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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Table A39. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" 9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.3,2,1.6,1.2

2

Nuclear steam-generator transplant total rises  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several utilities with pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are replacing leaking and corroded steam generators. Over half the PWRs face corrosion problems that will cost $50 million to $100 million per unit to correct. An alternative approach of installing new tube sleeves has only had one application. Corrosion prevention still eludes utilities, whose problems differ. Westinghouse units were the first to experience corrosion problems because they have almost all operated for a decade or more. Some advances in condenser and steam-generator technology should extend the component life of younger units, and some leaking PWR tubes can be plugged. Operating differences may explain why PWRs have operated for over 20 years on submarines using phosphate water chemistry, while the use of de-aerators in the secondary-systems of foreign PWRs may explain their better performance. Among the corrective steps recommended by Stone and Webster are tighter chemistry control, better plant layup practices, revamping secondary-system hardware, condensate polishing, and de-aerators. Research continues to find the long-term preventative. 2 tables. (DCK)

Smock, R.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Metallurgical Guidebook for Steam Turbine Rotors and Discs, Volume 1: Chemistry, Manufacturing, Service Degradation, Life Assessment , and Repair  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guide is a compilation of information concerning steam turbine rotors and discs. Due to the variety of operating temperatures and conditions involved, factors such as material composition, manufacturing and heat treatment condition methods, and property requirements may differ from one steam turbine to another. Specifically, this guide addresses turbine rotor and disc materials used, vintages, manufacturing history, quality conditions, and chemical and mechanical properties, and it provides utility ...

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

4

Metallurgical Guidebook for Steam Turbine Rotors and Discs, Volume 2: Materials Property Database for HP-IP and LP Rotors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the power plants are aging, many of the components have either surpassed or are nearing their intended design lives. Due to the range of temperatures the steam turbine components areexposed to, material composition, manufacturing and heat treatment methods, and property requirements vary widely. Having the proper knowledge about the vintage, manufacturing history, quality conditions, chemical and mechanical properties, etc., of the rotors and discs become vital when decisions about run, repair, or rep...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

"Table A38. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,,"Total United States"

6

"Table A46. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" 6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" " Gas by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries," 1991 " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","------------","-","RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Pipelines","Supplier(d)","Factors"

7

"Table A48. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" 8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" " Gas by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","------------","-----------","RSE" " ","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Pipelines","Supplier(d)","Factors"," "

8

Weld Metal Metallurgical Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is part of an ongoing series of metallurgical handbooks that are being developed for utility engineers to use in assessing metallurgical characteristics of any given alloy. This report focuses specifically on the weld metal metallurgical characteristics of carbon, low-alloy martensitic, and austenitic stainless steel welds.

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

U.S. Steam Turbine Valve Metallurgy Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides nuclear and fossil plant personnel with current information on the metallurgical aspects of the steam turbine valve components used in U.S. power plants.

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Energy conservation and efficiency in Giprokoks designs at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises  

SciTech Connect

Energy conditions at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises are analyzed. Measures to boost energy conservation and energy efficiency are proposed: specifically, the introduction of systems for dry slaking of coke; and steam-gas turbines that employ coke-oven gas or a mixture of gases produced at metallurgical enterprises. Such turbines may be built from Ukrainian components.

M.I. Fal'kov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

COURSE NOTES: Metallurgical Thermodynamics (MET 320)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 10, 2007 ... Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering. South Dakota School of Mines & Technology. Launch Metallurgical Thermodynamics

12

High Efficiency New Metallurgical Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... The alumina leaching rate of calcium aluminate in residue is over 80%. .... Different types of plasma torches including a high power steam plasma torch ... for about 50% of the total NOX emissions in the iron and steel industry.

13

Steam Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"STEAM QUALITY has been generally defined as the amount of moisture/vapor (or lack thereof) contained within steam produced from some form of boiler. It has long been used as the standard term for the measurement of ""wet or dry"" steam and as a means of measuring enthalpy. Totally dry steam is said to be ""saturated"" steam. It is sometimes defined as the ""dryness faction"". The term in its historical denotation refers to a physical attribute of the steam. That attribute being ""what is the percentage water vapor content of the steam"" as compared to the amount of steam. Dry saturated steam is steam which carries no water vapor with it and is defined as having a quality of 1.00 (100%). Since water vapor is always present at the interface between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid, and in doing so it also will carry boiler chemicals with it."

Johnston, W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Keynote: Implementing New Technology in Metallurgical Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Keynote: Implementing New Technology in Metallurgical Processes: Building ... DRI-based Continuous Steelmaking: From Theory to Practice.

15

Cermet crucible for metallurgical processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet crucible for metallurgically processing metals having high melting points comprising a body consisting essentially of a mixture of calcium oxide and erbium metal, the mixture comprising calcium oxide in a range between about 50 and 90% by weight and erbium metal in a range between about 10 and 50% by weight.

Boring, C.P.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

A Glossary of Mining & Metallurgical Terms, 1881  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 18, 1981... or two other sources, to serve as an appendix to a new work on mining ... AIME, the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum ...

17

new technology implementation in metallurgical processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incremental Scale Up of Isasmelt™ - The Key to Its Success · Keynote: Implementing New Technology in Metallurgical Processes: Building Plants that Work.

18

Using Metallurgical Analysis to Develop Durability Enhancement ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Using Metallurgical Analysis to Develop Durability Enhancement Opportunities for Gas Turbine Engines. Author(s), Doug Nagy. On- Site ...

19

Heat pipe cooling of metallurgical furnace equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current water-cooling technology used in the metallurgical industry poses a major safety concern. In addition, these systems are expensive to operate and result in significant… (more)

Navarra, Pietro, 1979-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Steam trap monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

Ryan, M.J.

1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Housing Units (millions) Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Census Division Total South...

22

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Division Total West Mountain Pacific Energy Information Administration: 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing...

23

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(millions) Census Division Total South Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC13.7...

24

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Census Division Total Midwest Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC12.7...

25

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Census Division Total Northeast Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC11.7...

26

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Census Division Total South Energy Information Administration: 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing...

27

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(millions) Census Division Total West Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC14.7...

28

Total...................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

15.2 15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing Unit.............................. 3.3 2.9 Q Q Q N For Two Housing Units............................. 1.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 N Central Warm-Air Furnace........................... 2.8 2.4 Q Q Q 0.2 Other Equipment......................................... 0.3 0.2 Q N Q N Wood..............................................................

29

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 16.2 11.0 11.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 15.5 10.7 11.1 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.7 Q 0.3 Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 1.6 1.0 0.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 1.1 0.4

30

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 46.3 18.9 22.5 22.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 45.6 18.8 22.5 22.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.7 Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 27.0 11.9 14.9 4.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 19.8 8.6 12.8 3.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 18.8 8.3 12.3 3.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 1.0 0.3 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.4 2.1 1.4 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 2.1 1.6 1.0

31

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

15.1 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 15.1 5.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 15.1 5.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 9.1 2.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 5.3 0.8 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 4.9 0.7 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 3.6 1.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 2.2 1.0 For Two Housing Units.................................

32

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 14.7 4.6 10.1 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.4 4.0 7.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 11.1 3.8 7.3 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.3 Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 0.6 0.3 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 For Two Housing Units.................................

33

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 1.5 Q 3.1 6.0 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 Q N Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.9 Q Q 0.2 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.8 Q N Q For Two Housing Units.................................

34

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.6 5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 15.5 11.0 4.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.7 0.6 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.6 1.2 0.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 1.1 0.9 Q For Two Housing Units.................................

35

Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Total .............. 16,164,874 5,967,376 22,132,249 2,972,552 280,370 167,519 18,711,808 1993 Total .............. 16,691,139 6,034,504 22,725,642 3,103,014 413,971 226,743 18,981,915 1994 Total .............. 17,351,060 6,229,645 23,580,706 3,230,667 412,178 228,336 19,709,525 1995 Total .............. 17,282,032 6,461,596 23,743,628 3,565,023 388,392 283,739 19,506,474 1996 Total .............. 17,680,777 6,370,888 24,051,665 3,510,330 518,425 272,117 19,750,793 Alabama Total......... 570,907 11,394 582,301 22,601 27,006 1,853 530,841 Onshore ................ 209,839 11,394 221,233 22,601 16,762 1,593 180,277 State Offshore....... 209,013 0 209,013 0 10,244 260 198,509 Federal Offshore... 152,055 0 152,055 0 0 0 152,055 Alaska Total ............ 183,747 3,189,837 3,373,584 2,885,686 0 7,070 480,828 Onshore ................ 64,751 3,182,782

36

Dr. Norman Hilberry Metallurgical Laboratory  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

December 23, 1942 December 23, 1942 217, i Dr. Norman Hilberry Metallurgical Laboratory University of Chicago Chicago, Illlnols Dear Dr. Hllbarry: In akcordance with the arrangments made with Dr. Compton, I am attachIng.heretb Copy No. 13 of Dr. Kraus' Progreee Report dated December 15, 1942. Thle report contains addltloral information on the preparation of metallic uranium by the, reduction of UC13 with sodium. Very truly goAre, RR:OT Attaohment CONFIFIMEOTOSE l,NCL&.$.,Fl&, DOEOFFICE OF OECMS.W,,3,~ HERSERTSCHMIOT A.D.D. i DUIE: . 9 pages: 0 figures., G&es 1 to 19. inci, SeriesA. . . Progress Report By Charles A. Kraus December 15, 1942 Contract No. OEMsr~290, Supplement 2 Contract No, OZMsr-688. A. PrepeZ+tion of UC& L-cm lJJa and Ccl,. The study of the va.?ious, i'actors which may influence the

37

Total................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace........................ 44.7 7.5 10.8 9.3 5.6 11.4 4.6 12.0 For One Housing Unit........................... 42.9 6.9 10.3 9.1 5.4 11.3 4.1 11.0 For Two Housing Units......................... 1.8 0.6 0.6 Q Q Q 0.4 0.9 Steam or Hot Water System..................... 8.2 2.4 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 3.6 For One Housing Unit...........................

38

Table 15. Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 15. Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Customs District April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Eastern Total 11,716,074 14,136,513 15,167,377 25,852,587 27,578,514 -6.3 Baltimore, MD 2,736,470 4,225,450 5,123,600 6,961,920 9,037,970 -23.0 Boston, MA - - - - 28,873 - Buffalo, NY 247,714 121,347 524,040 369,061 725,698 -49.1 Norfolk, VA 8,730,257 9,784,866 9,519,119 18,515,123 17,784,479 4.1 Ogdensburg, NY 1,633 4,850 618 6,483 1,494 333.9 Southern Total 3,551,564 3,824,484

39

Table 11. U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 11. U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 1,503,162 764,701 1,411,897 2,267,863 2,261,900 0.3 Canada* 975,783 343,309 1,260,473 1,319,092 1,895,263 -30.4 Dominican Republic 94 51,064 - 51,158 - - Mexico 527,285 370,328 151,424 897,613 366,637 144.8 South America Total 2,091,488 2,561,772 2,389,018 4,653,260 4,543,747 2.4 Argentina 104,745 155,806 203,569 260,551 253,841 2.6 Brazil 1,921,144 2,352,098 2,185,449 4,273,242

40

The Metallurgical Aspects of Hot Isotastically Pressed Superalloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

THE METALLURGICAL ASPECTS OF HOT ISOSTATICALLY. PRESSED SUPERALLOY CASTINGS. K. C. Antony. Stellite. Division,. Cabot Corporation.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Total............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total................................................................... Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546

42

Total...................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4,690,065 52,331,397 2,802,751 4,409,699 7,526,898 209,616 1993 Total................... 4,956,445 52,535,411 2,861,569 4,464,906 7,981,433 209,666 1994 Total................... 4,847,702 53,392,557 2,895,013 4,533,905 8,167,033 202,940 1995 Total................... 4,850,318 54,322,179 3,031,077 4,636,500 8,579,585 209,398 1996 Total................... 5,241,414 55,263,673 3,158,244 4,720,227 8,870,422 206,049 Alabama ...................... 56,522 766,322 29,000 62,064 201,414 2,512 Alaska.......................... 16,179 81,348 27,315 12,732 75,616 202 Arizona ........................ 27,709 689,597 28,987 49,693 26,979 534 Arkansas ..................... 46,289 539,952 31,006 67,293 141,300 1,488 California ..................... 473,310 8,969,308 235,068 408,294 693,539 36,613 Colorado...................... 110,924 1,147,743

43

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1 2.6 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 2.7 3.0 2.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 2.1 2.1 0.9 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 1.7 1.5 0.9 4,000 or More.....................................................

44

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.4 0.9 1.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.9 0.3 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 0.9 0.4 0.5 4,000 or More.....................................................

45

Total.........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Floorspace (Square Feet) Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3 2,500 to 2,999.................................................... 10.3 1.5 2.3 2.7 2.1 1.7 3,000 to 3,499.................................................... 6.7 1.0 2.0 1.7 1.0 1.0 3,500 to 3,999.................................................... 5.2 0.8 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.7 4,000 or More.....................................................

46

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 1.7 0.6 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 1.0 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 0.9 0.3 4,000 or More.....................................................

47

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 1.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.3 Q 0.4 0.3 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 Q Q Q Q 4,000 or More.....................................................

48

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7 0.4 2,139 1,598 Q Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999........................................ 10.1 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 3,000 or More......................................... 29.6 0.3 Q Q Q Q Q Q Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None...................................................... 3.6 1.8 1,048 0 Q 827 0 407 Fewer than 500......................................

49

Total...................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2,033 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546 3,500 to 3,999................................................. 5.2 3,549 2,509 1,508

50

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 2.1 0.6 Q 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 13.6 3.7 3.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 9.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.6 2.7 2.5 3.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 5.0 2.1 2.8 2.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.7 1.8 2.8 2.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.6 0.8 1.5 1.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

51

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7 1.3 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.0 1.8 0.5 0.7 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.1 1.2 0.5 0.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

52

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.2 2.2 2.3 1.7 2.9 0.6 2.0 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.9 0.4 1.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.5 0.4 1.3 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3 0.9 1.9 2.2 2.0 6.4 0.6 1.9 Heated Floorspace

53

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

14.7 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.1 1.6 0.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.6 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.7 0.8 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.5 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3

54

Total................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to 2,499.............................. 12.2 11.9 2,039 1,731 1,055 2,143 1,813 1,152 Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999.............................. 10.3 10.1 2,519 2,004 1,357 2,492 2,103 1,096 Q Q Q 3,000 or 3,499.............................. 6.7 6.6 3,014 2,175 1,438 3,047 2,079 1,108 N N N 3,500 to 3,999.............................. 5.2 5.1 3,549 2,505 1,518 Q Q Q N N N 4,000 or More...............................

55

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON VAP,+DIST. STEAM lP TOTAL FLOW TOTAL CONDENSATE 29731U 1+DIST. STEAM LP TOTAL FLOW TOTAL CONDENSATE POWER GENERATED

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV Jump to: navigation, search Name AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV Place Wayne, Pennsylvania Zip 19087 Product US-based specialty metals company offering metallurgical products and vacuum furnace systems; manufactures high purity polysilicon. References AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV is a company located in Wayne, Pennsylvania . References ↑ "AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=AMG_Advanced_Metallurgical_Group_NV&oldid=342143" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

57

The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Estimation of Waste Packaging Containers Generated by Households in Taiwan · The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes.

58

Steam trap monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

FM12 & rus Steam - Steam Users' Forums  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

STORE COMMUNITY ABOUT SUPPORT Steam Users' Forums > Steam Game Discussions > D - G > Football Manager series

60

Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different types of plasma torches including a high power steam plasma torch and .... Recovery of Palladium and Rhodium from Spent Automobile Catalysts by ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wide range of steels has been used to manufacture boilers and associated piping components for fossil power plants. Detailed information on the various alloys and component design considerations is contained in applicable specifications and standards, but utility personnel often need to access basic metallurgical information to support decision making for various projects. This guidebook, developed to meet this need, provides information on all of the most common boiler and piping materials.

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

62

Production of iron from metallurgical waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

63

Steam Pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam is used in many plants to furnish both heat and mechanical energy. It is typically produced in several fired boilers which may operate at different pressures and with different efficiencies. It is then distributed throughout the plant to the various users in steam distribution systems, each one operating at a different pressure and temperature. This paper examines various ways to cost steam and discusses the importance of proper costing. Specifically it addresses three types of steam costs; Marginal Costs, Project Evaluation Costs and Financial Costs.

Jones, K. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Steam generator tube failures  

SciTech Connect

A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

(PhD), Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, I am Meenakshisundaram Ramanathan, doing my PhD in Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA, under the ...

66

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Cooper Metallurgical Associates...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Parsegian to Weil (Cooper Metallurgical) concerning thorium powder; February 16, 1954; 1 page Historical documents may contain links which are no longer valid or to outside...

67

TMS/ASM Joint Commission on Metallurgical Transactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS/ASM Joint Commission on Metallurgical Transactions. The function of the Joint Commission is as follows: Consistent with the Purpose and Scope of ...

68

Metallurgical Aspects of Forge Modelling in Alloy 718  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

metallurgical structure, we consider the hammer-ram velocity .... to analyze its present production and the design of new ... element analysis of shaped lead-tin.

69

Zinkle, Seetharaman Named Editors for Metallurgical and Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

August 21, 2013 - Warrendale, PA (USA) - The Minerals, Metals ... of two editors of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E: Materials for Energy Systems.

70

E39: Metallurgical Examination of Impulsively Loaded Vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, MS&T'12 Poster Session. Presentation Title, E39: Metallurgical Examination of ...

71

Metallurgical Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) Study Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallurgical Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) Study Guide: Question #15 ... (D). The annealed material can be machined using less energy.

72

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield SteamThomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

Raina, Ramesh

73

Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry  

SciTech Connect

The present lecture offers a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming, the response of the international community, and the probable cost of national compliance. The specific emissions of the metallurgical process industry, particularly those of the steel and aluminum sectors, are then examined. The potential applications of life-cycle assessments and of an input-output model in programs of emissions' abatement are investigated, and, finally, a few remarks on some implications for education are presented.

Lupis, C.H.P.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Steam electric plant factors, 1978. [48 states  

SciTech Connect

Fossil-fuel steam electric generation increased 5.8% in 1977 to 1,612.2 million MWh as compared to 1976. Thirty-four new fossil-fuel steam electric units and 7 new nuclear units became operational in 1977. Detailed data are reported for 748 plants, accounting for more than 99% of the total steam generation capacity, in the contiguous US.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 92.50 99.40 146.56 94.82 140.70 -32.6 Canada* 99.83 125.20 142.46 106.43 138.19 -23.0 Dominican Republic 114.60 77.21 - 77.27 - - Mexico 78.93 78.54 180.76 78.77 153.65 -48.7 South America Total 119.26 117.51 167.05 118.30 168.12 -29.6 Argentina 146.70 131.08 182.47 137.36 196.37 -30.1 Brazil 119.21 117.38 165.61 118.20

76

Steam-flooding  

SciTech Connect

Steam-flooding has become an established recovery technique within the last 20 years. This overview discusses its evolution, methods for selecting and designing steam-floods, constraints, and possible improvements. The term steam-flooding is used here in a general sense. The discussion includes steam soak (cyclic steam injection) and steam drive.

Matthews, C.S.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Facilities » Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago Photo of the Met Lab and the Stagg Field Bleachers Photo of the Met Lab and the Stagg Field Bleachers One of the most important branches of the Manhattan Project was the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) in Chicago. Using the name "Metallurgical Laboratory" as cover at the University of Chicago, scientists from the east and west coasts were brought together to this central location to develop chain-reacting "piles" for plutonium production, to devise methods for extracting plutonium from the irradiated uranium, and to design a weapon. In all, four methods of plutonium

78

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Fansteel Metallurgical Corp - IL 16  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fansteel Metallurgical Corp - IL 16 Fansteel Metallurgical Corp - IL 16 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Fansteel Metallurgical Corp. (IL.16 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Chicago , Illinois IL.16-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.16-3 Site Operations: Sole producer and supplier of tantalum and columbium metals to the MED. IL.16-1 IL.16-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No radioactive materials handled at this site IL.16-2 IL.16-3 Radioactive Materials Handled: No Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: None IL.16-2 Radiological Survey(s): No Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to Fansteel Metallurgical Corp. IL.16-1 - MED Memorandum; Greninger to the File; Subject: Visit to

79

AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries

80

Steam-channel-expanding steam form drive  

SciTech Connect

In a viscous oil reservoir in which the stratification of the rock permeability is insufficient to confine steam within the most permeable strata, oil can be produced by forming and expanding a steam channel through which steam is flowed and oil is produced. Steam is injected and fluid is produced at rates causing a steam channel to be extended between locations that are horizontally separated. A foam-forming mixture of steam, noncondensable gas and surfactant is then injected into the steam channel to provide foam and a relatively high pressure gradient within the channel, without plugging the channel. A flow of steam-containing fluid through the steam channel is continued in a manner such that the magnitudes of the pressure gradient, the rate of oil production, and the rate of steam channel expansion exceed those which could be provided by steam alone. 10 claims, 6 figures.

Dilgren, R.E.; Hirasaki, G.J.; Hill, H.J.; Whitten, D.G.

1978-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator RichardThomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

McConnell, Terry

82

Computer Optimization of Steam Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As fuel costs continued to rise sharply during the 1970' s, the staff at Exxon's Benicia Refinery realized there was a growing economic incentive to optimize the production of high pressure steam. A significant percentage of the Refinery's total energy is consumed in generating high pressure steam. Recently, a computer program was implemented to optimize high pressure steam production. The first challenge in developing the program was to provide reliable analog and digital instrumentation allowing simultaneous analog header control along with effective digital steam flow control. Once appropriate instrumentation became available, the effort focused on identifying the best approach for developing the computer control program. After screening several alternatives, it became apparent that we were dealing with an allocation problem which could be effectively handled with a linear program. The control program has performed well since it was commissioned. It has experienced a service factor of greater than 95% while reducing energy consumption of the boilers by over 500 million Btu's per day.

Todd, C. H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Steam Turbine Rotor Life Assessment and Extension: Evaluation of Retired Rotors: Volume 1: Quantification of NDE Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past, uncertainty in defect sizing during boresonic inspection has been a major source of inaccuracy in assessing the remaining life of steam turbine rotors. This report provides correlations between the boresonically reported defect sizes and the measured metallurgical sizes for

1994-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

84

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most plant steam systems are complex systems. Usually the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense for manufacturing facilities. By properly operating and maintaining the steam system and making minor improvements, significant savings can be realized.

Aegerter, R. A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Ohio State University Metallurgical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ohio State University Metallurgical Ohio State University Metallurgical Engineering Experiment Station -OH 0-05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION (OH.0-05 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to NRC Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Columbus , Ohio OH.0-05-1 Evaluation Year: 1986 OH.0-05-2 Site Operations: Ohio State ordered 130 grams of uranium from the AEC. This commercial supply order was filled by Fernald. OH.0-05-1 OH.0-05-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - AEC/NRC licensed operation OH.0-05-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium OH.0-05-1 OH.0-05-3 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to NRC

86

Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP Jump to: navigation, search Name Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant (PCMP) Place Moscow, Russian Federation Zip 142103 Sector Solar Product Russian manufacturer of monocrystalline silicon ingots, wafers, cells and quartz crucibles; serves both solar and semiconductor industries. Coordinates 55.75695°, 37.614975° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":55.75695,"lon":37.614975,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

87

Letter Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV Specimens From the Ringhals Nuclear Reactors Letter Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV Specimens From the Ringhals Nuclear Reactors Regulations which govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the irradiated condition, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely degraded, with the degree of toughness loss dependent on the radiation sensitivity of the materials. As stated in previous progress reports, the available embrittlement predictive models, e.g. [1], and our present understanding of radiation damage are not fully quantitative, and do not treat all potentially significant variables

88

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As director of Oregon's Industrial Assessment Center, I have encountered many industrial steam systems during plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. In nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a 0.4-year payback. 75% of those recommendations have been implemented for $1.1 million annual savings with 0.3-year payback. Recently I have developed a tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five steam recommendations. This presentation will demonstrate SteamMaster software applied to one or more industrial steam systems. Software will be made available on a national web site at no cost.

Wheeler, G.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect

A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture.

Imrich, K.J.

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Table N11.4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 19  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" 4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources","RSE"

91

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Steam driven markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The market for steam equipment has been relatively level. Looking ahead, manufacturers anticipate steady market growth worldwide. Steam equipment manufacturers share a similar view of the market for next few years - upward. The steady upward climb is being attributed to a number of factors that will benefit steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) makers.

Anderson, J.L.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

" Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" 3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

94

Method for improving the steam splits in a multiple steam injection process using multiple steam headers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for enhancing the uniformity of steam distribution in a multiple steam injection system comprising a steam generator, a primary steam header, at least one secondary steam header, a primary steam line connecting the generator to the primary header, at lease one secondary steam line connecting the primary header to the secondary steam header, and a plurality of tertiary steam lines connecting the secondary steam header to a plurality of stem injection wells. It comprises injecting a surfactant into the primary steam line, mixing the surfactant and steam in the primary steam line sufficiently so that the surfactant and the steam enter the primary steam header as a foam, and mixing the surfactant and steam in the secondary steam lines sufficiently so that the surfactant and the steam enter the secondary steam header as a foam.

Stowe, G.R.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

95

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of the world's energy. The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries in the world. Therefore, optimum energy efficiency plays a pivotal role in the profitability of this sector. Also, energy cost accounts for a significant share in production cost in pulp and paper industries. This paper highlights the findings of a study done on the steam system of a paper mill (covering steam generation, steam distribution and steam usage) where steam generation accounts for 85% of the total energy used. Therefore, optimization of the steam system has the biggest energy saving potential. This paper mill produces 40,000 pounds of steam at 600 psig and distributes it to the paper-making process at various pressure levels. This New England paper mill spends approximately $1.9 million every year on its steam system. The study identified an opportunity to save the plant steam costs in the amount of 12%. Among the identified saving measures, there are some measures that can be done through better maintenance and improvement of operating conditions. The average payback period to implement the identified saving measures is 12 months. In addition to this, upon the implementation of the proposed measures, the paper mill can reduce its carbon emissions in the amount of 500 tons per year and thus, can help save the environment as well.

Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

High Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

A novel steam electrolyzer has been developed. In conventional electrolyzers, oxygen produced from electrolysis is usually released in the air stream. In their novel design, natural gas is used to replace air in order to reduce the chemical potential difference across the electrolyzer, thus minimizing the electrical consumption. The oxygen from the electrolysis is consumed in either a total oxidation or a partial oxidation reaction with natural gas. Experiments performed on single cells shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. Using thin film materials and high performance cathode and anode, electrolysis could be done at temperatures as low as 700 C with electrolytic current as high as 1 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 0.5 V only. The 700 C operating temperature is favorable to the total oxidation of natural gas while minimizing the need for steam that is otherwise necessary to avoid carbon deposition. A novel tubular electrolyzer stack has been developed. The system was designed to produce hydrogen at high pressures, taking advantage of the simplicity and high efficiency of the electrochemical compressors. A complete fabrication process was developed for making electrolyzer tubes with thin film coatings. A 100 W stack is being built.

Pham, A.Q.

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

97

Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set in accordance with quantitative results from the steam path audit. As a result of optimized repair decisions, turbine efficiency increases, emissions decrease, and maintenance expenses decrease. These benefits can be achieved by using a computer program Encotech, Inc. developed for the utility industry to perform steam path audits. With the increased emphasis on industrial turbine efficiency, and as a result of the experience with the Destec Operating Company, Encotech is adapting the computer program to respond to the needs of the industrial steam turbine community. This paper describes the results of using the STPE computer program to conduct a steam path audit at Destec Energy's Lyondell Cogeneration power plant.

Mitchell, D. R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine  

SciTech Connect

The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

100

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

IMPROVEMENTS IN AND RELATING TO STEAM CONDENSER INSTALLATIONS FOR STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

A steam condenser arrangement for turbine power plants which have excess steam at times is described. A dump condenser with cooling water connections in parallel with steam turbine condensers receives surplus steam. Cooling water from the turbine condensers is mixed with coolant from the dump condenser so that a predetermined maximum temperature is not exceeded. The quantity of cooling water passing through the dump condenser is a proportion of the total circulating water requirements of the condenser installation, and the pressure drop across it is less than that across the main condensers. (T.R.H.)

1960-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

102

High performance steam development  

SciTech Connect

DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Progress Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 1985, EPRI has published the Steam Generator Progress Report (SGPR), which provides historical information on worldwide steam generator activities.

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

104

PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION METALLURGICAL LABORATORY  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION METALLURGICAL LABORATORY BAYSIDE, NEW YORK Work performed by the Health and Safety Research Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 March 1980 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION for the DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites-- Remedial Action Program SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION METALLURGICAL LABORATORY BAYSIDE, NEW YORK At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), a preliminary survey was performed at the former Sylvania-Corning Nuclear Corporation in Bayside, New York (see Fig. l), on November 29, 1977, to assess the radiological status of those facilities uti 7 Commission (AEC) contract during the 1950s. _ _ ._. __

105

Metallurgical evaluation of a failed LP turbine disc. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A metallurgical evaluation of a burst disc from the LP turbine at the Yankee Rowe nuclear generating station was performed. The turbine failure incident involves catastrophic rupture of both No. 1 discs during a start-up. The objectives of the evaluation were to characterize the disc materials and identify the cacking mechanism and other metallurgical factors involved in the failure. Metallographic and fractographic examinations of one segment of the No. generator-end disc were performed. The mechanical properties and composition of the disc segment were also determined. The investigation established that the radial fracture in the disc segment initiated at a service-induced crack and was of a generally brittle character. Also, numerous subcritical cracks were observed in the bore surface.

Burghard, H.C. Jr.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Downhole steam quality measurement  

SciTech Connect

An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Downhole steam quality measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

109

Steam Champions in Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traditionally, industrial steam system management has focused on operations and maintenance. Competitive pressures, technology evolution, and increasingly complex regulations provide additional management challenges. The practice of operating a steam system demands the managerial expertise of a "Steam Champion," which will be described in this paper. Briefly, the steam champion is a facility professional who embodies the skills, leadership, and vision needed to maximize the effectiveness of a plant's steam system. Perhaps more importantly, the steam champion's definitive role is that of liaison between the manufacturer's boardroom and the plant floor. As such, the champion is able to translate the functional impacts of steam optimization into equivalent corporate rewards, such as increased profitability, reliability, workplace safety, and other benefits. The prerequisites for becoming a true steam champion will include engineering, business, and management skills.

Russell, C.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system can increase energy efficiency, reduce air emissions and qualify the equipment for a Capital Cost tax Allowance. As a result, such a system benefits the stakeholders, the society and the environment. This paper describes briefly the types of steam turbine classified by their conditions of exhaust and review quickly the fundamentals related to steam and steam turbine. Then the authors will analyze a typical steam turbine co-generation system and give examples to illustrate the benefits of the System.

Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Steam Trap Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective application of steam traps encompasses three primary areas which are the selection and sizing, the installation, and the monitoring of the steam trapping system. Proper application of steam traps will improve production rates, product quality, and reduce energy and maintenance costs.

Murphy, J. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have numerous low/

Aegerter, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Steam turbine control  

SciTech Connect

In a power plant which includes a steam turbine with main control valves for admitting steam into the steam turbine and a steam bypass with bypass control valves for diverting steam around the steam turbine directly into a condenser, it is necessary to coordinate the operation of the respective valves so that the steam turbine can be started, brought up to speed, synchronized with a generator and then loaded as smoothly and efficiently as possible. The present invention provides for such operation and, in addition, allows for the transfer of power plant operation from the so-called turbine following mode to the boiler following mode through the use of the sliding pressure concept. The invention described is particularly applicable to combined cycle power plants.

Priluck, D.M.; Wagner, J.B.

1982-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

The estimation and management of cost over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The purpose of this study is to determine whether all costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in the initial… (more)

Odendaal, Maria Magdalena

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Assessment of Paper-Insulated Lead-Covered Cable Condition: Electrical, Chemical, and Metallurgical Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the investigation of electrical, chemical, and metallurgical tests used to evaluate the condition of paper-insulated lead-covered (PILC) medium-voltage cables.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

117

Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that the application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil-bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generation are discussed.

Hart, C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Steam generator support system  

SciTech Connect

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Steam turbine plant  

SciTech Connect

A system for regulating the rate of closing of the turbine intake valve of a steam turbine plant is disclosed. A steam turbine is supplied from a steam generator through a turbine intake valve. A branch line conducts the steam to a bypass valve which is normally closed. In the event of conditions making it necessary to close the turbine intake valve rapidly, a regulator is provided to control the rate of closing of the turbine intake valve and the opening of the bypass valve so that the pressure conditions in the steam generator do not exceed the limits established by the manufacturer. Pressure measuring instruments are placed in the system to sense the pressure immediately upstream from the turbine intake valve and the bypass valve as well as the initial steam supply pressure. These pressure signals are transmitted to a computer which produces a control signal in accordance with predetermined conditions.

Skala, K.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

120

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

Moldenhauer, J.E.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Flash Steam Recovery Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the goals of Vulcan's cost reduction effort is to reduce energy consumption in production facilities through energy optimization. As part of this program, the chloromethanes production unit, which produces a wide variety of chlorinated organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam/condensate recovery system, resulting in condensate flash steam losses to the atmosphere. Using computer simulation models and pinch analysis techniques, the Operational Excellence Group (Six Sigma) was able to identify a project to recover the flash steam losses as a supplemental low-pressure steam supply. The project was designed and implemented at no capital cost using existing instrumentation and controls. On an annualized basis steam usage per ton of product fell by about three percent. Absolute savings were about 15,800 million Btu.

Bronhold, C. J.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Steam Generator Management Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 24th EPRI Steam Generator NDE Workshop took place in San Diego, California, July 1113, 2005. It covered one full day and two half days of presentations. Attendees included representatives from domestic and overseas nuclear utilities, nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendors, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) service and equipment organizations, research laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This annual workshop serves as a forum for NDE specialists to gather and discuss current steam generator NDE iss...

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

123

Boiler steam engine with steam recovery and recompression  

SciTech Connect

A boiler type of steam engine is described which uses a conventional boiler with an external combustion chamber which heats water in a pressure chamber to produce steam. A mixing chamber is used to mix the steam from the boiler with recovered recompressed steam. Steam from the mixing chamber actuates a piston in a cylinder, thereafter the steam going to a reservoir in a heat exchanger where recovered steam is held and heated by exhaust gases from the combustion chamber. Recovered steam is then recompressed while being held saturated by a spray of water. Recovered steam from a steam accumulator is then used again in the mixing chamber. Thus, the steam is prevented from condensing and is recovered to be used again. The heat of the recovered steam is saved by this process.

Vincent, O.W.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

124

Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning- steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry, of desired pressure and free of air and non-condensible gases. Objectives in these areas should be set and an action plan implemented. Typical objectives could be to specify steam pressure delivery of maximum pressure and to use steam at the lowest pressure possible. Steam velocity ranges and maximum system pressure drops should be set. Cleaning steam and protecting control devices is an important means of maintaining quality. Draining condensate and venting air and other gases preserves the steam quality at the point of use. Poor pressure control yields poor operation and efficiency. Dirty steam causes valve leaks and maintenance problems. Improper drainage and venting can cause premature corrosion and poor heat transfer.

Deacon, W. T.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning - steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry, of desired pressure and free of air and non-condensable gases. Objectives in these areas should be set and an action plan implemented. Typical objectives could be to specify steam pressure delivery of maximum pressure and to use steam at the lowest pressure possible. Steam velocity ranges and maximum system pressure drops should be set. Cleaning steam and protecting control devices is an important means of maintaining quality. Draining condensate and venting air and other gases preserves the steam quality at the point of use. Poor pressure control yields poor operation and efficiency. Dirty steam causes valve leaks and maintenance problems. Improper drainage and venting can cause premature corrosion and poor heat transfer."

Deacon, W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Downhole steam injector  

SciTech Connect

An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Steam Turbine Developments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...O. Jonas, Corrosion of Steam Turbines, Corrosion: Environments and Industries, Vol 13C, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2006, p 469â??476...

128

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from about $0.50 per 1,000# to $3.00 or more. Many see costs of $5.00 per 1,000# by 1980. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit.

Yates, W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from $0.50 per 1,000# to today's cost of $4.00 or more. Many see costs of $6.00/$7.00 in the near future. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit.

Yates, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

1963-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

131

Steam generator designs  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle is any one of combinations of gas turbines, steam generators or heat recovery equipment, and steam turbines assembled for the reduction in plant cost or improvement of cycle efficiency in the utility power generation process. The variety of combined cycles discussed for the possibilities for industrial applications include gas turbine plus unfired steam generator; gas turbine plus supplementary fired steam generator; gas turbine plus furnace-fired steam generator; and supercharged furnace-fired system generator plus gas turbine. These units are large enough to meet the demands for the utility applications and with the advent of economical coal gasification processes to provide clean fuel, the combined-cycle applications are solicited. (MCW)

Clayton, W.H.; Singer, J.G.

1973-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Materials for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers Mike Santella ORNL 25th Annual Conference ­ For Profit Cost Sharing Consortium #12;2 26-May-2010 Materials for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers Estimated Total Amount of Tubing for a Generic A-USC Boiler Images courtesy of The Babcock & Wilcox Company

133

METALLURGICAL EVALUATION OF CAST DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS AND THEIR WELDMENTS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FINAL REPORT FINAL REPORT VOLUME 1 METALLURGICAL EVALUATION OF CAST DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS AND THEIR WELDMENTS SUBMITTED TO U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Award Number - DE-FC36-00 ID13975 OCTOBER 1, 2000 - SEPTEMBER 30, 2005 SONGQING WEN CARL D. LUNDIN GREG BATTEN MATERIALS JOINING GROUP MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE CARL D. LUNDIN PROFESSOR OF METALLURGY MATERIALS JOINING GROUP MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE KNOXVILLE 37996-2200 TELEPHONE (865) 974-5310 FAX (865) 974-0880 lundin@utk.edu This is Volume 1of 5 of the final report for The Department of Energy Grant # DE-FC36-00 ID13975 entitled "Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel Castings." ii FOREWARD

134

Decommissioning of the Special Metallurgical Building at Mound Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Special Metallurgical Building at Mound Laboratory, a building of 18,515 sq ft of floor space, was decommissioned. This decommissioned facility formerly housed 238PU processes for the fabrication of radioisotopic fueled heat sources. The 238PU work was conducted in 585 linear ft of gloveboxes occupying approximately 12,600 sq ft of the building. All of the gloveboxes, process services, building services, interior walls, and ceilings were removed to the point of exit at the roof. Eighty-five percent of the filter banks occupying 700 sq ft of floor space was also removed. Special procedures and special equipment were used to reduce the amount of 238PU in the building from approximately 100,000 Ci at the start of the effort to less than 0.3 Ci without a significant release to the environment.

Harris, W. R.; Kokenge, B. R.; Marsh, G. C.

1965-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

The metallurgical integrity of the frit vent assembly diffusion bond  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVSs) are now being made by Energy Systems at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These CVSs are being made for the US Department of Energy`s (NE-53) General Purpose Heat Source- Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) program, which is to supply electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Cassini mission to Saturn. A GPHS-RTG has 72 CVSs. Each CVS encapsulates one {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. The helium gas produced from the alpha decay of the {sup 238}Pu is vented through a nominal 0.45-mm-diam hole in the vent cup of each CVS. A frit vent assembly that is electron beam welded over the vent hole allows helium gas to escape but prevents plutonia fines from exiting. The metallurgical integrity of frit vent assemblies produced by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) were compared with those produced earlier by EG&G-Mound Applied Technology, Inc. (EG&G-MAT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken (at magnifications of from 126X to 1,000X) of the starting frit vent powder and the diffusion-bonded powder in finished frit vent assemblies produced by Energy Systems and EG&G-MAT. Frit vent assemblies also were metallographically prepared and visually examined/photographed at magnifications of from 50X to 1,000X. The SEM and metallographic examinations of the particle-to-particle and particle-to-foil component diffusion bonds indicated that the Energy Systems-produced and EG&G-MAT-produced frit vent assemblies have comparable metallurgical integrity. Statistical analysis of the Energy Systems production data shows that the frit vent manufacturing yield is 91%.

Ulrich, G.B. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States). Process Metallurgy Dept.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In these days of high technology, the steam trap is often treated as a commodity item, forgotten by many and respected by a relative few. Yet, in many facilities, widespread undetected failure of steam traps has wasted 5-15% of a plant's total steam generation. Stopping this waste represents a major energy conservation treasure characterized by low investment and a fast payback. The proper application of steam trap technology requires the experience and judgment of a dedicated champion at each location. This paper will present an overview of a working steam trap program starting with the initial survey and loss estimates. Trap characteristics and performance by generic type will be discussed with practical examples utilized to illustrate the myths in steam trap sizing and the consequences of over-sizing. Standardization of trap inventory, training and follow-up are the other key program elements addressed.

Pychewicz, F. S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

138

Steam generator replacement overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since nuclear power began to be widely used for commercial purposes in the 1960s, unit operators have experienced a variety of problems with major components. Although many of the problems have diminished considerably, those associated with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators persist. Steam generator problems rank second, behind refueling outages, as the most significant contributor to lost electricity generation. As of December 31, 1995, 38 steam generators had been replaced in 13 of the 72 operating PWRs, and three units had been shut down prematurely, due primarily (or partially) to degradation of their steam generators: Portland General Electric`s Trojan unit, located in Prescott, OR, in 1992; Southern California Edison`s San Onofre 1, located in San Clemente, CA, in 1992; and Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s Rancho Seco unit in 1989. In the coming years, operators of PWRs in the US with degraded steam generators will have to decide whether to make annual repairs (with eventual derating likely), replace the generators or shut the plants down prematurely. To understand the issues and decisions utility managers face, this article examines problems encountered at steam generators over the past few decades and identifies some of the remedies that utility operators and the nuclear community have employed, including operational changes, maintenance, repairs and steam generator replacement.

Chernoff, H. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Wade, K.C. [USDOE Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Waste Steam Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An examination has been made of the recovery of waste steam by three techniques: direct heat exchange to process, mechanical compression, and thermocompression. Near atmospheric steam sources were considered, but the techniques developed are equally applicable to other sources of steam. The interaction of the recovery system with the plant's steam/power system has been included. Typical operating economics have been prepared. It was found that the profitability of most recovery schemes is generally dependent on the techniques used, the existing steam/power system, and the relative costs of steam and power. However, there will always be site-specific factors to consider. It is shown that direct heat exchange and thermocompression will always yield an energy profit when interacting with PRVs in the powerhouse. A set of typical comparisons between the three recovery techniques, interacting with various powerhouse and plant steam system configurations, is presented. A brief outline of the analysis techniques needed to prepare the comparison is also shown. Only operating costs are examined; capital costs are so size - and site-specific as to be impossible to generalize. The operating cost savings may be used to give an indication of investment potential.

Kleinfeld, J. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Ukraine Steam Partnership  

SciTech Connect

The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

Gurvinder Singh

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Steam deflector assembly for a steam injected gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A steam injected gas turbine engine is described having a combustor, a casing for the combustor and an annular manifold comprising a part of the casing, the annular manifold having an exterior port formed therein and a plurality of holes formed in the manifold leading to the interior of the combustor, the improvement comprising a steam carrying line connected to the port and a steam deflector means for protecting the casing from direct impingement by the steam from the steam line and for distributing the steam about the annular manifold, the steam deflector means being mounted adjacent the port and within the manifold.

Holt, G.A. III.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Initial steam flow regulator for steam turbine start-up  

SciTech Connect

In a combined steam generator-turbine system, a drain type is provided in front of the stop valve to drain the first steam supply with the stop valve closed until the temperature of the valve and/or the temperature of the steam exceeds the temperature of saturation by a predetermined amount, and logic circuitry is provided to generate permissive signals which combine to allow successive admission of steam to the gland seal and to the steam turbine.

Martens, A.; Hobbs, M. M.

1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

CYCLIC STEAM STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CYCLIC STEAM STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) This method is sometimes applied to heavy-oil reservoirs to boost recovery during the primary production...

145

Steam purity in PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Impurities enter the secondary loop of the PWR through both makeup water from lake or well and cooling-water leaks in the condenser. These impurities can be carried to the steam generator, where they cause corrosion deposits to form. Corrosion products in steam are swept further through the system and become concentrated at the point in the low-pressure turbine where steam begins to condense. Several plants have effectively reduced impurities, and therefore corrosion, by installing a demineralizer for the makeup water, a resin-bed system to clean condensed steam from the condenser, and a deaerator to remove oxygen from the water and so lower the risk of system metal oxidation. 5 references, 1 figure.

Hopkinson, J.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper will address the following. 1. Factors that determine the feasibility of reducing the plant steam operating pressure. 2. The operating advantages and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure. 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion.

Sylva, D. M.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Evaluating Steam Trap Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data from these tests, which determined their relative efficiencies, were used in performing economic analyses to determine their equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC). The comparison was made using a computer program written for the Apple II computer to evaluate overall steam trap economics. This program calculates the EUAC for any steam trap based on 12 input variables including capital, maintenance and steam costs, interest rate and trap life. After determinIng the EUAC, the program will perform sensitivity analyses on any of the twelve variables. (This computer program is available from the author.) This study shows that inverted bucket traps have lower EUAC's under more conditions than other types of traps. Also, this study shows that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost.

Fuller, N. Y.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 143, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into Metallurgical coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

149

Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The co-gasification behavior of highly and lowly reactive coke for blast furnace is investigated. ... Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

150

Plant View On Reducing Steam Trap Energy Loss  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy will continue to be an ever increasingly important factor in the cost of doing business in the decade of the 80' s. In many petrochemical industries, energy is the second most costly item in producing a product. About 36% of our nation's total energy consumption is used by industry in producing the goods which are consumed around the world. Steam is the most commonly used energy source for the petrochemical industry. Most of this steam is used for heating and evaporating the many petrochemical liquids. This steam is then condensed and is removed from the system at the same rate as it is being formed or the loss of heat transfer will result. From a cost standpoint only condensate should be allowed through the trap. But at many plants half of the steam traps are passing excess steam. This is caused by neglect of aged steam traps which have worn out and misapplication of steam traps by oversizing or using the 'wrong' type trap. Elimination of steam wastes by an effective well engineered steam trap program is what is covered by this article.

Vallery, S. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (kWh) (kWh) (kWh) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (million Btu)

152

Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million kWh) (million kWh) (million kWh) (billion cu ft) (billion cu ft)

153

Steam Heat: Winter Fountains in the City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joan Brigham Steam Heat: Winter Fountains int h e City Steam is a phenomenon of the winter city. Iteven when the surging steam temporarily blinds them. When I

Brigham, Joan

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exchanger 1 . 3. The Condensers . Reboiler . . . . BoilerNet Power Waste Heat Trimmer Dist. Condenser Turbine SteamLeaks LP Turbine Condenser Misc. Heat Losses Total Waste

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The steam generator changeout at Beznau-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the Beznau-1 nuclear power plant in Switzerland, the unit's two steam generators were replaced in the second quarter of 1993. The steam generator replacement portion of the outage - the period from when contractors were given access to the containment to when the steam generators were ready for hydrostatic pressure testing - was 44 days (April 12- May 26, 1993), shorter than the 46 days gained. Total length of the outage was 99 days (April 2 - July 9). Collective radiation dose received by project personnel was 110 person-rem, much less than the planned 250 person-rem. Project cost was about $50 million, including the new SGs and the replacement work, according to Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK), plant owner and operator.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 Steam Distribution System Losses Module The steam distribution system typically consists of main steam

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

157

Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly, irrespective of the plant's size. This paper highlights the efforts taken by the management of a medium sized specialty chemicals plant in North East Louisiana. This site spent over $19 million in 2007 ($13.7 million for natural gas & $5.6 million for electricity). The site generates steam for its process operation from 3 gas fired boilers at 525-psig pressure. The steam is consumed at 5 process areas; Acid, Basics, Crystals, Derivatives & Hydrogen plants. All of the process areas recover condensate inside their area, utilize it partially, and drain the rest into the sewer. Boiler Feed Water (BFW) is supplied from the water treatment plant located at the Boiler House. The optimization study was conducted at this site, between Jul - Sep 2008, to identify opportunities to reduce the energy cost and to improve the steam system's reliability. The study identified 5 energy cost optimization opportunities that would result in a total cost savings of $1,181,000 annually. The initial estimates indicated that all the 5 projects recommended by the study would have simple payback periods of less than 2 years. This case study is a good example and motivation for all engineers and managers who are responsible for maintaining the efficiency and reliability of small and medium sized steam systems.

Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident  

SciTech Connect

On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Method for improving the steam splits in a multiple steam injection process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for enhancing the uniformity of steam distribution in a multiple steam injection system comprising a steam generator, a steam header, a primary steam line connecting the generator to the header, and secondary steam lines connecting the header to steam injection wells. It comprises: injecting a surfactant into the primary steam line, and mixing the surfactant and steam sufficiently so that the surfactant and the steam enter the header as a foam.

Stowe, G.R. III.

1990-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

160

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Engineering Training Course 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update provides training material that was prepared for the first of three Steam Generator Engineer Training Program courses. The Steam Generator Engineer Training Program is a comprehensive training program of the Steam Generator Management Program. The content of this course is based on an industry-developed job analysis for a steam generator engineer. The job analysis resulted in eight high-level tasks; therefore, eight training modules will be developed over a three-year period beginni...

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

163

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Inspect and Repair Steam Traps  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Steam generator tube rupture study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

Free, Scott Thomas

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

Thomas, Andrew

167

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

Thomas, Andrew

168

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

Thomas, Andrew

169

Analysis of HEU samples from the ULBA Metallurgical Plant  

SciTech Connect

In early March 1994, eight highly enriched uranium (HEU) samples were collected from materials stored at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant in Oskamen (Ust Kamenogorsk), Kazakhstan. While at the plant site, portions of four samples were dissolved and analyzed by mass spectrograph at the Ulba analytical laboratory by Ulba analysts. Three of these mass spectrograph solutions and the eight HEU samples were subsequently delivered to the Y-12 Plant for complete chemical and isotopic analyses. Chemical forms of the eight samples were uranium metal chips, U0{sub 2} powder, uranium/beryllium oxide powder, and uranium/beryllium alloy rods. All were declared by the Ulba plant to have a uranium assay of {approximately}90 wt % {sup 235}U. The uranium/beryllium powder and alloy samples were also declared to range from about 8 to 28 wt % uranium. The chemical and uranium isotopic analyses done at the Y-12 Plant confirm the Ulba plant declarations. All samples appear to have been enriched using some reprocessed uranium, probably from recovery of uranium from plutonium production reactors. As a result, all samples contain some {sup 236}U and {sup 232}U and have small but measurable quantities of plutonium. This plutonium could be the result of either contamination carried over from the enrichment process or cross-contamination from weapons material. It is not the result of direct reactor exposure. Neither the {sup 232}U nor the plutonium concentrations are sufficiently high to provide a significant industrial health hazard. Both are well within established or proposed acceptance criteria for storage at Y-12. The trace metal analyses showed that, with the exception of beryllium, there are no trace metals in any of these HEU samples that pose a significant health hazard.

Gift, E.H.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Fuzzy control of steam turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: PID control, comparison of PID and fuzzy control, fuzzy logic control, robustness, speed control, steam turbine control

N. Kiupel; P. M. Frank; O. Bux

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Steam Turbine Performance Engineer's Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Steam Turbine Performance Engineer's Guide is meant to present the steam turbine performance engineer with the expected and important functions and responsibilities necessary to succeed in this position that are not necessarily taught in college. The instructions and recommendations in this guide, when properly executed, will improve the effectiveness of steam turbine performance engineers, positively affecting both the performance and reliability of the steam turbines under their care.

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

Options for Generating Steam Efficiently  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment as a function of load and operating them close to the maximum efficiency point.

Ganapathy, V.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

STEAM GENERATOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual study on design of sodium-cooled reactor steam generators was conducted. Included is a detailed description of the preliminary design and analysis, based on the use of known materials and existing methods of fabrication. (See also APAE-41 Vols. I and III.) (J.R.D.)

1959-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

174

Steam purity in PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reports that 2 EPRI studies of PWRs prove that impure steam triggers decay of turbine metals. Reveals that EPRI is attempting to improve steam monitoring and analysis, which are key steps on the way to deciding the most cost-effective degree of steam purity, and to upgrade demineralizing systems, which can then reliably maintain that degree of purity. Points out that 90% of all cracks in turbine disks have occurred at the dry-to-wet transition zone, dubbed the Wilson line. Explains that because even very clean water contains traces of chemical impurities with concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, Crystal River-3's secondary loop was designed with even more purification capability; a deaerator to remove oxygen and prevent oxidation of system metals, and full-flow resin beds to demineralize 100% of the secondary-loop water from the condenser. Concludes that focusing attention on steam and water chemistry can ward off cracking and sludge problems caused by corrosion.

Hopkinson, J.; Passell, T.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demands, and cogeneration. The Steam Distribution System Losses module will cover steam leaks, steam traps Analysis ­ (SSAT) Fuel selection Steam demands Cogeneration Steam Distribution System Losses - (3EDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

176

Steam assisted gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine is disclosed which has an integral steam power system consisting of heat absorbing boilers which convert an unpressurized liquid into an expanded and heated steam by utilizing heat normally lost through component cooling systems and the exhaust system. Upon completion of the steam power cycle, the steam is condensed back to a liquid state through a condensing system located within the compressor and other functional components of the gas turbine engine. A system of high pressure air and friction seals restrict steam or liquid condensate within designed flow bounds. The gas turbine engine disclosed is designed to give improved fuel efficiency and economy for aircraft and land use applications.

Coronel, P.D.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

177

Cheng Cycle Brings Flexibility to Steam Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1983 Frito-Lay embarked on building a new 160,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in Kern County California. Based upon an estimated steam load between 5,000 and 50,000 lb/hr and an electrical load of approximately 1500 KW, the Engineering Department examined several energy optimization systems for this site. It was determined that a modified gas turbine cogeneration system was the best overall option. This system is unique in that it injects superheated steam from the waste heat boiler back into the gas turbine. When steam is injected into the turbine combustor, electrical output increases due to the increased mass flow and specific heat of the steam/air mixture. Electrical output ranges from 3.5 KW without injection to a theoretical 6.0 KW at maximum injection. Despite the volatility of nuclear power in California, project risk was low because the implementation of nuclear power would increase retail rates whereas the avoidance of nuclear power would increase avoided costs (buyback rates). When Frito-Lay decided, in 1983, to build a new snack food plant in Kern County, Calif., its main concern was to minimize the plant's total energy costs. The company therefore evaluated the various cogeneration options available and, for each option, conducted an energy-cost analysis. However, plant performance was not to be sacrificed in order to reduce the overall energy costs. After technical and economic analysis had been completed, Frito-Lay chose a cogeneration system using the Cheng Cycle---a gas-turbine system using steam injection that allows for efficient thermal tracking and simultaneous electrical generation. The company began construction of the Kern County plant to produce corn, tortilla, and potato chips in October 1984. Preliminary operation began in April 1986. The plant encompasses 160,000 ft, and is located just outside the city of Bakersfield. Steam is used for space heating as well as process applications. Total steam demand is expected to vary between 5000 and 55,000 lb/hr, depending on production and seasonal variations. The electrical usage of the plant is anticipated to fall between 1000 and 2500 kW, again depending on plant operations. Current utility energy costs are on the order of 50¢/therm for natural gas and 9¢/kWh for electricity. Cogeneration technology involves the simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. In Frito-Lay's case, the cogeneration system supplies steam for plant process needs and generates electricity for plant consumption and sale to the local utility. The modified gas turbine used in the plant is a Cheng Cycle Series Seven, Figure 1. It is a product of International Power Technology (IPT) of Palo Alto, Calif., which has patented the steam injection and control systems. The system is unique in that it injects superheated steam from the waste heat boiler back into the gas turbine. This steam injection process increases the electrical output of the turbine and improves cycle performance compared to traditional gas turbine systems.

Keller, D. C.; Bynum, D.; Kosla, L.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oregon Metallurgical Corp - OR 0-02  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Oregon Metallurgical Corp - OR 0-02 Oregon Metallurgical Corp - OR 0-02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: OREGON METALLURGICAL CORP. ( OR.0-02 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Albany , Oregon OR.0-02-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 OR.0-02-2 OR.0-02-3 Site Operations: Research and development of uranium alloy processes in the 1940s and 1950s. OR.0-02-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - AEC licensed - Potential for contamination remote based on limited quantity of materials handled OR.0-02-1 OR.0-02-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Enriched Uranium, Zirconium OR.0-02-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Also see

179

Steam System Balancing and Tuning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam System Balancing and Steam System Balancing and Tuning Building America Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX Jayne Choi, Energy Analyst, CNT Energy March 2, 2012 PARR Current collaboration with GTI as a part of the PARR Building America team - Steam Systems Balancing and Tuning Study - Heating season 2011-2012 Background In Chicago, heating is the focus of residential energy use Of the 470,000 multifamily units in the Chicago region, at least 70,000 of those are steam heated Old steam systems invariably suffer from imbalance - Tenants must use supplemental heat or open their windows to cool their apartments during the heating season Buildings are often overheated Problem Statement (CNT Energy) Steam Heating Steam heat was the best option for buildings constructed between 1900 and 1930

180

Proceedings: Steam Generator Sludge Management Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of 151 individuals attended the Steam Generator Sludge Management Workshop. They represented domestic and foreign utilities, vendors, individuals from government laboratories, university members, EPRI employees. Presentations from utilities and vendors focused on overall control and management of generator sludge which covered several topics. A poster session included presentations on minimizing and characterizing sludge as well as a demonstration of a thermal hydraulic and fouling analysis works...

1995-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ADVANCED STEAM GENERATORS  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultra-low or ''zero''-emissions power generation systems. In some proposed concepts, nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with another diluent such as carbon dioxide or steam. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO{sub 2} and steam or water streams. The concentrated CO{sub 2} stream could then serve as input to a CO{sub 2} sequestration process or utilized in some other way. Some of these concepts are illustrated in Figure 1. This project is an investigation of one approach to ''zero'' emission power generation. Oxy-fuel combustion is used with steam as diluent in a power cycle proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) [1,2]. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to produce nearly pure oxygen for combustion. In this particular concept, the combustion temperatures are moderated by steam as a diluent. An advantage of this technique is that water in the product stream can be condensed with relative ease, leaving a pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration. Because most of the atmospheric nitrogen has been separated from the oxidant, the potential to form any NOx pollutant is very small. Trace quantities of any minor pollutants species that do form are captured with the CO{sub 2} or can be readily removed from the condensate. The result is a nearly zero-emission power plant. A sketch of the turbine system proposed by CES is shown in Figure 2. NETL is working with CES to develop a reheat combustor for this application. The reheat combustion application is unusual even among oxy-fuel combustion applications. Most often, oxy-fuel combustion is carried out with the intent of producing very high temperatures for heat transfer to a product. In the reheat case, incoming steam is mixed with the oxygen and natural gas fuel to control the temperature of the output stream to about 1480 K. A potential concern is the possibility of quenching non-equilibrium levels of CO or unburned fuel in the mixing process. Inadequate residence times in the combustor and/or slow kinetics could possibly result in unacceptably high emissions. Thus, the reheat combustor design must balance the need for minimal excess oxygen with the need to oxidize the CO. This paper will describe the progress made to date in the design, fabrication, and simulation of a reheat combustor for an advanced steam generator system, and discuss planned experimental testing to be conducted in conjunction with NASA Glenn Research Center-Plumb Brook Station.

Richards, Geo. A.; Casleton, Kent H.; Lewis, Robie E.; Rogers, William A. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Woike, Mark R.; Willis; Brian P. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

182

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fossil fuels remain the dominant source for primary energy production worldwide. In relation to this trend, energy consumption in turbomachinery has been increasing due to the scale up of both the machinery itself as well as the processing plants in which they operate. This energy growth requires high efficiency improvements for machine design and operation to minimize life cycle cost. This paper will focus on the mechanical drive steam turbines which power the main process equipment in the heart of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance configurations and applications / selections of steam turbines. According to the change in output demand, in some cases the original plants are modified by increasing capacity and consequently the turbines and compressors are revamped internally or replaced totally. The authors will introduce several case studies on revamping to increase efficiency and reliability as per the following cases: a) Replacement of High Pressure Section Internals b) Replacement of Low Pressure Section Internals c) Replacement of All Internals d) Internals and Casing Replacement e) Efficiency Recovery Technique Modification Finally, life cycle cost (LCC) evaluation and sensitivity due to turbomachinery performance are explained as a case study of a mega ethylene plant.

Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Dry Steam) (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

185

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

dist_steam.pdf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District Steam Usage Form District Steam Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed questionnaire is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our company. a. You may submit a single report for the entire building, or if it i s easier, a separate report for each of several accounts in the building. These will then be aggregated by the survey contractor. b. If you are concerned about your individual account information, you may c

187

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Steam separator latch assembly  

SciTech Connect

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the type of waterhammer that kills people. It's initiating mechanism is much different than the image most engineers have of what causes waterhammer-- i.e. fast moving steam picking up a slug of condensate and hurling it downstream against an elbow or a valve. Condensation Induced Waterhammer can be 100 times more powerful than this type of waterhammer. Because it does not require flowing steam, it often occurs during relatively quiescent periods when operators least expect it. It's most often initiated by opening a valve, even a drain valve to remove condensate. The overpressure from an event can easily exceed 1000 psi. This is enough pressure to fracture a cast iron valve, blow out a steam gasket, or burst an accordion type expansion joint. And, in fact, failure of each of these components in separate condensation induced waterhammer accidents has resulted in operator fatalities. Operators and engineers need to understand this type of waterhammer so they can avoid procedures which can initiate it and designs which are susceptible to it.

Kirsner, W.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Steam Generator Management Program: Alloy 800 Steam Generator Tubing Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear grade (NG) Alloy 800 has been used for steam generator tubing since 1972 in over 50 nuclear power plants worldwide. The operational performance of this alloy has been very good, although some degradation modes have recently been observed. This report describes worldwide operating experience for Alloy 800 steam generator tubing along with differences in tubing material, plant design, and operating conditions that can affect tube degradation. The various types of plants with Alloy 800 steam generat...

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

192

Steam condensate leakage  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green Lights and DOE's Motor Challenge, the Steam Power Partnership program will encourage industrial energy consumers to retrofit their steam plants wherever profitable. The Alliance has organized a "Steam Team" of trade associations, consulting engineering firms, and energy efficiency companies to help develop this public- private initiative.

Jones, T.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six  

SciTech Connect

Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make.), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries).

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

197

Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

Stanford University

198

Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Steam pretreatment is the reaction of coal with steam at temperatures well below those usually used for solubilization. The objective of the proposed work is to test the application of steam pretreatment to coal liquefaction. This quarter, a 300 ml stirred autoclave for liquefaction tests were specified and ordered, procedures for extraction tests were reestablished, and the synthesis of four model compounds was completed. Two of these compounds remain to be purified.

Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Process for purifying geothermal steam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect

A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

Not Available

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Degradation of Steam Generator Internals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 1999 ... Regulatory Perspective on Industry's Response to Generic Letter 97-06, " Degradation of Steam Generator Internals" by S. Coffin, M. Subudhi, ...

202

Downhole steam injector. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

1981-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

203

Steam Generator Management Program: Assessment of Steam Generator Tube Plugs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI Steam Generator Management Program guidelines require that utilities perform integrity assessments of all steam generator (SG) components, including tube plugs. SG inspection outages should specifically include monitoring of degradation in tube hardware such as plugs. This report provides guidance for utility engineers to use in determining tube plug inspection requirements, including scope, technique, and periodicity.BackgroundGenerally, utilities perform ...

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

204

Turbocompressor downhole steam-generating system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a downhole steam-generating system comprising: an air compressor; a steam generating unit, including: a combustor for combusting fuel with the compressed air from the compressor producing combustor exhaust products; and steam conversion means, in indirect heat-exchange relationship with the combustor, for converting water which is fed into the steam-conversion means into steam; a turbine which is rotated by the combustor exhaust products and steam from the steam-generating unit, the rotational motion of the turbine is mechanically coupled to the air compressor to drive the air compressor; and control bypass means associated with the steam generating unit and turbine for regulating the relative amounts of the combustor exhaust product and steam delivered to the turbine from the steam generating unit. The air compressor and turbine form an integral turbocompressor unit. The turbocompressor unit, steam-generating unit and control bypass means are located downhole during operation of the steam-generating system.

Wagner, W.R.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

205

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

206

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

BestPractices Steam tip sheet regarding ways to assess steam system efficiency. To determine the effective cost of steam, use a combined heat and power simulation model that includes all the significant effects.

Papar, R. [U.S. Department of Energy (US)

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

207

Reduction in Unit Steam Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects of thes

Gombos, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Go Steam for Green Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Railroads are very fuel-efficient in moving freight by land. The history of rail begins with steam power, moving to eventual dieselization. Some components, advantages and disadvantages of internal combustion engines (gasoline, diesel) and external combustion ... Keywords: diesel engine, steam engine, biocoal, biofuel, computer control, internal combustion, external combustion

Paul Fred Frenger

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Hartford Steam Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Hartford Steam Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Hartford Steam Co Place Connecticut Utility Id...

210

Combustion gas turbine/steam generator plant  

SciTech Connect

A fired steam generator is described that is interconnected with a gas turbine/steam generator plant having at least one gas turbine group followed by an exhaust-gas steam generator. The exhaust-gas steam generator has a preheater and an evaporator. The inlet of the preheater is connected to a feedwater distribution line which also feeds a preheater in the fired steam generator. The outlet of the preheater is connected to the evaporator of the fired steam generator. The evaporator outlet of the exhaust-gas steam generator is connected to the input of a superheater in the fired steam generator.

Aguet, E.

1975-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

211

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality of steam is often taken for granted, even overlooked at times. When the recent global recession challenged companies to remain profitable as a first priority, the result was that maintenance budgets were cut and long term cost reduction initiatives for steam systems set aside due to more pressing issues. One of the regrettable results of such actions is that knowledgeable personnel are re-assigned, retired, or released when necessary steam system cost reduction programs are eliminated. When the time arrives to refocus on long term cost reduction by improving the steam system, some programs may have to start from the beginning and a clear path forward may not be evident. New personnel are often tasked with steam improvements when the programs restart, and they may experience difficulty in determining the true key factors that can help reduce system cost. The urgency for lowering long term fuel use and reducing the cost of producing steam is near for each plant. Population growth and resultant global demand are inevitable, so the global economy will expand, production will increase, more fossil fuel energy will be needed, and that fuel will become scarce and more costly. Although fuel prices are low now, energy costs can be expected to trend significantly upward as global production and demand increase. Now is the time for plants to make certain that they can deliver high quality steam to process equipment at lowest system cost. There are three stages to help optimize plant steam for best performance at a low system cost; Phase 1: Manage the condensate discharge locations (where the steam traps & valves are located), Phase 2: Optimize steam-using equipment, and Phase 3: Optimize the entire steam system. This presentation will focus primarily on management of the condensate discharge locations (CDLs) and show sites how to use readily available data to more efficiently achieve goals; but will also provide insight into how the three stages interact to reduce system cost and improve process performance.

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Evaluate deaerator steam requirements quickly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam plant engineers frequently have to perform energy balance calculations around the deaerator to estimate the steam required to preheat and deaerate the make-up water and condensate returns. This calculation involves solving two sets of equations, one for mass and the other for energy balance. Reference to steam tables is also necessary. However, with the help of this program written in BASIC, one can arrive at the make-up water and steam requirements quickly, without referring to steam tables. This paper shows the mass and energy balance equations for the deaerator. This paper gives the program listing. An number of condensate returns can be handled. An example illustrates the use of the program.

Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (US))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

"Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both recent economic and environmental conditions in the U.S. have converged to bring about unprecedented attention to energy efficiency and sustainability in the country's industrial sector. Historically, energy costs in the U.S. have been low in comparison to global averages in some measure do to an extended tolerance for externalized costs related to environmental degradation. Consequently, awareness, innovation & implementation of technologies focused on energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact have not kept pace with other industrialized nations. The U.S. is confronted with looming tipping points with respect to energy supply and GHG emissions that represent very tangible constraints on future economic growth and quality of life. A recent 2008 article in Forbes Magazine highlights the top ten most energy efficient economies in the world. The U.S. is conspicuously absent from the list. The U.S. economy, with an estimated energy intensity of 9,000 Btu's/$GDP, is only half as energy efficient as Japan (holding the top spot on the list with an EI of 4,500 Btu's / US$ GDP). The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated the Save Energy Now program to address this by supporting reductions in U.S. industrial energy intensity by 25% by 2020. A recent 2005 survey conducted by Energy & Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA) for Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the current U.S. inventory of commercial/industrial boilers stands at around 163,000 units and 2.7 million MMBtu/hr. total fuel input capacity. These boilers consume nearly 8,100 Tbtu per year, representing about 40% of all energy consumed in the commercial/industrial sectors. Moreover, this same survey indicates that 47% of all commercial/industrial boilers in the U.S. are 40+ years old while as many as 76% are 30+ years old. Boilers account for nearly half of commercial / industrial energy consumption and represent some of the most energy intensive systems comprising these sectors. Given the preponderance of aged, obsolete boiler technology currently in service in the U.S., it is critical to raise awareness and examine the role of emerging new technologies to address the energy and environmental challenges inherent with steam generation. In the same way that tank-less / instantaneous water heating systems are eschewing a new era in energy efficiency in the residential sector, compact modular on-demand steam generation systems are poised to support the same kind of transformation in the commercial / industrial sector. This paper will illustrate how emerging on-demand steam generation technologies will play a part in addressing the energy and environmental challenges facing the country's commercial/ industrial sectors and in doing so help to transform the U.S. economy.

Smith, J. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CORROSION  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency increases in fossil energy boilers and steam turbines are being achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure at the turbine inlets well beyond the critical point of water. To allow these increases, advanced materials are needed that are able to withstand the higher temperatures and pressures in terms of strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. As part of a larger collaborative effort, the Albany Research Center (ARC) is examining the steam-side oxidation behavior for ultrasupercritical (USC) steam turbine applications. Initial tests are being done on six alloys identified as candidates for USC steam boiler applications: ferritic alloy SAVE12, austenitic alloy Super 304H, the high Cr-high Ni alloy HR6W, and the nickel-base superalloys Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Inconel 740. Each of these alloys has very high strength for its alloy type. Three types of experiments are planned: cyclic oxidation in air plus steam at atmospheric pressure, thermogravimetric ana lysis (TGA) in steam at atmospheric pressure, and exposure tests in supercritical steam up to 650 C (1202 F) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). The atmospheric pressure tests, combined with supercritical exposures at 13.8, 20.7, 24.6, and 34.5 MPa (2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 psi) should allow the determination of the effect of pressure on the oxidation process.

Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Bullard, S.B.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

215

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

216

GCFR steam generator conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidance for evaluating the condition of steam generator (SG) tubes based on nondestructive examination (NDE) or in situ pressure testing. The integrity assessments are normally performed during a reactor refueling outage. Nuclear power plant licensees who follow the guidance in this report will have satisfied the requirements for degradation assessments, condition monitoring, and operational assessment as defined in the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Steam Generator Program Guidelin...

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

218

Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts  

SciTech Connect

A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Progress Report: Revision 18  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundSince 1985, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has published the Steam Generator Progress Report (SGPR), which provides historical information on worldwide steam generator activities. This document was published once a year and distributed via hardcopy. Until 1998, the method of acquiring data for this report had been to issue annual survey forms to all PWR and pressurized heavy water reactor nuclear utilities worldwide. The information included in ...

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

Dai, Pengcheng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load SouthernCombined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

Rose, Michael R.

222

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Introduction, Steam Generation Efficiency Resource Utilization Analysis, and Steam Distribution System Losses Stack Losses Resource Utilization Analysis Steam Distribution System Losses Conclusion Quiz If youDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial - 1 8

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

224

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

horizontal runs of steam distribution piping from a common header. Steam distribution piping is insulatedDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Introduction Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Introduction Module Slide 1 - Introduction Title Page Hello, and welcome

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

225

Steam turbine for geothermal power generation  

SciTech Connect

A steam turbine comprises a casing; turbine vanes rotatably set in the casing; a plurality of partition walls which extend along radial directions from the rotation center of the turbine vanes to define a plurality of steam valve chambers in the casing; steam supply pipes respectively connected to the corresponding steam valve chambers; and regulating valves which are fitted to the respective steam supply pipes to regulate respectively the flow rate of steam streams supplied to the respective steam valve chambers. At least one partition wall for dividing the interior space of the steam turbine into adjacent steam valve chambers is provided with at least one penetrating hole for causing the steam valve chambers to communicate with each other.

Tsujimura, K.; Hadano, Y.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

226

Simplify heat recovery steam generator evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) are widely used in process and power plants, refineries and in several cogeneration/combined cycle systems. They are usually designed for a set of gas and steam conditions but often operate under different parameters due to plant constraints, steam demand, different ambient conditions (which affect the gas flow and exhaust gas temperature in a gas turbine plant), etc. As a result, the gas and steam temperature profiles in the HRSG, steam production and the steam temperature differ from the design conditions, affecting the entire plant performance and economics. Also, consultants and process engineers who are involved in evaluating the performance of the steam system as a whole, often would like to simulate the performance of an HRSG under different gas flows, inlet gas temperature and analysis, steam pressure and feed water temperature to optimize the entire steam system and select proper auxiliaries such as steam turbines, condensers, deaerators, etc.

Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (US))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Steam Field | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Field Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Steam Field Dictionary.png Steam Field: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Steam field reservoirs are special cases where the fluid is predominantly found in a gas phase between 230°C to 240°C. "This special class of resource needs to be recognized, its uniqueness being the remarkably consistent initial temperature and pressure

228

The Elimination of Steam Traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How would you like to have a share of $154,000,000,000 a year? According to the Department of Energy that is roughly what was spent for creating steam in 1978. Steam generation accounts for fully one half of the industrial and commercial energy dollar. That figure could be reduced by 10-20% or more by the simple elimination of steam traps. Recent engineering developments show that steam traps can be eliminated. Documented results demonstrate that the retrofitting of existing facilities to alternative methods of condensate removal is simple and economically feasible, with paybacks of less than 12 months. Advantages obtained in the first year remain consistent for several years after conversion with virtual elimination of maintenance.

Dickman, F.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

The steam engine and industrialization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simon Schaffer in York Rail Museum talks to the camera about the relationship between the steam engine and industrialization and whatsteam meant; a regular supply of moving power for workshops and factories....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

230

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper discusses the applications of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation. Consultants, plant engineers and plant developers can evaluate the steam side performance of HRSGs and arrive at the optimum system which matches the needs of the process plant, cogeneration or combined cycle plant. There is no need to design the HRSG per se and hence simulation is a valuable tool for anyone interested in evaluating the HRSG performance even before it is designed. It can also save a lot of time for specification writers as they need not guess how the steam side performance will vary with different gas/steam parameters. A few examples are given to show how simulation methods can be applied to real life problems.

Ganapathy, V.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Steam Generator Management Program: Flaw Handbook Calculator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Degradation Specific Flaw Handbook v1.0 defines burst pressure equations for steam generator tubes with various degradation morphologies, and the EPRI Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines (1019038) describes a probabilistic evaluation process which can be used to account for key input parameter uncertainties. The Flaw Handbook Calculator software is an automated Microsoft Excelspreadsheet which cal...

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

Steam turbine gland seal control system  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure steam turbine having a sealing gland where the turbine rotor penetrates the casing of the turbine. Under certain conditions the gland is sealed by an auxiliary steam supply, and under other conditions the gland is self sealed by turbine inlet steam. A control system is provided to modify the temperature of the auxiliary steam to be more compatible with the self sealing steam, so as to eliminate thermal shock to the turbine rotor.

Martin, H. F.

1985-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

233

Field Guide: Turbine Steam Path Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam path damage, particularly of blades, has long been recognized as a leading cause of steam turbine unavailability for large fossil fuel plants. Damage to steam path components by various mechanisms continues to result in significant economic impact domestically and internationally. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report TR-108943, Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice, Volumes 1 and 2, was prepared to compile the most recent knowledge about turbine steam path damage: identifying th...

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidance for evaluating the condition of steam generator (SG) tubes based on nondestructive examination (NDE) or in situ pressure testing. This integrity assessment is normally performed during a reactor refueling outage. Nuclear power plant licensees who follow this document's guidelines will have satisfied their requirements for condition monitoring and operational assessment as defined in the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) initiative, Steam Generator Program Guidelines, NEI 97-06.

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Review of Some Degradation Mechanisms in CANDU Steam Generator Tubing  

SciTech Connect

The first CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) went into operation in July 1971. Today, there are several units in operation at the Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington sites in Ontario, Canada. The steam generator tubing materials were manufactured from Monel 400, Inconel 600, and Incoloy 800 for the Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington respectively and are subjected to different operating conditions. This paper presents a review of some of the various types of degradation mechanisms that have been observed on these tubing materials over the operating period of the respective plants. The results presented are based on the metallurgical examination of removed tubes. The mechanisms that have been observed include pitting, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular attack, fretting, and erosion corrosion. The nature of the flaws and causative factors (if known) are discussed. (authors)

Ogundele, G.; Clark, M.; Goszczynski, G.; Lloyd, A. [Kinectrics, Inc., 800 Kipling Avenue Toronto, Ontario M8Z 6C4 (Canada); Pagan, S. [Ontario Power Generation, 700 University Avenue Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X6 (Canada); Sedman, K. [Bruce Power, P.O. Box 3000 177 Tie Rd., R.R. 2, Tiverton, Ontario N0G 2T0 (Canada); King, P. [Babcock and Wilcox (Canada)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for additional usage of coal, natural gas, or electricitya gas turbine for power generation before further usage. TheGas Turbine (MW) Steam Turbine (MW) Total Plant Electricity Usage (

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to make additional steam for the steam turbine cycle. Thein multi-pressure-level steam turbines to produce additionalthe superheated steam to the steam turbine cycle. The most

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Optimizing Steam and Condensate System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction in purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly, irrespective of the plant’s size. This paper highlights the efforts taken by the management of a medium sized specialty chemicals plant in Baton Rouge, LA. This site spent over $5.1 million in 2007 ($2.1 million for natural gas & $3.0 million for electricity). The site is generating steam for its process operation from the two gas fired boilers at 175-psig pressure. The steam is consumed at three of its five process areas. The other two process areas are not significant steam users. Condensate recovery is about 55%, while the system is designed to recover condensate from all steam users. Make-up water is supplied from a Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant. The optimization study was conducted at this site between Mar – May 2008, to identify opportunities to reduce the energy cost and to improve the steam system’s reliability. The study identified nine energy cost optimization opportunities that would result in a total cost savings of $306,000 annually. The initial estimates indicate that 7 of the 9 projects recommended by the study have simple payback periods of less than one year. This case study is a good example and motivation for all the engineers and managers who are responsible for maintaining the efficiency and reliability of small and medium size steam systems.

Venkatesan, V. V.; Merritt, B.; Tully, R. C.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

ProSteam- A Structured Approach to Steam System Improvement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal operation of site utility systems is becoming an increasingly important part of any successful business strategy as environmental, legislative and commercial pressures grow. A reliable steam model allows a clear understanding of the system and of any operational constraints. It can also be used to determine the true cost of improvement projects, relating any changes in steam demand back to purchased utilities (fuel, power, and make-up water) at the site boundary. Example projects could include improved insulation, better condensate return, increased process integration, new steam turbines or even the installation of gas-turbine based cogeneration. This approach allows sites to develop a staged implementation plan for both operational and capital investment projects in the utility system. Steam system models can be taken one step further and linked to the site DCS data to provide real-time balances and improve the operation of the system, providing an inexpensive but very effective optimizer. Such a model ensures that the steam system is set in the optimum manner to react to current utility demands, emissions regulations, equipment availability, fuel and power costs, etc. This optimization approach typically reduces day-to-day utility system operating costs by between 1% and 5% at no capital cost.

Eastwood, A.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

DOE BestPractices Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE BestPractices Steam End User Training Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic will discuss fuel selection, steam demands, and cogeneration. The Steam Distribution System Losses module

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

Not Available

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Evaluation of UHT milk processed by direct steam injection and steam infusion technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??UHT direct steam injection and steam infusion are widely used; however there is no comparison of their impact on milk components. This study evaluates the… (more)

Malmgren, Bozena

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Change steam tapping to save energy  

SciTech Connect

Induction turbines are common in large plants. They use both high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) steam and exhaust into a surface condenser operating under vacuum. Induction turbines are especially useful since they use maximum available LP steam with a balanced amount of HP steam and thus, achieve the best overall thermodynamic efficiency. LP steam is generally available as flash steam for boiler blow down, exhausts from back pressure turbines, process waste-heat recovery, etc. Typically, an LP steam header is routed around the plant with several connections to receive and supply steam. Therefore, it is common to connect each steam user/supplier to the nearest point on the main header. The portion of the header where steam turbine exhausts are connected has superheated LP steam and the header portion which receives steam from waste heat recovery, boiler blow down, etc., has saturated LP steam. Some portion of the header has mixed steam. Thus, the temperature of LP steam in the header varies over its length.

Antony, S.M.; Joshi, G.C.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

national total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

AC Argentina AR Aruba AA Bahamas, The BF Barbados BB Belize BH Bolivia BL Brazil BR Cayman Islands CJ ... World Total ww NA--Table Posted: December 8, ...

247

Microchannel Process Technology for Compact Methane Steam Reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of microchannel reaction engineering and applications to compact chemical reactors has expanded rapidly both academically and industrially in recent years. Velocys{reg_sign}, a spin-out company from Battelle Memorial Institute, is commercializing microchannel process technology for large-scale chemical processing. Hydrogen production at industrial rates in compact Velocys hardware is made possible through increases in both heat and mass transfer rates for highly active and novel catalysts. In one example, a microchannel methane steam reforming reactor is presented with integrated catalytic partial oxidation of methane prior to catalytic combustion with low excess air (25%) to generate the required energy for undothermic methane steam reforming in adjacent channels. Heat transfer rates from the exothermic reactions exceed 18 W/cm{sup 2} of interplanar heat transfer surface area and exceed 65 W/cm{sup 3} of total reaction volume for a methane steam reforming contact time near 4 milliseconds. The process intensity of the Velocys methane steam reformer well exceeds that of conventional steam reformers, which have a typical volumetric heat flux below 1 W/cm{sup 3}. The integration of multiple unit operations and improvements in process intensification result in significant capital and operating cost savings for commercial applications.

Tonkovich, A L.; Perry, Steve; Wang, Yong; Qiu, Dongming; LaPlante, Timothy J.; Rogers, William A.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Distribution of fluid phases within the steam zone in steam injection processes  

SciTech Connect

The saturation distribution of steam, water, and oil within the steam zone in a steam injection process at constant injection rates is examined. It is shown theoretically that for typical values of injection parameters the oil saturation in the steam zone rapidly reaches its residual value at steam zone conditions. This result, which corroborates previous experimental evidence, is a consequence of the relatively fast changes in phase saturations compared to the rate of the advance of the steam front. Explicit expressions for the steam saturation distribution are obtained. It is shown that the average steam saturation is a slightly decreasing function of time and approaches a limiting value which is a nearly constant fraction of the steam saturation at the injection point. This result provides theoretical justification for the often made assumption of constant average steam saturation in steam injection calculations.

Yortsos, Y.C.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM GENERATING PLANT AND AN IMPROVED METHOD OF GENERATING STEAM  

SciTech Connect

A steam generating plant, designed for heat transfer from a liquid metal (potassium, sodium, or their alloy) with reduced danger of explosion, is based on the fact that, if steam (especially superheated) rather than water contacts the liquid metal, the risk of explosion is much reduced. In this plant steam is superheated by heat transfer from liquid metal, the steam bsing generated by heat transfer between the superheated steam and water. Diagrams are given for the plant, which comprises a series of heat exchangers in which steam is superheated; part of the superheated steam is recycled to convert water into steam. Apart from the danger of a steam--liquid metal contact, the main danger is that the superheated steam might cool, coming to the saturated condition; this danger can be averted by setting up mceans for detecting low steam temperatures. (D.L.C.)

Zoller, R.E.

1960-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Optimized Control Of Steam Heating Coils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam has been widely used as the source of heating in commercial buildings and industries throughout the twentieth century. Even though contemporary designers have moved to hot water as the primary choice for heating, a large number of facilities still use steam for heating. Medical campuses with on-site steam generation and extensive distribution systems often serve a number of buildings designed prior to the mid-1980s. The steam is typically used for preheat as its high thermal content helps in heating the air faster and prevents coils from freezing in locations with extreme weather conditions during winter. The present work provides a comprehensive description of the various types of steam heating systems, steam coils, and valves to facilitate the engineer's understanding of these steam systems. A large percentage of the steam coils used in buildings are provided with medium pressure steam. Veterans Integrated Service Network and Army Medical Command Medical Facilities are examples which use medium pressure steam for heating. The current design manual for these medical facilities recommends steam at 30psig be provided to these coils. In certain cases although the steam heating coil is designed for a 5psig steam pressure, it is observed that higher pressure steam is supplied at the coil. A higher steam pressure may lead to excessive heating, system inefficiency due to increased heat loss, simultaneous heating and cooling, and increased maintenance cost. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of lowering steam pressure on the system performance. A 16% reduction in temperature rise across the coil was found when the steam pressure in the coil was reduced from 15psig to 5psig. The rise in temperature with lower pressure steam was sufficient to prevent coil freeze-up even in the most severe weather conditions. Additional benefits of reduced steam pressure are reduced flash steam losses (flash steam is vapor or secondary steam formed when hot condensate from the coil is discharged into a lower pressure area, i.e., the condensate return line) and radiation losses, increased flow of air through the coil thereby reducing air stratification and reduced energy losses in the event of actuator failure. The work also involved evaluating the existing control strategies for the steam heating system. New control strategies were developed and tested to address the short comings of existing sequences. Improved temperature control and occupant comfort; elimination of valve hunting and reduced energy consumption were benefits realized by implementing these measures.

Ali, Mir Muddassir

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Generating Steam by Waste Incineration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full production process steam requirements. The waste incineration system consists of a wood dunnage shredder, two Skid-Steer Loaders for incinerator charging, two incinerators, and a wet ash conveyor. The equipment is housed in a building with floor space to accommodate loads of combustible waste delivered for incineration. Incombustible material is segregated at the source. A review of operational experience and the results of a study on actual steam production costs will be presented with the intent that others will be able to use the information to advance the state of the art of high volume controlled air waste incineration.

Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Fast fluidized bed steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Steam Generator Management Program: Dynamic Analysis of a Steam Generator: Part 2 – Stability Analysis of Representative Steam Gener ators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a project that examined the effect of tube support plate blockage in recirculating steam generators on water level stability. This report builds upon Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report 1025134.BackgroundWater level oscillations in recirculating steam generators occur due to hydrodynamic instabilities in the natural circulation system. Utilities have reported water level oscillations in operating steam ...

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

255

Steam Boiler Control Specification Problem:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our solution to the specification problem in the specification language TLA+ is based on a model of operation where several components proceed synchronously. Our first specification concerns a simplified controller and abstracts from many details given in the informal problem description. We successively add modules to build a model of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed controller specification and prove that it refines the abstract controller. We also address the relationship between the physical state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss the reliability of failure detection. Finally, we discuss the implementability of our specification.

Tla Solution Frank; Frank Le Ke; Stephan Merz

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Steam-system upgrades | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Linked Data Page Edit History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Steam-system upgrades Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Steam-system...

258

FEMP-FTA--Steam Trap Performance Assessment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam Trap Function Steam Trap Function Steam traps are automatic valves used in every steam system to remove conden- sate, air, and other non-condensable gases while preventing or minimizing the passing of steam. If condensate is allowed to collect, it reduces the flow capacity of steam lines and the thermal capacity of heat transfer equipment. In addition, excess condensate can lead to "water hammer," with potentially destructive and dangerous results. Air that remains after system startup reduces steam pressure and temperature and may also reduce the thermal capacity of heat transfer equipment. Non-condensable gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, cause corrosion. Steam that passes through the trap provides no heating ser- vice. This effectively reduces the heating capacity

259

Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warm or Steaming Ground Warm or Steaming Ground Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Warm or Steaming Ground Dictionary.png Warm or Steaming Ground: An area where geothermal heat is conducted to the earth's surface, warming the ground and sometimes causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles Warm or Steaming Ground Mudpots, Mud Pools, or Mud Volcanoes Geysers Blind Geothermal System Steam rising from the ground at Eldvorp, a 10 km row of craters, in Southwestern Iceland. http://www.visiticeland.com/SearchResults/Attraction/eldvorp Warm or steaming ground is often an indicator of a geothermal system beneath the surface. In some cases a geothermal system may not show any

260

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

What is needed for the steam revolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In four sequences, standing beside a huge steam wheel, Simon Schaffer discusses some of the things that are needed for the development of the steam revolution. These include reliable cylinders (from gun manufacture), good boilers ( from brewing...

Dugan, David

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

262

The steam engine and what it needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simon Schaffer explains that to produce an effective steam engine you do not just need specific inventions, such as the separate condenser of James Watt, but also skills from clockworking, distillation, metal working and so on. Then the steam power...

Dugan, David

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

263

Calibration of Instrumented Steam Separators to Determine Quality and Flow Distribution in an Operating Steam Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examined the feasibility of instrumenting steam separators on a steam generator as two-phase flowmeters to measure flow distributions and steam quality near the separator deck plate. Instrumented prototypical separators were tested in a laboratory under steam generator conditions, and test data correlations were developed. The usefulness of such data in the qualification of thermal-hydraulic computer codes was addressed.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Identifying Steam Opportunity "Impact" Inputs for the Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam "Steam System Assessment Tool" (SSAT) is a powerful tool for quantifying potential steam improvement opportunities in steam systems. However, all assessment tools are only as good as the validity of the modeling inputs.

Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Vapor generator steam drum spray head  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A. (Massillon, OH)

1978-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

266

Steam Generator Vibration and Wear Protection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project developed and validated a steam generator flow-induced tube vibration and wear prediction methodology.

1998-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

267

Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 16, 2007 ... Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation Material Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions by E.M. Pierce ...

268

Total Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & Ed55 Imports - Other Conventional Gasoline Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Ether Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Alcohol Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, CBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, GTAB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, Other Imports - Fuel Ethanol Imports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Imports - Distillate Fuel Oil Imports - Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Imports - Distillate F.O., > 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Residual Fuel Oil Imports - Propane/Propylene Imports - Other Other Oils Imports - Kerosene Imports - NGPLs/LRGs (Excluding Propane/Propylene) Exports - Total Crude Oil and Products Exports - Crude Oil Exports - Products Exports - Finished Motor Gasoline Exports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Exports - Distillate Fuel Oil Exports - Residual Fuel Oil Exports - Propane/Propylene Exports - Other Oils Net Imports - Total Crude Oil and Products Net Imports - Crude Oil Net Imports - Petroleum Products Period: Weekly 4-Week Avg.

269

Temperature profiles determine HRSG steam production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article examine how temperature profiles affect steam production in heat recovery steam generators(HRSG). A typical gas/steam temperature profile for a HRSG is shown. Heat balance equations for the superheater, evaporator, and the complete HRSG are given along with examples for calculating the HRSG temperature profiles after assuming the pinch and approach point temperatures.

Ganapathy, V.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper will discuss the energy savings potential of steam traps and present the energy, economic, and environmental reason why an active steam trap maintenance program is good for the company's bottom line. Several case studies will be discussed to demonstrate the merits of steam trap technology.

Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

A LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF STEAM ADSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF STEAM ADSORPTION IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ROCKS OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY, if any, liquid. Yet to satisfy material bal- ance constraints, another phase besides steam must be present. If steam adsorption occurring in significant amounts is not accounted for, the reserves

Stanford University

272

STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM Laboratory. iv #12;ABSTRACT Steam-water relative permeability curves are required for mathematical models of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. In this study, drainage steam- water relative permeabilities were

Stanford University

273

Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

Holcomb, G.R.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Soft computing based multi-objective optimization of steam cycle power plant using NSGA-II and ANN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a steam turbine power plant is thermo-economically modeled and optimized. For this purpose, the data for actual running power plant are used for modeling, verifying the results and optimization. Turbine inlet temperature, boiler pressure, ... Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, NSGA-II, Steam turbine cycle, Thermal efficiency, Total cost rate

Farzaneh Hajabdollahi; Zahra Hajabdollahi; Hassan Hajabdollahi

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

SciTech Connect

The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

Marshall, B.W.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Steam cooling system for a gas turbine  

SciTech Connect

The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dominated energy crisis in the world dictates to reduce energy consumption and identify energy saving opportunities in large and complex industries especially in oil refining industry. In this paper, Tehran oil refinery is considered as a proper case study and its steam network is analyzed. At the first step, using STAR software, the steam network is simulated and then optimized, which determines the optimum conditions. In this regard, energy saving potential was identified and total operating costs (TOC) in two states of fixed fuel fraction and changeable fuel fraction was calculated. In addition, different scenarios were proposed like using HRSG instead of two boilers. The results showed that amount of total operating cost has been reduced, as the result the best scenario regarding TOC is selected.

Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms. The condensing mechanisms including: a plurality of finned tubes through which the expanded exhaust steam flows and is condensed; a plurality of bundle from headers at the lower ends of the condensing tubes for receiving exhaust steam from the turbine; a plurality of bundle divided rear headers, one for each tube row in the bundle, at the higher ends of the condensing tubes for receiving non-condensible gases; and means in the rear and last headers to remove non-condensible gasses from the rear headers along their full length.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

280

Flash Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flash Steam Power Plant Flash Steam Power Plant (Redirected from Flash Steam Power Plants) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Flash Steam Power Plants General List of Flash Steam Plants Flash Steam power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.[1] Facility Name Owner Capacity (MW) Facility

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression  

SciTech Connect

In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression  

SciTech Connect

In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The Economics of Steam Vs. Electric Pipe Heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To properly design a pipe heating system, the basic principles of heat transfer from an insulated pipe must be understood. The three methods of heat flow are conduction, convection (both forced and natural) and radiation. The total heat loss from a pipe must be determined first, since this is the heat which must be replaced to maintain a pipe at a given temperature. A steam heating system requires an analysis of the heat loss from the pipe as well as an analysis of the capacity of the heating system. The economics of steam heat include the accessories as well as the inefficiencies of steam heat. The design of an electric heating system normally involves far fewer components and engineering complexities than does a comparable steam system. The basic system is comprised of the heater, controls and connection accessories. Today there are several economic trade-offs to be made in selecting a pipe heating system. These involve engineering and design costs, maintenance costs, installation costs and energy costs. The economic trade-offs to be made in selecting a pipe heating system do not universally favor one system over another for all cases.

Schilling, R. E.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Adaptive temperature control system for the supply of steam to a steam turbine  

SciTech Connect

A combined-cycle steam turbine power generating plant is described including a heat recovery steam generator for outputting steam at an instantaneous temperature and pressure, and a steam turbine having rotor expanding steam therethrough from the steam generator; means providing a signal representative of the temperature of the rotor of the turbine; and means for controlling the generation of steam by the steam generator to control the temperature of steam in accordance with a predetermined temperature gradient, the combination of: function generator means responsive to a signal representative of steam turbine throttle pressure for providing a throttle pressure related steam limit temperature according to a constant enthalpy characteristic; bias means responsive to the rotor temperature representative signal for providing a bias signal in excess of the rotor temperature signal by a predetermined amount; means responsive to the larger of the limit temperature signal and the bias signal for controlling the generation of steam by the steam generator to control the temperature of steam to iteratively raise the temperature of the rotor in accordance with the constant enthalpy characteristic and the bias signal during soaking.

Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.

1986-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to make additionalAuxiliary Power Block Steam turbine generator using steam

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO STEAM GENERATING PLANT  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear power plant is designed using a heavy-watermoderated, steam- cooled reactor. In this plant, feed water is heated by the moderator and reactor steam to form feed steam, which is then superheated by superheated reactor steam and expanded through a nozzle. The feed steam issuing from the nozzie has added to it the superheated reactor steam, and the resulting steam is compressed, heated further in the reactor, and part of it passed to the turbine. (D.L.C.)

Bauer, S.G.; Jubb, D.H.

1962-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

288

Combined gas turbine and steam turbine power plant  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a power plant arrangement having a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a steam turbine and means for controlling steam flow from the heat recovery steam generator to the steam turbine. Steam conditions are maintained generally constant and variations in power plant loading are carried by the steam turbine while operating the gas turbine at a generally constant fuel flow.

Baker, J.M.; Clark, G.W.; Harper, D.M.; Tomlinson, L.O.

1978-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

289

Monitoring and Controlling Carryover in Heat Recovery Steam Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of the cycle chemistry in the steam generating system of combined-cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plants is vital to ensuring the efficient and reliable operation of the equipment. Monitoring of steam purity and drum carryover are core parameters for HRSG chemistry programs. Carryover is any solid, liquid, or vaporous contaminant that leaves the HRSG steam drum along with the steam. Carryover might be the result of the limited separation of the steam/water mixture in the steam dru...

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

290

High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a novel high-efficiency, high-temperature steam electrolyzer. Although water or steam electrolysis is well known to be one of the cleanest ways to produce hydrogen, widespread utilization is hindered by high operational costs because of high electricity consumption. To decrease the electrical power input requirements in electrolysis, our approach uses natural gas as an anode depolarizer. This approach essentially replaces one unit of electricity with one equivalent-energy unit of natural gas at much lower cost. The direct use of natural gas on the electrolyzer enables very high system efficiency with respect to primary energy. Experiments performed on single cells have shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. System efficiency has been estimated to be 50 to 80%, depending on the electrolytic current. A 200-W prototype unit is being developed.

Pham, A Q

2001-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

291

Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60 % efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

Gordon R. Holcomb; Derek Hsu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Coated graphite articles useful in metallurgical processes and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphite articles including crucibles and molds used in metallurgical processes involving the melting and the handling of molten metals and alloys that are reactive with carbon when in a molten state and at process temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are provided with a multiple-layer coating for inhibiting carbon diffusion from the graphite into the molten metal or alloys. The coating is provided by a first coating increment of a carbide-forming metal on selected surfaces of the graphite, a second coating increment of a carbide forming metal and a refractory metal oxide, and a third coating increment of a refractory metal oxide. The second coating increment provides thermal shock absorbing characteristics to prevent delamination of the coating during temperature cycling. A wash coat of unstabilized zirconia or titanium nitride can be applied onto the third coating increment to facilitate release of melts from the coating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Bird, Eugene L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Solar-Grade Silicon from Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Via Iodine Chemical Vapor Transport Purification: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the atmospheric-pressure in an ''open'' reactor, SiI2 transfers from a hot (>1100C) Si source to a cooler (>750C) Si substrate and decomposes easily via 2SiI2 Si+ SiI4 with up to 5?m/min deposition rate. SiI4 returns to cyclically transport more Si. When the source is metallurgical-grade Si, impurities can be effectively removed by three mechanisms: (1) differing free energies of formation in forming silicon and impurity iodides; (2) distillation; and (3) differing standard free energies of formation during deposition. Distillation has been previously reported. Here, we focused on mechanisms (1) and (3). We made feedstock, analyzed the impurity levels, grew Czochralski single crystals, and evaluated crystal and photovoltaic properties. Cell efficiencies of 9.5% were obtained. Incorporating distillation (step 2) should increase this to a viable level.

Ciszek, T. F.; Wang, T. H.; Page, M. R.; Bauer, R. E.; Landry, M. D.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Significant Silica Solubility in Geothermal Steam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although it is widely believed that silica solubility in low pressure (5 to 10 bar) geothermal steam is negligible, when one takes into account steam flows exceeding 10 million tonnes a year--at Wairakei, for instance--it is found that the amount transmitted in the vapor has the potential to give significant deposits on turbine nozzles and blades. A 150 MWe power station, when based on flows from a hot water reservoir at (a) 250 C or (b) 315 C, and with separator pressures of 6 bar, is found to carry about 100 and 200 kg/year respectively in the steam phase. In the case of a similar sized station exploiting a dry steam reservoir such as The Geysers, equivalent silica flows are obtained, dissolved in steam and carried as dust--the latter as solid particles precipitating from the vapor en route from source to turbine, and not preexisting in the formations as is commonly considered. Choking or coating of subterranean rock near such dry steam wells due to exsolving silica, may be the principal cause of declining steam discharge under production. Silica from completely dry or superheated steam can also seal the cap and sides of steam reservoirs when expanding below the criticus temperature (236 C) in a way previously thought possible only by hot water or wet steam.

James, Russell

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

296

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Repair Flash Steam Recovery/ Condensate Return Condensateflash steam. When a steam trap purges condensate from ais removed by a steam trap, which allows condensate to pass

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

None

1980-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

298

Midway-Sunset keeps producing oil with a little help from steam injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The largest field in the lower 48 states runs on steam injection and well-honed maintenance. The glory days of the Midway-Sunset field had been gone for more than four decades by the beginning of the 1960s. Production had peaked in 1914 with an average of 94,140 bo/d. The field, except for an occasional spike, had been in decline until steam-injection began. The advent of steam injection to increase recovery of the field`s heavy crude began on a pilot basis in 1963. If anyone had predicted the dramatic effect steam would have on Midway-Sunset as well as other California heavy crude fields, the prediction would have been met with total disbelief. The first steam project in California had been initiated by Shell Oil Co. in the Yorba Linda field in the Los Angeles Basin in 1960. Other pilot projects followed in the Coalinga and Kern River fields. Today, Berry Petroleum Co. continues as one of the field`s most successful steamers. The company`s ongoing steam efforts have played a major role in making Berry the top California-based independent producer in the field. Steam contributed to the posting by Berry of a 32% increase in this year`s second quarter earnings.

Rintoul, B.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Flash Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flash Steam Power Plant Flash Steam Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Flash Steam Power Plants General List of Flash Steam Plants Flash Steam power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.[1] Facility Name Owner Capacity (MW) Facility Type Commercial Online Date Geothermal Area

300

The economics of repowering steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

Repowering is defined as displacing steam presently generated in an existing fossil fuel fired boiler with a gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) system. The steam generated in the HRSG is expanded in the existing steam turbine generator. Repowering advantages include a significant increase in power output at an improved heat rate relative to the base value for the existing steam turbine cycle being repowered. In addition, the reduction in emissions can be advantageous in most locations. This paper discusses application and economic considerations associated with repowering. In addition, an illustration will show how repowering coal fired steam turbine systems may prove economic relative to retrofit scrubbers and/or low sulfur coal fuel substitution that may be part of the forthcoming acid rain legislation.

Kovacik, J.M.; Stoll, H.G. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Steam System Optimization : A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two main sources of savings in steam systems. Increased competition no longer permits an industry to survive with energy waste that could be eliminated. This paper highlights the study findings of the steam system in a plant from the Food industry. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $1.9 million. Normal steam demand ranges between 80,000 to 85,000 lb/hr. The steam system analysis identified energy savings worth $270,000 per year. The optimization measures were in two categories: • No cost/low cost optimizations that can be done through a better maintenance and improved operating condition • Major improvements that require a significant investment, and includes the modification of the process and major equipment.

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Steam Management- The 3M Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As one of the world's leading manufacturers of innovative products, 3M is continually working to improve energy efficiency in offices, research centers, and production facilities. Steam system optimization is one of the keys to this process, beginning at the boiler room and continuing throughout the facility. Boiler selection, installation, and operation are carefully monitored to ensure that steam is produced as efficiently as possible. The program encourages 3M facilities to establish Steam Teams to monitor and maintain steam systems. These teams are in continual contact with corporate facilities specialists in order to readily resolve problems relating to distribution, piping, and trapping. Team goals include evaluating existing equipment installations to verify that their design is appropriate for today's needs, periodically evaluating steam traps for correct selection and correct operation, and regularly inspecting steam and condensate piping runs to ensure that they are functioning safely and correctly.

Renz, R. L.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainability and energy management are broad topics which have become a common focus in industry. Recognizing the need for greater cost reduction and competitive advantage through sustainability, industry is putting forth resources to improve energy management controls. When the topic of energy management relates to steam trap management however, the focus becomes less clear and action less notable. The seemingly “low hanging” fruit of steam traps are not often tied to significant and sustainable energy management projects. Typically this holds true because of the failure of industry to put a value on the cost of steam and because of the lack of energy tracking from failed steam traps as part of best practice. The use of technology can help industry transform how steam systems are managed and sustainability in steam systems is achieved.

Gibbs, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," " 1985-2010 (Megawatts)" "Year","Coal",,,,"Petroleum and Natural Gas",,,,"Total 1" ,,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2" ,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization" ,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)"

305

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Last year, the Alliance to Save Energy, the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, and a cadre of private companies and associations formed an innovative "Steam Partnership" with the goal of developing a new, DOE technical assistance program on steam efficiency. In 1997, the Steam Partnership began to define the appropriate activities, tools, and services of a public-private program on steam. Modeled after the successful Motor Challenge program and the newly launched Compressed Air Challenge program, "Steam Challenge" will highlight the importance of steam system efficiency and provide information and technical assistance on technologies for today's industrial steam systems. This paper will introduce Steam Challenge, describe what has been accomplished over the last year, and describe the program's future goals and activities.

Jones, T.; Hart, F.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Advances in steam turbine technology for power generation  

SciTech Connect

This book contains articles presented at the 1990 International Joint Power Generation Conference. It is organized under the following headings: Solid particle erosion in steam turbines, Steam turbine failure analysis, Steam turbine upgrades, steam turbine blading development, Boiler feed pumps and auxiliary steam turbine drives.

Bellanca, C.P. (Dayton Power and Light Company (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extenstion Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

93 93 Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration August 2007 Final Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject - August 2007 i TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Acronyms and Abbreviations............................................................................................. vi Chemicals and Units of Measure ................................................................................................. ix Conversion Chart ......................................................................................................................... xi Metric Prefixes .............................................................................................................................xii

310

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Engineering Training Course 2 Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update provides training material that was prepared for the second Steam Generator Engineering Training class. The Steam Generator Engineering Training is a comprehensive training program for steam generator program managers. The content of the training is based on an industry-developed job analysis for a steam generator engineer. The job analysis resulted in eight high-level tasks; consequently, eight training modules were planned to be developed over a three-year period beginning in 2008...

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

312

CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered in refineries is introduced. In conjunction with a shortcut model this model has been used to calculate of the steam network of an existing refinery aiming at minimization total annualized cost with considering emissions. In this paper, the case study is steam network of southern Tehran refinery. Simulation of this case has been performed in STAR software that licensed by energy system laboratory at K.N. Toosi University of Technology. Mathematical linear programming method has been applied to optimization of steam network. In addition, the short cut model of CO2 production has been provided for evaluation of steam network with considering CO2 production taxes and other economic effects in total annualized cost. Meanwhile, in this research, new scenario has been defined and evaluated. Results shows new scenario have 45 % less TAOC rather than base scenario in optimal condition.

Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Table 9. U.S. Steam Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Steam Coal Exports U.S. Steam Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 9. U.S. Steam Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 1,619,502 1,246,181 2,153,814 2,865,683 3,065,683 -6.5 Canada* 797,861 599,752 841,061 1,397,613 1,280,803 9.1 Dominican Republic 51,698 160,672 124,720 212,370 312,741 -32.1 Honduras - 41,664 34,161 41,664 68,124 -38.8 Jamaica 25 36,311 - 36,336 33,585 8.2 Mexico 717,687 407,422 1,116,653 1,125,109 1,331,754 -15.5 Other** 52,231 360 37,219 52,591 38,676 36.0 South America Total 853,693 806,347

314

Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial steam systems.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Major Corrosion Problems in Steam Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...O. Jonas, Corrosion of Steam Turbines, Corrosion: Environments and Industries, Vol 13C, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2006, p 469â??476...

316

Efficiently generate steam from cogeneration plants  

SciTech Connect

As cogeneration gets more popular, some plants have two choices of equipment for generating steam. Plant engineers need to have a decision chart to split the duty efficiently between (oil-fired or gas-fired) steam generators (SGs) and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) using the exhaust from gas turbines. Underlying the dilemma is that the load-versus-efficiency characteristics of both types of equipment are different. When the limitations of each type of equipment and its capability are considered, analysis can come up with several selection possibilities. It is almost always more efficient to generate steam in an HRSG (designed for firing) as compared with conventional steam generators. However, other aspects, such as maintenance, availability of personnel, equipment limitations and operating costs, should also be considered before making a final decision. Loading each type of equipment differently also affects the overall efficiency or the fuel consumption. This article describes the performance aspects of representative steam generators and gas turbine HRSGs and suggests how plant engineers can generate steam efficiently. It also illustrates how to construct a decision chart for a typical installation. The equipment was picked arbitrarily to show the method. The natural gas fired steam generator has a maximum capacity of 100,000 lb/h, 400-psig saturated steam, and the gas-turbine-exhaust HRSG has the same capacity. It is designed for supplementary firing with natural gas.

Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Coreflood experimental study of steam displacement.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main objective of this study was to verify experimentally whether or not a Buckley-Leverett shock front exists when steam displaces oil in a porous… (more)

Cerutti, Andres Enrique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Bending of Wood With Steam.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Based on experimentation with the steam bending of wood to curved shapes, this thesis describes my involvement with three basic aspects of the process. First… (more)

Cottey Jr., James H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Steam Reheat in Nuclear Power Plants.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, reheating steam from a commercial nuclear power plant is explored in order to increase efficiency and power output. A thermal source in… (more)

Marotta, Paul John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Multiple boiler steam blending control system for an electric power plant  

SciTech Connect

A steam blending control is provided for two or more boilers in an electric power plant. To blend an oncoming boiler with an online boiler, the oncoming boiler is fired to a pressure ramp setpoint and outlet steam is isolated from the plant turbine and directed through position controlled bypass valve means. When steam temperature and pressure conditions are matched, the oncoming boiler isolation valve is opened and the bypass flow then existing is stored in a memory. The oncoming boiler bypass flow is cut back with total oncoming boiler steam flow controlled to the memorized flow valve as a setpoint. Flow from the on-line boiler is cut back under load control as the oncoming boiler flow to the plant turbine is increased. Deblending is implemented in a similar manner.

Binstock, M.H.; Criswell, R.L.

1981-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

REED BESLER BOILER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEM AND THERMAL CYCLING FACILITY. Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure boiler has been installed at ORNL. This Besler boiler is capabie of producing from 150 to 2000 psi saturated steam at steaming rates up to 5000 lbs/hr. The boiler is part of a water-steam circuit whteh also includes two spray water pumps, a steam pressure control valve, a high pressure trapping station, and a low pressure deaerated feedwater system. The new boiler system is piped and instrumented to serve as a thermal cycling facility. Shakedown test thermal cycles to requirements set forth in HRT Specification 1113a have been conducted using the existing Dump Test Autoclave as a test piece. Fourty-four cycles have been run through mid February, 1958. The boiler has been operated a total of 142 hours. Cycles are run completely automatically. Better than three- fourths of the cycles as run fall within the specification prescribed limits. (auth)

Holz, P.P.

1958-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

322

Steam catalysis in CaO carbonation under low steam partial pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CaO was widely used to capture CO{sub 2} in direct hydrogen production process, where steam always existed simultaneously. The effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance under low steam partial pressure was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The experimental results revealed that steam improved CaO carbonation performance significantly no matter whether Ca(OH){sub 2} was produced or not. At 823 K and 0.5 MPa of steam partial pressure, effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance could not be attributed mainly to production of Ca(OH){sub 2} because the hydration rate of CaO was very slow. The main reason was steam catalysis in CaO carbonation. Enhancement of steam on CaO carbonation performance without Ca(OH){sub 2} production could not be attributed to improvement of steam on the physical property, but to catalytic effect of steam. Effects of CaO precursors, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, steam partial pressure, and temperature with steam addition on CaO carbonation performance were also investigated.

Yang, S.J.; Xiao, Y.H. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect

Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

John Williams

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Compare All CBECS Activities: Total Energy Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Use Total Energy Use Compare Activities by ... Total Energy Use Total Major Fuel Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 5.7 quadrillion Btu of all major fuels (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district steam or hot water) in 1999. Office buildings used the most total energy of all the building types, which was not a surprise since they were the most common commercial building type and had an above average energy intensity. Figure showing total major fuel consumption by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Major Fuel Consumption per Building by Building Type Because there were relatively few inpatient health care buildings and they tend to be large, energy intensive buildings, their energy consumption per building was far above that of any other building type.

325

Table 7.10 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: Million U.S. Dollars. Electricity Components Natural Gas Electricity Electricity from Sources Natural Gas NAICS Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Total United States 311 Food 5,328 4,635 692 3,391 1,675 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 932 850 82 673 261 311221 Wet Corn Milling 352 331 21 296 103 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 105 87 18 87 39 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 698

326

Steam turbine materials and corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine internals in situ by foaming an appropriate cleaning solution and injecting it through the turbine, dissolving the deposits and removing them from the system. Because disassembly of the turbine is not required, foam cleaning is a much faster and more cost-effective method of removing deposits. In recent years, HydroChem has removed copper deposits from over 130 Westinghouse and General Electric turbines nationwide using patented equipment.

Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E. [Alstom (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report (U). Third and fourth quarters 1996, Vol. I  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1996.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Transient Steam Flow in Porous Media - Theory and Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of steam in porous media, leading to a delay in steam pressure breakthrough, has been incorporated into a revised model of steam flow in a porous medium.

Herkelrath, W.N.; Moench, A.F.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

331

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace...

332

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is fed to the steam methane reformer from which we getis fed into the steam methane reformer where it is convertedis produced in the steam methane reformer. Fischer-Tropsch

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. (1981). Reactivities of carbon to steam and hydrogen andreaction kinetics of steam gasification for a transportof coal gasification with steam and CO2. Fuel, 77(15), 17.

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Steam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stations ? Retail Access was established in MD in 2000 ? As part of deregulation, many state policymakers required that customers ’ rates be frozen – in most cases below the wholesale cost of power ? As rate freezes expired, rates increased to reflect market ratesThe Electric Utility Industry ? The electric utility industry consists of three functions needed to deliver power to customer loads:

Joan Kowal

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a novel high-efficiency, high-temperature steam electrolyzer. Although water or steam electrolysis is well known to be one of the cleanest ways to produce hydrogen, widespread utilization is hindered by high operational costs because of high electricity consumption. To decrease the electrical power input requirements in electrolysis, our approach uses natural gas as an anode depolarizer. This approach essentially replaces one unit of electricity with one equivalent-energy unit of natural gas at much lower cost. The direct use of natural gas on the electrolyzer enables very high system efficiency with respect to primary energy. Experiments performed on single cells have shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. System efficiency has been estimated to be 50 to 80%, depending on the electrolytic current density. During FY02, we have accomplished several major milestones, including the development of a metal-to-ceramic seal that withstands 150 psi differential, the fabrication of the electrolyzer tubes of up to 16 inches in length, the improvement of single tube performance and the demonstration of the first electrolyzer stack.

Pham, A Q; See, E; Lenz, D; Martin, P; Glass, R

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

336

Corrosion of Low Pressure Steam Turbine Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most outage hours for steam turbines are due to corrosion of low pressure (LP) blades and disks in the phase transition zone (PTZ). The development of an effective localized corrosion damage prediction technology is essential for the successful avoidance of unscheduled outages of steam

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

337

Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing complex. The measures include: 1) Reheating of dehumidified cleanroom make-up air with heat extracted during precooling. 2) Preheating of deionization feedwater with refrigerant heat of condensation. 3) Preheating of boiler combustion air with heat extracted from boiler flue gas. 4) Preheating of boiler feedwater with heat extracted from gas turbine exhaust. 5) Variable speed operation of boiler feedwater pumps and forced-draft fans. 6) Preheating of boiler make-up water with heat extracted from boiler surface blow-down. The first two advancements (steam conservation measures) reduced the amount of steam produced by about 25% and saved about $1,010,000/yr by using recovered waste heat rather than steam-derived heat at selected heating loads. The last four advancements (boiler plant efficiency measures) reduced the unit cost of steam produced by about 13% and saved about $293,500/yr by reducing natural gas and electricity usage at the steam boiler plant. The combined result was a 35% reduction in annual steam costs (fuel and power).

Fiorino, D. P.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

LMR steam generator blowdown with RETRAN  

SciTech Connect

One of the transients being considered in the FSAR Chapter 15 analyses of anticipated LMR transients is the fast blowdown of a steam generator upon inadvertent actuation of the liquid metal/water reaction mitigation system. For the blowdown analysis, a stand-alone steam generator model for the IFR plant was constructed using RETRAN.

Wei, T.Y.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Steam System Optimization: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper highlights the study findings in a steam system in a plant from a multinational Petrochemical giant in an European country. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $8.9 million (local currency was converted to US Dollars). Normal steam demand ranges from 500,000 to 600,000 lbs/hr. 380,000 lbs/hr is imported from an outside power plant and 170,000 lbs/hr is internally generated as waste heat recovery. The steam system analysis identified energy savings worth of $2,400,000 per year. The optimization measures were in two categories: • no cost / low cost that can be done through better maintenance and improvement of operating conditions. • major improvement that requires a significant amount of investment, that includes the modification of process and major equipment. Though the findings are specific to a single site, the basics of steam system analysis are applicable to any steam system. A critical review on any steam system always identifies controllable wastes. Improvements in steam system efficiency equal reduced energy consumption and saved environment.

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam production represents a significant proportion of today's industrial energy demand. But the evolution of process technologies, as well as turbulence in energy markets, suggests that steam's role may be subject to change in the next decade. Questions as to the ways those changes will manifest are addressed by this paper. Specifically, the text presents an outline of parameters that (in the authors' opinions) will ultimately shape the dimensions of industrial steam use in the next 10 to 20 years. Technical, business, institutional, and labor developments are the forces in question. This paper provides a systematic review of these forces, and suggests how they may influence industrial asset purchasing decisions. The coming decade will witness opportunities for maintaining and growing steam markets, but there are also reasons to believe that steam will be supplanted by alternative technologies in certain industries and applications. Combined heat and power applications are the wildcard in this formula, since they may facilitate the replacement of some traditional steam applications. But at the same time, CHP may ensure that steam indirectly serves industry by powering generators that serve newer electric applications. The trends discussed in this paper suggest the components for an industrial steam policy agenda.

Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Pages that link to "Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility" Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility Jump to:...

342

Steam Oxidation of New PVD Nano-Structured and Microstructured ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Properties, Processing, and Performance of Steels and Ni-Based Alloys for Advanced Steam Conditions. Presentation Title, Steam Oxidation of ...

343

Changes related to "Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Changes related to "Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility" Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility Jump to:...

344

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval...

345

Design with Constructal Theory: Steam Generators, Turbines and Heat Exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This dissertation shows that the architecture of steam generators, steam turbines and heat exchangers for power plants can be predicted on the basis of… (more)

Kim, Yong Sung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy In order to meet the...

347

Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy In order to meet the federal energy...

348

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM PHOTOLYSIS OF STEAM ADSORBED ONTO PLATINIZED SrTiO3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PRODUCTION FROM PHOTOLYSIS OF STEAM ADSORBED ONTO PLATINIZEDPRODUCTION FROM PHOTOLYSIS OF STEAM ADSORBED ONTO PLATINIZED

Carr, R.G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Hockey-stick steam generator for LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the criteria and evaluation leading to the selection of the Hockey Stick Steam Generator Concept and subsequent development of that concept for LMFBR application. The selection process and development of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG) is discussed, including the extensive test programs that culminated in the manufacture and test of a 35 MW(t) Steam Generator. The design of the CRBRP Steam Generator is described, emphasizing the current status and a review of the critical structural areas. CRBRP steam generator development tests are evaluated, with a discussion of test objectives and rating of the usefulness of test results to the CRBRP prototype design. Manufacturing experience and status of the CRBRP prototype and plant units is covered. The scaleup of the Hockey Stick concept to large commercial plant application is presented, with an evaluation of scaleup limitations, transient effects, and system design implications.

Hallinan, G.J.; Svedlund, P.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes  

SciTech Connect

On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

Karwoski, K.J.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Waste heat steams ahead with injection technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Owners of Commercial-Industrial-Institutional buildings whose thermal usage is too variable to implement cogeneration are looking to a gasturbine steam-injection technology, called the Cheng Cycle, to reduce their energy costs. The Cheng Cycle uses industrial components-a gas-turbine generating set, a waste-heat recovery steam generator and system controls-in a thermodynamically optimized mode. In the process, steam produced from waste heat can be used for space or process heating or to increase the electrical output of a gas turbine. The process was patented in 1974 by Dr. Dah Yu Cheng, of the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, Calif. When a plant's thermal needs fall because of production or temperature changes, unused steam is directed back to the turbine to increase electrical output. As thermal requirements rise, the process is reversed and needed steam is channeled to plant uses.

Shepherd, S.; Koloseus, C.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Metallurgical and mechanical properties of thorium-doped Ir-0. 3% W alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallurgical and mechanical properties of Ir-0.3% W alloys have been studied as a function of thorium concentration in the range 0 to 1000 ppM by weight. The solubility limit of thorium in Ir-0.3% W is below 30 ppM. Above this limit, the excess thorium reacts with iridium to form second-phase particles. Thorium additions raise the recrystallization temperature and effectively retard grain growth at high temperatures. Tensile tests at 650/sup 0/C show that the alloy without thorium additions (undoped alloy) fractured by grainboundary (GB) separation, while the alloys doped with less than 500 ppM thorium failed mainly by transgranular fracture at 650/sup 0/C. Intergranular fracture in the doped alloys is suppressed by GB segregation of thorium, which improves the mechanical properties of the boundary. The impact properties of the alloys were correlated with test temperature, grain size, and heat treatment. The impact ductility increases with test temperature and decreases with grain size. For a given grain size, particularly in the fine-grain size range, the thorium-doped alloys are much more ductile and resistant to GB fracture. All of these results can be correlated on the basis of stress concentration on GBs by using a dislocation pileup model.

Liu, C.T.; Inouye, H.; Schaffhauser, A.C.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fatigue Testing of Metallurgically-Bonded EBR-II Superheater Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on 2¼Cr-1Mo steel specimens machined from ex-service Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) superheater duplex tubes. The tubes had been metallurgically bonded with a 100 µm thick Ni interlayer; the specimens incorporated this bond layer. Tests were performed at room temperature in air and at 400°C in air and humid Ar; cracks were grown at varied levels of constant ?K. Crack growth tests at a range of ?K were also performed on specimens machined from the shell of the superheater. In all conditions the presence of the Ni interlayer was found to result in a net retardation of growth as the crack passed through the interlayer. The mechanism of retardation was identified as a disruption of crack planarity and uniformity after passing through the porous interlayer. Full crack arrest was only observed in a single test performed at near-threshold ?K level (12 MPa?m) at 400°C. In this case the crack tip was blunted by oxidation of the base steel at the steel-interlayer interface.

Terry C. Totemeier

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Analysis and prevention of metallurgical failures at a major direct coal liquefaction pilot plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The H-Coal Pilot Plant in Catlettsburg, KY was the largest-capacity direct coal liquefaction project operating in the United States. Since the start of operations, performance of its components was carefully monitored and occasional failures were examined and documented. The results of the examinations were used to develop remedial steps and improve the design of scale-up units. In this paper, the metallurgical aspects of the following incidents will be described: 1) stress corrosion cracking of martensitic stainless steel bolting on the waterside of a heat exchanger; 2) stress corrosion cracking of a superalloy seal ring; 3) brittle failure of a low alloy nut in a block valve body; 4) corrosion damage in the fractionator and side stripper; 5) erosion/corrosion of a coal liquid transfer line in the atmospheric fractionation area; 6) pitting corrosion in a deaerator carbon steel inlet pipe; 7) brittle failure of a martensitic stainless steel ball in a block valve handling coal liquids; and 8) cracking of cobalt-base alloy seat rings in block valve applications. In addition, remedial steps and preventive measures leading to successful performance after repair are briefly described.

Sagues, A.A.; Ganesan, P.; Ragle, H.V.; Searles, R.C.; Sethi, V.K.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically conducted to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection for the light Minas crude oil. The steam-propane experiments involved injecting steam or a mixture of steam and propane into a cell in which was tamped a mixture of sand, oil and water. The cell was placed inside a vacuum jacket set at a reservoir temperature of 200?F. Superheated steam at 490?F was injected at 4.5 ml/min (cold-water equivalent) while the cell outlet pressure was maintained at 450 psig. A total of four runs were successfully performed with two different propane:steam mass ratios, namely, 0:100 (pure steam) and 5:100 (steam-propane). Produced liquids were collected from the bottom of the cell and analyzed to determined oil and water volumes as well as oil density and viscosity after being treated to break the emulsion. The gas injection experiments involved injecting reconstituted Minas field production gas or Minas gas enriched with propane into a cell saturated with live Minas oil. The live oil was prepared in an oil-gas recombination apparatus, and closely replicated oil properties at current reservoir conditions (solution GOR of 134 SCF/STB, bubble-point pressure of 280 psig.) Minas gas was injected at 500 ml/min into the cell set at reservoir temperature of 200?F. A total of four runs were successfully performed with two different propane:gas mass ratios, namely, 0:100 (pure lean gas) and 5:100 (enriched gas). The main results of the study are as follows. First, with steam-propane injection, no improvement on production acceleration time, oil recovery or steam injectivity was observed compared with pure steam injection. Second, with enriched gas injection, oil recovery increased from 61% OOIP with lean gas injection up to 74% OOIP with enriched gas (5:100 propane:gas mass ratio). Analysis of produced oil gravity and viscosity indicate little change in values compared to that of the original oil. Of the processes investigated (pure steam, steam-propane, lean gas, and enriched gas injection), enriched gas injection appears to be technically the most feasible EOR method for Minas field. It is recommended therefore to conduct research on possible application of water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection with propane-enriched Minas gas to enhance production from the Minas field.

Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

357

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

358

Technical and economic feasibility of solar augmented process steam generation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the technical and economic feasibility of solar augmented process steam generation was performed. This approach is analogous to a heat pump that extracts heat from a low temperature reservoir (provided by solar energy) and raises its temperature to a useful level via mechanical work. The shaft power required in the compressor is only one third to one quarter of total steam enthalpy for low pressure process steam (100 psig). This approach permits the use of low cost flat plate collectors. It was concluded that these systems have the potential of yielding payback periods of 5 to 8 years and 10 to 15 years for collector costs of $2/ft/sup 2/ and $5/ft/sup 2/, respectively, depending upon the location. A design study of various components indicated that these components are generally available or need only minor modifications for steam service. The component selection was largely a function of steam generation rate. In general, collector cost was the controlling factor. It was also concluded that additional incentives are probably required for increased utilization of solar energy for industrial process steam.

Not Available

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Table 14. Steam Coal Exports by Customs District  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Steam Coal Exports by Customs District Steam Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 14. Steam Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Customs District April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Eastern Total 4,951,041 5,566,950 6,554,494 10,517,991 11,407,664 -7.8 Baltimore, MD 1,275,530 831,976 1,715,016 2,107,506 2,852,092 -26.1 Boston, MA 7 - 12 7 24 -70.8 Buffalo, NY 1,180 1,516 2,826 2,696 5,257 -48.7 New York City, NY 3,088 2,664 2,168 5,752 6,106 -5.8 Norfolk, VA 3,578,715 4,697,769 4,760,354 8,276,484 8,443,756 -2.0 Ogdensburg, NY 36,894 3,610 3,090 40,504 6,838 492.3 Philadelphia, PA

360

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using seven-component synthetic oil consisting of equal weights of the following alkanes: n-C5, n-C6, n-C7, n-C8, n-C9, nC10, and n-C15. For comparison purposes, three distillation processes were investigated: dry-, steam-, and steam-propane-distillation, the latter at a propane:steam mass ratio of 0.05. The injection rate of nitrogen during dry-and steam-distillation was the same as that of propane during steam-propane distillation, 0.025 g/min, with steam injection rate kept at 0.5 g/min. The distillation temperatures ranged from 115°C to 300°C and were increased in steps of 10°C. The cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) for 30 minutes. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig for dry distillation to 998 psig for steam-and steam-propane distillation. The temperature-pressure combination used represented 15°C superheated steam conditions. Distillate samples were collected at each cut, and the volume and weight of water and hydrocarbon measured. In addition, the composition of the hydrocarbon distillate was measured using a gas chromatograph. Main results of the study may be summarized as follows. First, the hydrocarbon yield at 125°C is highest with steam-propane distillation (74 wt%) compared to steam distillation (58 wt%), and lowest with dry distillation (36 wt%). This explains in part the oil production acceleration observed in steam-propane displacement experiments. Second, the final hydrocarbon yield at 300°C however is the same for the three distillation processes. This observation is in line with the fact that oil recoveries were very similar in steam- and steam-propane displacement experiments. Third, based on the yields of individual hydrocarbon components, steam-propane distillation lowers the apparent boiling points of the hydrocarbons significantly. This phenomenon may be the most fundamental effect of propane on hydrocarbon distillation, which results in a higher yield during steam-propane distillation and oil production acceleration during steam-propane displacement. Fourth, experimental K-values are higher in distillations with steam-propane for the components n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, and n-nonane. Fifth, vapor fugacity coefficients for each component are higher in distillations with steam-propane than with steam. Finally, Gibbs excess energy is overall lower in distillations with steam-propane than with steam. The experimental results clearly indicate the importance of distillation on oil recovery during steam-or steam-propane injection. The experimental procedure and method of analysis developed in this study (for synthetic oil) will be beneficial to future researchers in understanding the effect of propane as steam additive on actual crude oils.

Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34 39.76 66.29 70.83 70.95 82.81 150.58 NA Denmark 40.78 31.65 50.27 56.29 61.84 59.15 75.20 113.34 NA Finland 40.83 37.08 39.99 58.45 62.80 67.65 72.64 134.21 NA France 45.36 42.59 42.63 64.08 75.23 72.92 84.49 135.53 NA Germany 41.46 36.80 39.00 61.22 72.48 70.12 81.49 138.84 NA Ireland3 45.25 47.88 50.08 80.90 74.91 101.78 125.15 143.08 NA Italy 44.83 41.25 42.45 63.54 73.20 69.16 86.00 143.68 NA Japan 37.95 36.95 34.93 51.48 62.73 63.33 70.92 125.42 NA Netherlands 40.09 35.81 37.27 55.09 68.86 68.57 79.12 133.50 NA

363

Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Improving steam turbine-gas turbine plants  

SciTech Connect

Leningrad Polytechnic Institute investigated the main characteristics of combined plants according to their structure, determined by very important parameters. The following parameters were selected: utilization factor (ratio of heat added to the steam-water working medium from the heat of the exhaust gases to the entire amount of heat added to the steam-water working medium) and fuel consumption factor (ratio of heat from fuel added to the steam-water working medium to the entire consumption of heat in the combined plant). It is concluded that steam turbine-gas turbine plants working at comparatively low gas temperatures (about 800/sup 0/C) must be constructed as plants of maximum capacity, i.e., with large steam flows. Gas turbine-steam turbine plants with high-temperature gas turbines operating at a high utilization factor (approaching binary plants) ensure a qualitative rise in efficiency and have high flexibility characteristics. They are the most promising power plants. A long-term plan for development of combined plants on the basis of standard steam turbine and gas turbine equipment, the production of which is planned in the USSR and in Comecon countries, is required. This plan must be closely connected with solution of the problem of using coals for gas turbine plants.

Kirillov, I.I.; Arsen' ev, L.V.; Khodak, E.A.; Romakhova, G.A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Solid fuel fired oil field steam generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increased shortages being experienced in the domestic crude oil supply have forced attention on the production of heavy crude oils from proven reserves to supplement requirements for petroleum products. Since most heavy crudes require heat to facilitate their extraction, oil field steam generators appear to represent a key component in any heavy crude oil production program. Typical oil field steam generator experience in California indicates that approx. one out of every 3 bbl of crude oil produced by steam stimulation must be consumed as fuel in the steam generators to produce the injection steam. The scarcity and price of crude oil makes it desirable to substitute more readily available and less expensive solid fuels for the crude oil which is presently serving as the primary steam generator fuel. Solid fuel firing capability also is of importance because of the substantial amounts of high heating value and low cost petroleum coke available from the processing of heavy crude oil and suitable for use as a steam generator fuel.

Young, W.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

EPRI steam-turbine-related research projects  

SciTech Connect

The current perspective is provided of EPRI-project activities that relate to steam turbine reliability. Compiling status information is a part of the planning effort for continuing projects on turbine rotor reliability, turbine chemistry monitoring and materials behavior, and for the proposed project related to cracking of shrunk-on discs in low pressure nuclear steam turbines. This document includes related work beyond the steam turbine itself to cover those research projects whose scope and results impact the efforts specific to the turbine.

Gelhaus, F.; Jaffee, R.; Kolar, M.; Poole, D.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

ORCENT2. Nuclear Steam Turbine Cycle Analysis  

SciTech Connect

ORCENT2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine-generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram.

Fuller, L.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of fluorocarbon resin covered tubes has advanced to the point where full scale marketing in connection with condensing heat exchangers has begun. Field installations show simple paybacks of one to one and a half years with resulting steam boiler fuel to steam efficiencies in excess of 90%. The studies and evaluations done to date indicate that units of this type will be cost effective in sizes ranging from 10,000 to 300,0000 steam per hour as long as cold makeup water is available for preheating with the waste flue gases.

Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Solar Augmented Steam Cycles: 2010 Industry Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several studies were performed to evaluate a range of solar augmented steam cycle design options. All the designs use steam generated by a solar field in a conventional steam cycle, either offsetting some of the fuel required to generate power or boosting plant power output. The scope of the studies included a conceptual design modeling effort to evaluate a broad range of solar integration design options for biomass and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants and two detailed case studies at NGCC ...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

Foody, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Aerothermodynamics of low pressure steam turbines and condensers  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on steam turbines and steam condensers. Topics considered include the design of modern low pressure steam turbines, throughflow design methods, three-dimensional flow calculations, the calculation of wet steam stages, aerodynamic development of turbine blades, turbine performance measurement, turbine exhaust system design, and condensers for large turbines.

Moore, M.J.; Sieverding, C.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Steam compression with inner evaporative spray cooling: a case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adiabatic dry saturated steam compression process with inner evaporative spray cooling in screw compressors for steam heat pump systems is studied. Thermodynamic model and simulation of this variable-mass compression process are devised. Differential ... Keywords: inner evaporative spray cooling, screw compressors, simulation, steam compression, steam heat pumps, thermodynamic modelling, variable-mass compression, water injection

Jian Qui; Zhaolin Gu; Guoguang Cai

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Economic Analysis of "Steam-Shock" and "Pasteurization"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic Analysis of "Steam-Shock" and "Pasteurization" Processes for Oyster Shucking JOHN W. BROWN Introduction "Steam-shock" is an oyster shucking process that uses steam to relax the oyster's adductor muscle of the shucking process as in integral part of the operation of an existing oyster-shucking house. The term "steam

374

EVALUATION OF KANIGEN, ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING FOR STEAM SIDE OF A SODIUM COMPONENT STEAM GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of Kanigen electroless nickel plating for surfaces in contact with water and steam in a sodium-heated Type 316 stainless steel steam generator is reported. The purpose of the coating is to afford protection from stress corrosion cracking originating on the water-steam side of the unit. It is concluded that the Kanigen coating does not afford adequate protection for the service conditions. (D.L.C.)

1961-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control  

SciTech Connect

Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented.

Feeley, J.J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Steam Generator Management Program: Proceedings of the 26th Steam Generator NDE Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This year's Steam Generator nondestructive evaluation (NDE) Workshop took place in Big Sky, Montana, on July 1618, 2007, and included one full day and two half days of presentations. Attendees included representatives from domestic and international nuclear utilities, nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendors, NDE service and equipment organizations, research laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This annual workshop serves as a forum for NDE specialists to gather and discuss current steam generator NDE ...

2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

377

Steam Generator Management Program: Investigation of Steam Generator Secondary-Side Degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reviews and discusses age-related degradation that has occurred in the carbon steel internal components in the steam drums of Westinghouse steam generators (SGs), especially in original and early replacement SGs. The degradation is characterized by gradual thinning (loss of material) that is generally localized in the components as a result of exposure to high-velocity steam-water mixtures. Material loss from internal components has been noted during secondary-side visual inspections of ori...

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

378

Steam Generator Management Program: Flaw Tolerance Evaluation of the Steam Generator Channel Head  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

 Indications have previously been reported in the steam generator divider plate at operating plants outside the United States. The function of the divider plate in most steam generators is to separate the cold and hot legs of the channel head as the primary water enters the steam generator so that the primary coolant flows up into the tubes. As such, the divider plate is not considered a primary pressure ...

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

379

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator In Situ Pressure Test Guidelines, Revision 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information in this document provides guidance for the performance of in situ pressure testing of steam generator tubes. In situ pressure testing refers to hydrostatic pressure tests performed on installed tubing in the field. Such testing is considered a direct means of evaluating tube structural and leakage integrity. In situ pressure testing can be used to support condition monitoring of steam generator tube integrity.This is a required document for a steam generator program developed ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

380

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO STEAM GENERATING PLANT  

SciTech Connect

A steam generating plant for marine vessels includes a steam superheater (nuclear reactor, perhaps) from which steam is ducted to the point of use (heat exchanger, etc.). A steam generator receiving the condensed steam from the point of use uses steam from the superheater to evaporate the condensate. The superheated steam used in the evaporation is compressed by a turbo-compressor and directed into the superheater. The condensate evaporated in the generator is used to drive the turbo-compressor. (D.C.W.)

Kendon, M.H.

1963-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site from ful

Brinker, J. L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Reliability Assessment of North American Steam Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This survey provides statistics related to the reliability and maintenance of fossil-fueled steam turbines in the continental United States. The analysis focuses primarily on active turbines larger than 200 MW.

2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

383

A small pelton turbine for steam turbocharger  

SciTech Connect

The use of exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines is usually accompanied by mechanical loss. This loss is due to the raise of exhaust gas back pressure with the increase of engine speed. This back pressure prevents the discharge of the exhaust gas from the engine and causes mechanical loss. To avoid this undesirable phenomenon, a Clausius-Rankine cycle is used. In this case the thermal energy in the exhaust gas is used to vaporise water in a steam generator. The generated steam expands in a steam turbocharger which supercharges the engine. A small Pelton steam turbine has been designed and fabricated. The expected output for this small turbine is 10 kW. A computer program has been prepared to estimate the values of optimum cycle parameters.

Rautenberg, M.; Abdelkader, M.; Malobabic, M.; Mobarak, A.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Greenville Steam Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Facility Greenville Steam Sector Biomass Location Piscataquis County, Maine Coordinates 45.7049857°, -69.3375071° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.7049857,"lon":-69.3375071,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

385

Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Trust LLC Steam Trust LLC (Redirected from Standard Steam Trust) Jump to: navigation, search Name Standard Steam Trust LLC Place Denver, Colorado Sector Geothermal energy Product Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra Caliente. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

386

Downhole steam generator at Kern River  

SciTech Connect

Testing of a prototype down-hole steam generator for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations has begun at a heavy oil reservoir in the Kern River oil field in California. Steam and combustion gases are directed into an 800-ft-deep reservoir through a standard surface steam delivery system, although the system is designed to function at depths to 4500 ft. Present steam injection techniques require one-third of the oil recovered to be used to fuel the injection system, and the boilers require scrubbers to control emissions to specifications. The down-hole system is expected to use only 2/3 as much fuel as the conventional systems and to have less impact on air quality.

Rintoul, B.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Steam Turbine Hydraulic Control system Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam turbine hydraulic control system maintenance problems have been a significant factor in plant power reductions, shutdowns, and lost generation. This guide provides recommendations to improve the reliability of the hydraulic components and fluid.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Remote NDE Technology for Steam Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote nondestructive evaluation technology (NDE) for steam turbines has potential for use as an alternative to inspections requiring extensive machine disassembly and for use during short-term outages, to provide an interim look at machine operability.

2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during the Fall of 1999. This plant manufactures Nitric Acid and high and low density Ammonia Nitrate. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify energy losses and system improvements in the steam and condensate systems. Steam system improvements focus on lowering the cost of steam, wherever possible, with paybacks of 3 years or less. Overall, this ASI evaluation identifies six (6) steam savings proposals with an average simple payback of 2.9 years. This evaluation also identifies one system deficiency that will lead to unnecessary expenditures if allowed to continue, but would help to increase production if the suggested improvement was implemented. The following report details the individual findings and outlines the corrections needed. The savings generated from these improvements will more than pay for themselves in short order.

DeBat, R.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Design of a heat recovery steam generator  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine in the size range of 20,000 hp (14.9 MW) was retrofitted with a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The HRSG produces high pressure superheated steam for use in a steam turbine. Supplementary firing is used to more than double the steam production over the unfired case. Because of many unusual constraints, an innovative design of the HRSG was formulated. These design constraints included: a wide range of operating conditions was to be accommodated; very limited space in the existing plant; and a desire to limit the field construction work necessary in order to provide a short turnaround time. This paper discusses the design used to satisfy these conditions.

Logeais, D.R.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

The revolutionary impact of the steam engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sitting with a model of Stephenson’s Rocket, Simon Schaffer reflects on the steam revolution and how it changed the world in the nineteenth century in so many different ways....

Dugan, David

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

393

How did the Rocket steam engine work?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simon Schaffer talks to a museum curator at the York railway museum about the way in which steam engines worked and the imagination and technical ability of George Stephenson....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

394

How solvent vapors can improve steam floods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal recovery methods depend for their success on the viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils at high temperatures. The viscosity of a heavy oil can also be reduced if it is diluted with a low-viscosity solvent, such as one of the lighter hydrocarbons. It is not surprising that there has been considerable interest in combining the two methods. The process of injecting vaporized solvent with the steam for a gravity drainage type recovery is described here along with a description of the particular phase behavior of steam/solvent mixtures which is beneficial to the process. And computer simulations which compare steam-only and steam/solvent floods under Athabasca-type conditions are overviewed.

Vogel, J. [Vogel, (Jack), Seabrook, TX (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

Peltier, R.

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Reservoir performance characterized in mature steam pattern  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed reservoir description provided new insight in an investigation of a ten-year-old steam flood. Mobil Oil Corporation conducted this study of the Pleistocene upper Tulare sands in South Belridge field, located in the San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. The study area is on the gently dipping (6/degrees/) southwestern flank of the South Belridge anticline. Wireline logs from 19 wells in a 10-ac (660 ft x 660 ft) pattern were correlated in detail. Seven post-steam conventional cores (1523 ft) aided (1) the evaluation of vertical and lateral steam-sweep efficiency, (2) evaluation of reservoir and fluid changes due to steam, (3) influence of lithofacies in reservoir quality, and (4) provided insight to the three-dimensional reservoir flow-unit geometries.

Miller, D.D.; McPherson, J.G.; Covington, T.E.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

MISR -- Solar and steam for industry  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the MISR project is to assist industry in developing viable Solar Energy Systems which have high reliability and low cost because they do not require custom engineering and installation for each industrial site. The collector field, piping and steam generation equipment are pre-engineered to be suitable for a wide range of industrial steam applications. The approach of the MISR project is twofold: to develop line-focus industrial solar thermal energy systems which, like conventional packaged steam boilers, are based on the modular concept; and to install and operate a number (10 or less) of these systems at existing industrial plants, supplementing steam produced by conventional boilers. The project is briefly described.

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Combined cycle total energy system  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for the co-generation of steam and electricity comprising: a source of gaseous fuel, a source of air, means for mixing the fuel and air to form a relatively lean fuel/air mixture, a gas turbine, a first fuel/air mixture compressor directly driven by the turbine, a second fuel/air mixture compressor driven by the turbine for further compressing the fuel/air mixture, a catalytic burner between the second compressor and gas turbine, a motor/generator, a steam turbine, means coupling the gas turbine, motor/generator, first and second compressors and steam turbine to one another, a source of water, a steam boiler connected to the source of water and to the exhaust system of the gas turbine, a steam economizer connected to the boiler, a steam superheater in heat exchange relationship with the exhaust system of the gas turbine disposed between the economizer and the steam turbine, and controllable means for bypassing superheated steam from the superheater around the steam turbine to maximize steam or electric power output of the system selectively.

Joy, J.R.

1986-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

400

Specific features of geothermal steam turbine control and emergency system  

SciTech Connect

There are significant construction as well as operational differences between geothermal and conventional steam turbines. These result in specific features associated with geothermal steam turbine control and emergency system. Several aspects of geothermal steam turbine control have been considered. Some proposals of geothermal steam turbine control have been presented. Among others the following operation modes have been considered: Driving turbine, driving well, turbine power and well steam pressure coupled control.

Domachowski, Z.; Gutierrez, A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO STEAM-OPERATED POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear power plant is designed in which the reactor is steam-cooled and radioactivity is removed from the steam before entering the turbine. The plant has a steam circuit in which the steam from the reactor is passed through one flow path of a heat exchanger and then part of this steam is passed through contact washing equipment before being reheated in a second flow path of the heat exchanger and being led to the turbine. (D.L.C.)

Bauer, S.G.; Kendon, M.H.

1962-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

402

Procedural and administrative techniques to improve steam generator layup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of utilities have been working to improve layup techniques for steam generators; especially once-through steam generators. There are two main elements to successful layup of steam generators: (a) starting with and maintaining high-quality layup water and (b) minimizing the exposure of steam generator internals to air. Specific procedural and administrative techniques have been developed to ensure these two elements are achieved. These appear to be applicable to most steam generators.

Carrick, B.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys  

SciTech Connect

Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

406

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Materials Selection Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A considerable number of failures have occurred over the past decade in heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs). Many of these failures are attributed to poor design, improper operation, poor fabrication, or poor installation practices, but a number of them are attributed directly to improper material selection. In March 2004, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published the first heat recovery steam generator materials selection and repair guidelines (HRSG Material Selection and Repair Guidelin...

2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

407

Enhanced Chloride Monitoring for Steam Condensate Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop to the proof-of-concept stage a system that enables the quantification of chloride (Cl) in turbine steam condensate samples. The chloride quantification system is intended to serve as an alternative to online chromatography for chloride concentration monitoring. The conceptual approach was to concentrate the ions in the steam condensate, by a predetermined factor, to a level that allowed accurate detection of chloride by ion selective electrodes (ISEs). The ab...

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Cycle Chemistry Instrumentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective monitoring of the purity of water and steam is an integral part of any productive cycle chemistry monitoring program. The Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) cycle chemistry guidelines identified a group of core monitoring parameters that are considered the minimum requirements. Meeting these requirements is part of EPRI's cycle chemistry benchmarking criteria for HRSGs. In addition to the core parameters, many chemistry parameters might need to be ...

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

409

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Along with the shortage of conventional energy sources, efforts have been sought to use energy in a rational manner. Whereas the biggest energy consumption is in the industrial sector, various techniques to reduce energy have been searched. For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy saving potential in industry. The optimization measures can be categorized into two methods, i.e. (1) no cost/low cost that can be done through a better maintenance and improvement of operating conditions, and (2) major improvement that requires a significant amount of investment, that includes the modification of process and major equipment. Since energy saving is an endless effort, new levels of energy efficiency standards are being set year after year. Therefore, repeated studies should be made to identify energy saving potential. Modern instruments allow the energy specialists to conduct an in-depth survey to identify energy performance. This paper highlights the findings of the study in a steam generation and distribution system of a crude oil stabilization unit. With the annual budget of $8.3 million, the unit is handling about 600,000 barrels crude oil per day from an offshore platform. The study identified an opportunity of annual saving amounting to $1,115,300. Though the finding is specific to a single site, the basics of steam system analysis are applicable to any steam system. The steam system should be reviewed year after year to identify more energy wastes and to improve efficiency of steam system, thus reducing the energy cost. At the same time this will also help save the environment.

Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Steam Turbine Electronic Overspeed Protection System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundThe risk of turbine-generator destructive overspeed can be mitigated by employing protection systems that act to rapidly isolate the steam supply in the event of separation from the grid. These systems are the final line of defense against overspeed, and they are deployed separately from the systems used to control turbine load and speed during synchronized operation. Most steam turbines in operation today were commissioned with a mechanical trip device that ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

Design and Performance Aspects of Steam Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Packaged steam generators are widely used in process and power plants. They are also used as standby boilers in cogeneration/combined cycle plants. The general feeling among consultants, plant engineers and end users is that packaged steam generators are "standard" or "off-the-shelf items", that there exists a model number for a given steam capacity and one has to live with whatever performance is offered by the boiler vendor. Unfortunately, boiler suppliers also encourage specifying of steam generators based on standard, pre-packaged designs. A "standard" boiler has several limitations such as pre-determined furnace dimensions, tube length, surface area, tube spacings etc, which may or may not be the optimum choice for a given steam demand, particularly when today's emission levels have to be met. Also, operating costs, which form a significant portion of overall costs, are ignored by consultants when evaluating various designs for possible purchase. This paper highlights the importance of custom designing packaged steam generators and the resulting benefits from boiler performance viewpoint.

Ganapathy, V.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

SciTech Connect

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm. Towards this end, further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

Gordon R. Holcomb, NETL Joesph Tylczak, NETL Rongxiang (Rachel) Hu, NETL and URS Corp

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

SciTech Connect

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm. Towards this end, further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

Gordon R. Holcomb, NETL

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

System and method for individually testing valves in a steam turbine trip control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a steam turbine power plant. It comprises: a steam generator; a steam turbine adapted to receive steam form the steam generator; a throttle valve for regulating the flow of the steam received by the steam turbine; and an electro-hydraulic trip control system for causing the throttle valve to close when a predetermined condition has been reached.

Hurley, J.D.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

415

Steam Generator Management Program: Production of Steam Generator Tubing Flaws by Laboratory Autoclave Exposures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Qualification of a technique for the examination of steam generator tubing requires realistic flaws that are either pulled from service or produced in the laboratory. Due to the scarcity of pulled tube specimens, an effort was undertaken to produce realistic flaws in a laboratory environment. The ability to produce cracks in the laboratory was explored in doped steam, acidic, and caustic environments. These ...

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

416

Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water movement inside a boiler has remained highly speculative. This paper and support test video of actual boiler operations will illustrate the effects steam quality vs. boiler efficiency during different boiler and steam system demands. There are four different operating situations that effect the steam quality. Each of the following situation will be described in detail using visual aids and supporting literature: Case I: On/Off Feedwater Control: Wide swings in the water level of the boiler can result in unnecessary low water alarms and shut downs. Case II: Reduced Operating Pressure: By running a boiler at a lower pressure, the boiling action within the boiler becomes much more violent causing water to be carried over in to the steam system. Case III: A Demand of 15% over Capacity: Over loading a boiler will cause excessive amounts of water to be carried along with the steam into the system. Case IV: TDS Control: Without proper control of IDS within the boiler carry-over of water into the steam system will occur causing damage to equipment and/or waterhammer.

Hahn, G.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steam systems - Measure boiler efficiency - Estimate the magnitude of specific boiler losses - Identify and prioritize areas of boiler efficiency improvement - Recognize the impacts of fuel selection Measurements] Boiler o Flue gas temperature o Flue gas oxygen content o Boiler fuel flow o Boiler steam

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

418

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to make additional steam foras electricity through HRSG and steam cycle in the steamof FT liquids distribution HRSG CO 2 capture Heat exchanger

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Heat Transfer Limitations in Hydrogen Production Via Steam Reformation: The Effect of Reactor Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ratio Parameters in Steam-Reforming Hydrogen productionan Insufficient Parameter in the Steam-Reforming Process,”Impurities on the Methanol Steam-Reforming Process for Fuel

Vernon, David R.; Davieau, David D.; Dudgeon, Bryce A.; Erickson, Paul A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figures A typical wet steam Rankine cycle on a temperature-A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating2011 Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alesson, T. 1995. "All Steam Traps Are Not Equal."Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps. ” Proc. 1997V. 1994. "Understand Steam Generator Performance." Chemical

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Calculation of geothermal reservoir temperatures and steam fractions from gas compositions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper deals with the chemical equilibria and physical characteristics of the fluid in the reservoir (temperature, steam fraction with respect to total water, gas/steam ratio, redox conditions), which seem to be responsible for the observed concentrations of some reactive species found in the geothermal fluids (CO2, H2, H2S and CH4). Gas geochemistry is of particular interest in vapor-dominated fields where the fluid discharged consists of almost pure steam containing a limited number of volatile chemical species. Considering several geothermal systems, a good correlation has been obtained among the temperatures calculated from the gas geothermometers and the temperatures measured in the reservoir of evaluated by other physical or chemical methods. 24 refs., 5 figs.

D'Amore, F.; Truesdell, A.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Combined gas turbine and steam turbine power station  

SciTech Connect

In order to operate a gas turbine and steam turbine plant with a high temperature at the inlet to the gas turbine plant, the parts located in the hot-gas stream of the gas turbine being steam-cooled, and the cooling steam, thereby raised to a higher temperature, being fed to the steam turbine for further expansion, it is proposed that the waste heat from the gas turbine be led through a two-pressure waste heat boiler, and that the steam, generated in this boiler, be slightly superheated in a cooling-steam superheater, and fed to the hollow inlet vanes and to the rotor blades, which are likewise hollow, the steam, strongly superheated during this cooling process, then being admixed to the steam coming from the intermediate superheater, and being fed to the low-pressure section of the steam turbine.

Mukherjee, D.

1984-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

424

POWER PLANT USING A STEAM-COOLED NUCLEAR REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

A method of providing efficient and economic means for obtaining reheat from nuclear heat is described. A steamcooled steam-moderated reactor produces high-pressure, high-temperature steam. A multi-stage steam turbine partially expands the high-pressure steam, which is then withdrawn and reheated, and then further expanded for producing useful power. The saturated steam is superheated by leading it through tubular passages provided in the fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor, leading the useful part of the superheated steam into a steam turbine in which it expands to a predetermined intermediate pressure, leading the steam at that reduced pressure from the turbine back into the reactor where it is reheated by flowing through other tubular passages in the fuel assemblies, and returning the reheated steam to the turbine for further expansion. (M.C.G.)

Nettel, F.; Nakanishi, T.

1963-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

425

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems October 7, 2013 - 3:17pm Addthis Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned. Operation and Maintenance Options To maintain water efficiency in operations and maintenance, Federal agencies should: Develop and implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop and implement a boiler tuning program to be completed a minimum of

426

US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOW RESTRICTED For internal DOW RESTRICTED For internal use only US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools Riyaz Papar, PE, CEM Hudson Technologies Company Phone: (281) 298 0975 Email: rpapar@hudsontech.com - Agenda * Introduction * Steam System BP Tools Suite - SSST - SSAT - 3EPlus * Q & A 1 Steam System Management Objective: Minimize Steam Use, Energy Losses And Most Importantly STEAM COST!! Steam Market Assessment Takeaways * Fuel savings estimates - individual projects - ranged from 0.6 percent to 5.2 percent * Estimated payback periods generally very attractive - Ranged from 2 to 34 months - Most less than 2 years * Potential steam savings in target industries - over 12 percent of fuel use 2 Promising Areas To Achieve Steam Energy and Cost Savings? Use Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST) For

427

Method and apparatus for powering engine with exhaust generated steam  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for installation in an automobile to generate steam with heat from the exhaust of an engine is provided. The steam is generated at a sufficient pressure for entry into the combustion chambers of the engine to increase the power output of the engine. The apparatus includes a water storage unit and a steam generator for generating steam with the water from the unit through transfer of heat from combusted gases in the exhaust system. The steam travels through steam inlet manifolds for entry into the combustion chambers. The entry is controlled by a cylinder injection timing valve assembly timed to the operation of the engine to enter the steam during the power stroke. A steam throttling control valve assembly is provided to throttle the steam input to the combustion chambers. A throttle proportioning control unit proportions the carburetor throttle and steam throttle assembly to the operator throttle input to provide the greatest efficiency in engine operation. The throttle proportioning control unit operates in response to the steam temperature and pressure within the steam generator. The apparatus may be adapted for use on an engine design for solely air fuel combustion with the cylinder adapter. A throttle linkage interchange unit may be provided to initiate operation of steam input only upon reaching a minimum engine temperature. An intake manifold vacuum control valve may be provided for selectively entering exhaust gases into the intake manifold of the engine to compensate for the vacuum variation due to the steam input to the combustion chamber.

Gill, P.A.

1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

428

The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology (DOE-OIT) BestPractice efforts aim to assist U.S. industry in adopting near-term energy-efficient technologies and practices through voluntary technical-assistance programs on improved system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System Scoping Tool. This paper describes how the tool was developed, how the tool works, and the status of efforts to improve the tool in the future.

Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Demonstration of a rotary separator for two-phase brine and steam flows. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a two-phase rotary separator for geothermal energy conversion was demonstrated. Laboratory tests were conducted with clean water and steam at Biphase Energy Systems, Inc., Santa Monica, California. Field tests were conducted at the Union Oil Co., Tow No. 1 wellsite near Brawley, California. The system tested consisted of the major components of a total flow rotary separator/turbine conversion system. A nozzle converted the brine wellhead enthalpy to two-phase flow kinetic by impinging the nozzle flow tangentially on the inside of the separator. The flow was therefore subjected to the high centrifugal force field in the separator. This caused the liquid phase to collect as a film on the separator drum with very little energy loss. The steam was allowed to flow radially inward to the central steam discharge. Potable water was obtained by condensing the steam exhaust. The brine collection system converted the liquid film kinetic energy to static pressure head. The system was operated for 116 hours in a high salinity environment (115,000 ppM TDS). The system operated properly with no adverse effects from solids precipitation or scale buildup. The rotary separator produced separate flows of pure liquid and steam of greater than 99.5% quality.

Cerini, D.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

431

Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12oAPI). For comparison purposes, three distillation processes were investigated: dry-, steam-, and steam-propanedistillation, the latter at the propane-to-steam mass ratio of 0.05 at steam injection rate 0.5 g/min. Two sets of the distillation experiments were carried out. In the first set of experiments, the distillation temperatures ranged from 115ºC to 300ºC. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig to 998 psig for steam- and steam-propane distillation. The temperature-pressure combination used represented 15ºC superheated steam conditions. In the second set of experiments, the distillation temperatures ranged from 220oC to 300oC at 260 psig. The temperature pressure combination used represented field conditions for crude oil. For both conditions, the cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) until no increase occurs in distillation yields. Distillation yields were collected at each cut, and the volume and weight of water and hydrocarbon measured. Based on these experiments, a thermodynamic modeling framework was developed that describes distillation effect and oil production for steam distillation experiments. The model is based on composition of crude oil, molecular weight of heavy fraction. The analytical model results are compared against the experimental data for synthetic crude and crude oil to verify the validity of the model. Main results of the study may be summarized as follows. The yields for steam distillation for saturated conditions of Tsat+15 o C and Psat is 10 % and with addition of 5% of propane to steam no significant increase occurs in distillation yields. The yields for steam distillation for field conditions of 260 psig and temperature range (220 ~300oC) is 18 % and with addition of 5% of propane to steam no significant increase in distillation yields. The results indicate that propane has minimal distillation effect on the heavy oil. This occurs possibly because of lesser amount of light fractions in the heavy oil that enhance the separation of components in the oil caused by the concentration gradient.

Jaiswal, Namit

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM GENERATING AND SUPERHEATING PLANT AND AN IMPROVED METHOD OF PRODUCING LOW PRESSURE SUPERHEATED STEAM  

SciTech Connect

A steam supply arrangement is described which generates high-pressure steam and superheats steam from a low-pressure source. Inus, in operations cteam at 350 to 600 psi from a nuciear reactor is superheated in a heat exehanger anu later in gas-heated equipment to 1100 F and passed to a stage of a pluralstage steam turbine. When the reactor ls shut downs steam generated in the steam generator section may be passed directly to the gas-fired superheater. (T.R.H.)

1959-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Subsurface steam sampling in Geysers wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new downhole sampling tool has been built for use in steam wells at The Geysers geothermal reservoir. The tool condenses specimens into an initially evacuated vessel that is opened down hole at the direction of an on-board computer. The tool makes a temperature log of the well as it is deployed, and the pressure and temperature of collected specimens are monitored for diagnostic purposes. Initial tests were encouraging, and the Department of Energy has funded an expanded effort that includes data gathering needed to develop a three-dimensional model of The Geysers geochemical environment. Collected data will be useful for understanding the origins of hydrogen chloride and non-condensable gases in the steam, as well as tracking the effect of injection on the composition of produced steam. Interested parties are invited to observe the work and to join the program.

Lysne, P. [Lysne (Peter), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, B. [Unocal Geothermal and Power Operations Group, Santa Rose, CA (United States); Hirtz, P. [Thermochem, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Normann, R.; Henfling, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

Steam generation in compound parabolic concentrator collectors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the advantages of generating steam directly in a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) collector rather than using a heat-transfer fluid and a secondary heat exchanger. The predicted performance advantages from generating steam directly in CPC collectors are significant, and that performance has ben verified using a collector built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. The collector and the method used to test its operation in a steam-generating mode are described. Test results are included for a 6.4-m/sup 2/ array of evacuated tube collectors with an advanced absorber coating, silver reflectors, and tubes oriented in a north-south configuration. Also described are the test methods and results for indoor testing for heat loss by the collectors and outdoor testing of their instantaneous optical efficiency.

Allen, J.W.; Schertz, W.W.; Wantroba, A.S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, most treatises about steam turbines have concentrated on thermo-dynamics or design. In contrast, the primary focus of this book is on the problems that occur in the turbine steam path. Some of these problems have been long known to the industry, starting as early as A. Stodola's work at the turn of the century in which mechanisms such as solid particle erosion, corrosion and liquid droplet damage were recognized. What we have tried to do here is to provide, in a single, comprehensive refere...

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

439

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam is the most common and economical way of transferring heat from one location to another. But most steam systems use the header pressure steam to do the job. The savings are substantially more than just the latent heat differences between the high and low steam pressures. The discussion below shows how the savings in using low pressure steam can be above 25%! The key to the savings is not in the heat exchanger equipment or the steam trap, but is back at the powerhouse - the sensible heat requirement of the boiler feed water. Chart III shows potential steam energy savings and will be useful in estimating the steam energy savings of high pressure processes.

Vallery, S. J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (Revised)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The essence of steam technology and its link to distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The essence of steam technology, as Simon Schaffer explains in Faraday’s laboratory, is to understand the behaviour of fire, water and steam. The role of glass in manipulating these is absolutely fundamental, as is the role of distilling....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

442

Optimizing Steam and Condensate Systems: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any continuous-process plant results in substantial reduction in purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly. If planned well, the energy cost savings efforts could also give the spin-off benefit of waste water reduction from the plant. This paper highlights the efforts taken by the management of a medium sized petroleum refinery in Mid-West USA. This site has two sections of process units with tank farms located in between them. The refinery uses its own process off-gases and purchases additional natural gas to fire its Boilers and process heaters. Steam is also generated from the exhaust gases of the process heaters. An optimization study was conducted at this refinery site during Sep – Nov 2006, to identify opportunities to reduce the energy cost, to improve the steam system’s reliability, and to reduce the waste water loading to the treatment plant. The study identified 8 energy and water use optimization opportunities that would result in a total cost savings of $ 2.67 million annually. The initial estimates indicated that all the projects recommended by the study would have simple payback periods of less than 2 years. The plant management decided to pursue 3 of the 8 recommendations and completed Basic Engineering design during early 2007. The management is interested in pursuing the other identified energy savings opportunities also upon implementing the initial 3 projects. Upon implementing all the identified projects by the study, the refinery’s energy use is expected to reduce by 89,900 MMBtu/yr & Water usage would reduce by 38,900 kGals/yr. The reduction of hot condensate dumping to the waste water pond is also expected to save the bug-life in the waste water pond. This case study is a good example and motivation for all the engineers and managers, who are responsible for maintaining the efficiency and reliability of the steam systems in their plants.

Venkatesan, V. V.; Grillo, R.; Bockwinkel, R. G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Closed cycle steam turbine system with liquid vortex pump  

SciTech Connect

A closed cycle steam generating system is described comprising a steam boiler, and a steam turbine includes a vacuum pump of the liquid vortex type for condensing the exhaust steam from the turbine, a feedwater pump being employed for returning the condensate to the boiler. The tank of the vortex pump is maintained filled with water and the pressure in the tank is regulated automatically to maintain a predetermined value thereof.

Brown, K.D.

1976-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

444

Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Power Plants, 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's Productivity Improvement Handbook for Fossil Steam Plants (1006315), now in its third edition, has included many descriptions of advanced techniques and products successfully applied and tested. Many of these have been described in the other EPRI publications: Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Power Plants 2005: 100 Hundred Case Studies (1012098), Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Power Plants, 2006, (1014598), and Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Power Plants, 2007 (10154...

2008-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

445

Materials for Ultra-Supercritical Steam Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Power Plants Background The first ultra-supercritical (USC) steam plants in the U.S. were designed, constructed, and operated in the late 1950s. The higher operating temperatures and pressures in USC plants were designed to increase the efficiency of steam plants. However, materials performance problems forced the reduction of steam temperatures in these plants, and discouraged further developmental efforts on low heat-rate units.

446

Steam Generator Reference Book, Revision 1: Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Steam Generator Reference Book documents the state of the art in PWR steam generator technology, providing a comprehensive source for operators, owners, and designers of PWR nuclear power plants. The book summarizes pertinent steam generator operating issues and provides recommendations to improve operational efficiency. Information in the book represents 15 years of research and development activity over the course of several hundred research projects involving PWR steam generator issues.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Power Plants, 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Productivity Improvement Handbook for Fossil Steam Plants (1006315), now in its third edition, has included many descriptions of advanced techniques and products, successfully applied and tested. Many of these have been described in the 2005 publication Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Plants 2005: 100 Hundred Case Studies (1012098), Productivity Improvement for Fosiil Steam Power Plants 2006, (101459), Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Power Plants 2007 (1015445), Productivity Impro...

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

Failure probabilities of steam generator tubes. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

BNL's efforts focused on the following specific items; the probabilities of failure for perfect steam generator tubes, the probabilities of failure for steam generator tubes containing long axisymmetrically thinned sections, and the probabilities of failure for steam generator tubes containing finite length (relatively short) axisymmetric wastages. (auth)

Reich, M.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

October 15, 2001 PRE-INSULATED UNDERGROUND PIPE FOR STEAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SERVICE PART 1 ­ GENERAL 1.01 SUMMARY Underground steam and condensate distribution systems includingOctober 15, 2001 02558-1 PRE-INSULATED UNDERGROUND PIPE FOR STEAM AND CONDENSATE SERVICE CONSTRUCTION STANDARD SPECIFICATION SECTION 02558 PRE-INSULATED UNDERGROUND PIPE FOR STEAM AND CONDENSATE

450

Efficiency of Steam and Hot Water Heat Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency of Steam and Hot Water Heat Distribution Systems Gary Phetteplace September 1995- tion medium (steam or hot water) and temperature for heat distribution systems. The report discusses the efficiency of both steam and hot water heat distribution systems in more detail. The results of several field

451

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

452

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

Demirel, Melik C.

453

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi- cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

Cengarle, María Victoria

454

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank Le�ke and Stephan Merz Institut f of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi­ cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

Merz, Stephan

455

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

456

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS A REPORT SUBMITTED;Abstract A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous ow of steam and water in porous media with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeability for steam phase

Stanford University

457

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT calculations. X-ray computer tomography (CT) aided by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. The measured steam-water relative permeability curves assume a shape similar to those obtained by Corey (1954

Stanford University

458

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF SINGLE-WELL STEAM ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF SINGLE-WELL STEAM ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SW-SAGD) TR 119 By Keith T of Sensitivity Analysis Cases 32 #12;v List of Figures Figure 1: Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Concept: Recovery Factor vs. Time for All Cases (10 Years Production) 13 Figure 8: Cumulative Steam-Oil Ratio vs

459

Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Steam, Steam Tip Sheet #20c  

SciTech Connect

This English/Chinese ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Impact of injection on reservoir performance in the NCPA steam field at The Geysers  

SciTech Connect

A managed injection program implemented by the NCPA in The Southeast Geysers reservoir continues to positively impact reservoir performance. Injection effects are determined by the application of geochemical and geophysical techniques to track the movement of injectate. This information, when integrated with reservoir pressure, flowrate, and thermodynamic data, is used to quantify the overall performance and efficiency of the injection program. Data analysis indicates that injected water is boiling near the injection wells, without deeper migration, and is recovered as superheated steam from nearby production wells. Injection derived steam (IDS) currently accounts for 25 to 35 percent of total production in the NCPA steamfield. Most importantly, 80 to 100% of the injectate is flashing and being recovered as steam. The amount of IDS has increased since 1988 due to both a change in injection strategy and a drying out of the reservoir. However, significant areas of the reservoir still remain relatively unaffected by injection because of the limited amount of injectate presently available. That the reservoir has been positively impacted in the injection areas is evidenced by a decrease in the rate of pressure decline from 1989 through 1992. Correspondingly, there has been a reduction in the rate of steam flow decline in the areas' production wells. Conversely, little evidence of reservoir cooling or thermal breakthrough is shown even in areas where IDS accounts for 80 percent or more of production. Finally, since injection water is a relatively low-gas source of steam, noncondensible gas concentrations have been reduced in some steam wells located within the injection dominated areas.

Enedy, S.L.; Smith, J.L.; Yarter, R.E.; Jones, S.M.; Cavote, P.E.

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Steam Generator Management Program: Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Examination Guidelines: Revision 7  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides requirements for examination plans and processes that are necessary to meet the performance criteria set forth in the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 97-06, Steam Generator Program.

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

462

Analytical steam injection model for layered systems  

SciTech Connect

Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Method of removing cesium from steam  

SciTech Connect

Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

Carson, Jr., Neill J. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Noland, Robert A. (Oak Park, IL); Ruther, Westly E. (Skokie, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Workshop Proceedings: Pitting in Steam Generator Tubing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-day workshop focused on the probable causes of steam generator pitting at two nuclear plants and on whether pitting is a low-temperature or a high-temperature phenomenon. Participants also heard descriptions of various pit-resistant metals that are suitable for tube sleeving.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

Cunha, Frank J. (Longwood, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Guidelines for Maintaining Steam Turbine Lubrication Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failures of steam turbine bearings and rotors cost the utility industry an estimated $150 million a year. A third of these failures involve contaminated lubricants or malfunctioning lubricant supply system components. This report, outlining a comprehensive surveillance program, presents guidelines for maintaining major elements in the turbine lubrication system.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

A SIMULATION OF THE EGCR STEAM GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

An analog model of the EGCR steam generator was developed and operated on the ORNL analog computer as part of a program to simulate the operation and control of the EGCR reactor plant. Equilibrium operation and the transient response of the steam generator unit to system perturbations were studied. A simultaneous solution of the basic heat transfer equations representing the performance of the unit was obtained. The model was operated initially at steady- state conditions, and then perturbations were made to gas flow, gas inlet temperature, and steam throttle valve position. The response characteristics of the model during the transients were recorded. The steam generator gas outlet temperature showed a marked degree of insensitivity to changes in gas inlet temperature. The effect of gas flow changes on gas exit temperature was slightly more pronounced. The transient behavio-r of the unit was reasonable, and the model developed indicated satisfactory operation within the design range of 20 to l00% of full power. (auth)

Yarosh, M.M.; Ball, S.J.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Proceedings: Steam Turbine Stress Corrosion Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent survey of utilities commissioned by EPRI indicated that cracking of steam turbine disk rims by stress corrosion was a pervasive problem in both fossil and nuclear power plants. There is a clear need to document industry experience in this area so that guidelines can be provided to utilities on managing the problem.

1997-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

472

Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)  

SciTech Connect

The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

G. R. Holcomb

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Steam Generator Management Program: Proceedings of the 25th Steam Generator NDE Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This year8217s workshop took place in Marco Island, Florida, on July 24 26, 2006, and included one full-day and two half-days of presentations. Attendees included representatives from domestic and international nuclear utilities, nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendors, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) service and equipment organizations, research laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This annual workshop serves as a forum for NDE specialists to gather and discuss current steam generator NDE issues and ...

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

474

Proceedings: Steam Generator Management Program 2012 Steam Generator Secondary Side Management Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the work presented at the EPRI Steam Generator Management Program (SGMP) 2012 Steam Generator Secondary Side Management Conference. Over eighty attendees, representing both domestic and international utilities, vendors, and academia, participated in the conference. It included twenty-one papers on current issues, research and utility experiences involving corrosion product generation and transport, deposit control and mitigation, deposit consolidation and removal, and short- and ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

475

Steam Generator Management Program: PWR Steam Generator Top-of-Tubesheet Denting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Denting of steam generator tubing is the reduction in tube diameter due to the forces exerted by corrosion products on the outer diameter surfaces. This deformation can increase the risk of stress corrosion cracking due to the high stresses, strains, and cold work developed in the tube. Historically, denting at carbon steel tube support plate locations was a significant factor necessitating the early replacement of several steam generators. Currently, denting and stress corrosion cracking are being exper...

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

476

Steam Generator Management Program: Effect of Eddy Current Noise on Sizing Steam Generator Tube Degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Steam Generator Management Program (SGMP) has developed procedures and tools to assist utility engineers in understanding the probability of detection (POD) in steam generator eddy current data in the presence of noise. Under some circumstances, eddy current noise can mask flaws that should be detected and assessed for tube integrity. This project focused on the ability to accurately size crack-like indications in the presence of eddy ...

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

477

Steam Generator Management Program: Steam Generator Foreign Object Task Force Review Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Foreign objects entering a steam generator (SG) can result in significant damage to tubing. Foreign objects have caused utilities to plug tubes, extend inspections, and, in some cases, shut down due to primary-to-secondary leakage.BackgroundTo gain a better understanding of the significance of the foreign object problem relative to SGs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Steam Generator Management Program (SGMP) assembled a task force in 2005 made ...

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

478

Steam Generator Management Program: Evaluation of Steam Generator Eddy Current Analysis Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRCs) International Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) evaluated algorithms for computer-aided analysis of rotating probe eddy current data. The algorithms were designed for both flaw detection and flaw sizing. Rotating probe data collected on the flawed tubes in the NRCs steam generator (SG) mockup were used to document performance of the algorithms for both detection and sizing. In the NRC program, the results of...

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

479

Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21  

SciTech Connect

Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical steam total" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Advanced high performance steam systems for industrial cogeneration: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Advanced steam conditions of 1500/sup 0/F and 1500 psig have been shown to offer a major positive economic impact and a dramatic improvement in cogeneration system performance. In a back pressure steam turbine system, electricity production increases by 80%, and the return on investment improves by 60%. For a 35% extraction turbine, the electricity production increases 28% and the return increases by 34%. Designs of a 1500/sup 0/F modular steam generator and two sizes of matching steam turbines have been completed. The steam generator module uses all Alloy 800 tubes except for two superheater rows of Inconel 617. Its design is based on current production Alloy 800 once-through steam generators currently being introduced into cogeneration combined cycles. A test loop is currently evaluating candidate steam generator tube materials and steam turbine materials at 1500/sup 0/F and 1500 psig. To date, 4000 hours of operation of this loop have been accumulated. The candidate metals after operation in 1500/sup 0/F and 1500 psig steam showed no surface distress. Trade-off studies have been completed on the high temperature steam turbine. Tangential, radial, and axial turbine configurations have been designed and evaluated. The stress analyses of the 1500/sup 0/F steam turbines show that the machine can be operated at 1500/sup 0/F and 1500 psig for over ten years without component replacement when using rotor hub cooling to maintain disk bore temperatures in the 900/sup 0/F range. When applied in back pressure steam, extraction steam, and combined cycle systems the ''1500/sup 0/F steam technology building blocks'' provide full coverage of industrial cogeneration from 4 MW to 25 MW in a single gas turbine and steam turbine installation. A twelve-inch diameter tangential flow turbine has also been designed which is optimum in the 1 to 3 MW power range.

Duffy, T.E.; Schneider, P.H.; Campbell, A.H.; Evensen, O.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

A study of steam injection in fractured media  

SciTech Connect

Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Steam Tracing...New Technologies for the 21st Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For decades, steam tracing has been an accepted practice in the heating of piping, vessels, and equipment. This paper presents recent product innovations such as "burn-safe" and "energy efficient" steam tracing products. For the many applications where steam tracing is applied for simple freeze protection, recently developed products which reduce the heat transfer rate and thus the energy consumption of steam tracers will be discussed. This paper will provide several steam tracing examples that will exhibit the use of experimental data, mathematical analysis, and FEA/CFD numerical simulation techniques.

Pitzer, R. K.; Barth, R. E.; Bonorden, C.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report outlines the detailed design and system analysis of a solar industrial process steam system for the Lone Star Brewery. The industrial plant has an average natural gas usage of 12.7 MMcf per month. The majority of this energy goes to producing process steam of 125 psi and 353/sup 0/F at about 50,000 lb/h, with this load dropping to about 6000 lb/h on the weekends. The maximum steam production of the solar energy system is about 1700 lb/h. The climatic conditions at the industrial site give 50% of the possible am