Sample records for metalorganic chemical vapor

  1. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free...

  2. Study on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical emission spectroscopy S. J. Cho, S.-H. Nam, C.-K. JungStudy on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin C,N films were synthesized by pulsed dc plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

  3. Epitaxial growth of CdTe thin film on cube-textured Ni by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GIARE, C [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RAO, S [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RILEY, M [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); CHEN, L [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; BHAT, I [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); LU, T [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); WANG, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CdTe thin film has been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Ni(100) substrate. Using x-ray pole figure measurements we observed the epitaxial relationship of {111}CdTe// {001}Ni with [110]CdTe//[010]Ni and [112] CdTe//[100]Ni. The 12 diffraction peaks in the (111) pole figure of CdTe film and their relative positions with respect to the four peak positions in the (111) pole figure of Ni substrate are consistent with four equivalent orientational domains of CdTe with three to four superlattice match of about 0.7% in the [110] direction of CdTe and the [010] direction of Ni. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images show that the CdTe domains are 30 degrees orientated from each other.

  4. The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

  5. Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

  6. Growth of magnesium oxide thin lms using single molecular precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Growth of magnesium oxide thin ®lms using single molecular precursors by metal±organic chemical precursors; Silicon; Sapphire 1. Introduction Magnesium oxide (MgO) thin ®lms have attracted much attention MgO ®lms on Si(100) above 6508C by thermal CVD. Murayama and Shionoya [12] used magnesium 2

  7. Optimization of InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for use in infrared emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a variety of growth conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction. This interface effect was minimized by optimizing the purge times, reactant flows, and growth conditions. The optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times between the growth of the layers, and no reactant flow during the purges. Electron diffraction indicates that CuPt-type compositional ordering occurs in InAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloys and SLSs which explains an observed bandgap reduction from previously accepted alloy values.

  8. Inversion by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from N- to Ga-polar gallium nitride and its application to multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosalli, A. M.; Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth approach for inverting N-polar to Ga-polar GaN by using a thin inversion layer grown with high Mg flux. The introduction of this inversion layer allowed us to grow p-GaN films on N-polar GaN thin film. We have studied the dependence of hole concentration, surface morphology, and degree of polarity inversion for the inverted Ga-polar surface on the thickness of the inversion layer. We then use this approach to grow a light emitting diode structure which has the MQW active region grown on the advantageous N-polar surface and the p-layer grown on the inverted Ga-polar surface.

  9. Substrate effect on CdTe layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase N. V. Sochinskiia),b)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viña, Luis

    Substrate effect on CdTe layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy N. V. Sochinskiia for publication 30 December 1996 CdTe layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy MOVPE on different substrates like sapphire, GaAs, and CdTe wafers. The growth was carried out at the temperature 340 °C

  10. Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Christian M.

    Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor have observed photoluminescence of Al1 xInxN films. The films were grown on GaN by atmospheric pressure-temperature deposited AlN buffer layer. Photoluminescence, absorption, and x-ray diffraction measurements have shown

  11. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ylva Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

  13. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

  15. Tilted domain growth of metalorganic chemical vapor (MOCVD)-grown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1A:decisional. 1 B O N N E V I L L E P O

  16. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Gall, Kenneth A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Choudhury, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pikarsky, J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Andruszkiewicz, Leanne (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  18. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  20. Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chein-I

    Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager Mark 1. G. Aithouse, MEMBER SPIE U.S. Army Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center SMCCR-DDT Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland algorithm 7. Conclusions 8. Acknowledgments 9. References 1. INTRODUCTION Detection of chemical vapor clouds

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol-assisted chemical vapor Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration? John H. Sorensen Barbara M. Vogt Date... protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare...

  3. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  4. All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh M.

    We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

  5. Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

  6. X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopp, Viktor S., E-mail: victor.kopp@pdi-berlin.de; Kaganer, Vladimir M. [Paul-Drude-Institut fr Festkrperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 57, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baidakova, Marina V.; Lundin, Wsevolod V.; Nikolaev, Andrey E.; Verkhovtceva, Elena V.; Yagovkina, Maria A. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherkashin, Nikolay [CEMES-CNRS and Universit de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Densities of a- and a+c-type threading dislocations for a series of GaN films grown in different modes by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy are determined from the x-ray diffraction profiles in skew geometry. The reciprocal space maps are also studied. Theory of x-ray scattering from crystals with dislocations is extended in order to take into account contribution from both threading and misfit dislocations. The broadening of the reciprocal space maps along the surface normal and the rotation of the intensity distribution ellipse is attributed to misfit dislocations at the interface. We find that the presence of a sharp AlN/GaN interface leads to an ordering of misfit dislocations and reduces strain inhomogeneity in GaN films.

  7. DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

  8. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  9. Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: chemical vapor deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-faultbestmonoxidefacility inflowchemical

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - asssited chemical vapor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nitride, chemical vapor ... Source: Dandy, David - Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University Collection: Materials Science 14 DEPOSITION OF ELECTRON BEAM...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - all-hot-wire chemical vapor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nitride, chemical vapor ... Source: Dandy, David - Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University Collection: Materials Science 10 DEPOSITION OF ELECTRON BEAM...

  13. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  14. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  15. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  16. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Route to GaN Nanowires with Triangular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    -free environment at atmospheric pressure. TMG was kept cool in a -10 C temperature bath. Nitrogen, used a total nitrogen flow rate of 250 sccm. These were supplied via a 4-mm i.d. quartz tube. Hydrogen and ammonia sources were supplied via a 22-mm i.d. outer quartz tube at a total flow rate of 155 sccm

  17. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  18. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergy StorageAdvanced

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanowires Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Siwei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Various metal silicide and germanide magnetic nanowires were synthesized using a home-built CVD [chemical vapor deposition] system. The morphology, composition, and magnetic properties of the (more)

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - activated chemical vapor Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Orgainc vapor; Adsorption capacity 1. Introduction... containing a variety of organic chemicals. In ... Source: Cal, Mark P. - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,...

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon composite thin films for porous low-k dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, April Denise, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has produced organosilicon thin films with the potential use as low dielectric constant interconnect materials in microelectronic circuits. Both diethylsilane and ...

  2. Strain relaxation in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troppenz, Gerald V., E-mail: gerald.troppenz@helmholtz-berlin.de; Gluba, Marc A.; Kraft, Marco; Rappich, Jrg; Nickel, Norbert H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut fr Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekulstr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of single layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Cu substrates induces large internal biaxial compressive strain due to thermal expansion mismatch. Raman backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the strain relaxation during and after the transfer process from Cu foil to SiO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the growth of graphene results in a pronounced ripple structure on the Cu substrate that is indicative of strain relaxation of about 0.76% during the cooling from the growth temperature. Removing graphene from the Cu substrates and transferring it to SiO{sub 2} results in a shift of the 2D phonon line by 27?cm{sup ?1} to lower frequencies. This translates into additional strain relaxation. The influence of the processing steps, used etching solution and solvents on strain, is investigated.

  3. Field emission properties of chemical vapor deposited individual graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamri Yusop, Mohd [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we report field emission (FE) properties of a chemical vapor deposited individual graphene investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Free-standing bilayer graphene is mounted on a cathode microprobe and FE processes are investigated varying the vacuum gap of cathode and anode. The threshold field for 10?nA current were found to be 515, 610, and 870?V/?m for vacuum gap of 400, 300, and 200?nm, respectively. It is observed that the structural stability of a high quality bilayer graphene is considerably stable during emission process. By contacting the nanoprobe with graphene and applying a bias voltage, structural deformation and buckling are observed with significant rise in temperature owing to Joule heating effect. The finding can be significant for practical application of graphene related materials in emitter based devices as well as understanding the contact resistance influence and heating effect.

  4. CO-CATALYTIC ABSORPTION LAYERS FOR CONTROLLED LASER-INDUCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaelis, F.B.; Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Bock, M.C.D; Sugime, H.; Caneva, S.; Robertson, J.; Baumberg, J.J.; Hofmann, S.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of co-catalytic layer structures for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes is established, in which a thin Ta support layer chemically aids the initial Fe catalyst reduction. This enables a significant...

  5. Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

  6. Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8 D.-X. Yea,*, S. Pimanpanga chemical vapor deposition with a metallorganic Co2(CO)8 precursor. After Ar sputtering of the surface, Co2(CO)8, has been extensively used in cobalt CVD and is attractive, since Co is in its elemental

  7. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

  8. Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Large and optimization of a three- dimensional model of a horizontal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor used National Laboratories February 9, 2004 Abstract A computational analysis and optimization is presented

  9. Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication M. Grujicica-phase chemistry and surface chemistry model is developed to analyze, at the reactor length scale, chemical vapor (carrier gas) in the presence of cobalt catalytic particles in a cylindrical reactor. The model allows

  10. On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor S. W. Reevea) and W. A precursor in our dc arcjet reactor.1 Based on conclusions drawn from that work, an optimization strategy diamond film growth in a dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition reactor has been developed. Introducing

  11. Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    to a production-scale tungsten chemical vapor deposition cluster tool for in situ process sensing. Process gasesReal-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic to achieve run-to-run process control of the deposited tungsten film thickness. 2001 American Vacuum

  12. Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called inverted wedding cake stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

  13. Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

  14. Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated Activated Carbon August 25, 1995@ Water vapor adsorption on activated carbon cloth (ACCBO)which has been oxidized% Cl), and ACCBO (4% N), exhibits sigmoidal isotherms with hysteresis loops of varying magnitudes

  15. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

  16. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

  17. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on Living Substrates: Development, Characterization, and Biological Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Tsung-Chan 1982-

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation proposed the idea of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on living substrates (PECVD on living substrates) to bridge the gap between the thin film deposition technology and the biological and living substrates. This study...

  18. Understanding the Nanotube Growth Mechanism: A Strategy to Control Nanotube Chirality during Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez Gualdron, Diego Armando 1983-

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    during chemical vapor deposition synthesis must focus on controlling the structure of the nucleated nanotube seeds. DFT and RMD simulations demonstrate the viability of using the structures of catalyst particles over which nanotube growth proceeds...

  19. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  20. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pressure chemical vapor deposition. Experiments were conducted in a belt furnace; static experiments, in particular, is used for tool coating, solar-control films, and micro- electronic applications. Optically

  1. Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

  2. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

  3. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    ically feasible systems have significant potential advantage over conventional tech nology. An electric drive reactive heat pump can use smaller heat exchangers and compressor than a vapor-compression machine, and have more flexible operating... are discussed, and performance is bounded. A discussion on liquid-vapor equilibria is included as introduction to the systems I- considered. The electric drive heat pump and TA are promising systems; the TA has potential for higher COP than absorption...

  4. Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors based on metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niraula, M.; Yasuda, K.; Wajima, Y.; Yamashita, H.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Takai, N.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Agata, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors, fabricated by growing p-and n-type CdTe epilayers on (211) n{sup +}-Si substrates using metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE), were studied by analyzing current-voltage characteristics measured at various temperatures. The diode fabricated shows good rectification properties, however, both forward and reverse biased currents deviate from their ideal behavior. The forward current exhibits typical feature of multi-step tunneling at lower biases; however, becomes space charge limited type when the bias is increased. On the other hand, the reverse current exhibits thermally activated tunneling-type current. It was found that trapping centers at the p-CdTe/n-CdTe junction, which were formed due to the growth induced defects, determine the currents of this diode, and hence limit the performance of the nuclear radiation detectors developed.

  5. Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, S.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

  6. Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of Cu{sub 2}S into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, I.; Zhou, Q.; Vollbrecht, B.; Yang, L.; Medling, S.; Bezryadina, A.; Bridges, F.; Alers, G. B.; Norman, J. T.; Kinmen, T. [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Air Products Inc., 1969 Palomar Oaks Way, Carlsbad, California 92011 (United States); Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) has been deposited via pulsed chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix using hydrogen sulfide and a metal-organic precursor. The precursor used is similar to the more common Cu(hfac)(tmvs) precursor, but it is fluorine free and exhibits increased thermal stability. The simultaneous exposure of the substrate to the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in nonuniform Cu{sub 2}S films with a temperature independent deposition rate implying gas phase reaction kinetics. The exposure of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and planar ZnO to alternating cycles of the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in a PCVD film that penetrated fully into the porous TiO{sub 2} layer with a constant deposition rate of 0.08 nm/cycle over a temperature range of 150-400 deg. C The chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) stoichiometry was confirmed with extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements (EXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Calculations of the EXAFS spectrum for different Cu{sub x}S phases show that EXAFS is sensitive to the different phase stoichiometries. Optical absorption measurements of CVD thin films using photothermal deflection spectroscopy show the presence of a metallic copper-poor phase for gas phase nucleated films less than 100 nm thick and a copper-rich semiconducting phase for thicknesses greater than 100 nm with a direct band gap of 1.8 eV and an indirect bandgap of 1.2 eV.

  7. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  8. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

  9. Method and apparatus for detection of chemical vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark (Knoxville, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Caja, Josip (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a gas detector and method for using the gas detector for detecting and identifying volatile organic and/or volatile inorganic substances present in unknown vapors in an environment. The gas detector comprises a sensing means and a detecting means for detecting electrical capacitance variance of the sensing means and for further identifying the volatile organic and volatile inorganic substances. The sensing means comprises at least one sensing unit and a sensing material allocated therein the sensing unit. The sensing material is an ionic liquid which is exposed to the environment and is capable of dissolving a quantity of said volatile substance upon exposure thereto. The sensing means constitutes an electrochemical capacitor and the detecting means is in electrical communication with the sensing means.

  10. Diamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filamentsubstrate separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Polycrystalline diamond films have been grown by hot filament (HF) chemical vapor deposition on WC-Co bar is an established technique for growing hard, wear- resistant polycrystalline diamond films on a range of substratesDiamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filament

  11. Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor: Experimental measurements, model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor-wafer, lamp-heated chemical vapor deposition system were used to study the wafer temperature response to gas composition. A physically based simulation procedure for the process gas and wafer temperature was developed

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth Lynn (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Paul M. (Albuquerque, NM); Custer, Jonathan S. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Ronald V. (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolet, Marc-A. (Pasadena, CA); Madar, Roland (Eybens, FR); Bernard, Claude (Brie et Angonnes, FR)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF.sub.6, either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W--Si--N or W--B--N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.L.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V.; Nicolet, M.; Madar, R.; Bernard, C.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF[sub 6], either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W-Si-N or W-B-N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications. 10 figs.

  14. Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

  15. Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Published April 28, 2010. Metal silicides such as TiSi2 and CoSi2 have been commonly used as the contactsFormation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide NiSi , which is a key material for source, drain

  16. Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

  17. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

  18. Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene a scalable method to produce large-area graphene, CVD-grown graphene has heretofore exhibited inferior of CVD-grown graphene in which two important sources of disorder, namely grain boundaries and processing

  19. Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial processing capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial these limitations, a novel CVD reactor system has been developed that can explicitly control the spatial profile flexibility, we introduced a new CVD reactor concept that enables control of film deposition characteristics

  20. Field emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond films by ion implantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    2002; published 5 February 2003 Phosphorus doped polycrystalline diamond films were grown using ion the electrical char- acteristics of diamond FEAs to lower the operating voltage. Polycrystalline diamond hasField emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond

  1. An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes M Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of various nanotube surface and edge reactions (e.g. adsorption of hydrocarbons and hydrogen onto the surface

  2. High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency thermal plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachariah, Michael R.

    High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency Semiconductor, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Received 10 July 2002; accepted 14 July 2002 Abstract Silicon carbide films; Nanomaterials; Silicon carbide; Thermal plasmas; Thin films; Si tetrachlorine precursor Silicon carbide has

  3. Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

  4. Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exfoliation of graphite [1], sublimation of epitaxial SiC [4], and catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [59]. However, mechanical exfoliation of graphite can only supply small-size graphene (see Fig than that of graphene obtained via exfoli- ation of graphite as summarized in Fig. 1. While many

  5. Simulation of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition based on 3D images: a local scale approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    infiltration of ceramic matrix composites is presented. This computational model requires a 3D representation/reaction problems; Random walks; 3D image-based modeling 1. Introduction Ceramic Matrix Composites and Carbon with a matrix. One of the most efficient ones is Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI), by which gaseous precursors

  6. Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor In ltration II: Two Dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    -solid reactions with solid deposition are exempli#12;ed by the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites through #3) process, during which a matrix of ceramic #12;bers is chemically vapor deposited within a porous preform practical approach to fabricate ceramic composites. Among these composites, #12;ber-reinforced composites

  7. Compensator Control For Chemical Vapor Deposition Film Growth Using Reduced Order Design Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor that in­ cludes multiple species and controls optoelectronic integrated circuits. This can sometimes be addressed, in part, through open­loop optimization [7 reactor with real­time sensing and control as an innovative feature of this proto­ type reactor. Previous

  8. Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

  9. Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    carbide,8 to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbon precursors on transition metals,9-13 economic up to wafer scale,14,15 nickel and copper are the two most commonly used metal substrates. DueC) restricts the growth of graphene to the metal surface.12,17 The uniformity and high quality of the resultant

  10. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air, Si4O4(CH3)8) widely used as additives in personal care products. In both photocopiers and air in indoor air, the gas-phase processes limit the rate of deposition. KEY WORDS: Corona plasma; corona

  11. Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

  12. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN on Si(111): Stress control and application to field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchand, H.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, N.; Moran, B.; Coffie, R.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Freitas, J. A.

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two schemes of nucleation and growth of gallium nitride on Si(111) substrates are investigated and the structural and electrical properties of the resulting films are reported. Gallium nitride films grown using a 10{endash}500 nm-thick AlN buffer layer deposited at high temperature ({similar_to}1050{degree}C) are found to be under 260{endash}530 MPa of tensile stress and exhibit cracking, the origin of which is discussed. The threading dislocation density in these films increases with increasing AlN thickness, covering a range of 1.1 to {gt}5.8{times}10{sup 9}cm{sup {minus}2}. Films grown using a thick, AlN-to-GaN graded buffer layer are found to be under compressive stress and are completely crack free. Heterojunction field effect transistors fabricated on such films result in well-defined saturation and pinch-off behavior with a saturated current of {similar_to}525 mA/mm and a transconductance of {similar_to}100 mS/mm in dc operation. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 thin films at 600 C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    with an a-axis perpendicular to the substrate plane. Nanoscale energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry processes include deposition over large areas, high throughput, and uniform coverage of nonplanar shapes by a plasma-enhanced MOCVD pro- cess. It is not known if the added energy from the plasma generates structural

  14. Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION Zinc oxide ZnO is a wide direct band-gap 3.37 eV semiconductor with a broad range of applications. Dimethylzinc DMZn , N2 gas, and high-purity O2 were used as the zinc source, carrier gas, and oxidizing agent including light-emitting devices,1 varistors,2 solar cells,3 and gas sensors.4 Moreover, ZnO is a promising

  15. Validating optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic of microwave activated CH4/Ar/H2 plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline diamond. Several tracer species are monitored in order to gain used for diamond chemical vapor deposition Jie Ma,1 Michael N. R. Ashfold,1,a and Yuri A. Mankelevich2 spectroscopic methods used to diagnose microwave MW plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition CVD . Zhu

  16. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  17. Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  18. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

  19. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  20. Photoelectric and luminescence properties of GaSb-Based nanoheterostructures with a deep Al(As)Sb/InAsSb/Al(As)Sb quantum well grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailova, M. P.; Andreev, I. A., E-mail: igor@iropt9.ioffe.ru; Ivanov, E. V.; Konovalov, G. G.; Grebentshikova, E. A.; Yakovlev, Yu. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Hulicius, E.; Hospodkova, A.; Pangrac, Y. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)] [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The luminescence and photoelectric properties of heterostructures with a deep Al(As)Sb/InAsSb/Al(As)Sb quantum well grown on n-GaSb substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy are investigated. Intense superlinear luminescence and increased optical power as a function of the pump current in the photon energy range of 0.6-0.8 eV are observed at temperatures of T = 77 and 300 K. The photoelectric, current-voltage, and capacitance characteristics of these heterostructures are studied in detail. The photosensitivity is examined with photodetectors operating in the photovoltaic mode in the spectral range of 0.9-2.0 {mu}m. The sensitivity maximum at room temperature is observed at a wavelength of 1.55 {mu}m. The quantum efficiency, detectivity, and response time of the photodetectors were estimated. The quantum efficiency and detectivity at the peak of the photosensitivity spectrum are as high as {eta} = 0.6-0.7 and D{sub {lambda}max}{sup *} = (5-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm Hz{sup 1/2} W{sup -1}, respectively. The photodiode response time determined as the rise time of the photoresponse pulse from 0.1 to the level 0.9 is 100-200 ps. The photodiode transmission bandwidth is 2-3 GHz. Photodetectors with a deep Al(As)Sb/InAsSb/Al(As)Sb quantum well grown on n-GaSb substrates are promising foruse in heterodyne detection systems and in information technologies.

  1. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  2. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  3. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A., E-mail: mah37@psu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A. [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10?nm and 20?nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100??10?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics.

  4. Improved process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, W.J. Jr.; Caputo, A.J.

    1984-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  5. III-nitride quantum cascade detector grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yu, E-mail: yusong@princeton.edu; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Badami, Pranav; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum cascade (QC) detectors in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N material system grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Only two material compositions, i.e., GaN as wells and Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N as barriers are used in the active layers. The QC detectors operates around 4??m, with a peak responsivity of up to ?100??A/W and a detectivity of up to 10{sup 8} Jones at the background limited infrared performance temperature around 140?K.

  6. Nextel{trademark}/SiC composites fabricated using forced chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, B.L. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States); Lowden, R.A.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.; Schwarz, O.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites were fabricated employing the forced-flow, thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Composites using Nextel{sup TM} fibers of varying composition were prepared to investigate the effectiveness of each Nextel{sup TM} fiber as a reinforcement for the given matrix. A carbon interface coating was used for the baseline materials, however, alternate interlayers with improved oxidation resistance were also explored Room-temperature flexure strengths of as-fabricated composites and specimens heated in air at 1273 K were measured and compared to results for other SiC-matrix composites.

  7. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphenehexagonal boron nitridegraphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

  8. Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panitz, J.K.; Hsu, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.; McMaster, M.; Fox, C.; Staley, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors developed techniques for forming diamond powder precursors and densified these precursors in a hot filament-assisted reactor and a microwave plasma-assisted reactor. Densification conditions were varied following a fractional factorial statistical design. A number of conclusions can be drawn as a result of this study. High density diamond powder green bodies that contain a mixture of particle sizes solidify more readily than more porous diamond powder green bodies with narrow distributions of particle sizes. No composite was completely densified although all of the deposits were densified to some degree. The hot filament-assisted reactor deposited more material below the exterior surface, in the interior of the powder deposits; in contrast, the microwave-assisted reactor tended to deposit a CVD diamond skin over the top of the powder precursors which inhibited vapor phase diamond growth in the interior of the powder deposits. There were subtle variations in diamond quality as a function of the CVI process parameters. Diamond and glassy carbon tended to form at the exterior surface of the composites directly exposed to either the hot filament or the microwave plasma. However, in the interior, e.g. the powder/substrate interface, diamond plus diamond-like-carbon formed. All of the diamond composites produced were grey and relatively opaque because they contained flawed diamond, diamond-like-carbon and glassy carbon. A large amount of flawed and non-diamond material could be removed by post-CVI oxygen heat treatments. Heat treatments in oxygen changed the color of the composites to white.

  9. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K.K.

    2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

  10. Carbon nanowalls grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition during the carbonization of polyacrylonitrile fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jiangling; Su Shi; Kundrat, Vojtech; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhou Lei [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Fajer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Ouyang Defang [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); James, David; Roberts, Darren [Thermo Fisher Scientific, Stafford House, Hemel Hempstead HP2 7GE (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We used microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) to carbonize an electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor to form carbon fibers. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the fibers at different evolution stages. It was found that MPECVD-carbonized PAN fibers do not exhibit any significant change in the fiber diameter, whilst conventionally carbonized PAN fibers show a 33% reduction in the fiber diameter. An additional coating of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) was formed on the surface of the carbonized PAN fibers during the MPECVD process without the assistance of any metallic catalysts. The result presented here may have a potential to develop a novel, economical, and straightforward approach towards the mass production of carbon fibrous materials containing CNWs.

  11. Capillary - Discharge Based Hand-Held Detector For Chemical Vapor Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (White Rock, NM)

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A handheld/portable detector for chemical vapor monitoring includes a housing and a discharge chamber that is established therein. The plasma discharge has a relatively small volume, e.g., in the micro-liter range. A first electrode and a second electrode are disposed within the discharge chamber and a discharge gap is established therebetween. A sample gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a sample gas to the discharge chamber. Also, a plasma gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a plasma gas thereto. Accordingly, the plasma gas can be used to maintain microplasma discharge between the electrodes and the sample gas can be introduced into the microplasma discharge. A spectrometer optically connected to the handheld/portable detector is used to measure the radiation emitted by the sample gas when subjected to the microplasma discharge.

  12. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

  13. A study of heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Baum, H.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process have been studied for general values of the torch speed. Three-dimensional temperature fields have been obtained over the entire cross section of the tube and the effects of tube rotation and localized torch heating in the axial and circumferential directions have been studied. The particle trajectories have been calculated from a formulation that includes the contributions from forced flow, i.e., Poiseuille flow in the axial direction, rigid body rotation about the tube axis, and thermophoretic contributions in the axial, radial, and angular directions. The particle trajectories are helices and are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation.

  14. Selective charge doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene by interface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shengnan, E-mail: wang.shengnan@lab.ntt.co.jp; Suzuki, Satoru; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Orofeo, Carlo M.; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)] [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The doping and scattering effect of substrate on the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are revealed. Wet etching the underlying SiO{sub 2} of graphene and depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilane between graphene and SiO{sub 2} are used to modify various substrates for CVD graphene transistors. Comparing with the bare SiO{sub 2} substrate, the carrier mobility of CVD graphene on modified substrate is enhanced by almost 5-fold; consistently the residual carrier concentration is reduced down to 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}. Moreover, scalable and reliable p- and n-type graphene and graphene p-n junction are achieved on various silane SAMs with different functional groups.

  15. Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S., E-mail: michael.fuhrer@monash.edu [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111, USA and School of Physics, Monash University, 3800 Victoria (Australia)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (?8000?cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

  16. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Universit de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universit di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mssbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  17. In situ chemical sensing in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for real-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    ; accepted 14 June 2005; published 18 July 2005 Gallium nitride and its alloys promise to be key materials.1116/1.1993616 I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, gallium-nitride GaN - and aluminum- gallium-nitride AlGaN -based are grown at high temperatures e.g., up to 1100 °C using large concentrations of H2 carrier and NH3 N source

  18. Growth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from `silacycllobutane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    , and TPS resulted in single crystal layer" on Si ( 111) only up to a thickness of 2000 h;. Highly orientedGrowth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from grown by SCB at a temperature of 800 "C. The progress of SiC/Si heterojunction devices has been C3HsSiH2

  19. Massively parallel computation of 3D flow and reactions in chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Moffat, H.K.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors can greatly aid in the understanding, design, and optimization of these complex systems. Modeling is particularly attractive in these systems since the costs of experimentally evaluating many design alternatives can be prohibitively expensive, time consuming, and even dangerous, when working with toxic chemicals like Arsine (AsH{sub 3}): until now, predictive modeling has not been possible for most systems since the behavior is three-dimensional and governed by complex reaction mechanisms. In addition, CVD reactors often exhibit large thermal gradients, large changes in physical properties over regions of the domain, and significant thermal diffusion for gas mixtures with widely varying molecular weights. As a result, significant simplifications in the models have been made which erode the accuracy of the models` predictions. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how the vast computational resources of massively parallel computers can be exploited to make possible the analysis of models that include coupled fluid flow and detailed chemistry in three-dimensional domains. For the most part, models have either simplified the reaction mechanisms and concentrated on the fluid flow, or have simplified the fluid flow and concentrated on rigorous reactions. An important CVD research thrust has been in detailed modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the reactor vessel, treating transport and reaction of chemical species either very simply or as a totally decoupled problem. Using the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fact that deposition is often diffusion limited, much can be learned from these calculations; however, the effects of thermal diffusion, the change in physical properties with composition, and the incorporation of surface reaction mechanisms are not included in this model, nor can transitions to three-dimensional flows be detected.

  20. Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

  1. High-temperature stress measurement on chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Maeda, M.; Yanagida, K.

    1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stresses in chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films at high temperatures were measured. Tungsten silicide films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. Tungsten films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/. The stress in tungsten silicide films is tensile and in the order of 10/sup 9/--10/sup 10/ dynes/cm/sup 2/. For a composition ratio of Si/Wless than or equal to2.6, the stress of a film of more than 1000 A has a maximum at about 500 /sup 0/C. On the other hand, for a composition Si/W>2.9, the stress has no maximum. The maximum of the stress is caused by crystallization of the film. The stress has two components. One component is related to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the film and the Si substrate. Another is related to the film crystallization. It was found that the stress concentrates in the portion of the film nearest the substrate. The stress in tungsten films also reaches a maximum at 550 /sup 0/C, similar to the tungsten silicide films. However, the cause of this behavior is not clear.

  2. Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

  3. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor vessel is described for chemical vapor deposition of a uniform semiconductor film on a substrate, comprising: a generally cylindrical reaction chamber for receiving a substrate and a flow of reaction gas capable of depositing a film on the substrate under the conditions of the chamber, the chamber having upper and lower portion and being oriented about a vertical axis; a supporting means having a substrate support surface generally perpendicular to the vertical axis for carrying the substrate within the lower portion of the reaction chamber in a predetermined relative position with respect to the upper portion of the reaction chamber, the upper portion including a cylindrically shaped confinement chamber. The confinement chamber has a smaller diameter than the lower portion of the reaction chamber and is positioned above the substrate support surface; and a means for introducing a reaction gas into the confinement chamber in a nonaxial direction so as to direct the reaction gas into the lower portion of the reaction chamber with a non-axial flow having a rotational component with respect to the vertical axis. In this way the reaction gas defines an inward vortex flow pattern with respect to the substrate surface.

  4. As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H. [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T. K. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T. K. [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  6. Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

  7. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wlczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sk?odowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?d?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?d? (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wlczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 510 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  8. Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. J. F. 1999 Carbon nanotubes and related structures: newof vapor grown carbon nanotubes and single wall nanotubes, Eto Carbon Materials in Carbon Nanotubes: Preparation and

  9. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  10. Properties of zinc selenide grown by chemical vapor transport and its application to room-temperature radiation detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunett, B.A.; Toney, J.E.; Schlesinger, T.E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yoon, H.; Goorsky, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Schieber, M.; James, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Rudolph, P. [Inst. fuer KrystallZuechtung, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have characterized ZnSe material grown by chemical vapor transport in iodine using triple-axis X-ray diffraction (TAD), photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS), photoluminescence (PL), current-voltage measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The material was found to have inadequate carrier transport for nuclear spectrometer use, but there was a discernible difference in performance between crystals which could be correlated with crystallinity as determined by the TAD rocking curves.

  11. Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-liquid-injection Chemical-vapor-deposited Nickel Nitride Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.; Gordon, R; Li, H; Shenai, D; Lavoie, C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Smooth, continuous, and highly conformal nickel nitride (NiN{sub x}) films were deposited by direct liquid injection (DLI)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of bis(N,N{prime}-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) in tetrahydronaphthalene as the nickel (Ni) source and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the coreactant gas. The DLI-CVD NiNx films grown on HF-last (100) silicon and on highly doped polysilicon substrates served as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide (NiSi), which is a key material for source, drain, and gate contacts in microelectronic devices. Rapid thermal annealing in the forming gas of DLI-CVD NiNx films formed continuous NiSi films at temperatures above 400 C. The resistivity of the NiSi films was 15{mu}{Omega} cm, close to the value for bulk crystals. The NiSi films have remarkably smooth and sharp interfaces with underlying Si substrates, thereby producing contacts for transistors with a higher drive current and a lower junction leakage. Resistivity and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in real-time during annealing of NiNx films showed the formation of a NiSi film at about 440 C, which is morphologically stable up to about 650 C. These NiSi films could find applications in future nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices or three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices such as Fin-type field effect transistors for the 22 nm technology node and beyond.

  12. Low temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of group 14 oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Atagi, L.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, Wei-Kan; Liu, Jia-Rui; Zheng, Zongshuang [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Rubiano, R.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Springer, R.W.; Smith, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depositions of high quality SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe{sub 2})4 (M = Si,Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition r. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 {plus_minus} 5 atom %. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 {angstrom}/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO{sub 2} films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm{sup {minus}1}. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO{sub 2} film deposited at 350C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO{sub 2} films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350C is cassitterite with some (101) orientation.

  13. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites by Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Zhan Jun [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Yang, Ying Chao [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Li, Kai Yuan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Tao, Xin Yong [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Zhang, Li Tong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China; Li, Xiao Dong [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Pan, Zhengwei [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their exceptional stiffness and strength1 4, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have long been considered to be an ideal reinforcement for light-weight, high-strength, and high-temperature-resistant ceramic matrix composites (CMCs)5 10. However, the research and development in CNT-reinforced CMCs have been greatly hindered due to the challenges related to manufacturing including poor dispersion, damages during dispersion, surface modification, densification and sintering, weak tube/matrix interfaces, and agglomeration of tubes at the matrix grain boundaries5,11. Here we report the fabrication of high-quality aligned CNT/SiC composites by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI), a technique that is being widely used to fabricate commercial continuous-filament CMCs12 15. Using the CVI technique most of the challenges previously encountered in the fabrication of CNT composites were readily overcome. Nanotube pullouts, an important toughening mechanism for CMCs, were consistently observed on all fractured CNT/SiC samples. Indeed, three-point bending tests conducted on individual CNT/SiC nanowires (diameters: 50 200 nm) using an atomic force microscope show that the CNT-reinforced SiC nanowires are about an order of magnitude tougher than the bulk SiC. The tube/matrix interface is so intimate and the SiC matrix is so dense that a ~50-nm-thick SiC coating can effectively protect the inside nanotubes from being oxidized at 1600 C in air. The CVI method may be extended to produce nanotube composites from a variety of matrix

  14. Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nominanda, Helinda

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

  15. Development of Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films and Membranes for Low-Energy Gas Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Michael

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are hybrid organic-inorganic micro- or mesoporous materials that exhibit regular crystalline lattices with rigid pore structures. Chemical functionalization of the organic linkers in the structures of MOFs affords...

  16. The influence of convective heat transfer on flow stability in rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, W.S.; Evans, G.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Grief, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow and heat transfer of NH{sub 3} and He were studied in a rotating disk system with applications to chemical vapor deposition reactors. Flow field and disk heat flux were obtained over a range of operating conditions. Comparisons of disk convective heat transfer were made to infinite rotating disk results to appraise uniformity of transport to the disk. Important operating variables include disk spin rate, disk and enclosure temperatures, flow rate, composition, pressure, and gas mixture temperature at the reactor inlet. These variables were studied over ranges of the spin Reynolds number, Re{omega}; disk mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}; and wall mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}. Results obtained for NH{sub 3} show that increasing Re{omega} from 314.5 to 3145 increases the uniformity of rotating disk heat flux and results in thinner thermal boundary layers at the disk surface. At Re{omega}=314.5, increasing MCP{sub d} to 15 leads to significant departure from the infinite disk result with nonuniform disk heat fluxes and recirculating flow patterns; flow becomes increasingly complex at larger values of MCP{sub d}. At Re{omega} of 3145, results are closer to the infinite disk for MCP{sub d} up to 15. For large negative (hot walls) and positive (cold walls) values of MCP{sub w}, flow recirculates and there is significant deviation from the infinite disk result; nonuniformities occur at both values of Re{omega}. The influence of MCP{sub w} on flow stability is increased at larger MCP{sub d} and lower Re{omega}. To determine the influence of viscosity and thermal conductivity variation with temperature, calculations were made with He and NH{sub 3}; He transport property variation is low relative to NH{sub 3}. Results show that the flow of NH{sub 3} is less stable than that of He as MCP{sub d} is increased for MCP{sub w}=0 and Re{omega}=314.5. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. GaN nanorod light emitting diodes with suspended graphene transparent electrodes grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Kun; Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen58@bjut.edu.cn; Deng, Jun; Zhu, Yanxu; Guo, Weiling; Mao, Mingming; Xun, Meng; Chen, Maoxing; Zheng, Lei [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Xie, Yiyang [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China) [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Mikroteknologi och Nanovetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska Hgskola AB, Gteborg 41296 (Sweden)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ordered and dense GaN light emitting nanorods are studied with polycrystalline graphene grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition as suspended transparent electrodes. As the substitute of indium tin oxide, the graphene avoids complex processing to fill up the gaps between nanorods and subsequent surface flattening and offers high conductivity to improve the carrier injection. The as-fabricated devices have 32% improvement in light output power compared to conventional planar GaN-graphene diodes. The suspended graphene remains electrically stable up to 300?C in air. The graphene can be obtained at low cost and high efficiency, indicating its high potential in future applications.

  18. Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Cheng [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China) [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)] [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore) [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

  19. Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor Infiltration III: Three Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    is an important technol- ogy to fabricate ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). In this paper, a three) is an important and widely used tech- nology for fabricating fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC temperature. A vapor precursor of the matrix ma- terial, such as the methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), diffuses

  20. Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor Infiltration I: Two Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    infiltration (CVI) process is an important approach to fabricating ceramic matrix composite(CMC's). Two. In CVI a vapor precursor of the matrix material, such as methyl trichlorosilane (MTS), diffuses through the interfiber void. As matrix growth progresses, avenues for gas transport become more tortuous and begin

  1. In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on GaAs using trimethyaluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IPA is chosen as the oxygen source for the ALD in the MOCVD. Second, IPA will not react precursor pulse time. b Dependence of ALD Al2O3 growth rate on temperature. The pulse time for TMA and IPA

  2. Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1-xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3142386 In the past decade, optoelectronic devices based and near ultraviolet.10,11 For optoelectronic devices, one important physical feature is the radiative

  3. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6??1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?C to 960?C and 9??1?eV for temperatures above 960?C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  4. Design of a compact ultrahigh vacuum-compatible setup for the analysis of chemical vapor deposition processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Theodor; Nowak, Martin; Zielasek, Volkmar, E-mail: zielasek@uni-bremen.de; Bumer, Marcus [Institut fr Angewandte und Physikalische Chemie, Universitt Bremen, Leobener Strae UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Mundloch, Udo; Kohse-Hinghaus, Katharina [Physikalische Chemie I, Fakultt fr Chemie, Universitt Bielefeld, Universittsstrae 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizing thin film deposition techniques requires contamination-free transfer from the reactor into an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface science analysis. A very compact, multifunctional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactor for direct attachment to any typical UHV system for thin film analysis was designed and built. Besides compactness, fast, easy, and at the same time ultimately clean sample transfer between reactor and UHV was a major goal. It was achieved by a combination of sample manipulation parts, sample heater, and a shutter mechanism designed to fit all into a NW38 Conflat six-ways cross. The present reactor design is versatile to be employed for all commonly employed variants of CVD, including Atomic Layer Deposition. A demonstration of the functionality of the system is provided. First results of the setup (attached to an Omicron Multiprobe x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system) on the temperature dependence of Pulsed Spray Evaporation-CVD of Ni films from Ni acetylacetonate as the precursor demonstrate the reactor performance and illustrate the importance of clean sample transfer without breaking vacuum in order to obtain unambiguous results on the quality of CVD-grown thin Ni films. The widely applicable design holds promise for future systematic studies of the fundamental processes during chemical vapor deposition or atomic layer deposition.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol chemical vapor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical and microphysical properties influence aerosol optical properties and radiative effects... distribution of aerosol extensive and intensive properties will aid ......

  6. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  7. ZnO light-emitting diode grown by plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.Z.; Ye, Z.Z.; Zeng, Y.J.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhao, B.H.; Jiang, L.; Lu, J.G.; He, H.P.; Zhang, S.B. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a breakthrough in fabricating ZnO homojunction light-emitting diode by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Using NO plasma, we are able to grow p-type ZnO thin films on n-type bulk ZnO substrates. The as-grown films on glass substrates show hole concentration of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 1-10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra reveal nitrogen-related emissions. A typical ZnO homojunction shows rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2.3 V. Electroluminescence at room temperature has been demonstrated with band-to-band emission at I=40 mA and defect-related emissions in the blue-yellow spectrum range.

  8. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Strae 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Strae 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstrae 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstrae 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  9. A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical February 2005 Available online 7 April 2005 Abstract The presence of thin silicon carbide intermediate of carbon atoms into the silicon carbide layer and the morphology and orientation of the diamond film

  10. Quantum Chemical Simulations Reveal Acetylene-Based Growth Mechanisms in the Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eres, Gyula [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Ying [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Gao, Xingfa [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Qian, Hu-Jun [Jilin University, Changchun] [Jilin University, Changchun; Ohta, Yasuhito [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Wu, Xiaona [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Morokuma, Keiji [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Irle, Stephan [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan] [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonequilibrium quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulation of early stages in the nucleation process of carbon nanotubes from acetylene feedstock on an Fe38 cluster was performed based on the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) potential. Representative chemical reactions were studied by complimentary static DFTB and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oligomerization and cross-linking reactions between carbon chains were found as the main reaction pathways similar to that suggested in previous experimental work. The calculations highlight the inhibiting effect of hydrogen for the condensation of carbon ring networks, and a propensity for hydrogen disproportionation, thus enriching the hydrogen content in already hydrogen-rich species and abstracting hydrogen content in already hydrogen-deficient clusters. The ethynyl radical C2H was found as a reactive, yet continually regenerated species, facilitating hydrogen transfer reactions across the hydrocarbon clusters. The nonequilibrium QM/MD simulations show the prevalence of a pentagon-first nucleation mechanism where hydrogen may take the role of one arm of an sp2 carbon Y-junction. The results challenge the importance of the metal carbide formation for SWCNT cap nucleation in the VLS model and suggest possible alternative routes following hydrogen-abstraction acetylene addition (HACA)-like mechanisms commonly discussed in combustion synthesis.

  11. Characteristics of ultra low-k nanoporous and fluorinated silica based films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi-Firouzjah, M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) silica based films were deposited on p-type silicon and polycarbonate substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at low temperature. A mixture of tetraethoxysilane vapor, oxygen, and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) was used for the deposition of the films in forms of two structures called as SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z}. Properties of the films were controlled by amount of porosity and fluorine content in the film matrix. The influence of RF power and CF{sub 4} flow on the elemental composition, deposition rate, surface roughness, leakage current, refractive index, and dielectric constant of the films were characterized. Moreover, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the plasma process at the different parameters. Electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films with metal-oxide-semiconductor structure were investigated using current-voltage analysis to measure the leakage current and breakdown field, as well as capacitance-voltage analysis to obtain the film's dielectric constant. The results revealed that SiO{sub x}C{sub y} films, which are deposited at lower RF power produce more leakage current, meanwhile the dielectric constant and refractive index of these films decreased mainly due to the more porosity in the film structure. By adding CF{sub 4} in the deposition process, fluorine, the most electronegative and the least polarized atom, doped into the silica film and led to decrease in the refractive index and the dielectric constant. In addition, no breakdown field was observed in the electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films and the leakage current of these films reduced by increment of the CF{sub 4} flow.

  12. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Forest Grown via Chemical Vapor Deposition from Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles, by XPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique chemical and physical properties. Herein, we report an XPS analysis of a forest of multiwalled CNTs using monochromatic Al K? radiation. Survey scans show only one element: carbon. The carbon 1s peak is centered 284.5 eV. The C 1s envelope also shows the expected ? ? ?* shake-up peak at ca. 291 eV. The valence band and carbon KVV Auger signals are presented. When patterned, the CNT forests can be used as a template for subsequent deposition of metal oxides to make thin layer chromatography plates.1-3

  13. SciTech Connect: Metal-Organic Framework Templated Inorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal-Organic Framework Templated Inorganic Sorbents for Rapid and Efficient Extraction of Heavy Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal-Organic Framework Templated...

  14. Data for First Responder Use of Photoionization Detectors for Vapor Chemical Constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith A. Daum; Matthew G. Watrous; M. Dean Neptune; Daniel I. Michael; Kevin J. Hull; Joseph D. Evans

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First responders need appropriate measurement technologies for evaluating incident scenes. This report provides information about photoionization detectors (PIDs), obtained from manufacturers and independent laboratory tests, and the use of PIDs by first responders, obtained from incident commanders in the United States and Canada. PIDs are valued for their relatively low cost, light weight, rapid detection response, and ease of use. However, it is clear that further efforts are needed to provide suitable instruments and decision tools to incident commanders and first responders for assessing potential hazardous chemical releases. Information provided in this report indicates that PIDs should always be part of a decision-making context in which other qualitative and more definitive tests and instruments are used to confirm a finding. Possible amelioratory actions ranging from quick and relatively easy fixes to those requiring significant additional effort are outlined in the report.

  15. The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250C, the temperature may reach 1600C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

  16. Mass densification and defect restoration in chemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide film using Ar plasma excited by microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawase, Kazumasa, E-mail: Kawase.Kazumasa@ak.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Motoya, Tsukasa; Uehara, Yasushi [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Teramoto, Akinobu; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been treated with Ar plasma excited by microwave. The changes of the mass densities, carrier trap densities, and thicknesses of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films with the Ar plasma treatments were investigated. The mass density depth profiles were estimated with X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis using synchrotron radiation. The densities of carrier trap centers due to defects of Si-O bond network were estimated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) time-dependent measurement. The changes of the thicknesses due to the oxidation of Si substrates were estimated with the XRR and XPS. The mass densities of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are increased by the Ar plasma treatments. The carrier trap densities of the films are decreased by the treatments. The thicknesses of the films are not changed by the treatments. It has been clarified that the mass densification and defect restoration in the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are caused by the Ar plasma treatments without the oxidation of the Si substrates.

  17. Step-edge-induced resistance anisotropy in quasi-free-standing bilayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciuk, Tymoteusz [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Cakmakyapan, Semih; Ozbay, Ekmel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Caban, Piotr; Grodecki, Kacper; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupinski, Wlodek, E-mail: wlodek.strupinski@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport properties of quasi-free-standing (QFS) bilayer graphene on SiC depend on a range of scattering mechanisms. Most of them are isotropic in nature. However, the SiC substrate morphology marked by a distinctive pattern of the terraces gives rise to an anisotropy in graphene's sheet resistance, which may be considered an additional scattering mechanism. At a technological level, the growth-preceding in situ etching of the SiC surface promotes step bunching which results in macro steps ?10?nm in height. In this report, we study the qualitative and quantitative effects of SiC steps edges on the resistance of epitaxial graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We experimentally determine the value of step edge resistivity in hydrogen-intercalated QFS-bilayer graphene to be ?190???m for step height h{sub S}?=?10?nm and provide proof that it cannot originate from mechanical deformation of graphene but is likely to arise from lowered carrier concentration in the step area. Our results are confronted with the previously reported values of the step edge resistivity in monolayer graphene over SiC atomic steps. In our analysis, we focus on large-scale, statistical properties to foster the scalable technology of industrial graphene for electronics and sensor applications.

  18. Characterization of amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a helical resonator discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, D.H. [LG Electronics Research Center, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-140 (Korea)] [LG Electronics Research Center, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-140 (Korea); Kim, Y.H.; Baik, H.K. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)] [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride thin films (a-CN{sub x}:H) have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} gases using a helical resonator discharge. The structural and optical properties of the deposited a-CN{sub x}:H films have been systematically studied as a function of the substrate temperature and radio frequency (rf) substrate bias. The chemical structure and elemental composition of the a-CN{sub x}:H films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were evaluated using transmission ultraviolet{endash}visible spectroscopy. The morphology of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FT-IR and XPS studies demonstrate the presence of carbon{endash}nitrogen bonds with hydrogenated components in the films. The film composition ratio N/C was found to vary from 0.127 to 0.213 depending on the deposition conditions. The Raman spectra, showing the G and D bands, indicate that the a-CN{sub x}:H films have a graphitic structure. It can be found that the optical band-gap E{sub g} of a-CN{sub x}:H films is associated with graphitic clusters, while the decrease in E{sub g} is correlated with an increase in the size and number of graphitic clusters. Combining the results of Raman and optical measurements, it can be concluded that a progressive graphitization of the films occurs with increasing the substrate temperature and rf substrate bias power, corresponding to bias voltage. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Thermal Decomposition of Molecules Relevant to Combustion and Chemical Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemieux, Jessy Mario

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Small Molecules by Flash Pyrolysis, University ofwas performed using flash pyrolysis vacuum-ultraviolet time-Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass

  20. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwood, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Spin Chains in Magnetism: Molecules to Materials, J.Magnetism in metal-organic capsules Jerry L. Atwood,* a Euan

  1. Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

  2. Installation and Operation of Sorbathene Solvent Vapor Recovery Units to Recover and Recycle Volatile Organic Compounds at Operating Sites within the Dow Chemical Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, T. L.; Larrinaga, L.

    because of the history of fires caused by exothermic heat of adsorption and high flammability when adsorption occurs during a long cycle time'. Three SORBATHENE units utilizing activated carbon with a short cycle time to limit temperature rise have... to the potential presence of oxygen in the vapor phase and the increased reactivity of the chemicals on the catalytic surface of the adsorbent. The extent of temperature rises and pressure swings are critical parameters. The adsorption phenomena is exothermic...

  3. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. John, E-mail: ajhart@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called Robofurnace. Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  4. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 612 2000 Materials Research Society VOLATILE LIQUID PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These tungsten oxide films can be used as part of electrochromic windows, mirrors or displays. Physical in microelectronics.5 CVD using both W(CO)6 vapor and oxygen gas, O2, has produced electrochromic films of tungsten

  5. Defining the Proton Topology of the Zr6Based Metal-Organic Framework NU-1000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,16-19 heavy metal capture,20,21 sensing,12 ionic conductivity,22 toxic industrial chemical capture,23Defining the Proton Topology of the Zr6Based Metal-Organic Framework NU-1000 Nora Planas,, Joseph E of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Metal

  6. Metal-organic scintillator crystals for X-ray, gamma ray, and neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A (Oak Ridge, TN); Kolopus, James A. (Clinton, TN); Neal, John S (Knoxville, TN); Ramey, Joanne Oxendine (Knoxville, TN); Wisniewski, Dariusz J (Torun, PL)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    New metal-organic materials are useful as scintillators and have the chemical formula LX.sub.3(CH.sub.3OH).sub.4 where L is Y, Sc, or a lanthanide element, and X is a halogen element. An example of the scintillator materials is CeCl.sub.3(CH.sub.3OH).sub.4.

  7. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that will be able to withstand a few MW proton beam and hopefully will be able to be used after possible future upgrades to the SNS to greater than a 3MW beam.

  8. Synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite by low temperature hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Bi, Kaifeng; Liu, Yanhong; Qin, Fuwen; Liu, Hongzhu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Dong [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China)] [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China); Miao, Lihua [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Computer and Mathematical Basic Teaching, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyan 110034 (China)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    ?-SiC thin films were synthesized directly on graphite by hot filament chemical vapor deposition at low temperature. SiH{sub 4} diluted in hydrogen was employed as the silicon source, while graphite was functioned as both substrate and carbon source for the as-grown ?-SiC films. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis indicate that SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite was formed after post annealing treatment, and its crystalline quality can be remarkably improved under optimized annealing conditions. The possible growth mechanism was proposed based on in situ etching of graphite by reactive hydrogen radicals at the atomic level.

  9. The aging of tungsten filaments and its effect on wire surface kinetics in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    desorption kinetics. In particular, the Si signal exhibits a high temperature activation energy consistent vapor deposition growth have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry. New wires produce Si with previous measurements; the activation energy for the SiH3 signal suggests its formation is catalyzed. Aged

  10. Role of gas phase reactions in subatmospheric chemical-vapor deposition ozone/TEOS processes for oxide deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    -vapor deposition. Our results for oxide deposition show optimum process window around 200 Torr for producing films a po- tentially optimum process window in which film properties, deposition rates, film uniformity requires high quality dielectric films that can be deposited rapidly and conformally on high aspect ratio

  11. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  12. Dynamic interplay between spin-crossover and host-guest function in a nanoporous metal-organic framework material.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southon, P. D.; Liu, L.; Fellows, E. A.; Price, D. J.; Halder, G. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Moubaraki, B.; Murray, K. S.; Letard, J.F.; Kepert, C. J.; Univ. Sydney; Monash Univ.; Universite Bordeaux

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nanoporous metal-organic framework [Fe(pz)Ni(CN){sub 4}], 1 (where pz is pyrazine), exhibits hysteretic spin-crossover at ambient conditions and is robust to the adsorption and desorption of a wide range of small molecular guests, both gases (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}) and vapors (methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and toluene). Through the comprehensive analysis of structure, host-guest properties, and spin-crossover behaviors, it is found that this pillared Hofmann system uniquely displays both guest-exchange-induced changes to spin-crossover and spin-crossover-induced changes to host-guest properties, with direct dynamic interplay between these two phenomena. Guest desorption and adsorption cause pronounced changes to the spin-crossover behavior according to a systematic trend in which larger guests stabilize the high-spin state and therefore depress the spin-crossover temperature of the host lattice. When stabilizing the alternate spin state of the host at any given temperature, these processes directly stimulate the spin-crossover process, providing a chemisensing function. Exploitation of the bistability of the host allows the modification of adsorption properties at a fixed temperature through control of the host spin state, with each state shown to display differing chemical affinities to guest sorption. Guest desorption then adsorption, and vice versa, can be used to switch between spin states in the bistable temperature region, adding a guest-dependent memory effect to this system.

  13. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  14. Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) for highly selective separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar M. Yaghi

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) have been investigated for the realization as separation media with high selectivity. These structures are held together with strong bonds, making them architecturally, chemically, and thermally stable. Therefore, employing well designed building units, it is possible to discover promising materials for gas and vapor separation. This grant was focused on the study of MOFs and ZIFs with these specific objectives: (i) to develop a strategy for producing MOFs and ZIFs that combine high surface areas with active sites for their use in gas adsorption and separation of small organic compounds, (ii) to introduce active sites in the framework by a post-synthetic modification and metalation of MOFs and ZIFs, and (iii) to design and synthesize MOFs with extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes to accommodate large amounts of guest molecules. By the systematic study, this effort demonstrated how to introduce active functional groups in the frameworks, and this is also the origin of a new strategy, which is termed isoreticular functionalization and metalation. However, a large pore volume is still a prerequisite feature. One of the solutions to overcome this challenge is an isoreticular expansion of a MOF???????¢????????????????s structure. With triangular organic linker and square building units, we demonstrated that MOF-399 has a unit cell volume 17 times larger than that of the first reported material isoreticular to it, and it has the highest porosity (94%) and lowest density (0.126 g cm-3) of any MOF reported to date. MOFs are not just low density materials; the guest-free form of MOF-210 demonstrates an ultrahigh porosity, whose BET surface area was estimated to be 6240 m2 g-1 by N2 adsorption measurements.

  15. Co-Pt core-shell nanostructured catalyst prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition of Pt on Co as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Sang-Joon; Chung, Ho-Kyoon [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Korea and School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Heeyeop; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min Cho, Sung, E-mail: sungmcho@skku.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of PtCo/C catalyst for use as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells was prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition (CVPD) of Pt on the surface of Co. The activity of the prepared catalyst for oxygen reduction was higher than that of a catalyst prepared by sequential impregnation (IMP) with the two metallic components. This catalytic activity difference occurs because the former catalyst has smaller Pt crystallites that produce stronger Pt-Co interactions and have a larger Pt surface area. Consequently, the CVPD catalyst has a great number of Co particles that are in close contact with the added Pt. The Pt surface was also electronically modified by interactions with Co, which were stronger in the CVPD catalyst than in the IMP catalyst, as indicated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements of the catalysts.

  16. Properties of chemical vapor deposited tungsten silicide films using reaction of WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Kobayashi, I.; Maeda, M.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten silicide films were formed by the chemical vapor deposition method using the reaction WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. The deposition rate, resistivity, composition, stress, crystal structure, and content of impurities were studied and compared with tungsten silicide films deposited by reaction of WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/. The tungsten silicide films made using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ have a higher deposition rate and higher Si concentration than those made by using SiH/sub 4/ at the same substrate temperature. For these reasons, the tungsten silicide films made by using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ were found to have a resistivity that is a little higher and, after annealing, a stress that is smaller than that made by SiH/sub 4/.

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  18. Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2??10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1??2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

  19. Toward epitaxially grown two-dimensional crystal hetero-structures: Single and double MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures by chemical vapor depositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Meng-Yu [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chung-En [Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Display, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung; Chen, Chi [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform large-size MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures fabricated directly on sapphire substrates are demonstrated with layer-number controllability by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images provide the direct evidences of layer numbers of MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures. Photo-excited electron induced Fermi level shift of the graphene channel are observed on the single MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structure transistors. Furthermore, double hetero-structures of graphene/MoS{sub 2}/graphene are achieved by CVD fabrication of graphene layers on top of the MoS{sub 2}, as confirmed by the cross-sectional HRTEM. These results have paved the possibility of epitaxially grown multi-hetero-structures for practical applications.

  20. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  1. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  2. Copolymerization of divinylbenzene and 4-vinylpyridine using initiated chemical vapor deposition for surface modification and its applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Ernesto, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigates the copolymerization of divinylbenzene and 4- vinylpyridine into organic thin films that exhibit conformal, stable, and uniform surface properties. Thin films were grown using initiated chemical ...

  3. To estimate vapor pressure easily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

  4. Adsorption and Diffusion of Hydrogen in a New Metal-Organic Framework Material: [Zn(bdc)(ted)0.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Adsorption and Diffusion of Hydrogen in a New Metal-Organic Framework Material: [Zn(bdc)(ted)0. Sankar,§ and J. Karl Johnson*,,| Department of Chemical Engineering, UniVersity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh: NoVember 29, 2007 We have experimentally measured hydrogen isotherms at 77 and 298 K up to a hydrogen

  5. Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: TiClm(NH2)n, TiClm(NH2)nNH, and TiClm(NH2)nN. An ab Initio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor with these basis sets augmented by multiple sets of polarization and diffuse functions using the B3LYP optimized geometries. Bond dissociation energies, heats of atomization, heats of formation, and entropies have been

  6. Guidance Document Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful gases, vapors and fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance Document FumeHoods Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful the maximum safe mark (provided by Facilities Management during annual test) Use secondary containment (a hood without permission from EHS. Call EHS or Facilities Management if a hood is not functioning

  7. Chemical beam epitaxy for high efficiency photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensaoula, A.; Freundlich, A.; Vilela, M. F.; Medelci, N.; Renaud, P.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InP-based multijunction tandem solar cells show great promise for the conversion efficiency (eta) and high radiation resistance. InP and its related ternary and quanternary compound semiconductors such as InGaAs and InGaAsP offer desirable combinations for energy bandgap values which are very suitable for multijunction tandem solar cell applications. The monolithically integrated InP/In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tandem solar cells are expected to reach efficiencies above 30 percent. Wanlass, et.al., have reported AMO efficiencies as high as 20.1% for two terminal cells fabricated using atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). The main limitations in their technique are first related to the degradation of the intercell ohmic contact (IOC), in this case the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tunnel junction during the growth of the top InP subcell structure, and second to the current matching, often limited by the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As bottom subcell. Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) has been shown to allow the growth of high quality materials with reproducible complex compositional and doping profiles. The main advantage of CBE compared to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the most popular technique for InP-based photovoltaic device fabrication, is the ability to grow high purity epilayers at much lower temperatures (450 C - 530 C). In a recent report it was shown that cost-wise CBE is a breakthrough technology for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy progress in the energy conversion efficiency of InP-based solar cells fabricated using chemical beam epitaxy. This communication summarizes recent results on PV devices and demonstrates the strength of this new technology.

  8. Direct Growth Graphene on Cu Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Deposition as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Label-Free Detection of Adenosine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Jie; Xu, Shida; Liu, Hanping

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a graphene/Cu nanoparticle hybrids (G/CuNPs) system as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for adenosine detection. The Cu nanoparticles wrapped around a monolayer graphene shell were directly synthesized on flat quartz by chemical vapor deposition in a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The G/CuNPs showed an excellent SERS enhancement activity for adenosine. The minimum detected concentration of the adenosine in serum was demonstrated as low as 5 nM, and the calibration curve showed a good linear response from 5 to 500 nM. The capability of SERS detection of adenosine in real normal human urine samples based on G/CuNPs was also investigated and the characteristic peaks of adenosine were still recognizable. The reproducible and the ultrasensitive enhanced Raman signals could be due to the presence of an ultrathin graphene layer. The graphene shell was able to enrich and fix the adenosine molecules, which could also efficiently maintain chemical and optical stability of G/CuNPs. Based...

  9. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  10. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  11. High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami UNREL DoDDLA Project) (presentation) High...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: metal-organic framework materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal-organic framework materials Combining 'Tinkertoy' Materials with Solar Cells for Increased Photovoltaic Efficiency On December 4, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News,...

  13. Photoluminescence of GaAs films grown by vacuum chemical epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernussi, A.A.; Barreto, C.L.; Carvalho, M.M.G.; Motisuke, P.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs layers grown by vacuum chemical epitaxy (VCE) are investigated by low-temperature photoluminescence. A qualitative relation between the growth parameters and the shallow-impurity-incorporation mechanism is established. It was observed that the predominant shallow acceptor is carbon, and its incorporation during the growth process decreases with the As:Ga ratio, increases with growth temperature until 750 /sup 0/C, and then it diminishes. In this work we compare the characteristics observed in the VCE system with those in conventional molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Our results show that this system contains some advantages from both the MBE and MOCVD systems. The photoluminescence spectra also show that at low As:Ga ratios the generation of As vacancies or its complexes is strongly enhanced.

  14. Ligand Design for Novel Metal-Organic Polyhedra and Metal-Organic Frameworks for Alternative Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuppler, Ryan John

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    : Chemistry iii ABSTRACT Ligand Design for Novel Metal-Organic Polyhedra and Metal-Organic Frameworks for Alternative Energy Applications. (August 2010) Ryan John Kuppler, B.A., Miami University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hong-Cai Zhou... The primary goal of this research concerns the synthesis of organic ligands in an effort to create metal-organic porous materials for the storage of gas molecules for alternative energy applications as well as other applications such as catalysis, molecular...

  15. Nanocrystalline-Si-dot multi-layers fabrication by chemical vapor deposition with H-plasma surface treatment and evaluation of structure and quantum confinement effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosemura, Daisuke, E-mail: d-kose@isc.meiji.ac.jp; Mizukami, Yuki; Takei, Munehisa; Numasawa, Yohichiroh; Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)] [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Ohshita, Yoshio [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)] [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    100-nm-thick nanocrystalline silicon (nano-Si)-dot multi-layers on a Si substrate were fabricated by the sequential repetition of H-plasma surface treatment, chemical vapor deposition, and surface oxidation, for over 120 times. The diameter of the nano-Si dots was 56 nm, as confirmed by both the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The annealing process was important to improve the crystallinity of the nano-Si dot. We investigated quantum confinement effects by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on the experimental results, we simulated the Raman spectrum using a phenomenological model. Consequently, the strain induced in the nano-Si dots was estimated by comparing the experimental and simulated results. Taking the estimated strain value into consideration, the band gap modulation was measured, and the diameter of the nano-Si dots was calculated to be 5.6 nm by using PL. The relaxation of the q ? 0 selection rule model for the nano-Si dots is believed to be important to explain both the phenomena of peak broadening on the low-wavenumber side observed in Raman spectra and the blue shift observed in PL measurements.

  16. A three-dimensional analysis of the flow and heat transfer for the modified chemical vapor deposition process including buoyancy, variable properties, and tube rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.T.; Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of the heat transfer, flow, and particle deposition relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The effects of variable properties, buoyancy, and tube rotation have been included in the study. The resulting three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields have been obtained for a range of conditions. The effects of buoyancy result in asymmetric temperature and axial velocity profiles with respect to the tube axis. Variable properties cause significant variations in the axial velocity along the tube and in the secondary flow in the region near the torch. Particle trajectories are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation and are helices for large rotational speeds. The component of secondary flow in the radial direction is compared to the thermophoretic velocity, which is the primary cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process. Over the central portion of the tube the radial component of the secondary flow is most important in determining the motion of the particles.

  17. Structural, compositional, and photoluminescence characterization of thermal chemical vapor deposition-grown Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Pai-Chun, E-mail: pcwei68@gmail.com, E-mail: tsengcm@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-Hao [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Tong, Shih-Chang; Shen, Ji-Lin [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Chuan-Ming, E-mail: pcwei68@gmail.com, E-mail: tsengcm@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Tao-Yuan 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic growth of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} using guided-stream thermal chemical vapor deposition has been investigated within the parameter range of acicular growth to obtain uniform microtips with a high crystalline quality. The cubic anti-bixbyite crystal structure of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips and its related phonon mode are revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The surface morphologies of pure and surface-oxidized Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips are depicted by scanning electron microscopy and show the crack formation on the surface-oxidized Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips. The spatial element distribution map confirms the VLS growth mechanism for Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips and reveals the depth profile of zinc, nitrogen, oxygen, and nickel elements. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips show a sharp infrared band-to-band emission peak at 1.34?eV with a full width at half maximum of ?100?meV and a very broad oxygen-related defect band emission peak centered at ?0.85?eV.

  18. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  19. Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W on TiN/Ti/SiO2 structures for integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W through the 106-nm-thick TiN film. W piles up at the TiN/Ti interface, while F rapidly saturates the TiN-sectional and scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that WF6 penetrates into the TiN layer

  20. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  1. SPIN (Version 3. 83): A Fortran program for modeling one-dimensional rotating-disk/stagnation-flow chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coltrin, M.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kee, R.J.; Evans, G.H.; Meeks, E.; Rupley, F.M.; Grcar, J.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In rotating-disk reactor a heated substrate spins (at typical speeds of 1000 rpm or more) in an enclosure through which the reactants flow. The rotating disk geometry has the important property that in certain operating regimes{sup 1} the species and temperature gradients normal to the disk are equal everywhere on the disk. Thus, such a configuration has great potential for highly uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD),{sup 2--5} and indeed commercial rotating-disk CVD reactors are now available. In certain operating regimes, the equations describing the complex three-dimensional spiral fluid motion can be solved by a separation-of-variables transformation{sup 5,6} that reduces the equations to a system of ordinary differential equations. Strictly speaking, the transformation is only valid for an unconfined infinite-radius disk and buoyancy-free flow. Furthermore, only some boundary conditions are consistent with the transformation (e.g., temperature, gas-phase composition, and approach velocity all specified to be independent of radius at some distances above the disk). Fortunately, however, the transformed equations will provide a very good practical approximation to the flow in a finite-radius reactor over a large fraction of the disk (up to {approximately}90% of the disk radius) when the reactor operating parameters are properly chosen, i.e, high rotation rates. In the limit of zero rotation rate, the rotating disk flow reduces to a stagnation-point flow, for which a similar separation-of-variables transformation is also available. Such flow configurations ( pedestal reactors'') also find use in CVD reactors. In this report we describe a model formulation and mathematical analysis of rotating-disk and stagnation-point CVD reactors. Then we apply the analysis to a compute code called SPIN and describe its implementation and use. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  3. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  4. Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporating 1,4-Benzeneditetrazolate: Syntheses, Structures, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @berkeley.edu Abstract: The potential of tetrazolate-based ligands for forming metal-organic frameworks of utility

  5. Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.

    INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMPS USING SOLID/VAPOR WORKING FLUIDS Uwe Rockenfeller, Desert Research Institute, Boulder City, Nevada ABSTRACT Industrial heat pumps have the potential to reduce the operating costs of chemical and heat treating processes... with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to 'nore cost effective...

  6. Metal-Organic Frameworks DOI: 10.1002/anie.201107534

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metal-Organic Frameworks DOI: 10.1002/anie.201107534 High Propene/Propane Selectivity to their modular, tailorable structures, as well as their potential in applications such as gas storage[2 storage,[4] CO2 capture,[5] and CO2 separations.[6] Propene is an important commercial petrochemical

  7. A Catenated Strut in a Catenated MetalOrganic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Qiaowei [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China); Sue, Chi-Hau [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Basu, Subhadeep [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Shveyd, Alexander K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Zhang, Wenyu [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barin, Gokhan [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Fang, Lei [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Sarjeant, Amy A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Stoddart, J. Fraser [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Yaghi, Omar M [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), in the form of donoracceptor [2]catenane-containing struts of exceptional length, have been incorporated into a three-dimensional catenated metalorganic framework (MOF) at precise locations and with uniform relative orientations. Catenation is expressed simultaneously within the struts and the framework.

  8. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  9. Process diagnostics and thickness metrology using in situ mass spectrometry for the chemical vapor deposition of W from H2 WF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    response time 4 s sensor system sampled gas directly from a commercial Ulvac ERA-1000 reactor in order wafers, at 67 Pa 0.5 Torr total pressure, and for wafer temperatures around 400 C. A relatively fast An ideal real-time chemical sensor for monitoring pro- cesses involving multicomponent gas mixtures would

  10. Processing of CuInSe{sub 2}-based solar cells: Characterization of deposition processes in terms of chemical reaction analyses. Phase 2 Annual Report, 6 May 1996--5 May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, T.

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research performed by the University of Florida during Phase 2 of this subcontract. First, to study CIGS, researchers adapted a contactless, nondestructive technique previously developed for measuring photogenerated excess carrier lifetimes in SOI wafers. This dual-beam optical modulation (DBOM) technique was used to investigate the differences between three alternative methods of depositing CdS (conventional chemical-bath deposition [CBD], metal-organic chemical vapor deposition [MOCVD], and sputtering). Second, a critical assessment of the Cu-In-Se thermochemical and phase diagram data using standard CALPHAD procedures is being performed. The outcome of this research will produce useful information on equilibrium vapor compositions (required annealing ambients, Sex fluxes from effusion cells), phase diagrams (conditions for melt-assisted growth), chemical potentials (driving forces for diffusion and chemical reactions), and consistent solution models (extents of solid solutions and extending phase diagrams). Third, an integrated facility to fabricate CIS PV devices was established that includes migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE) for deposition of CIS, a rapid thermal processing furnace for absorber film formation, sputtering of ZnO, CBD or MOCVD of CdS, metallization, and pattern definition.

  11. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar M. Yaghi

    2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional storage of large amounts of hydrogen in its molecular form is difficult and expensive because it requires employing either extremely high pressure gas or very low temperature liquid. Because of the importance of hydrogen as a fuel, the DOE has set system targets for hydrogen storage of gravimetric (5.5 wt%) and volumetric (40 g L-1) densities to be achieved by 2015. Given that these are system goals, a practical material will need to have higher capacity when the weight of the tank and associated cooling or regeneration system is considered. The size and weight of these components will vary substantially depending on whether the material operates by a chemisorption or physisorption mechanism. In the latter case, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been identified as promising adsorbents for hydrogen storage, although little data is available for their sorption behavior. This grant was focused on the study of MOFs with these specific objectives. (1) To examine the effects of functionalization, catenation, and variation of the metal oxide and organic linkers on the low-pressure hydrogen adsorption properties of MOFs. (2) To develop a strategy for producing MOFs with high surface area and porosity to reduce the dead space and increase the hydrogen storage capacity per unit volume. (3) To functionalize MOFs by post synthetic functionalization with metals to improve the adsorption enthalpy of hydrogen for the room temperature hydrogen storage. This effort demonstrated the importance of open metal sites to improve the adsorption enthalpy by the systematic study, and this is also the origin of the new strategy, which termed isoreticular functionalization and metalation. However, a large pore volume is still a prerequisite feature. Based on our principle to design highly porous MOFs, guest-free MOFs with ultrahigh porosity have been experimentally synthesized. MOF-210, whose BET surface area is 6240 m2 g-1 (the highest among porous solids), takes up 15 wt% of total H2 uptake at 80 bar and 77 K. More importantly, the total H2 uptake by MOF-210 was 2.7 wt% at 80 bar and 298 K, which is the highest number reported for physisorptive materials.

  12. Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    encompass deposition onto micro- and nanopowders14 and coating of nanoparticle films15 as well as aerogel coating of porous materials that exhibit ultrahigh-aspect ratios.12,13 To date, some striking examples

  13. Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

  14. Cadmium and Zinc Thiolate and Selenolate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D.; Stone, K; Stephens, P; Vaid, T

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-organic frameworks based on metal-sulfur or metal-selenium bonds are relatively rare; herein we describe the synthesis and structural characterization of several examples, including, for example, [Cd(en){sub 3}][Cd(SC{sub 6}H{sub 4}S){sub 2}], which contains the anionic two-dimensional square-grid network [Cd(SC{sub 6}H{sub 4}S){sub 2}]{sub n}{sup 2n-}.

  15. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  16. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustic wave vapor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (6). While previous systems have demonstrated success in chemical... striking visual identification of a range of ligating vapors (including alcohols, amines, ethers... ,...

  18. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterization of an oil aerosol-vapor microbial disinfectant .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadhwa, Prakash, 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??"This thesis focuses on chemical characterization studies of disinfectant vapors generated from thermal oxidation of mineral oil and biogenic oil esters. The disinfection technique holds (more)

  19. Delivered by Ingenta to: Sung Kyun Kwan University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    -Carbon Layer on Silicon Carbide Nanowires by a Gold Catalyst-Supported Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746, Korea Silicon carbide (SiC) nano-structures would as a single molecular precur- sor through a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method

  20. Temperature dependent vapor pressures of chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor pressures of nine chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The vapor pressures at 298.15 K were in the range of 0.02--1 Pa, and the enthalpies of vaporization, between 68 and 82 kJ/mol. The validity of the technique was established by a calibration involving four chlorinated phenols with well-known vapor pressures. Using these data and previously reported solubility data, Henry`s law constants for these substances and some chlorinated guaiacols and veratrols were estimated. The vapor pressure of these substances tends to decrease with increasing polarity and an increasing number of chlorine atoms. Henry`s law constants decrease sharply with increasing polarity, suggesting that methylation can result in a significant increase in a chemical`s potential for volatilization from water.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  2. High Charge Mobility in a Tetrathiafulvalene-Based Microporous MetalOrganic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan, Tarun Chandru

    The tetratopic ligand tetrathiafulvalene-tetrabenzoate (H[subscript 4]TTFTB) is used to synthesize Zn[subscript 2](TTFTB), a new metalorganic framework that contains columnar stacks of tetrathiafulvalene and benzoate-lined ...

  3. Cation exchange at the secondary building units of metalorganic frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brozek, Carl Kavanaugh

    Cation exchange is an emerging synthetic route for modifying the secondary building units (SBUs) of metalorganic frameworks (MOFs). This technique has been used extensively to enhance the properties of nanocrystals and ...

  4. Generation and Applications of Structure Envelopes for Metal-Organic Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovenko, Andrey A.

    2013-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of polycrystalline, vs. single-crystalline porous materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is usually beneficial due to shorter synthetic time and higher yields. However, the structural characterization of these materials by X...

  5. Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks for Energy Storage Applications: Design, Synthesis and Mechanism Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yangyang

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-assembly of metal ions and organic linkers could afford 3-dimensional (3D) porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). They are promising materials for clean energy applications including carbon capture, hydrogen storage and methane storage...

  6. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  7. Industrially challenging separations via adsorption in metal-organic frameworks : a computational exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennox, Matthew James

    2015-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been identified as promising adsorbents in a number of industrially relevant, yet challenging, separations, including the removal of propane from propane/propylene ...

  8. Gasoline vapor recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

    1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

  9. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  10. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  11. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  12. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  13. Synthesis, Structure, and Metalation of Two New Highly Porous Zirconium Metal?Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, William; Volosskiy, Boris; Demir, Selcuk; Gndara, Felipe; McGrier, Psaras L.; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Cascio, Duilio; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Yaghi, Omar M. (UCLA); (NWU)

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Three new metal-organic frameworks [MOF-525, Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(TCPP-H{sub 2}){sub 3}; MOF-535, Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(XF){sub 3}; MOF-545, Zr{sub 6}O{sub 8}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}(TCPP-H{sub 2}){sub 2}, where porphyrin H{sub 4}-TCPP-H{sub 2} = (C{sub 48}H{sub 24}O{sub 8}N{sub 4}) and cruciform H{sub 4}-XF = (C{sub 42}O{sub 8}H{sub 22})] based on two new topologies, ftw and csq, have been synthesized and structurally characterized. MOF-525 and -535 are composed of Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} cuboctahedral units linked by either porphyrin (MOF-525) or cruciform (MOF-535). Another zirconium-containing unit, Zr{sub 6}O{sub 8}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}, is linked by porphyrin to give the MOF-545 structure. The structure of MOF-525 was obtained by analysis of powder X-ray diffraction data. The structures of MOF-535 and -545 were resolved from synchrotron single-crystal data. MOF-525, -535, and -545 have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of 2620, 1120, and 2260 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. In addition to their large surface areas, both porphyrin-containing MOFs are exceptionally chemically stable, maintaining their structures under aqueous and organic conditions. MOF-525 and -545 were metalated with iron(III) and copper(II) to yield the metalated analogues without losing their high surface area and chemical stability.

  14. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  15. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    * Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissourisSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 Liquid vapor pressure isotope effects have generally been observed, pD > pH.12 Vapor pressure and sublimation

  16. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  17. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmr DocumentationProductsaodsasheniraodAlaskaVisiting theWater Vapor

  18. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)Productssondeadjustsondeadjust DocumentationARM Participation in SuomiNet The ARM62ARM Water Vapor IOP

  19. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The

  20. High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements David M. Slocum,* Thomas M such as pollution monitoring and the detection of energetic chemicals using remote sensing over long path lengths through the atmosphere. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow

  1. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  2. Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Lian

    Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride to examine the effects of carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature on the morphology of carbon with increasing carbon tetrachloride concentration. Step bunching and pinning was observed at a IV/III ratio

  3. & Surface Chemistry Water-Stable Zirconium-Based MetalOrganic Framework Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Surface Chemistry Water-Stable Zirconium-Based MetalOrganic Framework Material with High candidates as replacements for gasoline (petrol). However, their compact storage in molecular form, es Department of Chemistry and International Institute for Nanotechnology Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan

  4. 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Elongated Tetracarboxylate Building Blocks for Hydrogen Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    3D Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Elongated Tetracarboxylate Building Blocks for Hydrogen Storage Liqing Ma, Jeong Yong Lee, Jing Li, and Wenbin Lin*, Department of Chemistry, CB#3290, Uni. The porosity and hydrogen uptake of the frameworks were determined by gas adsorption experiments. A wide range

  5. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films Composed of Free-Standing Acicular Nanorods Exhibiting Reversible Electrochromism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reversible Electrochromism Chung-Wei Kung, Timothy Chiaan Wang, Joseph E. Mondloch, David Fairen electrochromic switching between yellow and deep blue by means of a one-electron redox reaction at its pyrene and rapid switching rate. KEYWORDS: electrochromism, metal-organic frameworks, one-dimensional nanorods

  6. Short Communication Enhancement of CO2/CH4 selectivity in metal-organic frameworks containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lithium cations Youn-Sang Bae a,1 , Brad G. Hauser b,1 , Omar K. Farha b , Joseph T. Hupp b, , Randall Q November 2010 Keywords: Lithium doping Carbon dioxide (CO2) Metal-organic framework (MOF) Separation improvement by the Li cation exchange comes from enhanced solidgas interactions. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 from

  8. Methane Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Current Records, Surprise Findings, and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methane Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Current Records, Surprise Findings, and Challenges to concerns over national and regional energy security, ground-level air quality, and climate change. While challenge is mass- and volume-efficient, ambient-temperature storage and delivery. One potential solution

  9. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  10. Theoretical Limits of Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Opportunities and Trade-Offs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    technologies has highlighted the need for high- density energy storage.1 In the case of fuel cell vehicles (FCVTheoretical Limits of Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Opportunities and Trade predict the hydrogen storage properties of these compounds. Approximately 20 000 candidate compounds were

  11. Fuel vapor control device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ota, I.; Nishimura, Y.; Nishio, S.; Yogo, K.

    1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel vapor control device is described having a valve opening and closing a passage connecting a carburetor and a charcoal canister according to a predetermined temperature. A first coil spring formed by a ''shape memory effect'' alloy is provided to urge the valve to open the passage when the temperature is high. A second coil spring urges the valve to close the passage. A solenoid is provided to urge an armature against the valve to close the passage against the force of the first coil spring when the engine is running. The solenoid heats the first coil spring to generate a spring force therein when the engine is running. When the engine is turned off, the solenoid is deactivated, and the force of the first spring overcomes the force of the second spring to open the passage until such time as the temperature of the first spring drops below the predetermined temperature.

  12. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  13. Turn-on fluorescence in tetraphenylethylene-based metal-organic frameworks: An alternative to aggregation-induced emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shustova, Natalia B.

    Coordinative immobilization of functionalized tetraphenylethylene within rigid porous metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) turns on fluorescence in the typically non-emissive tetraphenylethylene core. The matrix coordination-induced ...

  14. Pendant Functional Groups in Metal-Organic Frameworks - Effects on Crystal Structure, Stability, and Gas Sorption Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makal, Trevor Arnold

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this research concerns the synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) grafted with pendant alkyl substituents to enhance stability and gas sorption properties for use in clean-energy related technologies...

  15. Published on Web 12/23/2007 Matrix Isolation Chemistry in a Porous Metal-Organic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Published on Web 12/23/2007 Matrix Isolation Chemistry in a Porous Metal-Organic Framework, during which time the colorless solid turned dark red, indicating the attachment of Cr(CO)3 units. Upon

  16. MOCVD growth of In GaP-based heterostructures for light emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGill, Lisa Megan, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we examine fundamental materials processes in the growth of indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In particular, we realize improvements in the epitaxial integration ...

  17. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  18. Molecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Richard J. Sadus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coexistence. 1. Introduction Henry's constant is a well-known measure of a solute's solubility in a particularMolecular Simulation of Henry's Constant at Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Phase Boundaries Richard to determine Henry's constant from the residual chemical potential at infinite dilution at the vapor-liquid

  19. pubs.acs.org/cm Published on Web 06/25/2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 4120 Chem. Mater. 2010, 22, 41204122

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pubs.acs.org/cm Published on Web 06/25/2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 4120 Chem. Mater. 2010 the solvated metal-organic framework as a dark red precipitate. X-ray powder diffraction data show the solid

  20. The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

  1. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium accompanied by esterification; ethanol-formic acid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rim, J.K.; Bae, S.Y.; Lee, H.T.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium total pressures after reaction between ethanol and formic acid were measured at 30, 40 and 50/sup 0/C, and the compositions of the vapor and liquid phases were determined gas chromatographically. Since the presence of the carboxylic acid in the mixture induces dimerization and trimerization of the acid in the vapor phase, the modified fugacity coefficients were calculated from ''chemical'' theory using the Lewis fugacity rule, from which are calculated the activity coefficients and the vapor-phase mole fractions using the nonrandom, two-liquid (NRTL) equation. The parameters in the NRTL equation were obtained from vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary system. The calculated results agree closely with the experimental vapor-phase mole-fraction data.

  2. Desorption efficiencies of toluene and n-butanol in an organic vapor monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heaney, Mary Ann

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ~ ~ ? Experimental Volume versus Theoretical Volume for n-Butanol (liquid phase). . . . . . . 13. Conceptual Adsorption of Vapor Molecules;. . . . 41 IXI'RODDCTI 019 In 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Adminj- strstion adopted permissible human exposure...&jards has become one of the most important industrial hygiene f unct i one e The levei of exposure to many organic vapor;=, is det r- mined by co' lecting the chemical on some type o solid sor- bent. Of the various adsorbents available {silica gel...

  3. VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

    .B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

  4. Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

  5. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  6. VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

  7. Effect of residual gases in high vacuum on the energy-level alignment at noble metal/organic interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Lu, Z. H.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces has traditionally been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). However, since most devices are fabricated in high vacuum (HV), these studies do not accurately reflect the interfaces in real devices. We demonstrate, using UPS measurements of samples prepared in HV and UHV and current-voltage measurements of devices prepared in HV, that the small amounts of residual gases that are adsorbed on the surface of clean Cu, Ag, and Au (i.e., the noble metals) in HV can significantly alter the energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces.

  8. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  9. Prediction of blast damage from vapor cloud explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, H. [Phillips (H.), Buxton (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The process industries handle a wide range of different materials and use them in different types of chemical reaction. Of particular concern is the prospect of damage and injury affecting the general public outside the boundary wall of the chemical plant. It is not wise to permit the construction of homes, schools or hospitals so close to chemical plants that they, and the people within, might be damaged or injured should there be an accidental explosion in the plant. The major hazard outside the plant is over-pressure, a consequence of an accidental explosion in a cloud of flammable gas or vapor (Vapor Cloud Explosion or VCE). It is the responsibility of plant management to ensure that any such accidental explosion is not so large as to endanger the public, and of the local planning authorities to ensure that homes, schools or hospitals are not sited so close to chemical plants that they may be endangered by accidental explosion. A vital tool for such authorities is a simple method of assessing the possible consequences of an accidental VCE. In this paper those methods of assessing the consequences are examined.

  10. Metal?organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Phoebe K.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M. Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A.; Megson, Ian L.; Chapman, Karena W.; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E. (St Andrews)

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  11. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  12. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  13. Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Qin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    image in Figure 2.17(c) (FLIR A320 Camera, the emissivitysame from the IR camera (FLIR A320) and the thermal couple.thermal cameras (for example, FLIR systems). However, the

  14. Air-gap sacrificial materials by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Long Hua

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P(neopentyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) copolymer, abbreviated as P(npMAco-EGDA), was selected as the potential air-gap sacrificial material among possible combination of twenty monomers and four ...

  15. Organic lateral heterojunction devices for vapor-phase chemical detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, John C., 1980-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the U.S. is engaged in battle overseas, there is an urgent need for the development of sensors for early warning and protection of military forces against potential attacks. On the battlefields, improvised explosive ...

  16. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  17. Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Qin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems, vol. 20, pp. 9-Chair MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologiesby MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologies many

  18. Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

  19. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas inPortalAll NERSCResearch CenterPortal

  20. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. | EMSL Bubbles andof theCoal to

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine bladelifetime is the cumulativeissues

  2. Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Samuel William, III

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

  3. Solution-gated graphene transistors for chemical and biological sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailly, Benjamin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various fabrication processes were developed in order to make graphene-based chemical and biological sensors on different substrates. Single-layer graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition and then transferred to ...

  4. A three-dimensional porous metal-organic framework constructed from two-dimensional sheets via interdigitation exhibiting dynamic features.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, S.; Sun, D.; Forster, P. M.; Yuan, D.; Zhuang, W.; Chen, Y. S.; Parise, J. B.; Zhou, H. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Texas A& M Univ.); (Univ. of Chicago); (Stony Brook Univ.)

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional porous metal-organic framework (PCN-18) was constructed through interdigitating two-dimensional grid sheets composed of 4,4{prime}-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)dibenzoate and copper paddlewheel secondary building units, and its dynamic features were evidenced by gas sorption isotherms.

  5. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture in the Presence of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture preservation of the IRMOF structure. Carbon dioxide capture from combustion sources such as flue gas in power this carbon capture challenge. The preferred method for measuring the efficiency of a given material

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Iso-Reticular Metal-Organic Frameworks and Their Applications for Gas Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Yeonshick

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of their synthesis and the variety of their potential applications. IRMOFs are a specific series of metal-organic frameworks developed by Yaghi and his coworkers. All IRMOFs are composed of oxygen-centered Zn4O tetrahedra interconnected with dicarboxylate linkers...

  7. Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass, H.N.G. Wadley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass at high temperature. It requires the chemical vapor deposition of aluminum on a nickel rich superalloy substrate that has been pre-coated with several microns of electrodeposited platinum. Here, we show

  8. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  9. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  10. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  11. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  12. The importance of snow scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies] [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies; Hoff, J.T. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, experimental data on the scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the atmosphere by snow were interpreted assuming that the distribution of chemical between particles and dissolved phase measured in the meltwater reflects the state of the chemical during the scavenging process. A consequence of this assumption is that vapor scavenging is found to be unimportant relative to particle scavenging. An alternative interpretation is presented that during melting repartitioning occurs from the dissolved phase to the particle-sorbed phase. Further, it is argued that a constant particle scavenging ratio may apply to all chemicals of the same class in the same precipitation event, and its value can be estimated from the scavenging characteristics of predominantly particle-sorbed, high molecular mass chemicals. This analysis suggests that for more volatile PCBs and PAHs vapor scavenging is an important, if not the dominating, snow scavenging process. Gas scavenging ratios obtained with this method are, as expected, negatively correlated with the vapor pressure of a substance, indicating that adsorption to the air-ice interface is the process responsible for vapor scavenging.

  13. Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G. Gordon* ,a Youbo Lin,b Joost Vlassakb a Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and b School and potential applications. They can be used as electrodes for capacitors, in which their high work function

  14. Organic Thin-Film Transistors for Selective Hydrogen Peroxide and Organic Peroxide Vapor Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    . The mobility changes are reversible under dry air flow, whereas positive threshold voltage shifts are reversed reactive products and increasing fixed positive charge. 1. INTRODUCTION Detection of vapor-phase hydrogen they can be prepared from readily available chemicals.4,5 Environmental monitoring of organic peroxides

  15. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  16. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  17. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  18. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

  19. Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

  20. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  1. Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors H U U B H . J . C O X , T H O M A S S E X of ethanol vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated. Two reactors were adaptation phase, the removal of ethanol was similar in both reactors. At a bed contact time of 57 s

  2. New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

  3. System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.

  4. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Enhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity is a major source of CO2 in the atmosphere, but the capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gas two-thirds), CO2, water vapor, oxygen, and minor components such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

  6. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  7. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

  8. Enhancing H[subscript 2] Uptake by 'Close-Packing' Alignment of Open Copper Sites in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Ma, Shengqian; Forster, Paul M.; Yuan, Daqiang; Eckert, Juergen; Lpez, Joseph J.; Murphy, Brandon J.; Parise, John B.; Zhou, Hong-Cai (TAM); (SBU); (UCSB)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by close-packing of spheres, to strengthen the framework-H{sub 2} interaction in MOFs (metal-organic frameworks), a strategy is devised to increase the number of nearest neighboring open metal sites ofe ach H{sub 2}-hosting cage, and to align the open metal sites toward the H{sub 2} molecules. Two MOF polymorphs were made, one exhibiting a record high hydrogen uptake of 3.0 wt% at 1 bar and 77 k.

  9. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  10. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  11. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  12. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  13. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  14. A simple grand canonical approach to compute the vapor pressure of bulk and finite size systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Factorovich, Matas H.; Scherlis, Damin A. [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Analtica y Qumica Fsica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina)] [Departamento de Qumica Inorgnica, Analtica y Qumica Fsica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Molinero, Valeria [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we introduce a simple grand canonical screening (GCS) approach to accurately compute vapor pressures from molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. This procedure entails a screening of chemical potentials using a conventional grand canonical scheme, and therefore it is straightforward to implement for any kind of interface. The scheme is validated against data obtained from Gibbs ensemble simulations for water and argon. Then, it is applied to obtain the vapor pressure of the coarse-grained mW water model, and it is shown that the computed value is in excellent accord with the one formally deduced using statistical thermodynamics arguments. Finally, this methodology is used to calculate the vapor pressure of a water nanodroplet of 94 molecules. Interestingly, the result is in perfect agreement with the one predicted by the Kelvin equation for a homogeneous droplet of that size.

  15. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  16. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A. Wilson and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Sublimation enthalpies

  17. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

  18. Modeling Ferro- and Antiferromagnetic Interactions in Metal-Organic Coordination Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraggi, Marisa N; Stepanow, Sebastian; Tseng, Tzu-Chun; Abdurakhmanova, Nasiba; Kley, Christopher Seiji; Langner, Alexander; Sessi, Violetta; Kern, Klaus; Arnau, Andres

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetization curves of two rectangular metal-organic coordination networks formed by the organic ligand TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) and two different (Mn and Ni) 3d transition metal atoms [M(3d)] show marked differences that are explained using first principles density functional theory and model calculations. We find that the existence of a weakly dispersive hybrid band with M(3d) and TCNQ character crossing the Fermi level is determinant for the appearance of ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers, as it is the case of the metallic system Ni-TCNQ but not of the insulating system Mn-TCNQ. The spin magnetic moment localized at the Ni atoms induces a significant spin polarization in the organic molecule; the corresponding spin density being delocalized along the whole system. The exchange interaction between localized spins at Ni centers and the itinerant spin density is ferromagnetic. Based on two different model Hamiltonians, we estimate the strength of exchange couplings between magnetic ...

  19. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi [USF; Zaworotko, Michael [USF; Space, Brian [USF; Eckert, Juergen [USF

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  20. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Lithium-Based Metal?Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Borkowski, Lauren A.; Kim, Sun Jin; Parise, John B.; (IST-Korea); (SBU)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two lithium-based metal-organic frameworks, Li{sub 2}(C{sub 14}H{sub 8}O{sub 4}) [Li{sub 2}(4,4'-BPDC) [1]; ULMOF-2, UL = ultralight; BPDC = biphenyldicarboxylate]; space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 12.758(2) {angstrom}, b = 5.142(4) {angstrom}, c = 8.00(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 97.23{sup o}, V = 520.6(14) {angstrom}{sup 3} and Li{sub 2}(C{sub 14}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}S) [Li{sub 2}(4,4'-SDB) [2]; ULMOF-3, UL = ultralight; SDB = sulfonyldibenzoate], space group P2{sub 1}/n, a = 5.5480(11) {angstrom}, b = 23.450(5) {angstrom}, c = 10.320(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 96.47(3){sup o}, V = 1334.1(5) {angstrom}3, were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 were synthesized by solvothermal methods and were characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structure 1 consists of layers of two-dimensional antifluorite related LiO motif connected by BPDC linkers, whereas structure 2 is constructed by a combination of tetrameric lithium polyhedral clusters connected by the sulfonyldibenzoate linker. The frameworks are stable up to 575 and 500 C, respectively, under N{sub 2} atmosphere.

  1. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  2. Response of passive organic vapor dosimeters to a mixed gas exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Scott Merritt

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. Richard B. Konzen The effects of the sampling order of two chemicals adsorbed onto a DuPont Pro-Tek Organic Vapor Dosimeters were investigated. The dosimeters were exposed to varying known concentrations of methyl methacrylate... experiment, Mr. Marvin Harrington of Rohm and Haas of Texas, and Mr. Fred Gsweng of Dupont for providing essential materials for the completion of this research. A special thank you must be extended to the National Institute for Occupational Safety...

  3. Tribology Letters Vol. 10, No. 3, 2001 179 Activation of the SiC surface for vapor phase lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    above 500 C [2,3,11,12]. Since liquid lubricants cannot withstand such extreme conditions, a number deposition 1. Introduction The lubrication of ceramic surfaces working at extremely high temperatures has lubrication by Fe chemical vapor deposition from Fe(CO)5 Daxing Ren, Dougyong Sung and Andrew J. Gellman

  4. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  5. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  6. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  7. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  8. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  9. CHEMISTRY OF IMPACT-GENERATED SILICATE MELT-VAPOR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visscher, Channon [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Fegley, Bruce Jr. [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In the giant impact theory for lunar origin, the Moon forms from material ejected by the impact into an Earth-orbiting disk. Here we report the initial results from a silicate melt-vapor equilibrium chemistry model for such impact-generated planetary debris disks. In order to simulate the chemical behavior of a two-phase (melt+vapor) disk, we calculate the temperature-dependent pressure and chemical composition of vapor in equilibrium with molten silicate from 2000 to 4000 K. We consider the elements O, Na, K, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti, and Zn for a range of bulk silicate compositions (Earth, Moon, Mars, eucrite parent body, angrites, and ureilites). In general, the disk atmosphere is dominated by Na, Zn, and O{sub 2} at lower temperatures (<3000 K) and SiO, O{sub 2}, and O at higher temperatures. The high-temperature chemistry is consistent for any silicate melt composition, and we thus expect abundant SiO, O{sub 2}, and O to be a common feature of hot, impact-generated debris disks. In addition, the saturated silicate vapor is highly oxidizing, with oxygen fugacity (f{sub O{sub 2}}) values (and hence H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CO ratios) several orders of magnitude higher than those in a solar-composition gas. High f{sub O{sub 2}} values in the disk atmosphere are found for any silicate composition because oxygen is the most abundant element in rock. We thus expect high oxygen fugacity to be a ubiquitous feature of any silicate melt-vapor disk produced via collisions between rocky planets.

  10. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  11. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  12. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  13. Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubis, Mirna R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas...

  14. Reductive Dehalogenation of Trichloroethene Vapors in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to treat trichloroethene (TCE) from waste gases generated by soil vapor extraction or dual-phase extraction through the recirculating liquid as a source of hydrogen, the electron donor for Dehalococcoides strains (DPE) (4). However, these techniques result in a waste gas stream that needs further treatment. Several

  15. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  16. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  17. Assembly of Cerium(III) 2,2?-Bipyridine-5,5?-dicarboxylate-based MetalOrganic Frameworks by Solvent Tuning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayhan, Ozan [RWTH Aachen University; Malaestean, Iurie L. [RWTH Aachen University; Ellern, Arkady [Ames Laboratory; van Leusen, Jan [RWTH Aachen University; Baca, Svetlana G. [RWTH Aachen University; Kgerler, Paul [RWTH Aachen University

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Two cerium(III) 2,2?-bipyridine-5,5?-dicarboxylate-based 3D coordination networks highlight the ability of CeIII ions to adopt different coordination environments upon subtle changes to the reaction conditions, producing metal?organic frameworks that integrate varying crystal solvent contents.

  18. Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , stationary sources like coal-fired power plants, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed.4Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine- Appended Metal-Organic Framework viable absorbents for carbon capture under the aforementioned conditions, and they are presently used

  19. Evaluation of Catalysts from Different Origin for Vapor Phase Upgrading in Biomass Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Mukarakate, C.; Zheng, Z.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid fuels and chemicals from biomass resources arouse much interests in research and development. Fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to effectively change solid biomass materials into liquid products. However, bio-oil from traditional pyrolysis processes is difficult to apply in industry, because of its complicated composition, high oxygen content, low stability, etc. Upgrading or refining of the bio-oil should be performed for industrial application of biomass pyrolysis. Often, the process would be done in a separate reactor downstream of the pyrolysis process. In this paper, a laboratory scale micro test facility was constructed, wherein the pyrolysis of pine and catalytic upgrading of the resulting vapors were closely coupled in one reactor. The composition of vapor effluent was monitored with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for the online evaluation of the catalyst performance. Catalysts from different origin were tested and compared for the effectiveness of pyrolysis vapor upgrading, namely commercial zeolites, Ni based steam reforming catalyst, CaO, MgO, and several laboratory-made catalysts. The reaction temperature for catalytic upgrading varied between 400 and 600 centigrade, and the gaseous residence time ranged from 0.1 second to above 2 second, to simulate the conditions in industrial application. It is revealed that some catalysts are active in transform most of primary biomass pyrolysis vapors into hydrocarbons, resulting in nonoxygenated products, which is beneficial for downstream utilization. Others are not as effective, results in minor improvement compared with blank test results.

  20. Ceramic-metallic coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, D.E.; Singh, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) process is considered to be a technology that has overcome some of the difficulties or problems associated with the chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and metal spray processes. The EB-PVD process offers many desirable characteristics such as relatively high deposition rates (up to 100-150 {mu}m/minute with an evaporation rate {approx}10-15 Kg/hour,) dense coatings, precise compositional control, columnar and poly-crystalline microstructure, low contamination, and high thermal efficiency. Various metallic and ceramic coatings (oxides, carbides, nitrides) can be deposited at relatively low temperatures. Even elements with low vapor pressure such as molybdenum, tungsten, and carbon are readily evaporated by this process. In addition, EB-PVD is capable of producing multi-layered laminated metallic/ceramic coatings on large components by changing the EB-PVD processing conditions such as ingot composition, part manipulation, and electron beam energy. Attachment of an ion assisted beam source to the EB-PVD offers additional benefits such as dense coatings with improved adhesion. In addition, textured coatings can be obtained that are desirable in many applications such as cutting tools. This laboratory has started a new thrust in the coating area by the EB-PVD process. The microstructure of thermal barrier ceramic coatings (i.e., yttria stabilized zirconia) developed by the EB-PVD process will be presented.

  1. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  2. Veeco Develops a Tool to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Veeco is working on reducing epitaxy costs and increasing LED efficiency by developing a physical vapor deposition (PVD) tool for depositing aluminum nitride buffer layers on LED substrates. PVD, also known as "sputtering," is an alternative to metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PVD is a purely physical process that involves plasma sputter bombardment rather than a chemical reaction at the surface to be coated, as in MOCVD.

  3. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  4. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  5. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ..................................................................................... 15 Figure 5: 90 mol% Methane 10mol% Ethane mixture VLE phase envelope .................. 18 Figure 6: Boiling temperature and vapor composition of 90 mol% methane 10mol% ethane mixture... process of natural gas allows a 600 fold reduction in the volume of the gas being transported at ambient pressure. The resulting liquid which is mainly composed of methane presents some hazardous properties linked to its flammable nature and its...

  6. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  7. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Edward C. (Woodinville, WA); Huxtable, Douglas D. (Bothell, WA)

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  8. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of 'MicroPorous' Aerosol Particles (Compact and 'Fractal' Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

  9. FIRST DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN A PRE-STELLAR CORE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caselli, Paola; Douglas, Thomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Keto, Eric [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Calle Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Pagani, Laurent [LERMA and UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Yildiz, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van der Tak, Floris F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Codella, Claudio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Nisini, Brunella, E-mail: p.caselli@leeds.ac.uk [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a crucial molecule in molecular astrophysics as it controls much of the gas/grain chemistry, including the formation and evolution of more complex organic molecules in ices. Pre-stellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and its partitioning between gas and ice in the densest cores. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Herschel Space Observatory, we report on the first detection of water vapor at high spectral resolution toward a dense cloud on the verge of star formation, the pre-stellar core L1544. The line shows an inverse P-Cygni profile, characteristic of gravitational contraction. To reproduce the observations, water vapor has to be present in the cold and dense central few thousand AU of L1544, where species heavier than helium are expected to freeze out onto dust grains, and the ortho:para H{sub 2} ratio has to be around 1:1 or larger. The observed amount of water vapor within the core (about 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }) can be maintained by far-UV photons locally produced by the impact of galactic cosmic rays with H{sub 2} molecules. Such FUV photons irradiate the icy mantles, liberating water vapor in the core center. Our Herschel data, combined with radiative transfer and chemical/dynamical models, shed light on the interplay between gas and solids in dense interstellar clouds and provide the first measurement of the water vapor abundance profile across the parent cloud of a future solar-type star and its potential planetary system.

  10. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  11. Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

  12. Energy Transfer from Quantum Dots to Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Light Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and photosynthesis-like ensembles for solar energy conversion. A few important studies demonstrating the promise applications of MOFs in gas storage,5 sensing,6 chemical separation,7 drug delivery,8 and so on. In addition of MOFs for conversion of solar energy to electrical or chemical energy have been reported previously.9

  13. Synthesis, Structure Determination, and Hydrogen Sorption Studies of New Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Triazole and Naphthalenedicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park,H.; Britten, J.; Mueller, U.; Lee, J.; Li, J.; Parise, J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new metal-organic framework compounds were synthesized under solvothermal conditions using Zn{sup 2+} ion, 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), and 1,4- and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acids (NDC): Zn{sub 4}(TRZ){sub 4}(1,4-NDC){sub 2}-2DMF-2H{sub 2}O (1) and Zn{sub 4}(TRZ){sub 4}(2,6-NDC){sub 2}-2DMF-4H{sub 2}O (2). Their crystal structures were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structure 1 crystallizes in the P2{sub 1}/n space group with a = 13.609(2) {angstrom}, b = 27.181(5){angstrom}, c = 13.617(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 92.46(1){sup o}, V = 5032.4(16) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4. Structure 2 crystallizes in orthorhombic Pna2{sub 2} space group with a = 30.978(6) {angstrom}, b = 12.620(3) {angstrom}, c = 13.339(3) {angstrom}, V = 5215(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 4. Both structures are analogues of the previously reported Zn{sub 4}(TRZ){sub 4}(1,4-BDC){sub 2}-16H{sub 2}O where the layers of Zn-triazole moieties are pillared by aromatic dicarboxylates to create 3-D open frameworks. Nitrogen sorption studies revealed that these structures have Brunaer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of 362.1-584.1 m{sup 2}/g. Hydrogen sorption experiments showed they can store 0.84-1.09 wt % H{sub 2} at 77 K and 1 atm. Although they do not contain large pores or surface areas, they possess the hydrogen sorption capacities comparable to those of highly porous metal-organic frameworks.

  14. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION FOR THE PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM: APPLICATION TO THE NRTL is adequately modeled by the NonRandom Two Liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient expression and the vapor phase property of the Gibbs free energy expression involving the NRTL equation is provided. It is subsequently

  15. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  16. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1939, pp. International Acetylene Association. Acetylene Transmission for Chemical Synthesis. Internat. Acetylene ASSOC., New York (no date), 40 pp. Jackson, J. L., and R....

  17. Calculation of the Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Heavy Water Saturated Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulavin, L A; Makhlaichuk, V N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is the most common substance on Earth.The discovery of heavy water and its further study have shown that the change of hydrogen for deuterium leads to the significant differences in their properties.The triple point temperature of heavy water is higher,at the same time the critical temperature is lower.Experimental values of the second virial coefficient of the EOS for the vapor of normal and heavy water differ at all temperatures.This fact can influence the values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor.The equilibrium properties of the dimerization process are described with the methods of chemical thermodynamics.The chemical potentials for monomers (m) and dimers (d)are the functions of their concentrations.The interactions of monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer types are taken into account within the solution of equation for chemical potentials.The obtained expression for the dimerization constant contains the contributions of these types.The averaged potentials are modeled by the Sutherlan...

  18. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  19. Storing images in warm atomic vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

  20. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  1. Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellisMcDonald isMelletteEnclosed andEnergySolar SystemsVapor

  2. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  3. Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krenek, Gregory Joel

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

  4. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    . Stout (Member) L r x ge Edwa d A. Hiler (Head of Department) May 1985 ABSTRACT Vaporizer Design Criteria For Ethanol Fueled Internal Combustion Engines. (May 1985) Arachchi Rallage Ariyaratne, B. S. , University of Sri Lanka Chairman... VAPORIZATION LENGTH WITH UNIFORM HEAT FLUX 8 POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS FOR EVALUATING PARAMETERS C VARIATION OF HEAT FLUX AND AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPARATURE D PROGRAM FOR PREDICTING VAPORIZATION LENGTH 73 75 78 80 VITA 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1...

  5. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  6. MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n , A.A. Rahman pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy B1. Graphene B1. Nitrides B2. Semiconducting IIIV materials a b on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition. GaN, AlGaN alloys, and InN layers are grown using an Al

  7. Anomalous nonlinear photoresponse in a InGaNGaN heterostructure J. Zeller,* W. Rudolph, and M. Sheik-Bahae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    and nonlinear carrier transport phenomena. The same model also explains the observed subpicosecond. Design guidelines for GaN-based nonlinear photodetectors used in autocorrelation measurements ) and 5.5 m silicon doped n-GaN (nSi 1017 cm 3 ). This structure was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor

  8. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 19, No, 4, 1990 Carbon Tetrachloride Doped AIxGa_xAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Brian

    Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 19, No, 4, 1990 Carbon Tetrachloride Doped AIx been shown to be a suitable carbon doping source for obtaining p-type GaAs grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with carbon acceptor concentrations in excess of 1 x 1019cm-3

  9. Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

  10. A description of the vapor phase in the lithium thionyl chloride battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, Rodolfo

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A DESCRIPTION OF TIIE YAPOP, PHASE IN THF. LITHIUM THIONYI. CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis by RODOLFO MORALES, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEzM University in partial fulfrHment of the requirement for the degree oi' MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A DESCRIPTION OF THE VAPOR PHASE IN THE LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis bv RODOLFO 'vIORALES, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chairman of Committee) James...

  11. Isoreticular metal-organic frameworks, process for forming the same, and systematic design of pore size and functionality therein, with application for gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Li, Hailian; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) and method for systematically forming the same. The method comprises the steps of dissolving at least one source of metal cations and at least one organic linking compound in a solvent to form a solution; and crystallizing the solution under predetermined conditions to form a predetermined IRMOF. At least one of functionality, dimension, pore size and free volume of the IRMOF is substantially determined by the organic linking compound.

  12. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser radiation. XI. The effect of water vapor and temperature on laser desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    . Significantly, introducing water vapor lowers the particle velocities and thus the effective surface temperature systems, simultaneous electronic excitation and exposure to aggressive chemicals can acceler- ate etching-induced neutral particle desorption and surface erosion on single- crystal sodium chloride in the presence of low

  13. The control of confined vapor phase explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the January 20, 1995, sampling of SST 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system.

  15. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents sampling data from the November 18, 1994, sampling of SST 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system.

  16. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  17. Environmentally focused patterning and processing of polymer thin films by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Nathan J. (Nathan Jeffrey)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new millennium has brought fourth many technological innovations made possible by the advancement of high speed integrated circuits. The materials and energy requirements for a microchip is orders of magnitude higher ...

  18. RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

  19. Isotopic composition of stratospheric water vapor: Measurements and photochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of magnitude between the surface and the tropopause, and isotopically heavy water is pref- erentially removedIsotopic composition of stratospheric water vapor: Measurements and photochemistry David G. Johnson composition of stratospheric water vapor that result from methane oxidation and reactions with O( ¢¡ ). We

  20. Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I BNL- 62834 Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-· [D VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY- A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY Concept MONEY --A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASffiILITY Russell N. Dietz, Head Tracer Technology Center

  1. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStandingtheirCheck In &Chemical LabelChemical

  2. Analysis of electron-beam vaporization of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheshgi, H.S.; Gresho, P.M.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam is focussed onto a small area on the surface of a refractory metal to locally raise the temperature and vaporize metal. At high vaporization rates the hot area is on the surface of a churning liquid-metal pool contained in a solid-metal skull which sits in a cooled crucible. Inner workings of the process are revealed by analysis of momentum, energy, and mass transfer. At the surface high temperature causes high vaporization rate and high vapor thrust, depressing the vapor/liquid surface. In the liquid pool surface-tension gradients and thermal buoyancy drive a (typically) chaotic flow. In the solid skull thermal conductivity and contact resistance regulate the rate of heat transfer from pool to crucible. Analyses of these phenomena together reveal process performance sensitivities - e.g., to depression size or to magnitude of surface-tension gradients. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  4. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  5. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  6. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  7. Chemical Occurrences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

  8. Chemical Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesca Matteucci

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

  9. SUPPORTING CHEMICALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See Section

    The High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program 1 was conceived as a voluntary initiative aimed at developing and making publicly available screening-level health and environmental effects information on chemicals manufactured in or imported into the United States in quantities greater than one million pounds per year. In the Challenge Program, producers and importers of HPV chemicals voluntarily sponsored chemicals; sponsorship entailed the identification and initial assessment of the adequacy of existing toxicity data/information, conducting new testing if adequate data did not exist, and making both new and existing data and information available to the public. Each complete data submission contains data on 18 internationally agreed to SIDS (Screening Information Data Set 1,2) endpoints that are screening-level indicators of potential hazards (toxicity) for humans or the environment. The Environmental Protection Agencys Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) is evaluating the data submitted in the HPV Challenge Program on approximately 1400 sponsored chemicals by developing hazard characterizations (HCs). These HCs consist of an evaluation of the quality and completeness of the data set provided in the Challenge Program submissions. They are not intended to be definitive statements regarding the possibility of unreasonable risk of

  10. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which steam is condensed in the condenser 4 3 1 2 s T 1 2 34 s #12;M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power = 0 qin = h3 ­ h2 Turbine q = 0 wturbine,out = h3 ­ h4 Condenser w = 0 qout = h4 ­ h1 The thermal

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - arc vapor deposition Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has been produced... al Vaporization and melting of materials in fusion devices 325 ENERGY DEPOSITED (Jcm21 Figure 3... VAPORIZATION AND MELTING OF MATERIALS IN FUSION...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor laser Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with the exception of pagination. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE 1 Summary: vapor, atomic physics and vapor ionization, absorption reflection in a heated plasma layer, and...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - atom vapor cells Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotation in the vapor cell due to inten- sity-induced birefringence in the rubidium atomic vapor. While... Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic...

  14. Comparative study of polar and semipolar (112{sup }2) InGaN layers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, Duc V., E-mail: vanduc.dinh@tyndall.ie, E-mail: peter.parbrook@tyndall.ie; Zubialevich, V. Z. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Matltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Oehler, F.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Alam, S. N.; Parbrook, P. J., E-mail: vanduc.dinh@tyndall.ie, E-mail: peter.parbrook@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Matltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); School of Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Caliebe, M.; Scholtz, F. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, Ulm 89069 (Germany)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    InGaN layers were grown simultaneously on (112{sup }2) GaN and (0001) GaN templates by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. At higher growth temperature (?750?C), the indium content (<15%) of the (112{sup }2) and (0001) InGaN layers was similar. However, for temperatures less than 750?C, the indium content of the (112{sup }2) InGaN layers (15%26%) were generally lower than those with (0001) orientation (15%32%). The compositional deviation was attributed to the different strain relaxations between the (112{sup }2) and (0001) InGaN layers. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements of the (112{sup }2) InGaN layers showed an emission wavelength that shifts gradually from 380?nm to 580?nm with decreasing growth temperature (or increasing indium composition). The peak emission wavelength of the (112{sup }2) InGaN layers with an indium content of more than 10% blue-shifted a constant value of ?(5060) nm when using higher excitation power densities. This blue-shift was attributed to band filling effects in the layers.

  15. Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

  16. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  17. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

    1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  18. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation is perhaps the separation process most widely used in the chemical processing industry. The correct design of distillation columns requires the availability of accurate and, if possible, thermodynamically consistent vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. The present work is part of a project studying the effect of pressure on the behavior of the azeotropic point in mixtures in which at least one component is an alcohol. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were obtained for the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The activity coefficients were found to be thermodynamically consistent by the methods of Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak. The data were correlated with five liquid phase activity coefficient models (Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC).

  19. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  20. Chemical Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of1 DOEKinetics

  1. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

  2. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity...

  3. Melt and vapor characteristics in an electron beam evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenfeld, L.; Fleche, J.L.; Gonella, C. [DCC/DPE/SPEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the free surface temperatures T{sub s}, calculated by two methods, in cerium or copper evaporation experiments. The first method considers properties of the melt: by an empirical law we take into account turbulent thermal convection, instabilities and craterization of the free surface. The second method considers the vapor flow expansion and connects T{sub s} to the measured terminal parallel temperature and the terminal mean parallel velocity of the vapor jet, by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations including an atom-atom inelastic collision algorithm. The agreement between the two approaches is better for cerium than for copper in the high craterization case. The analysis, from the point of view of the properties of the melt, of the terminal parameters of the vapor jet for the high beam powers shows that T{sub s} and the Knudsen number at the vapor source reach a threshold when the beam power increases.

  4. Hyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    the frequency of a laser with respect to an atomic spectral feature.[20] As such, saturated absorptionHyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3 Broadening Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4 Saturated Absorption

  5. Heat transfer during film condensation of a liquid metal vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, S. P.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this investigation is to resolve the discrepancy between theory and experiment for the case of heat transfer durirnfilm condensation of liquid metal vapors. Experiments by previous investigators have yielded ...

  6. Optical Precursors in Rubidium Vapor and Their Relation to Superradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenlong

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical precursor is the sharp optical pulse front that does not show delay in absorptive media. In this thesis, optical precursor behavior in rubidium (Rb) vapor was investigated in the picoseconds regime. An amplified femtosecond laser was shaped...

  7. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  8. Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1...

  9. A Highly Porous and Robust (3,3,4)-Connected Metal?Organic Framework Assembled with a 90 Bridging-Angle Embedded Octacarboxylate Ligand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Makal, Trevor A.; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai (TAM)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A dicopper(II)-paddle-wheel-based metal-organic framework (PCN-80, see picture) with a rare (3,3,4)-connected topology has been synthesized by using a unique octatopic ligand featuring 90{sup o} bridging-angle dicarboxylate moieties. PCN-80 has Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir surface areas of 3850 and 4150 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}, respectively. It exhibits high gas-uptake capacity for H{sub 2} and large adsorption selectivity of CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2}.

  10. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  11. The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne benzene vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hager, David William

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    entirely different from that usually employed in gas or vapor collection devices, as there is no need for pumps and airflow control s to provi de fi xed airflows or volumes. This principle, Ficks First Law of Diffusion, states tha t the rate of transfer...+ Ilay 1978 ABSTRACT The Development of a Passive Dosimeter for Airborne Benzene Vapor. ", . (Nay 1978) David Hilliam Hager, B. S. , University of Rochester; Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. David F. Ciapo Passive diffusion dosimeters offer...

  12. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  13. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

  14. Oxidation of Slurry Aluminide Coatings on Cast Stainless Steel Alloy CF8C-Plus at 800oC in Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, James A [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, has been developed for a wide range of high temperature applications, including diesel exhaust components, turbine casings and turbocharger housings. CF8C-Plus offers significant improvements in creep rupture life and creep rupture strength over standard CF8C steel. However, at higher temperatures and in more aggressive environments, such as those containing significant water vapor, an oxidation-resistant protective coating will be necessary. The oxidation behavior of alloys CF8C and CF8C-Plus with various aluminide coatings were compared at 800oC in air plus 10 vol% water vapor. Due to their affordability, slurry aluminides were the primary coating system of interest, although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pack cementation coatings were also compared. Additionally, a preliminary study of the low cycle fatigue behavior of aluminized CF8C-Plus was conducted at 800oC. Each type of coating provided substantial improvements in oxidation behavior, with simple slurry aluminides showing very good oxidation resistance after 4,000 h testing in water vapor. Preliminary low cycle fatigue results indicated that thicker aluminide coatings degraded high temperature fatigue properties of CF8C-Plus, whereas thinner coatings did not. Results suggest that appropriately designed slurry aluminide coatings are a viable option for economical, long-term oxidation protection of austenitic stainless steels in water vapor.

  15. Strong CO2 Binding in a Water-Stable, Triazolate-Bridged Metal-Organic Framework Functionalized with Ethylenediamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as analogues of known tetrazolate-bridged structures8 with enhanced chemical and thermal stability as a result

  16. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Objective Chemical Engineers manufacturing, etc. Now that students have a background on Chemical Engineers, it is time for the activity. Blue frosting e. Green frosting f. Pink frosting g. Purple frosting h. Sprinkle sorting i. Sprinkle

  17. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yiming [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, the Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China); Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Lu Canzhong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China)], E-mail: czlu@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  18. One-pot synthesis of a metalorganic framework as an anode for Li-ion batteries with improved capacity and cycling stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gou, Lei, E-mail: Leigou@chd.edu.cn; Hao, Li-Min; Shi, Yong-Xin; Ma, Shou-Long; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Lei; Li, Dong-Lin, E-mail: dlli@chd.edu.cn; Wang, Kang

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metalorganic framework is a kind of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, a 3D metalorganic framework Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC (BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of Co{sup 2+} with a bio-inspired renewable organic ligand 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid through a solvothermal method. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this material exhibited an excellent cyclic stability as well as a large reversible capacity of ca. 650 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 50 mA g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles within the voltage range of 0.023.0 V, higher than that of other BDC based anode. - Graphical abstract: The PXRD pattern and the cycleability curves (inset) of Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC. Display Omitted - Highlights: Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC was synthesized through a one pot solvothermal process. The solvent had a great effect on the purity of this material. This material was used as anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC showed improved capacity and cycling stability.

  19. Measurements of water vapor adsorption on the Geysers rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Horita, Juske; Simonson, John M.; Mesmer, Robert E.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers was measured at 150 C and at 200 C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 ? p/p0 ? 0.98, where p0 is the saturated water vapor pressure. The rocks were crushed and sieved into three fractions of different grain sizes (with different specific surface areas). Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, BET surface area analyses were performed by Porous Materials Inc. on the same rock samples using nitrogen or krypton adsorption measurements at 77 K. Specific surface areas and pore volumes were determined. These parameters are important in estimating water retention capability of a porous material. The same laboratory also determined the densities of the samples by helium pycnometry. Their results were then compared with our own density values obtained by measuring the effect of buoyancy in compressed argon. One of the goals of this project is to determine the dependence of the water retention capacity of the rocks as a function of temperature. The results show a significant dependence of the adsorption and desorption isotherms on the grain size of the sample. The increase in the amount of water retained with temperature observed previously (Shang et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995) between 90 and 130C for various reservoir rocks from The Geysers may be due to the contribution of slow chemical adsorption and may be dependent on the time allowed for equilibration. In contrast with the results of Shang et al. (1994a, 1994b, 1995), some closed and nearly closed hysteresis loops on the water adsorption/desorption isotherms (with closing points at p/p0 ? 0.6) were obtained in this study. In these cases the effects of activated processes were not present, and no increase in water adsorption with temperature was observed

  20. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  1. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrelli, David Christopher

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

  2. Desktop systems for manufacturing carbon nanotube films by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, David S. (David Scott)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties that could potentially transform such diverse fields as composites, electronics, cooling, energy storage, and biological sensing. ...

  3. In-situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens; Wagner, Jakob B.; Baehtz, Carsten; Weatherup, Robert S.; Schlgl, Robert; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    -characterised the Cu catalyst exposed to ammonia (NH3, i.e. a nitrogen and hydrogen source without B) instead of borazine under similar pressures. For this ammonia exposure no expansion in the Cu lattice constant is found. As ammonia is known to dissociate on Cu... 1s (Figure 5a,b,c) and valence band (Supporting Figure S4) regions.12 We find that before CVD the as loaded Cu foil surface is heavily oxidized due to storage and transportation in ambient air (before step 1).12 Following an anneal (step 2) in H2...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted chemical vapor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium(IV) P-6331 Date: February 2005 Copyright 2005, Praxair Technology, Inc. Page 1 of 8 Summary: Technology, Inc. Page 1 of 8 All rights...

  5. Improved sensor selectivity for chemical vapors using organic thin-film transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, James Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2011). B. D. Rihter, M. E. Kenney, W. E. Ford, and M. A. J.2008). B. D. Rihter, M. E. Kenney, W. E. Ford, and M. A. J.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of conjugated polymeric thin films for photonic and electronic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lock, John P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Conjugated polymers have delocalized electrons along the backbone, facilitating electrical conductivity. As thin films, they are integral to organic semiconductor devices emerging in the marketplace, such as flexible ...

  7. Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giolando, Dean M.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

  8. Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    graphene in fields like electronics and optoelectronics.useful for electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaic

  9. Oxidative and initiated chemical vapor deposition for application to organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Sung Gap

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first discovery of polymeric conductors in 1977, the research area of "organic electronics" has grown dramatically. However, methods for forming thin films comprised solely of conductive polymers are limited by ...

  10. A conformal nano-adhesive via initiated chemical vapor deposition for microfluidic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Patrick S.

    (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE). Introduction Microfluidic consumption of reagents and analytes, low cost of manufacture, low consumption of power, high throughput

  11. Chemical Vapor Deposition Based Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Using a Template Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of battery electrodes.5,10 These microtubular TiS2 electrodes show higher capacities, lower resistance,19 including electrochemistry.20 The use of metal catalysts such as Ni, Fe, Fe-Cu, and Pt has been, and lower susceptibility to slow electron- transfer kinetics than thin film TiS2 electrodes. In the present

  12. Polymers via chemical vapor deposition and their application to organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Miles Clark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is emerging interest in the ability to fabricate organic photovoltaics (OPVs) on flexible, lightweight substrates, which could lower the cost of installation and enable new form factors for deployment. However, ...

  13. Plasma-enriched chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on silicon carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinespring, C.D.; Collazos, D.F.; Gupta, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Near stoichiometric Si:N coatings were deposited by means of PECVD on SCS-6 SiC fibers which contained a carbon-rich coating. Weight loss associated with oxidation of the outer carbon-rich coating of the as-received SiC fibers was greatly reduced for the Si:N coated SiC fibers even after 10 h heat-treatment in oxygen at 800{degrees}C. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain elemental compositions of the as-received and Si:N coated SiC fibers after heat-treatment. Negligible amounts of oxygen were found at the carbon-rich coating of the heat-treated Si:N coated SiC fiber. These results clearly prove the effectiveness of PECVD silicon nitride coating as an oxygen diffusion barrier.

  14. Control of carbon nanotube growth directions and morphology by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AuBuchon, Joseph Francis

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pierard, A. Fonseca, Z. Konya, I. Willems, G. Van Tendeloo,D. Mehn, G. Galbaes, Z. Konya, I. Kiricsi, Catal. Today 76,

  15. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  16. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  17. Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    60 2.3.1.3 Unaligned Ceramic Matrix10 wt%. 2.3.1.3 Unaligned Ceramic Matrix Composites Ceramic-ceramic with approximate composition of 55% fluorophlogopite mica in a borosilicate glass matrix,

  18. atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studied intensively and has overcome some of the constraints of traditional high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) diamond synthesis methods (more) Chen, Yu-Chun 2009-01-01 12...

  19. Prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofouling, the undesirable settlement and growth of organisms, occurs immediately when a clean surface is immersed in natural seawater. It is a universal problem and the bottleneck for seawater desalination, which reduces ...

  20. Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Manganese Self-Aligned Capping Layer for Cu Interconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    could not be broken apart. This Mn-enhanced binding strength of Cu to insulators is observed for all and nitrides. An adhesive tape is usually sufficient to remove copper films from these surfaces. Quantitative reliability because cobalt on the dielectric can increase leakage and lower the breakdown voltage.4 Cobalt

  1. Thermodynamic analysis and growth of ZrO2 by chloride chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    reaction [912], and simple chamber designs (e.g., vertical, cold-wall, axisymmetric chamber) to deposit flow injector can be used. A stagnation plane flow injector (for vertical, cold-wall CVD chambers homogeneous nucleation and/ or reactor wall deposition. For example, Holstein [17] de- monstrated that at high

  2. Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A. [and others

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

  3. Step-coverage simulation for tetraethoxysilane and ozone atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujino, K. (Semiconductor Process Lab., Toyko (Japan)); Egashira, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.; Komiyama, H. (Univ. of Tokyo, (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation model for atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD has bee developed using one-dimensional diffusion and mass conservation equations. The model was applied to trench step-coverage of the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and O[sub 3] CVD, in which it was not necessary to consider lateral diffusion because of narrow (and deep) trenches. For nondoped silicate glass (NSG), the step-coverage of a 4.5 aspect ratio trench showed a good fit if a sticking probability of 0.0039 was assumed for the 0.6% ozone (in oxygen) deposition and of 0.0026 for the 6% ozone deposition (both 400 C). The reaction rate constant was compared with the diffusion mass-transfer coefficient, and the reaction proved to be limited by diffusion of the reactant, TEOS, which directly participated in the CVD reaction. For the 2 m/o phosphosilicate glass (PSG) step-coverage, which had a slight overhang, the model matched the obtained results well only when an active growth species with a high sticking probability of 1.0 was added to the growth species of nondoped oxide. This analytical simulation method satisfactorily explains the experimental data.

  4. Titanium Diboride Thin Films by Low-Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition from the Single Source Precursor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    metallic ceramic whose properties surpass those of transition metal nitride and carbide counterparts:1, and excellent corrosion resistance toward molten metals. In addition, it has a low electrical resistivity of 6 µ

  5. Analysis of buoyancy and tube rotation relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Lin, Y.T.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The secondary flows resulting from buoyancy effects in respect to the MCVD process have been studied in a rotating horizontal tube using a perturbation analysis. The three-dimensional secondary flow fields have been determined at several axial locations in a tube whose temperature varies in both the axial and circumferential directions for different rotational speeds. For small rotational speeds, buoyancy and axial convection are dominant and the secondary flow patterns are different in the regions near and far from the torch. For moderate rotational speeds, the effects of buoyancy, axial and angular convection are all important in the region far from the torch where there is a spiraling secondary flow. For large rotational speeds, only buoyancy and angular convection effects are important and no spiraling secondary motions occurs far downstream. Compared with thermophoresis, the important role of buoyancy in determining particle trajectories in MCVD is presented. As the rotational speed increases, the importance of the secondary flow decreases and the thermophoretic contribution vecomes more important. It is noted that thermophoresis is considered to be the main cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process.

  6. Volatilities of Actinide and Lanthanide N,NDimethylaminodiboranate Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    ,§ Gregory S. Girolami,*,§ Christopher J. Cramer, and Laura Gagliardi*, Department of Chemistry volatile forms during sublimation. INTRODUCTION Lanthanide-containing materials, such as lanthanide oxides

  7. Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Seo a , Jeunghee Park a,*, Hyunik Yang b , Bongsoo Kim c a Department of Chemistry, Korea University-791, Republic of Korea c Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon nanotube-confined reaction [4], arc discharge [5], laser ablation [6], sublimation [7], pyrolysis [8

  8. Microbridge testing of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposited silicon oxide films on silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is typically encountered in applications involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS.016212 PACS number(s): 05.45.-a, 85.85.+j, 62.25.-g, 47.52.+j I. INTRODUCTION Microelectromechanical systems

  9. Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keast, Craig L.

    Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

  10. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrieta, Marie

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    thick) on uranium-molybdenum (UMo) particulate fuel. Plate-type fuel with U-xMo (x = 3 to 10 wt.%) particle fuel dispersed in an aluminum matrix is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test...

  11. Chemical vapor deposition and functionalization of fluorocarbon-organosilicon copolymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murthy, Shashi Krishna, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neural prostheses are micron-scale integrated circuit devices that are under development for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries. A key challenge in the fabrication of these silicon- based devices is the ...

  12. Perfluorooctane Sulfonyl Fluoride as an Initiator in Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition of Fluorocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleason, Karen K.

    of Fluorocarbon Thin Films Hilton G. Pryce Lewis, Jeffrey A. Caulfield, and Karen K. Gleason*, Department pathways available via HFCVD makes it possible to produce polymeric fluorocarbon films spectroscopically

  13. Parallel Reacting Flow Calculations for Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor Design 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devine, Karen

    , memory, and scalability of distributed memory parallel computers. An unstructured finite element transport from the fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Both works used solution procedures that require the reacting flow model and numerical method and summarize representative calculations using MPSalsa

  14. A model of vapor-liquid equilibria for acid gas-alkanolamine-water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austgen, D.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physico-chemical model was developed for representing liquid phase chemical equilibria and vapor-liquid (phase) equilibria of H{sub 2}SCO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water systems. The equilibrium composition of the liquid phase is determined by minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation treating both long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range binary interactions between liquid phase species. Vapor phase fugacity coefficients are calculated using the Redlich-Kwong-Soave Equation of State. Adjustable parameters of the model, binary interaction parameters and carbamate stability constants, were fitted on published binary system alkanolamine-water and ternary system (H{sub 2}S-alkanolamine-water, CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water) VLE data. The Data Regression System of ASPEN PLUS, based upon the Maximum Likelihood Principle, was used to estimate adjustable parameters. Ternary system measurements used in parameter estimation ranged in temperature from 25 to 120{degree}C in alkanolamine concentration from 1 to 5 M, in acid gas loading from 0 to 1.5 moles per mole alkanolamine, and in acid gas partial pressure from 0.1 to 1,000 kPa. Maximum likelihood estimates of ternary system H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} equilibrium partial pressures and liquid phase concentrations were found to be in good agreement with measurements for aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) indicating that the model successfully represents ternary system data. The model was extended to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in aqueous mixtures of MDEA with MEA or DEA. The solubility was measured at 40 and 80{degree}C over a wide range of CO{sub 2} partial pressures. These measurements were used to estimate additional binary parameters of the mixed solvent systems.

  15. A model of vapor-liquid equilibria in acid gas: Aqueous alkanolamine systems using the electrolyte-NRTL equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austgen, D.M.; Rochelle, G.T. (Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (US)); (Peng, X. (Sinopen Beijing Design Institute (US)); Chen, C.C. (Aspen Technology, Inc. TX (US)))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a thermodynamically-consistent model is developed for representing vapor-liquid equilibria in the acid gas (H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/)-alkanolamine-water system. The model accounts for chemical equilibria in a rigorous manner. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, treating both long-range ion-ion interactions and short-range interactions between all true liquid phase species. Both water and alkanolamine are treated as solvents. Adjustable parameters of the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, representing short-range binary interactions, are fitted primarily on binary and ternary system VLE data. Calculated vapor pressures of H/sub 2/S or CO/sub 2/ over aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine or diethanolamine generally agree with published experimental data within 10 percent over the temperature range 25-120{sup 0}C. No more than two additional parameters are adjusted on quartenary system VLE data to provide a good representation of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ vapor pressures over the same alkanolamine solutions.

  16. Interactions between Liquid-Wall Vapor and Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E

    2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of liquid walls for fusion reactors could help solve problems associated with material erosion from high plasma heat-loads and neutronic activation of structures. A key issue analyzed here is the influx of impurity ions to the core plasma from the vapor of liquid side-walls. Numerical 2D transport simulations are performed for a slab geometry which approximates the edge region of a reactor-size tokamak. Both lithium vapor (from Li or SnLi walls) and fluorine vapor (from Flibe walls) are considered for hydrogen edge-plasmas in the high- and low-recycling regimes. It is found that the minimum influx is from lithium with a low-recycling hydrogen plasma, and the maximum influx occurs for fluorine with a high-recycling hydrogen plasma.

  17. Evaluation and prevention of explosions in soil vapor extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.W. [Radian Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the widespread and long term use of petroleum derived fuels and solvents, many areas have subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum derivatives. This contamination can migrate to groundwater, which is frequently used to supply drinking water needs. A common method of cleaning up that contamination is soil vapor extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique where several extraction wells are installed in the contaminated area, with screens in the appropriate vertical locations. The soil vapors re extracted form the wells using a positive displacement blower. To prevent this subsurface contamination from becoming air pollution, the extracted vapors are then sent to some hydrocarbon removal device, such as a carbon adsorption system or a thermal oxidizer. The data used in this investigation were collected as part of a Radian Corporation project for a client. The site is a former petroleum refinery, and the hydrocarbons are primarily gasoline and diesel.

  18. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Balance of atmospheric water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Ralph Morgan

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    / / / / I / o. i + B CAP C BBJ V S TPA PZA EHA Fig. 5. Vertical distribution of the average water-vapor flux normal to the perimeter of the Gulf of Nexico during Oct-Kov-Dec 1959. Plus values are inflow in kgm/sec-mb-. m. -o-I Pi C4 I / ~-o, i...BALANCE OF ATMOSPHERIC HATER VAPOR OVER THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis By RALPH MORGAN HUGHES Captain, USAF Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf-'llment of the rec;uirements for the degree of MASTER...

  20. Phase effects for electrons in liquid water and water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of these studies is to compare transport, energy loss, and other phenomena for electrons in water in the liquid and vapor phases. Understanding the differences and similarities is an interesting physics problem in its own right. It is also important for applying the relatively large body of experimental data available for the vapor to the liquid, which is of greater relevance in radiobiology. This paper presents a summary of results from a series of collaborative studies carried out by the authors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF). 14 figs.

  1. The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, James Evan

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    passive sampl1ng dosimeter was designed to measure concen- trat1ons of aniline vapor in air. Diffus1on tubes of 1. 5, 3. 0 and 4. 5 cm lengths were tested under controlled conditions of relative humid1ty, air temperature and vapor concentrations. A... of Measured vs Calculated Concentrations APPENDIX D-Student-t Test on Slopes of Measured vs Calculated Data . APPENDIX E-Statistical Analysis of Four Hour Time- Weighted Average Study on 3. 0 cm Dosimeter VITA ~pa e 42 45 48 59 62 63 65 70 73...

  2. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  3. Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Combining theory and neutron scattering to understand molecular diffusion in porous materials David Sholl School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology #12;Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Porous materials www

  4. High-efficiency solar cells fabricated from direct-current magnetron sputtered n-indium tin oxide onto p-InP grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.; Emery, K.A.; Coutts, T.J.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells based on dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide onto epitaxially grown films of p-InP have been fabricated and analyzed. The best cells had a global efficiency of 18.4% and an air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 16.0%. The principal fabrication variable considered was the constituency of the sputtering gas and both argon/hydrogen and argon/oxygen mixtures have been used. The former cells have the higher efficiencies, are apparently stable, and exhibit almost ideal junction characteristics. The latter cells are relatively unstable and exhibit much higher ideality factors and reverse saturation current densities. The temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current indicates totally different charge transfer mechanisms in the two cases.

  5. pubs.acs.org/crystal Published on Web 09/22/2009 r 2009 American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/cg900531x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    to the high thermal and chemical stability.14 A number of metal silicide nanowires, including TaSi2, TiSi2900531x 2009, Vol. 9 4514­4518 Cobalt Silicide Nanostructures: Synthesis, Electron Transport, and Field: Cobalt silicide nanostructures have been synthesized by a spontaneous chemical vapor transport

  6. chemical analysis | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical analysis chemical analysis Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

  7. Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor on a horizontal plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyrial, Paul M.

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of the investigation is to analyze the following two features of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapor: a. Heat transfer during film condensation of a pure saturated potassium vapor on a horizontal ...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - airs water vapor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: airs water vapor Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 A laboratory experiment from the Little...

  9. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  10. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phasehydrodeoxy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of...

  11. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top...

  12. Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of PetroleumSGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

  13. Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yunwei

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to identify to which extent...

  14. A transient model for a cesium vapor thermionic converter. [Cs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Murray, C.S.; Chaudhuri, S. (Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

    1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an analytical model for simulating the transient and steady-state operation of cesium vapor thermionic converters. A parametric analysis is performed to assess the transient response of the converter to changes in fission power and width of interelectrode gap. The model optimizes the converter performance for maximum electric power to the load.(AIP)

  15. CVD CNT CNT (Vapor-grown carbon fiber, VGCF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    CNT CNT CVD CNT CNT (Vapor-grown carbon fiber, VGCF) 10001300 CNT CVD Smalley CO 24 CCVD 1 #12; 27 mm 3% 200 sccm 800 10 10 Torr 300 sccm Ethanol tank Hot bath boat Ar/H2 Ar or Ethanol tank Hot bath Ethanol tank Hot bath Pressure gauge Maindraintube Subdraintube

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION. Because of the costs associated with injection, optimizing an injection program involves not only of the injectate can become available for production and at the same time optimize the present worth of the project

  17. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of the 3 dicarboxylic acids from of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA observed previously in the sublimation enthalpies of these compounds. The results are dis- 16 cussed

  18. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  19. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R. K. (6440 Hillcrest Dr., Burr Ridge, IL 60521); Im, K. H. (925 Lehigh Cir., Naperville, IL 60565)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

  20. Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

  1. Measurements and Models for Hazardous chemical and Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurel A. Watts; Cynthia D. Holcomb; Stephanie L. Outcalt; Beverly Louie; Michael E. Mullins; Tony N. Rogers

    2002-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed solvent aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. Not only does the chemical process industry create large quantities of aqueous waste, but the majority of the waste inventory at the DOE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is mixed solvent aqueous waste. In addition, large quantities of waste are expected to be generated in the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical properties is essential. The goal of this work is to develop a phase equilibrium model for mixed solvent aqueous solutions containing salts. An equation of state was sought for these mixtures that (a) would require a minimum of adjustable parameters and (b) could be obtained from a available data or data that were easily measured. A model was developed to predict vapor composition and pressure given the liquid composition and temperature. It is based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, adapted to include non-volatile and salt components. The model itself is capable of predicting the vapor-liquid equilibria of a wide variety of systems composed of water, organic solvents, salts, nonvolatile solutes, and acids or bases. The representative system o water + acetone + 2-propanol + NaNo3 was selected to test and verify the model. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and phase density measurements were performed for this system and its constituent binaries.

  2. Correlation for the Vapor Pressure of Heavy Water From the Triple Point to the Critical Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    Correlation for the Vapor Pressure of Heavy Water From the Triple Point to the Critical Point Allan the vapor pressure of heavy water (D2O) from its triple point to its critical point. This work takes Institute of Physics. Key words: D2O; heavy water; ITS-90; vapor pressure. Contents 1. Introduction

  3. The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1 , Marc A. Deshusses b August 2007 Abstract The feasibility of using biotrickling filters for the removal of mercury vapor from. In particular, the biotrickling filters with sulfur oxidizing bacteria were able to remove 100% of mercury vapor

  4. Guidance Document Reactive Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    showers and chillers. Health Hazards: The reactive chemicals are grouped primarily because of the physical

  5. Chemical Management Contacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

  6. Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    , Biochemical, Environmental, Petroleum Engineering and Nantoechnology. CHEMICAL&MATERIALSSCIENCE CHE OVERVIEW of Science 131 units · Chemical Engineering (Petroleum) Bachelor of Science 136 units · Chemical Engineering38 Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physicochemical

  7. Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

  8. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  9. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of titanium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  10. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  11. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  12. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  13. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  14. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio; Levine, Xavier

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change non-monotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circul...

  15. Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

  16. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  17. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  18. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  19. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  20. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Seventh quarterly technical report, March 6, 1992--June 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of `MicroPorous` Aerosol Particles (Compact and `Fractal` Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.