Coking Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil andMCKEESPORTfor the

  12. STUDY OF WORKING FLUID MIXTURES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE WORKING FLUIDS FOR COMPRESSOR DRIVEN SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    FILE COPY DO NOT REWMOVE STUDY OF WORKING FLUID MIXTURES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE WORKING FLUIDS is the Step 2 product of the project "Study of working fluid mixtures and high temperature working fluids-ECONOMICAL EVALUATIONS ON COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS WORKING WITH NONAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES OF FLUIDS 79 6.1 Introduction 79 6

  13. Maxwell's fluid model of magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Brady; Ross Anderson

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1861, Maxwell derived two of his equations of electromagnetism by modelling a magnetic line of force as a `molecular vortex' in a fluid-like medium. Later, in 1980, Berry and colleagues conducted experiments on a `phase vortex', a wave geometry in a fluid which is analogous to a magnetic line of force and also exhibits behaviour corresponding to the quantisation of magnetic flux. Here we unify these approaches by writing down a solution to the equations of motion for a compressible fluid which behaves in the same way as a magnetic line of force. We then revisit Maxwell's historical inspiration, namely Faraday's 1846 model of light as disturbances in lines of force. Using our unified model, we show that such disturbances resemble photons: they are polarised, absorbed discretely, obey Maxwell's full equations of electromagnetism to first order, and quantitatively reproduce the correlation that is observed in the Bell tests.

  14. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  15. Holographic plasma and anyonic fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel K. Brattan; Gilad Lifschytz

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We use alternative quantisation of the $D3/D5$ system to explore properties of a strongly coupled charged plasma and strongly coupled anyonic fluids. The $S$-transform of the $D3/D5$ system is used as a model for charged matter interacting with a U(1) gauge field in the large coupling regime, and we compute the dispersion relationship of the propagating electromagnetic modes as the density and temperature are changed. A more general $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ transformation gives a strongly interacting anyonic fluid, and we study its transport properties as we change the statistics of the anyons and the background magnetic field.

  16. Viscosity of a nucleonic fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aram Z. Mekjian

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The viscosity of nucleonic matter is studied both classically and in a quantum mechanical description. The collisions between particles are modeled as hard sphere scattering as a baseline for comparison and as scattering from an attractive square well potential. Properties associated with the unitary limit are developed which are shown to be approximately realized for a system of neutrons. The issue of near perfect fluid behavior of neutron matter is remarked on. Using some results from hard sphere molecular dynamics studies near perfect fluid behavior is discussed further.

  17. Non-Newtonian fluid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osinski, Charles Anthony

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    zero and unity. The Ostwald- de Waele Equation (4), commonly known as the power law, is sometimes used to describe fluid behavior of this type. The rheological equation is (4) where the parameters "k" and "n" are constant for a particular fluid... be extended to include Reynolds numbers and the type of flow determined to be laminar and/or turbulent. It is assumed that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at a Reynolds number of 2100, the numeric distribution of Reynolds numbers...

  18. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  19. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  20. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Hackman, Donald J. (Columbus, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A housing for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent.

  1. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, J.P. Jr.; DeRoos, B.G.; Hackman, D.J.

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A housing is disclosed for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent. 9 figs.

  2. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  3. Quantum fluids in the Kaehler parametrization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Holender; M. A. Santos; I. V. Vancea

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we address the problem of the quantization of the perfect relativistic fluids formulated in terms of the K\\"{a}hler parametrization. This fluid model describes a large set of interesting systems such as the power law energy density fluids, Chaplygin gas, etc. In order to maintain the generality of the model, we apply the BRST method in the reduced phase space in which the fluid degrees of freedom are just the fluid potentials and the fluid current is classically resolved in terms of them. We determine the physical states in this setting, the time evolution and the path integral formulation.

  4. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  5. Seal for fluid forming tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich (Beverly Hills, MI); Bonnen, John Joseph Francis (Milford, MI)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  6. Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Fluid Mechanics Review Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering March 22, 2013 #12;Morning (Fluid Mechanics) A. Flow measurement B. Fluid properties C. Fluid, and compressors K. Non-Newtonian flow L. Flow through packed beds Fluids and FE #12;#12;#12;Fluids § Fluids

  7. Visually simulating realistic fluid motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naithani, Priyanka

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's second law of motion and Conservation of Mass, which leads to the continuity equation. Newton's second law states that the total force F, acting on an element equals mass m times the element's acceleration a. In the case of fluids we do not consider...

  8. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, Steven N. (9504 Lona La., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Walters, Robert N. (11872 LaGrange St., Boise, ID 83709)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  9. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  10. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  11. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  12. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given temperature, an increase in {zeta} implies that the activation energy is smaller and thus, the reaction ra

  13. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  14. Phenomenology and simulations of active fluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjhung, Elsen

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active fluids are an interesting new class of non-equilibrium systems in physics. In such fluids, the system is forced out of equilibrium by the individual active particles - in contrast to driven systems where the system ...

  15. Quantifying the stimuli of photorheological fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Sarah Woodring

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a model to predict the dynamics of photorheological fluids and, more generally, photoresponsive fluids for monochromatic and polychromatic light sources. Derived from first principles, the model relates the ...

  16. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  17. Fluid Flow Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Sudipta

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to analyze fluid flow in fractured reservoirs. In most petroleum reservoirs, particularly carbonate reservoirs and some tight sands, natural fractures play a critical role in controlling fluid ...

  18. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Alper, Naum I. (Monroeville, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  19. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Attachment of Palladium Nanoparticles on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Attachment of Palladium Nanoparticles on Aligned Carbon Nanotubes. Supercritical Fluid Attachment of Palladium Nanoparticles on Aligned Carbon Nanotubes. Abstract: Nanocomposite...

  1. Sequential Extraction Versus Comprehensive Characterization of Heavy Metal Species in Brownfield Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Williamson, Connie A.; Collins, W. Keith; Dahlin, David C.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of sequential extraction as a means to determine species of heavy-metals was examined by a study on soil samples from two Superfund sites: the National Lead Company site in Pedricktown, NJ, and the Roebling Steel, Inc., site in Florence, NJ. Data from a standard sequential extraction procedure were compared to those from a comprehensive study that combined optical- and scanning-electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analyses. The study shows that larger particles of contaminants, encapsulated contaminants, and/or man-made materials such as slags, coke, metals, and plastics are subject to incasement, non-selectivity, and redistribution in the sequential extraction process. The results indicate that standard sequential extraction procedures that were developed for characterizing species of contaminants in river sediments may be unsuitable for stand-alone determinative evaluations of contaminant species in industrial-site materials. However, if employed as part of a comprehensive, site-specific characterization study, sequential extraction could be a very useful tool.

  2. Harmonic Fluids Changxi Zheng Doug L. James

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Harmonic Fluids Changxi Zheng Doug L. James Cornell University Abstract Fluid sounds- ing. Furthermore, while offline applications can rely on talented foley artists to "cook up" plausible for vortex-based fluid sounds [Dobashi et al. 2003] and solid bodies [O'Brien et al. 2001; James et al. 2006

  3. 2014 GRADUATE STUDIES ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    for Civil and Environmental Engineers · Stochastic Hydrology · Water Resources Management · Fluid Mechanics2014 GRADUATE STUDIES ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS AND WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS SELECTED COURSES FACILITIES The Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Water Resources program at the Georgia

  4. Journal of Fluid Mechanics Hesitant Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Journal of Fluid Mechanics Focus luids on F Hesitant Nature E. VILLERMAUX Aix-Marseille Universit0022112009991303 1 #12;Journal of Fluid Mechanics Focus luids on F 1 mm Figure 1. The `gobbling' phenomenon). J. Fluid Mech. (2009), vol. 636, pp. 1­4. c Cambridge University Press 2009 doi:10.1017/S

  5. MECH 502: Fluid Mechanics Winter semester 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MECH 502: Fluid Mechanics Winter semester 2010 Instructor: I.A. Frigaard Times: Tuesdays week of semester. Location: CHBE 103 Synopsis: This course will focus primarily on fluid mechanics will be to look at fluid mechanics fundamentals, and at the mathematical modeling & analysis of simplified flow

  6. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  7. Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steels, Luc

    Chapter 10 Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots Luc Steels1,2, Joachim De Beule3, and Pieter and P. Wellens (2012). Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots. In Luc Steels and Manfred Hild (Eds game experiments reported in this book. This framework is called Fluid Construction Grammar (FCG

  8. Possible Routes to Frictionless Transport of Electronic Fluids in High-Temperature Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zotin K-H Chu

    2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric-field-driven transport of electronic fluids in metallic glasses as well as three-dimensional amorphous superconductors are investigated by using the verified approach which has been successfully adopted to study the critical transport of glassy solid helium in very low temperature environment. The critical temperatures related to the nearly frictionless transport of electronic fluids were found to be directly relevant to the superconducting temperature of amorphous superconductors after selecting specific activation energies. Our results imply that optimal shear-thinning is an effective way to reach high-temperature charged superfluidity or superconductivity.

  9. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 2011; 00:123

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 2011; 00 for the treatment of discontinuous pressures in multi­fluid flows Roberto F. Ausas1 , Gustavo C. Buscaglia1 WORDS: Multi­fluids, Two­phase flows, Embedded interfaces, Finite element method, Surface tension

  10. Fall 2011 ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics ENG ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fall 2011 ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics ENG ME 542 Advanced Fluid Mechanics Instructor: M. S. Howe EMA 218 mshowe@bu.edu This course is intended to consolidate your knowledge of fluid mechanics specialized courses on fluid mechanics, acoustics and aeroacoustics. Outline syllabus: Equations of motion

  11. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 24, 043102 (2012) A numerical investigation of the fluid mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audoly, Basile

    PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 24, 043102 (2012) A numerical investigation of the fluid mechanical sewing or jet of liquid falling onto a fixed surface is one of the simplest situations in fluid mechanics, yet by Chiu-Webster and Lister9 (henceforth CWL), who called it the "fluid mechanical sewing machine

  12. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 -rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (iCFD) 424512.0 E, 5 sp / 3 sw 1. Introduction; Fluid dynamics (lecture 1 of 5) Ron Zevenhoven Ã?bo to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz april 2013 Ã?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering

  13. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, Lamar T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  14. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  15. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  16. Fluid dynamics on sieve trays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hag, M.A.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of fluid properties on the hydrodynamics of sieve tray columns. The study showed that changes in liquid viscosity influenced froth height, while changes in liquid surface tension and density influenced total pressure drop across the trays. Liquid holdup was independent of these solution properties. The liquid systems used for the study were: water/glycerol for viscosity, water/ethanol for surface tension and methanol/chloroform for density.

  17. Electrokinetic micro-fluid mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for efficiently and rapidly mixing liquids in a system operating in the creeping flow regime such as would be encountered in capillary-based systems. By applying an electric field to each liquid, the present invention is capable of mixing together fluid streams in capillary-based systems, where mechanical or turbulent stirring cannot be used, to produce a homogeneous liquid.

  18. Fluid dynamics kill Wyoming icicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, R.D.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of a blowout in which a portion of the drill collar string was extending through the rotary table and into the derrick was compounded by ice building up on the derrick and substructure. However, the momentum kill procedure proved successful. Topics considered in this paper include oil wells, natural gas wells, sleeves, rotary drills, drilling rigs, fluid mechanics, occupational safety, blowouts, drill pipes, rotary drilling, ice removal, and freezing.

  19. Cosmological perturbations for imperfect fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Giovannini

    2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Interacting fluids, endowed with bulk viscous stresses, are discussed in a unified perspective with the aim of generalizing the treatment of cosmological perturbation theory to the case where both fluctuating decay rates and fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficients are simultaneously present in the relativistic plasma. A gauge-invariant treatment of the qualitatively new phenomena arising in this context is provided. In a complementary approach, faithful gauge-fixed descriptions of the gravitational and hydrodynamical fluctuations are developed and exploited. To deepen the interplay between bulk viscous stresses and fluctuating decay rates, illustrative examples are proposed and discussed both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the coupled evolution of curvature and entropy fluctuations when, in the relativistic plasma, at least one of the interacting fluids possesses a fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficient. It is argued that this class of models may be usefully employed as an effective description of the decay of the inflaton as well as of other phenomena involving imperfect relativistic fluids.

  20. Rice Hull Silica, A Silicon Carbide Precursor For Collagen, Lignin And Silicon Metal Powder Bindered Anthracite Briquettes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiles, Allura

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Foundry coke is currently the primary energy source of U.S. iron foundries employing cupolas to produce iron. The availability, cost and environmental impact of this… (more)

  1. Locomotion in complex fluids: Integral theorems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Lauga

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological fluids encountered by self-propelled cells display complex microstructures and rheology. We consider here the general problem of low-Reynolds number locomotion in a complex fluid. {Building on classical work on the transport of particles in viscoelastic fluids,} we demonstrate how to mathematically derive three integral theorems relating the arbitrary motion of an isolated organism to its swimming kinematics {in a non-Newtonian fluid}. These theorems correspond to three situations of interest, namely (1) squirming motion in a linear viscoelastic fluid, (2) arbitrary surface deformation in a weakly non-Newtonian fluid, and (3) small-amplitude deformation in an arbitrarily non-Newtonian fluid. Our final results, valid for a wide-class of {swimmer geometry,} surface kinematics and constitutive models, at most require mathematical knowledge of a series of Newtonian flow problems, and will be useful to quantity the locomotion of biological and synthetic swimmers in complex environments.

  2. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

  3. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Rigby, ID)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  4. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  5. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid therebetween; e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits.

  6. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, T.D.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: (a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; (b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; (c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; (d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid there between; (e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; (f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; (g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; (h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; (i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and (j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits. 6 figs.

  7. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  8. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  9. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  10. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  11. Fluid cooled vehicle drive module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric vehicle drive includes a support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EM/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  12. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    ) Type of phytoremediation Cost effective form of environmental remediation (Glass 1999) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al -using hyperaccumulator plant biomass to produce a bio-ore for commercial use -Li et al. look at using Ni

  13. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, II, Thomas P. (Aiken, SC); Purohit, Jwalit J. (Evans, GA); Fazio, John M. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  14. On the equivalence of nonadiabatic fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Barreto

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we show how an anisotropic fluid in the diffusion limit can be equivalent to an isotropic fluid in the streaming out limit, in spherical symmetry. For a particular equation of state this equivalence is total, from one fluid we can obtain the other and vice versa. A numerical master model is presented, based on a generic equation of state, in which only quantitative differences are displayed between both nonadiabatic fluids. From a deeper view, other difference between fluids is shown as an asymmetry that can be overcome if we consider the appropriate initial-boundary conditions. Equivalence in this context can be considered as a first order method of approximation to study dissipative fluids.

  15. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  16. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  17. Process for retarding fluid flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1989-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of fluid in a subterranean formation, comprising: (a) introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into a subterranean formation, the gel-forming composition being operable when gelled in the formation for retarding the flow of fluid therein. The gel-forming composition consists of: i. a first substance dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution, the first substance being selected from the group consisting of polyvivyl alcohols, and mixtures thereof, wherein the gel-forming composition contains an amount of the first substance of from about 0.5 to about 5 weight percent of the gel-forming composition, and ii. an effective amount of glutaraldehyde which is operable for forming a weakly acidic condition having a pH from about 5.5 to less than 7 in the gel-forming composition and also operable for promoting crosslinking of the first substance and glutaraldehyde and for forming a gel from the gel-forming composition under the weakly acidic condition within a period of time no greater than about 5 days without adding an acidic catalyst to the gel-forming composition to lower the pH of the gel-forming composition below about 5.5.

  18. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, K.M.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

  19. Sohn International Symposium, 27-31 Aug. 06, San Diego. Proceedings edited by F. Kongoli and R.G. Reddy, TMS, vol. 1, pp. 141-153.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and reduction, the oxidation of metals, the pyrolysis of coal, the oxidation of coke. In most cases the kinetic

  20. System and method for filling a plurality of isolated vehicle fluid circuits through a common fluid fill port

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Scott C; Fansler, Douglas

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A vehicle having multiple isolated fluid circuits configured to be filled through a common fill port includes a first fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, the first fluid circuit having a first fill port, a second fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, and a conduit defining a fluid passageway between the first fluid circuit and second fluid circuit, the conduit including a valve. The valve is configured such that the first and second fluid circuits are fluidly coupled via the passageway when the valve is open, and are fluidly isolated when the valve is closed.

  1. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Grover, William H. (Berkeley, CA); Skelley, Alison (Berkeley, CA); Lagally, Eric (Oakland, CA); Liu, Chung N. (Albany, CA)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  2. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM); Woloshun, Keith A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

  3. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

  4. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst Using Near-Critical Fluid Extraction: Analysis of Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    ", can be produced from materials such as coal, natural gas, waste biomass, and petroleum coke. A great of coal and natural gas exist in many geographical regions that lack sufficient petroleum. Therefore

  5. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  6. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Surveys Chemical Signatures of and Precursors to Fractures Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation...

  7. Quantum Mechanical Description of Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Y. Cui

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we deal with fluid motion in terms of quantum mechanics. Mechanism accounting for the appearance of quantum behavior is discussed.

  8. Coupled atomistic-continuum methods for fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I will discuss the coupling scheme, its application to polymer fluids, and the major difficulties in implementations. In the second part of the talk, I will discuss the ...

  9. DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is the fourth paper in a series on developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) as a logging tool for geothermal bore holes. Here we address methods of displaying...

  10. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW. J. E. Santos. 1. , G. B. Savioli. 2. , J. M. Carcione. 3. , D. Gei. 3. 1. CONICET, IGPUBA, Fac.

  11. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  12. Solution generating theorems for perfect fluid spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petarpa Boonserm; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner

    2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The first static spherically symmetric perfect fluid solution with constant density was found by Schwarzschild in 1918. Generically, perfect fluid spheres are interesting because they are first approximations to any attempt at building a realistic model for a general relativistic star. Over the past 90 years a confusing tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres. In addition, we develop new ``solution generating'' theorems for the TOV, whereby any given solution can be ``deformed'' to a new solution. Because these TOV-based theorems work directly in terms of the pressure profile and density profile it is relatively easy to impose regularity conditions at the centre of the fluid sphere.

  13. Spinning Fluids: A Group Theoretical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dario Capasso; Debajyoti Sarkar

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the Lagrangian formulation of relativistic non-abelian fluids in group theory language. We propose a Mathisson-Papapetrou equation for spinning fluids in terms of the reduction limit of de Sitter group. The equation we find correctly boils down to the one for non-spinning fluids. We study the application of our results for an FRW cosmological background for fluids with no vorticity and for dusts in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We also explore two alternative approaches based on a group theoretical formulation of particles dynamics.

  14. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Being often a low temperature process, better energy economy than, for example, distillation Fluid species (no solvent present) are separated by partial freezing Zone melting (refining) from solid

  15. A Spectrum Of Potentially Diamondiferous Lamproites And Minettes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluids derived from the magmas themselves, from carbonatite-like fluids, and perhaps from coking of the invaded coal seams. Minor crystal fractionation within sills as little as...

  16. Conditions for fluid separations in microchannels, capillary-driven fluid separations, and laminated devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Stenkamp, Victoria S. (Richland, WA)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of separating fluids using capillary forces and/or improved conditions for are disclosed. The improved methods may include control of the ratio of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers relative to the Suratman number. Also disclosed are wick-containing, laminated devices that are capable of separating fluids.

  17. Conditions for fluid separations in microchannels, capillary-driven fluid separations, and laminated devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA

    2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of separating fluids using capillary forces and/or improved conditions for are disclosed. The improved methods may include control of the ratio of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers relative to the Suratman number. Also disclosed are wick-containing, laminated devices that are capable of separating fluids.

  18. Laser microfluidics : fluid actuation by light Laser microfluidics: fluid actuation by light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Laser microfluidics : fluid actuation by light Laser microfluidics: fluid actuation by light Jean.delville@cpmoh.u-bordeaux1.fr Abstract: The development of microfluidic devices is still hindered by the lack of robust to extend this concept to microfluidic two-phase flows. First, we investigate the destabilization of fluid

  19. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 31: 345358 (1999)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 31: 345­358 (1999 AND S. ROYc,3 a Engineering Science Program, MAES Department, 316A Perkins Hall, Uni6ersity of Tennessee Corporation, Burr Ridge, IL, USA SUMMARY The quest continues for accurate and efficient computational fluid

  20. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 The fluid dynamics of an underfloor air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 The fluid dynamics of an underfloor air-0411, U.S.A., (Received 30 May 2005) This paper discusses the fluid dynamics of an under floor air. The experiments show that the properties of the system are determined by the entrainment into the plumes

  1. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  2. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  3. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  4. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  5. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  6. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  7. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  8. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  9. PRECISION CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES USING CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. RUBIN; L. SIVILS; A. BUSNAINA

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, on behalf of the Hewlett-Packard Company, is conducting tests of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid process, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover (SCORR). We have shown that this treatment process is effective in removing hard-baked, ion-implanted photoresists, and appears to be fully compatible with metallization systems. We are now performing experiments on production wafers to assess not only photoresist removal, but also residual surface contamination due to particulate and trace metals. Dense-phase (liquid or supercritical) CO{sub 2}, since it is non-polar, acts like an organic solvent and therefore has an inherently high volubility for organic compounds such as oils and greases. Also, dense CO{sub 2} has a low-viscosity and a low dielectric constant. Finally, CO{sub 2} in the liquid and supercritical fluid states can solubilize metal completing agents and surfactants. This combination of properties has interesting implications for the removal not only of organic films, but also trace metals and inorganic particulate. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using CO{sub 2} as a precision-cleaning solvent, with particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces.

  10. Dense colloidal fluids form denser amorphous sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew B.

    Dense colloidal fluids form denser amorphous sediments Shir R. Libera,b , Shai Borohovicha of their randomly packed solid sediments. We demonstrate that the most dilute fluids of colloidal hard spheres form loosely packed sediments, where the volume fraction of the particles approaches in frictional systems

  11. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  12. Conservation of Momentum: Fluids and Elastic Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chicone, Carmen

    Chapter 3 Conservation of Momentum: Fluids and Elastic Solids The description of the motion, t) dx = (A,t) t(x, t) + div(u)(x, t) dx (3.2) (see A.11). By conservation of mass, the rate is conserved by the fluid motion. A differential equation for the velocity field u is obtained from the equa

  13. Engineering Insights 2006 Complex Fluids Design Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Engineering Insights 2006 Complex Fluids Design Consortium (CFDC) www.mrl.ucsb.edu/cfdc Overview;Engineering Insights 2006 Objectives -- continued · Create a world-class center for complex fluid and soft and Research Highlights Glenn Fredrickson October 18, 2006 #12;Engineering Insights 2006 What is the CFDC

  14. Functional Metal Phosphonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Houston Phillipp

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    functional groups. In some cases, these ligands undergo reactions during the solvothermal syntheses which can impart new chemical reactivity. Another method used to introduce functionality was to partially or completely substitute metal atoms within...

  15. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  16. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  17. Radiation stability of biocompatibile magnetic fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natalia Tomasovicova; Ivan Haysak; Martina Koneracka; Jozef Kovac; Milan Timko; Vlasta Zavisova; Alexander Okunev; Alexander Parlag; Alexey Fradkin; Peter Kopcansky

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation stability of biocompatibile magnetic fluid used in nanomedicine after electron irradiation was studied. Two types of the water-based magnetic fluids were prepared. The first one was based on the magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by one surfactant natrium oleate. The second one was biocompatibile magnetic fluid stabilized with two surfactants, natrium oleate as a first surfactant and Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a second surfactant. The magnetization measurements showed that electron irradiation up to 1000Gy caused 50% reduction of saturation magnetization in the case of the first sample with only one surfactant while in the case of the second biocompatibile magnetic fluid, only 25% reduction of saturation magnetization was observed. In the first magnetic fluid the radiation caused the higher sedimentation of the magnetic particles than in the second case, when magnetic particles are covered also with PEG. The obtained results show that PEG behave as a protective element.

  18. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  19. Static Isotropic Spacetimes with Radially Imperfect Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Konopka

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    When solving the equations of General Relativity in a symmetric sector, it is natural to consider the same symmetry for the geometry and stress-energy. This implies that for static and isotropic spacetimes, the most general natural stress-energy tensor is a sum of a perfect fluid and a radial imperfect fluid component. In the special situations where the perfect fluid component vanishes or is a spacetime constant, the solutions to Einstein's equations can be thought of as modified Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spaces. Exact solutions of this type are derived and it is shown that whereas deviations from the unmodified solutions can be made small, among the manifestations of the imperfect fluid component is a shift in angular momentum scaling for orbiting test-bodies at large radius. Based on this effect, the question of whether the imperfect fluid component can feasibly describe dark matter phenomenology is addressed.

  20. Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert G. Leigh; Anastasios C. Petkou; P. Marios Petropoulos

    2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.

  1. Conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masafumi Fukuma; Yuho Sakatani

    2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a generally covariant formulation of conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics with strain allowed to take arbitrarily large values. We give a general prescription to determine the dynamics of a relativistic viscoelastic fluid in a way consistent with the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. We then elaborately study the transient time scales at which the strain almost relaxes and becomes proportional to the gradients of velocity. We particularly show that a conformal second-order fluid with all possible parameters in the constitutive equations can be obtained without breaking the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium, if the conformal fluid is defined as the long time limit of a conformal second-order viscoelastic system. We also discuss how local thermodynamic equilibrium could be understood in the context of the fluid/gravity correspondence.

  2. Extreme pressure fluid sample transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Justin E. (Grovertown, GA); Bowman, Wilfred W. (North Augusta, SC)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transfer pump for samples of fluids at very low or very high pressures comprising a cylinder having a piston sealed with an O-ring, the piston defining forward and back chambers, an inlet and exit port and valve arrangement for the fluid to enter and leave the forward chamber, and a port and valve arrangement in the back chamber for adjusting the pressure across the piston so that the pressure differential across the piston is essentially zero and approximately equal to the pressure of the fluid so that the O-ring seals against leakage of the fluid and the piston can be easily moved, regardless of the pressure of the fluid. The piston may be actuated by a means external to the cylinder with a piston rod extending through a hole in the cylinder sealed with a bellows attached to the piston head and the interior of the back chamber.

  3. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal Control vs Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darryl D. Holm

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the \\emph {same} Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are \\emph{different}. This is a result of the \\emph{gauge freedom} in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  4. Pumping viscoelastic two-fluid media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirofumi Wada

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a two-fluid model for viscoelastic polymer solutions, we study analytically fluid transport driven by a transverse, small amplitude traveling wave propagation. The pumping flow far from the waving boundary is shown to be strongly wave number and viscosity dependent, in contrast to a viscous Newtonian fluid. We find the two qualitatively different regimes: In one regime relevant to small wave numbers, the fluidic transport is almost the same as the Newtonian case, and uniform viscoelastic constitutive equations provide a good approximation. In the other regime, the pumping is substantially decreased because of the gel-like character. The boundary separating these two regimes is clarified. Our results suggest possible needs of two-fluid descriptions for the transport and locomotion in biological fluids with cilia and flagella.

  5. Modelling anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic anisotropic fluid sphere, (spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully modelled by suitable linear combinations of quite ordinary classical matter: an isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field, and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model that is used to mimic the anisotropic fluid sphere. Consequently, we can build physically reasonable matter models for almost any spherically symmetric spacetime.

  6. Metallic glass composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Koch, Carl C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  7. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  8. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  9. Landau Fluid Equations The Navier--Stokes equations for neutral fluids are highly effective at describing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    Chapter 3 Landau Fluid Equations The Navier--Stokes equations for neutral fluids are highly for deriving the plasma fluid equations of Braginskii (1965). Plasma waves, especially those driven. The approach to deriving plasma fluid equation by Hammett and Perkins (1990) was to derive the fluid closures

  10. Chapter 17 in Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, Volume 3: Fluids Finite Element Methods for Fluid Dynamics with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    Chapter 17 in Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, Volume 3: Fluids Finite Element Methods surfaces, two-fluid interfaces, fluid­object and fluid­structure in- teractions, and moving mechanical in Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, Volume 3: Fluids (eds. E. Stein, R. De Borst and T.J.R. Hughes), John

  11. Neutron imaging of alkali metal heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kihm, Ken [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kirchoff, Eric [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Golden, Matt [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rosenfeld, J. [Thermacore Inc.; Rawal, S. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company; Pratt, D. [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Walker, Lakeisha MH [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature heat pipes are two-phase, capillary driven heat transfer devices capable of passively providing high thermal fluxes. Such a device using a liquid-metal coolant can be used as a solution for successful thermal management on hypersonic flight vehicles. Imaging of the liquid-metal coolant inside will provide valuable information in characterizing the detailed heat and mass transport. Neutron imaging possesses an inherent advantage from the fact that neutrons penetrate the heat pipe metal walls with very little attenuation, but are significantly attenuated by the liquid metal contained inside. Using the BT-2 beam line at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, preliminary efforts have been conducted on a nickel-sodium heat pipe. The contrast between the attenuated beam and the background is calculated to be approximately 3%. This low contrast requires sacrifice in spatial or temporal resolution so efforts have since been concentrated on lithium (Li) which has a substantially larger neutron attenuation cross section. Using the CG-1D beam line at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the first neutron images of high-temperature molybdenum (Mo)-Li heat pipes have been achieved. The relatively high neutron cross section of Li allows for the visualization of the Li working fluid inside the heat pipes. The evaporator region of a gravity assisted cylindrical heat pipe prototype 25 cm long was imaged from start-up to steady state operation up to approximately 900 C. In each corner of the square bore inside, the capillary action raises the Li meniscus above the bulk Li pool in the evaporator region. As the operational temperature changes, the meniscus shapes and the bulk meniscus height also changes. Furthermore, a three-dimensional tomographic image is also reconstructed from the total of 128 projection images taken 1.4o apart in which the Li had already cooled and solidified.

  12. Establishing low-power operating limits for liquid metal heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secary, J. (Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)); Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, M.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid metal heat pipes operated at power throughputs well below their design point for long durations may fail as a result of the working fluid migrating to a cold region within the pipe, freezing there, and hot returning to the evaporator section. Eventually sufficient working fluid inventory may be lost to the cold region to cause a local dry-out condition in the evaporator. A joint experimental and analytical effort between the Air Force Phillips Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory is underway to investigate the phenomena. Experiments include both high temperature liquid metal and low temperature organic heat pipes. To date, a low temperature working fluid has been selected and its performance in a heat pipe validated. Additionally, a low-temperature heat pipe has been fabricated and is presently being tested.

  13. Establishing low-power operating limits for liquid metal heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secary, J. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, M.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid metal heat pipes operated at power throughputs well below their design point for long durations may fail as a result of the working fluid migrating to a cold region within the pipe, freezing there, and hot returning to the evaporator section. Eventually sufficient working fluid inventory may be lost to the cold region to cause a local dry-out condition in the evaporator. A joint experimental and analytical effort between the Air Force Phillips Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory is underway to investigate the phenomena. Experiments include both high temperature liquid metal and low temperature organic heat pipes. To date, a low temperature working fluid has been selected and its performance in a heat pipe validated. Additionally, a low-temperature heat pipe has been fabricated and is presently being tested.

  14. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  15. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  16. The incorporation of bubbles into a computer graphics fluid simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Shannon Thomas

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present methods for incorporating bubbles into a photorealistc fluid simulation. Previous methods of fluid simulation in computer graphics do not include bubbles. Our system automatically creates bubbles, which are simulated on top of the fluid...

  17. Arterial LDL Transport Incorporating Fluid Solid Interactions, Hyperthermia, and Atherosclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Stephen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Mechanical Engineers, Fluids Engineering Division (FED, Bio-Medical Fluids Engineering 21, 8. Buckwalter, J.Fluid Solid Interactions, Hyperthermia, and Atherosclerosis by Stephen Chung Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering

  18. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  19. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim Nygård; Sten Sarman; Roland Kjellander

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile - each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  20. A blurred interface formulation of The Reference Map Technique for Fluid-Solid Interactions and Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valkov, Boris Ivanov

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a blurred interface method for Fluid-Solid Interactions (FSI) and multiple solids immersed in a fluid or FSSI (Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions) based on the reference map technique as presented by ...

  1. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar...

  2. A STOCHASTIC METHOD FOR MODELING FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andFLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andachieve optimal recovery of petroleum from a reservoir, it

  3. Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS Environments Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS...

  4. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

  5. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    permeable fluid flow pathways and the helium Isotopic composition of the surface fluids. The authors suggest that helium isotopes are the best and possibly the only...

  6. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  7. Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications...

  8. FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY: NEW METHOD FOR GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RESERVOIR ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS Abstract Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a new technique developed for the oil industry in order to map borehole fluids....

  9. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Specifically, the primary heat transfer fluid (HTF), which transmits the collected solar power to power cycle Evaluate Chemically Reacting Working Fluids (CRWFs) as HTFs...

  10. FLUID GEOCHEMISTRY AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL FIELD, IDAHO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deep structural controls on fluid pathways in the field, which has compartmentalized the fluids and limited the degree of mixing between them. Authors Ayling, B.; Molling, P.;...

  11. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced...

  12. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  13. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional 3D printing, the liquid-phase-manufacturing offers a much higher cooling rate and thus significantly improves the speed in fabricating metal objects. This unique strategy also efficiently prevents the liquid metal inks from air oxidation which is hard to avoid otherwise in an ordinary 3D printing. Several key physical factors (like properties of the cooling fluid, injection speed and needle diameter, types and properties of the printing ink, etc.) were disclosed which would evidently affect the printing quality. In addit...

  14. Apparatus And Method For Fluid Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Bary W. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Shepard, Chester L. (West Richland, WA); Reeves, James H. (Richland, WA)

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for analyzing a fluid used in a machine or in an industrial process line. The apparatus has at least one meter placed proximate the machine or process line and in contact with the machine or process fluid for measuring at least one parameter related to the fluid. The at least one parameter is a standard laboratory analysis parameter. The at least one meter includes but is not limited to viscometer, element meter, optical meter, particulate meter, and combinations thereof.

  15. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  16. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  17. The Super-Higgs Mechanism in Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karim Benakli; Yaron Oz; Giuseppe Policastro

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Supersymmetry is spontaneously broken when the field theory stress-energy tensor has a non-zero vacuum expectation value. In local supersymmetric field theories the massless gravitino and goldstino combine via the super-Higgs mechanism to a massive gravitino. We study this mechanism in four-dimensional fluids, where the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor breaks spontaneously both supersymmetry and Lorentz symmetry. We consider both constant as well as space-time dependent ideal fluids. We derive a formula for the gravitino mass in terms of the fluid velocity, energy density and pressure. We discuss some of the phenomenological implications.

  18. On the Hamiltonian Description of Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Antoniou; G. P. Pronko

    2002-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest the Hamiltonian approach for fluid mechanics based on the dynamics, formulated in terms of Lagrangian variables. The construction of the canonical variables of the fluid sheds a light of the origin of Clebsh variables, introduced in the previous century. The developed formalism permits to relate the circulation conservation (Tompson theorem) with the invariance of the theory with respect to special diffiomorphisms and establish also the new conservation laws. We discuss also the difference of the Eulerian and Lagrangian description, pointing out the incompleteness of the first. The constructed formalism is also applicable for ideal plasma. We conclude with several remarks on the quantization of the fluid.

  19. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  20. Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Schmitt, Roman A. (Corvallis, OR)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  1. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Vitek, John Michael [ORNL; Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wilson, Mahlon [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Garzon, Fernando [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Connors, Dan [GenCell Corp; Rakowski, Jim [Allegheny Ludlum; Gervasio, Don [Arizona State University

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives are: (1) Develop and optimize stainless steel alloys amenable to formation of a protective Cr-nitride surface by gas nitridation, at a sufficiently low cost to meet DOE targets and with sufficient ductility to permit manufacture by stamping. (2) Demonstrate capability of nitridation to yield high-quality stainless steel bipolar plates from thin stamped alloy foils (no significant stamped foil warping or embrittlement). (3) Demonstrate single-cell fuel cell performance of stamped and nitrided alloy foils equivalent to that of machined graphite plates of the same flow-field design ({approx}750-1,000 h, cyclic conditions, to include quantification of metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assembly [MEA] and contact resistance increase attributable to the bipolar plates). (4) Demonstrate potential for adoption in automotive fuel cell stacks. Thin stamped metallic bipolar plates offer the potential for (1) significantly lower cost than currently-used machined graphite bipolar plates, (2) reduced weight/volume, and (3) better performance and amenability to high volume manufacture than developmental polymer/carbon fiber and graphite composite bipolar plates. However, most metals exhibit inadequate corrosion resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environments. This behavior leads to high electrical resistance due to the formation of surface oxides and/or contamination of the MEA by metallic ions, both of which can significantly degrade fuel cell performance. Metal nitrides offer electrical conductivities up to an order of magnitude greater than that of graphite and are highly corrosion resistant. Unfortunately, most conventional coating methods (for metal nitrides) are too expensive for PEMFC stack commercialization or tend to leave pinhole defects, which result in accelerated local corrosion and unacceptable performance.

  2. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  3. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  4. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  5. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  6. Metal Mechanisms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell Batteries & Fuel Cells In ThisMetal Mechanisms Metal

  7. Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J.

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Sucker rod pumps are installed in approximately 90% of all oil wells in the U.S. Although they have been widely used for decades, there are many issues regarding the fluid dynamics of the pump that have not been fully investigated. A project was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to develop unimproved understanding of the fluid dynamics inside a sucker rod pump. A mathematical flow model was developed to predict pressures in any pump component or an entire pump under single-phase fluid and pumping conditions. Laboratory flow tests were conducted on instrumented individual pump components and on a complete pump to verify and refine the model. The mathematical model was then converted to a Visual Basic program to allow easy input of fluid, geometry and pump parameters and to generate output plots. Examples of issues affecting pump performance investigated with the model include the effects of viscosity, surface roughness, valve design details, plunger and valve pressure differentials, and pumping rate.

  8. Controllable adhesion using field-activated fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewoldt, Randy H.

    We demonstrate that field-responsive magnetorheological fluids can be used for variable-strength controllable adhesion. The adhesive performance is measured experimentally in tensile tests (a.k.a. probe-tack experiments) ...

  9. Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics Large Kundt's tubes Click to insert the image of the facility or test-rig Application area Facility Mechanical Property measurement Physical

  10. Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics Sound Transmission Lab Click to insert the image of the facility or test-rig Application area Facility Mechanical Property measurement Physical

  11. Geothermal Reservoir Evaluation Considering Fluid Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-"R- 68 Geothermal Reservoir Evaluation Considering Fluid Adsorption and Composition Michael J. Economides September, 1983 Financial support was provided through the Stanford Geothermal Program Contract No Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering and Earth Sciences STANFORD UNIVERSITY Stanford

  12. Conservation of Momentum: Fluids and Elastic Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chicone, Carmen

    Chapter 6 Conservation of Momentum: Fluids and Elastic Solids The description of the motion.2) (see A.11). By conservation of mass, the rate of change of the total mass in A does not change

  13. Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy was allocated funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to conduct research into working fluid technologies and applications. Projects funded by the...

  14. Heat-Traced Fluid Transfer Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT-TRACED FLUID TRANSFER LINES Robert E. Schilling, P.E. Eaton Corporation Aurora, Ohio This paper discusses basic considerations in designing a heat tracing system using either steam or electrical tracing. Four basic reasons to heat...

  15. Fluid Imaging of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov Velocity & Resistivity Imaging Possibility & Potential Fluid Filled Fracture Network? VpVs Ratio Map 500 m below sea level Conductivity Map 500 m below sea level...

  16. Using Nanotechnology in Viscoelastic Surfactant Stimulation Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurluk, Merve Rabia 1986-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscoelastic surfactant (VES) fluids are preferred for many applications in the oil industry. Their viscoelastic behavior is due to the overlap and entanglement of very long wormlike micelles. The growth of these wormlike micelles depends...

  17. THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glendinning, Paul

    (i.e. fluid) particle. Use these facts to deduce two equations involving the unknowns f equilibrium under constant gravitational accel- eration g, i.e. F = (0, 0, -g). At `sea-level' z = 0 (z being

  18. Anisotropic surface tension of buckled fluid membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroshi Noguchi

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid sheets and fluid membranes exhibit buckling under lateral compression. Here, it is revealed that fluid membranes have anisotropic buckling surface tension contrary to solid sheets. Surprisingly, the surface tension perpendicular to the buckling direction shows stronger dependence than that parallel to it. Our theoretical predictions are supported by numerical simulations of a meshless membrane model. This anisotropic tension can be used to measure the membrane bending rigidity. It is also found phase synchronization occurs between multilayered buckled membranes.

  19. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  20. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  1. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  2. Viscosity of High Energy Nuclear Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Parihar; A. Widom; D. Drosdoff; Y. N. Srivastava

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic high energy heavy ion collision cross sections have been interpreted in terms of almost ideal liquid droplets of nuclear matter. The experimental low viscosity of these nuclear fluids have been of considerable recent quantum chromodynamic interest. The viscosity is here discussed in terms of the string fragmentation models wherein the temperature dependence of the nuclear fluid viscosity obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law.

  3. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, J. A.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  4. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  5. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  6. Selection of fluids for tritium pumping systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chastagner, P

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The degradation characteristics of three types of vacuum pump fluids, polyphenyl ethers, perfluoropolyethers and hydrocarbon oils were reviewed. Fluid selection proved to be a critical factor in the long-term performance of tritium pumping systems and subsequent tritium recovery operations. Thermal degradation and tritium radiolysis of pump fluids produce contaminants which can damage equipment and interfere with tritium recovery operations. General characteristics of these fluids are as follows: polyphenyl ether has outstanding radiation resistance, is very stable under normal diffusion pump conditions, but breaks down in the presence of oxygen at anticipated operating temperatures. Perfluoropolyether fluids are very stable and do not react chemically with most gases. Thermal and mechanical degradation products are inert, but the radiolysis products are very corrosive. Most of the degradation products of hydrogen oils are volatile and the principal radiolysis product is methane. Our studies show that polyphenyl ethers and hydrocarbon oils are the preferred fluids for use in tritium pumping systems. No corrosive materials are formed and most of the degradation products can be removed with suitable filter systems.

  7. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  8. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  9. Speed of Sound in metal Speed of Sound in metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jaehoon

    the metal rod and metal bar. 2. Acquire a metal bar or rod and measure its mass. Use the meter stick and measure and record the length in meters. Use the vernier calipers and measure the other dimensionBar Select the Smart Tool. Position the Smart tool so that the vertical line bisects the pulse. The (x

  10. New fluids help increase effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, C.D.; Hunt, E.

    1989-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important to choose the most effective fluid for hydraulic fracturing a particular formation. Fracturing fluids are used to initiate formation parting, extend the fracture into the reservoir, and to transport and distribute proppant. This paper discusses the fundamental of fluid types, viscosifiers, and fluid rheology.

  11. PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 26, 091108 (2014) (d) (e) (f)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 26, 091108 (2014) (c)(b)(a) (d) (e) (f) FIG. 1. Evolution of the wake structure emerges from the dyed fluid bolus, propagating along a layer of dyed fluid. (b)­(e) Pulsatile self-propulsion creates a complex wake pattern: Induced drift forms the central pole of fluid trailing the jellyfish

  12. Journal of Fluid Mechanics A furtive stare at an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Journal of Fluid Mechanics Focus luids on F A furtive stare at an intra-cellular flow T. M. SQUIRES of the fluid flow within individual living cells, which agree quantitatively with their fluid mechanical model. Introduction Nature has long inspired researchers in fluid mechanics to explore the mechanical strategies used

  13. BE 436, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Course Information, Spring 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    BE 436, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Course Information, Spring 2013 Course Description, and Huebsch (2008) Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Sixth Edition, John Wiley. Instructor Edward R. Damiano%) #12;BE 436, Fundamentals of Fluids Mechanics Course Syllabus, Spring 2013 ­ Fluid statics

  14. ME 330 Fluid Mechanics ABET EC2000 syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    ME 330 ­ Fluid Mechanics Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 330 ­ Fluid Mechanics Spring 2010 Required & T. H. Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2009. Other Material (optional): · F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008. · R

  15. ME 130L Experimental Fluid Mechanics ABET EC2000 syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    ME 130L ­ Experimental Fluid Mechanics Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 130L ­ Experimental Fluid, uncertainty analysis, and systems analysis as applied to thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer systems. Prerequisite(s): ME 330 (Fluid Mechanics) is a co-requisite. A working knowledge of math, physics

  16. Boston University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 303 Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boston University Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 303 ­ Fluid Mechanics Fall 2011 Class: EK301 Engineering Mechanics Course Textbook: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed., Munson B. Reference Texts: Fluid Mechanics, Landau and Lifshitz, Vol. 6 Fluid Mechanics, Y. Cengel and J. Cimbala

  17. Thermodynamic Micellization Model of Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    of diverse chemical nature consti- tute petroleum fluids. These include paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic

  18. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Gregory, Kevin M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  19. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  20. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.