Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 143, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into Metallurgical coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Metallurgical Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

2

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Russian metallurgical coal supplies. A near-term perspective  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were made to estimate the changes in metallurgical coal supplies during the next 10 years. These calculations are based on three sets of data for the forecast period: (1) estimated changes in production at existing coal production and cleaning facilities in Kuznetsk, Pechora, and South Yakutsk basins; (2) production from new facilities as stipulated in licensing agreements for metallurgical coal production; and (3) Russian output of coke and washed coals. Estimates are given for two years: 2010 and 2015. A two-year base period of 2004 and 2005 was chosen because production was low in 2005 due to poor market conditions in the metal industry.

B.P. Kiselev; S.A. Liskovets [FGUP Eastern Coal Chemistry Research Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Table 11. U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 11. U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 1,503,162 764,701 1,411,897 2,267,863 2,261,900 0.3 Canada* 975,783 343,309 1,260,473 1,319,092 1,895,263 -30.4 Dominican Republic 94 51,064 - 51,158 - - Mexico 527,285 370,328 151,424 897,613 366,637 144.8 South America Total 2,091,488 2,561,772 2,389,018 4,653,260 4,543,747 2.4 Argentina 104,745 155,806 203,569 260,551 253,841 2.6 Brazil 1,921,144 2,352,098 2,185,449 4,273,242

5

Table 15. Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 15. Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Customs District April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Eastern Total 11,716,074 14,136,513 15,167,377 25,852,587 27,578,514 -6.3 Baltimore, MD 2,736,470 4,225,450 5,123,600 6,961,920 9,037,970 -23.0 Boston, MA - - - - 28,873 - Buffalo, NY 247,714 121,347 524,040 369,061 725,698 -49.1 Norfolk, VA 8,730,257 9,784,866 9,519,119 18,515,123 17,784,479 4.1 Ogdensburg, NY 1,633 4,850 618 6,483 1,494 333.9 Southern Total 3,551,564 3,824,484

6

Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 92.50 99.40 146.56 94.82 140.70 -32.6 Canada* 99.83 125.20 142.46 106.43 138.19 -23.0 Dominican Republic 114.60 77.21 - 77.27 - - Mexico 78.93 78.54 180.76 78.77 153.65 -48.7 South America Total 119.26 117.51 167.05 118.30 168.12 -29.6 Argentina 146.70 131.08 182.47 137.36 196.37 -30.1 Brazil 119.21 117.38 165.61 118.20

8

Coal flows | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal flows Coal flows Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License

9

Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine  

SciTech Connect

The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

RELATION BETWEEN TEXTURE AND REACTIVITY IN METALLURGICAL COKES OBTAINED FROM COAL USING PETROLEUM COKE AS ADDITIVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactivity to C O2 is, perhaps, the most importam quality parameter used to evaluate the performance of a metallurgical coke in the blast furnace [ 1]. A lot of effort has been made to study how it is influenced by the

J. J. Pis; J. A. Men~ndez; R. Alvarez; M. A. Diez; J. B. Parra

13

THE COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REPINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.F. (1977). Combustion of coal in an opposed flow diffusionpulverized, solvent-refined coal. ASME Paper No. 76-WA/FU-6.OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME*

Chin, W.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Low rank coal upgrading in a flow of hot water  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous hydrothermal degradation and extraction at around 350{sup o}C using flowing solvent as a reaction/extraction medium were proposed for upgrading brown coal, more specifically, for converting brown coal into several fractions having different molecular weight and chemical structure under mild conditions. When an Australian brown coal, Loy Yang coal, was treated by water at 350{sup o}C under 18 MPa, the coal was separated into four fractions: gaseous product by 8% yield, water-soluble extract at room temperature (soluble) by 23% yield, extract precipitates as solid at room temperature (deposit) by 23% yield, and residual coal (upgraded coal) by 46% yield on daf basis. The separation was found to be realized by in situ extraction of low-molecular-weight substances released from coal macromolecular structure and/or those generated by hydrothermal decomposition reactions at 350{sup o}C. The solid products obtained, deposit and upgraded coal, were characterized in detail to examine the possibility of their effective utilization as solid fuel and chemical feed stock. The upgraded coal showed higher heating value and higher gasification reactivity than the parent coal, indicating that the upgraded coal can be a better solid fuel than the parent coal. The solid extract, deposit, was found to show thermoplasticity at less than 200{sup o}C, suggesting the possibility of utilizing the deposit as a raw material of high performance carbon materials. Several variables affecting the performance of the proposed method are also examined in detail in this paper. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Masato Morimoto; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Kouichi Miura [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Flow Simulation and Optimization of Plasma Reactors for Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports a 3-d numerical simulation system to analyze the complicated flow in plasma reactors for coal gasification, which involve complex chemical reaction, two-phase flow and plasma effect. On the basis of analytic results, the distribution of the density, temperature and components' concentration are obtained and a different plasma reactor configuration is proposed to optimize the flow parameters. The numerical simulation results show an improved conversion ratio of the coal gasification. Different kinds of chemical reaction models are used to simulate the complex flow inside the reactor. It can be concluded that the numerical simulation system can be very useful for the design and optimization of the plasma reactor.

Ji Chunjun; Zhang Yingzi; Ma Tengcai

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Southern Coal finds value in the met market  

SciTech Connect

The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Molten Slag Flow and Phase Transformation Behaviors in a Slagging Entrained-Flow Coal Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molten Slag Flow and Phase Transformation Behaviors in a Slagging Entrained-Flow Coal Gasifier ... (14) The radiative heat-transfer equation for an absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium at position r in the direction s is where a and ?s represent the absorption and scattering coefficient, respectively. ...

Jianjun Ni; Zhijie Zhou; Guangsuo Yu; Qinfeng Liang; Fuchen Wang

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

20

Experimental studies of 1 ton/day coal slurry feed type oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental Studies of a 1 Ton/Day coal slurry feed type oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier have been performed with the slurry concentration and gasifier temperature at 65% and above 1,300...2.../coal feed r...

Young-Chan Choi; Tae-Jun Park; Jae-Ho Kim…

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Comparative Study of Gasification Performance between Bituminous Coal and Petroleum Coke in the Industrial Opposed Multiburner Entrained Flow Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY : Co-gasification performance of coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) blends in a pilot-scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was studied exptl. ... Two different coals, including a subbituminous coal (Coal A) and a bituminous coal (Coal B), individually blended with a petcoke in the gasifier were considered. ... results suggested that, when the petcoke was mixed with Coal A over 70%, the slagging problem, which could shorten the operational period due to high ash content in the coal, was improved. ...

Zhonghua Sun; Zhenghua Dai; Zhijie Zhou; Jianliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

22

Modeling of Time Varying Slag Flow in Coal Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable interest within government agencies and the energy industries across the globe to further advance the clean and economical conversion of coal into liquid fuels to reduce our dependency on imported oil. To date, advances in these areas have been largely based on experimental work. Although there are some detailed systems level performance models, little work has been done on numerical modeling of the component level processes. If accurate models are developed, then significant R&D time might be saved, new insights into the process might be gained, and some good predictions of process or performance can be made. One such area is the characterization of slag deposition and flow on the gasifier walls. Understanding slag rheology and slag-refractory interactions is critical to design and operation of gasifiers with extended refractory lifetimes and also to better control of operating parameters so that the overall gasifier performance with extended service life can be optimized. In the present work, the literature on slag flow modeling was reviewed and a model similar to Seggiani’s was developed to simulate the time varying slag accumulation and flow on the walls of a Prenflo coal gasifier. This model was further extended and modified to simulate a refractory wall gasifier including heat transfer through the refractory wall with flowing slag in contact with the refractory. The model was used to simulate temperature dependent slag flow using rheology data from our experimental slag testing program. These modeling results as well as experimental validation are presented.

Pilli, Siva Prasad; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Williford, Ralph E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Korolev, Vladimir N.; Crum, Jarrod V.

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

23

Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a potentially promising clean technology with an inherent advantage of low emissions, since the process removes contaminants before combustion instead of from flue gas after combustion, as in a conventional coal steam plant. In addition, IGCC has potential for cost-effective carbon dioxide capture. Availability and high capital costs are the main challenges to making IGCC technology more competitive and fully commercial. Experiences from demonstrated IGCC plants show that, in the gasification system, low availability is largely due to slag buildup in the gasifier and fouling in the syngas cooler downstream of the gasification system. In the entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter (as fly ash) is entrained with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the quantity of fly ash and maximize slag. In addition, the hot raw syngas is cooled to convert any entrained molten fly slag to hardened solid fly ash prior to entering the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, better understanding of slag behavior and characteristics of the slagging process are needed. Slagging behavior is affected by char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio). The viscosity of the slag is used to characterize the behavior of the slag flow and is the dominating factor to determine the probability that ash particles will stick. Slag viscosity strongly depends on the temperature and chemical composition of the slag. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. This report briefly introduces the IGCC process, the gasification process, and the main types and operating conditions of entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants. This report also discusses the effects of coal ash and slag properties on slag flow and its qualities required for the entrained flow gasifier. Finally this report will identify the key operating conditions affecting slag flow behaviors, including temperature, oxygen/coal ratio, and flux agents.

Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 1976. Wilson, P.J. and Wells, J.H. , Coal, Cokeand Coal Chemicals, 108, (1950). This report was done withliThe F1uidised Combustion of Coal," Sixteenth S m osium {

Chin, W.K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

SciTech Connect

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

28

Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 144, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into total coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries - Reference Case (xls, 104 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035

30

MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Effect of weathering on coal characteristics and coke qualities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of weathering on the modification of chemical, petrological and rheological properties of four metallurgical coals in different rank and geology was investigated. And… (more)

Lee, Seung Jae

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Development of a novel 2-stage entrained flow coal dry powder gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal-fired gasifiers are the key technology for clean power generation and coal chemical process. This paper presents a 2-stage entrained flow dry powder gasifier in which coal is entrained into the lower chamber burner with oxygen and steam to raise the temperature of the crude gas up to 1700 °C. The lower chamber is linked to the upper gasification chamber through a middle throat, where additional coal and steam is fed to cool down the slag to less than 900 °C for deslagging from the lower chamber bottom. Various coals have been characterized and gasified with this 2-stage entrained flow dry powder gasifier and comparisons made with single stage gasifiers. The results show that the 2-stage gasifier is suitable for a broad range of coal varieties and gives carbon conversion up to 98.9% with cold syngas efficiency of 83.2% at a pressure of 3.0 MPa, while the oxygen and coal consumption are lower than with the single stage gasifier.

Shisen Xu; Yongqiang Ren; Baomin Wang; Yue Xu; Liang Chen; Xiaolong Wang; Tiancun Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Problems of Expanding Coal Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...metallurgical or coking coal marketed widely here and abroad. Appalachian coal generally has a high...are characteristic of Appalachia, al-though there has also been extensive strip mining including destructive...Mid-western bituminous coal has a large market as...

John Walsh

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

35

An assessment of coal-ash slagging propensity using an entrained flow reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and operation of an entrained flow reactor to assess the slagging propensity of a coal-ash. Temperatures and residence times have been chosen to closely simulate those experienced by pulverized fuel (pf) particles in a full-size utility boiler. Ash deposits have been collected on ceramic coupons at 1500 C and 1200 C and on an air-cooled metal probe at 830 C. Ten UK coals and one US coal were selected to give a wide range of coal-ash compositions, a range similar to that found at many power stations. Deposits ranged from dense, highly fused material collected at 1500 C, to lightly sintered ash-particles collected at 830 C. A visual inspection of the deposits allowed a provisional ranking of the slagging propensity to be made. A computer-controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM) technique has been developed to provide a quantitative characterization of each microstructure, thus providing the basis for a more rigorous assessment of the slagging propensity. The technique described provides the basis for a reliable assessment of coal-ash slagging propensity to be made from a few kgs of coal. It removes many of the uncertainties associated with conventional indices and the previous subjectively based laboratory techniques.

Hutchings, I.S.; Williamson, J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; West, S.S. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Annual book of ASTM Standards 2008. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke  

SciTech Connect

The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The second part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrogrpahic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

NONE

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Annual book of ASTM Standards 2005. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke  

SciTech Connect

The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The standard part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrographic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

NONE

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GEâ??s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

Shawn Maghzi; Ramanathan Subramanian; George Rizeq; Surinder Singh; John McDermott; Boris Eiteneer; David Ladd; Arturo Vazquez; Denise Anderson; Noel Bates

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effects of the Secondary Oxygen Injection on the Performance of a Staged-Entrained Flow Coal Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a staged entrained flow coal-slurry gasifier, the secondary oxygen was injected into the gasifier in order to protect the refractory in ... model, simulations were conducted for the staged gasifier at differen...

Cai Chunrong; WU Yuxin; Zhang Jiansheng…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for system-wide design and optimization.

Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility  

SciTech Connect

Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

Natesan, K.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

CFD modeling of entrained-flow coal gasifiers with improved physical and chemical sub-models  

SciTech Connect

Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. While the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside entrained-flow gasifiers has been modeled through computational fluid dynamic (CFD), the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented here include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate, a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and heating rate effect on volatile yield, and careful selection of global gas phase reaction kinetics. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for systemwide design and optimization.

Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Study of the sulphur in coal and its distribution between the gases and the residue in coking.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Sulphur exists in metallurgical coke as a source of annoyance and difficulties in the economic progress of the metal industries. It ie present in coal… (more)

Wenger, Arthur W.

1923-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Experiment Investigation on Concentration and Mass Flow Measurement of Pulverized Coal Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of the concentration of pulverized coal in various pipes plays a key role in assuring safe and economic operation in a pulverized coal?fired boiler in the process of combustion. In this paper experimental studies are implemented on the measurement of a lean mass flow in a pneumatic conveying pipeline using electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). In this system a cyclone separator is employed where the sensors are placed in order to compensate the inhomogeneity of the sensor sensitivity. The mass flow rate is determined from the solids velocity and the volumetric concentration. The former is measured by cross?correlating the capacitance fluctuations caused by the conveyed solids and the latter by an image reconstruction method and then this two parameters are combined to give the solids mass flow rate. The distribution of void fraction in radial direction the average void fraction and the wavy characteristics are analyzed. The feasibility and reliability of the method are verified by the experimental results.

J. Liu; M. Sun; X. Y. Wang; S. Liu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Mid-South Metallurgical Makes Electrical and Natural Gas System...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mid-South Metallurgical Makes Electrical and Natural Gas System Upgrades to Reduce Energy Use and Achieve Cost Savings Mid-South Metallurgical Makes Electrical and Natural Gas...

47

THE COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REPINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refining, the sulfur and ash levels of coal may be reduced.pressed pulverized coal with significant ash production inin both sulfur and ash in comparison with the parent coal.

Chin, W.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Coal conversion experimental methods for validation of pressurized entrained-flow gasifier simulation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of coal provides society with electricity, commodity chemicals, substitute natural gas, and consumer products. With the continued use of coal in the United States… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mathematical modelling of the flow and combustion of pulverized coal injected in ironmaking blast furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology is widely practised in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout of pulverized coal in… (more)

Shen, Yansong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Coal-derived syngas MILD combustion in parallel jet forward flow combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of air-fuel momentum flux ratio on MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion of coal-derived syngas was examined in parallel jet forward flow combustor. The results were presented on flow field using non-reactive numerical simulations and on OH? radicals distribution and exhaust emissions using experiments. The predicted gas recirculation ratios in the combustor are high enough to establish the reaction condition of MILD scheme. Lower air-fuel momentum flux ratio associated with higher heat load benefits the drop of peak flame temperature and the increase of reaction zone volume. The critical air-fuel momentum flux ratios below which MILD combustion occurred were identified for three MILD configurations. The MILD configuration equipped with larger air nozzles and smaller fuel nozzles was observed to achieve MILD combustion at leaner condition. The MILD regime was established for syngas fuel with lean operational limit and ultra-low \\{NOx\\} and CO emissions.

Mingming Huang; Zhedian Zhang; Weiwei Shao; Yan Xiong; Yan Liu; Fulin Lei; Yunhan Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Investigation of swirling flow mixing for application in an MHD pulverized coal combustor using isothermal modeling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate combustor reactant mixing with swirling oxidizer flow. The combustor configuration that was considered was designed to simulate a 4 lbm/sec mas flow pulverized coal combustor being tested in The University of Tennessee Space Institute MHD Facility. A one-fourth dimensionally scaled combustor model was developed for isothermal flow testing. A comparison was made of cold flow tests using 3 swirler designs with a base case oxidizer injector design of perforated plated which demonstrated acceptable performance in the 4 lbm/sec MHD combustor. The three swirlers that were evaluated were designed to allow a wide range of swirl intensity to be investigated. The design criterion of the swirler was the swirl number which has been related to swirler geometry. The results of the study showed that the swirlers that were tested fell short of the mixing characteristics displayed with the perforated plate base case oxidizer injector. Test data obtained with the cold flow model established that the actual swirl numbers of two of the swirlers were much lower than the design swirl numbers. Recirculation zones were defined for all configurations that were tested, and a comparison of velocity profiles was made for the configurations.

Power, W. H.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Dr. Norman Hilberry Metallurgical Laboratory  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

December 23, 1942 December 23, 1942 217, i Dr. Norman Hilberry Metallurgical Laboratory University of Chicago Chicago, Illlnols Dear Dr. Hllbarry: In akcordance with the arrangments made with Dr. Compton, I am attachIng.heretb Copy No. 13 of Dr. Kraus' Progreee Report dated December 15, 1942. Thle report contains addltloral information on the preparation of metallic uranium by the, reduction of UC13 with sodium. Very truly goAre, RR:OT Attaohment CONFIFIMEOTOSE l,NCL&.$.,Fl&, DOEOFFICE OF OECMS.W,,3,~ HERSERTSCHMIOT A.D.D. i DUIE: . 9 pages: 0 figures., G&es 1 to 19. inci, SeriesA. . . Progress Report By Charles A. Kraus December 15, 1942 Contract No. OEMsr~290, Supplement 2 Contract No, OZMsr-688. A. PrepeZ+tion of UC& L-cm lJJa and Ccl,. The study of the va.?ious, i'actors which may influence the

53

Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal News and Markets Coal News and Markets Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 24, 2013 "Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. The report includes data on average weekly coal commodity spot prices, total monthly coal production, eastern monthly coal production, electric power sector coal stocks, and average cost of metallurgical coal at coke plants and export docks. The historical data for coal commodity spot market prices are proprietary and not available for public release. Average weekly coal commodity spot prices (dollars per short ton)

54

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on a multi-task research contract directed toward developing the technology for an MHD steam combined cycle power plant. During the period two tests were conducted in the DOE Coal Fired FLow Facility. Both of these tests were part of the western coal proof-of-concept (POC) test series. The report describes the performance of the tests and provides some preliminary performance data on particulate removal systems during the tests. The performance of ceramic tubes being tested for high temperature air heater application is described. Performance of advanced diagnostics equipment from both UTSI and MSU is summarized. The results of experiments designed to determine the effects of potassium compounds on combustion are included. Plans for analysis of metal tube specimens previously removed from the test train are discussed. Modeling and analysis of previous test data include a deposition model to predict ash deposition on tubes, mass balance results, automated data screening and chemical analyses and the data base containing these analyses. Laboratory tests on sealing ceramic tubes and corrosion analyses of previously tested tubes are reported.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

From metallurgical coatings to surface engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history of the Vacuum Metallurgy Division (VMD) which is now the Advanced Surface Engineering Division (ASED) of the American Vacuum Society is reviewed briefly. The focus of the VMD moved from vacuum melting of materials to metallurgical coatings. The division sponsored two conferences the Conference on Vacuum Metallurgy and the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings. As the interest in vacuum metallurgy eventually subsided interest grew in the deposition of metallurgical coatings. However the emphasis at the Metallurgical Coatings conference has changed from just depositingcoatings to surface engineering of a component. Today the challenge is to use the tools of surface engineering with advances in deposition technology such as high-power pulsed sputtering. To align itself with the changing interests of the majority of its members the VMD changed its name to the ASED.

William D. Sproul

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Co-Gasification of Biomass Wastes and Coal?Coke Blends in an Entrained Flow Gasifier: An Experimental Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of entrained flow, air-blown cogasification of biomass and a coal?coke mixture has been performed in order to evaluate the effect of the relative fuel/air ratio (ranging between 2.5 and 7.5), the reaction temperature (ranging between ...

Juan J. Hernández; Guadalupe Aranda-Almansa; Clara Serrano

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

4 - Future industrial coal utilization: forecasts and emerging technological and regulatory issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Coal production and utilization will grow substantially in the future. This chapter starts by describing coal production and consumption, with a focus on future trends. A discussion of major technology and regulatory issues for coal-fired power plants and the production of metallurgical coal then follows.

J.K. Alderman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

High-Pressure Gasification of Coal Water Ethanol Slurry in an Entrained Flow Gasifier for Bioethanol Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In comparison to CWS gasification, gasification with CWES showed a higher performance, such as composition of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and total flow rate of syngas. ... As for the preparation of CWS and CWES, viscosity of 2000 cP or under was maintained while maintaining the maximum coal content, so that the coal particles could be atomized when the slurry was injected into the burner. ... The gasifier was preheated to approximately 1100 °C using a LPG burner, and after feeding CWS or CWES into the gasifier, syngas starts to be produced, whereby pressurization proceeds. ...

Jong-Soo Bae; Dong-Wook Lee; Se-Joon Park; Young-Joo Lee; Jai-Chang Hong; Ho Won Ra; Choon Han; Young-Chan Choi

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

60

Method and apparatus for acoustically monitoring the flow of suspended solid particulate matter. [Patent application; monitoring char flow in coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for monitoring char flow in a coal gasifier system includes flow monitor circuits which measure acoustic attenuation caused by the presence of char in a char line and provides a char flow/no flow indication and an indication of relative char density. The flow monitor circuits compute the ratio of signals in two frequency bands, a first frequency band representative of background noise, and a second higher frequency band in which background noise is attenuated by the presence of char. Since the second frequency band contains higher frequencies, the ratio can be used to provide a flow/no flow indication. The second band can also be selected so that attenuation is monotonically related to particle concentration, providing a quantitative measure of char concentration.

Roach, P.D.; Raptis, A.C.

1980-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary Summary The U.S. coal industry rebounded in 2010, with coal exports showing impressive gains and domestic production up over the previous year. Metallurgical coal export prices hit record levels as weather problems continued to plague Australian producers, and steel-hungry China and India continued to import relatively large amounts of metallurgical coal. U.S. domestic coal price increases moderated for the electric power sector and declined for industrial plants and for commercial and institutional users. Positive trends established in 2010 are expected to carry over to 2011. Domestic coal consumption as well as metallurgical coal exports are expected to increase as U.S. and most other industrial economies continue to grow. Coal prices should continue to increase at a moderate pace. As

62

Superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility (Eastern Coal Phase)  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion data have been obtained for tub is exposed for 1500--2000 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation test facility to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater (ITAH) components. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, were corroded more than in most pulverized coal fired superheater service, but much less than the highly aggressive liquid phase attack encountered in conventional plants with certain coals and temperatures. Results indicated that, with parabolic corrosion kinetics, type 310 and 253MA stainless steels should be usable to 1400F at hot end of ITAH. At final superheater temperatures, 2.25 and 5 Cr steels were indicated to have parabolic corrosion rates generally below a 0.5 mm/yr criterion, based on corrosion scale thickness. However, unknown amounts of scale loss from spallation made this determination uncertain. Stainless steels 304H, 316H, and 321H had parabolic rates variably above the criterion, but may be servicable under less cyclic conditions. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. Implications of results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions.

White, M.K.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV Jump to: navigation, search Name AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV Place Wayne, Pennsylvania Zip 19087 Product US-based specialty metals company offering metallurgical products and vacuum furnace systems; manufactures high purity polysilicon. References AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV is a company located in Wayne, Pennsylvania . References ↑ "AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group NV" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=AMG_Advanced_Metallurgical_Group_NV&oldid=342143" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

64

Measurements and Modeling of Coal Ash Deposition in an Entrained-Flow Reactor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal plays a significant role in meeting the world’s need for energy and will continue to do so for many years to come. Economic, environmental,… (more)

Blanchard, Ryan P 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Measurements and Modeling of Coal Ash Deposition in an Entrained-Flow Reactor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal plays a significant role in meeting the world's need for energy and will continue to do so for many years to come. Economic, environmental,… (more)

Blanchard, Ryan P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Assessment of modular IGCC plants based on entrained flow coal gasification supplemental studies  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study (1), Foster Wheeler made an assessment of modular IGCC power systems employing Texaco entrained flow gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal. In that study, five case studies were developed in order to compare the relative performance and economics of air vs. oxygen blown gasification and high temperature vs. low temperature gas cleanup. As a supplemental study, two additional IGCC design cases were developed as alternate to the original Case 2 and Case 3 configurations. The objective of the Case 2 alternate study was to assess the potential of zinc titanate in place of zinc ferrite. Compared to zinc ferrite, the zinc titanate system offered the following potential advantages: Does not require steam conditioning of the feed gas to avoid carbon formation; does not require reductive regeneration and the corresponding use of fuel gas; operates at higher temperature, about 1350{degree}F; and has a longer projected sorbent life. The objective of the alternate Case 3 study was to determine the economic impact of producing sulfuric acid, instead of elemental sulfur, as the by-product from high temperature desulfurization using zinc ferrite. Sulfur recovery as by-product sulfuric acid therefore offered the potential for reducing both the capital and operating costs. 6 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

Fu, R.K.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada L. L. Miller · J. B. Rasmussen · V. P. Palace · G. Sterling · A to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout

Hontela, Alice

68

Production of iron from metallurgical waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

69

Analysis of char-slag interaction and near-wall particle segregation in entrained-flow gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The fate of carbon particles during entrained-flow gasification of coal in the slagging regime is analyzed. More specifically, the study addresses the relevance of segregation of carbon particles in a near-wall region of the gasifier to coal conversion. Segregation of carbon particles is analyzed considering the effects of turbulence- and swirl-promoted particle migration toward the wall, interaction of the impinging particles with the wall ash layer, coverage of the slag layer by refractory carbon particles, accumulation of carbon particles in a dense-dispersed phase near the wall of the gasifier. Operating conditions of the gasifier and slag properties may be combined so as to give rise to a variety of conversion regimes characterized by distinctively different patterns of carbon particles segregation. A simple 1D model of an entrained-flow gasifier has been developed based on the conceptual framework of carbon particle segregation. The model aims at providing a general assessment of the impact of the different patterns of carbon particle segregation on the course and extent of carbon gasification. A sensitivity analysis with reference to selected model parameters is performed to identify key processes controlling carbon segregation and their impact on the gasifier performance. (author)

Montagnaro, Fabio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario del Monte di Sant'Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II and Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Ohio State University Metallurgic...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION OH.0-05-1 - Memorandum; Roth to Armstrong; Source Material License No. C-3622; March 1, 1957. Attachment: Source Material...

71

Chapter 12 - Coal use in iron and steel metallurgy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses the role of coal in iron and steel metallurgy. The chapter first gives information about routes for steel manufacture, current levels of steel production and forecasts for the future. It then discusses the use of coal in different metallurgical processes with emphasis on various ironmaking technologies as the most energy consuming step of the process chain. Alternatives to coal like biomass, hydrogen or waste plastics are discussed from the point of view of CO2 reduction.

A. Babich; D. Senk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 (Thousand Short Tons) " " Coal-Exporting State and Destination ",,"Metallurgical ","Steam ","Total "," " "Alabama ",,3977,"-",3977," " ," Argentina ",225,"-",225," " ," Belgium ",437,"-",437," " ," Brazil ",1468,"-",1468," " ," Bulgaria ",75,"-",75," " ," Egypt ",363,"-",363," " ," Germany ",71,"-",71," " ," Italy ",61,"-",61," " ," Netherlands ",219,"-",219," " ," Spain ",415,"-",415," " ," Turkey ",362,"-",362," "

73

Disaggregating regional energy supply/demand and flow data to 173 BEAs in support of export coal analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the procedures and results of a study sponsored jointly by the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy. The study was conducted to provide, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)-level production/consumption data for energy materials for 1985 and 1990 in support of an analysis of transportation requirements for export coal. Base data for energy forecasts at the regional level were obtained from the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. The forecasts selected for this study are described in DOE/EIA's 1980 Annual Report to Congress, and are: 1985 Series, B, medium oil import price ($37.00/barrel); and 1990 Series B, medium oil import price ($41.00/barrel). Each forecast period is extensively described by approximately forty-three statistical tables prepared by EIA and made available to TERA for this study. This report provides sufficient information to enable the transportation analyst to appreciate the procedures employed by TERA to produce the BEA-level energy production/consumption data. The report presents the results of the procedures, abstracts of data tabulations, and various assumptions used for the preparation of the BEA-level data. The end-product of this effort was the BEA to BEA energy commodity flow data by more which serve as direct input to DOT's transportation network model being used for a detailed analysis of export coal transportation.

Not Available

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor – General combustion and ash behaviour  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on co-combustion was investigated. The co-combustion experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The experimental results showed that the fuel burnout, NO and SO2 emission in co-combustion of coal and SRF were decreased with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced the NO emission. For SO2 emission, it was found that all of the additives increased the S-retention in ash. Analysis of the bulk composition of fly ash from different experiments indicated that the majority of S and Cl in the fuels were released to gas phase during combustion, whereas the K and Na in the fuels were mainly retained in ash. When co-firing coal and SRF, approximately 99 wt.% of the K and Na in fly ash was present in water insoluble form such as aluminosilicates or silicates. The addition of NaCl, PVC, and ammonium sulphate generally promoted the vaporization of Na and K, resulting in an increased formation of water soluble alkalis such as alkali chlorides or sulphates. The vaporization degree of Na and K was found to be correlated during the experiments, suggesting an interaction between the vaporization of Na and K during pulverized fuel combustion. By collecting deposits on an air-cooled probe during the experiments, it was found that the ash deposition propensity in co-combustion was decreased with increasing share of SRF. The addition of NaCl and PVC significantly increased the ash deposition propensity, whereas the addition of ammonium sulphate or kaolinite showed a slight reducing effect. The chlorine content in the deposits generally implied a low corrosion potential during co-combustion of coal and SRF, except for the experiments with NaCl or PVC addition.

Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Geomechanics of coal-gas interactions : the role of coal permeability evolution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[Truncated abstract] Complex interactions between stress and sorptive chemistry exert strong influence on coal geomechanics. These include influences on gas sorption and flow, coal deformation,… (more)

Chen, Zhongwei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination, 2001 Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alaska - 761 761 South Korea - 761 761 Alabama 4,667 167 4,834 Argentina 155 - 155 Belgium 989 - 989 Brazil 1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920 - 920 France 22 - 22 Iceland 9 - 9 Italy 430 - 430 Netherlands 417 - 417 Spain 9 - 9 United Kingdom 323 - 323 Pennsylvania 1,086 14,326 15,722 Belgium - 203 203 Brazil 372 - 373 Canada - 12,141 12,418 France - 84 84 Germany 495 165 661 Ireland - 136 136 Netherlands 219 879 1,097 Norway - - 7 Peru - - 21 Portugal - 634 634 United Kingdom - 85 85 Venezuela - - 3 Utah - 1,420 1,420 Japan - 1,334 1,334 Taiwan - 86 86 Virginia 4,531

77

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Coal Gasification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

79

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Fansteel Metallurgical Corp - IL 16  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fansteel Metallurgical Corp - IL 16 Fansteel Metallurgical Corp - IL 16 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Fansteel Metallurgical Corp. (IL.16 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Chicago , Illinois IL.16-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.16-3 Site Operations: Sole producer and supplier of tantalum and columbium metals to the MED. IL.16-1 IL.16-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No radioactive materials handled at this site IL.16-2 IL.16-3 Radioactive Materials Handled: No Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: None IL.16-2 Radiological Survey(s): No Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to Fansteel Metallurgical Corp. IL.16-1 - MED Memorandum; Greninger to the File; Subject: Visit to

80

Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Operational Management » History » Manhattan Project » Signature Facilities » Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago Photo of the Met Lab and the Stagg Field Bleachers Photo of the Met Lab and the Stagg Field Bleachers One of the most important branches of the Manhattan Project was the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) in Chicago. Using the name "Metallurgical Laboratory" as cover at the University of Chicago, scientists from the east and west coasts were brought together to this central location to develop chain-reacting "piles" for plutonium production, to devise methods for extracting plutonium from the irradiated uranium, and to design a weapon. In all, four methods of plutonium

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A survey of metallurgical research on several actinides  

SciTech Connect

A Los Alamos perspective on metallurgical research on neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, and californium is presented. Alloying behaviors of these metals are discussed. Metal fabrication technologies, principally for plutonium, are emphasized.

Olivas, J.D.; Schonfeld, F.W.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Graph Model for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Metallurgical Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical models are presented for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from metallurgical processes. The article also presents ... in graph form to calculate transit and net emissions of carbon dioxide based o...

Yu. N. Chesnokov; V. G. Lisienko; A. V. Lapteva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Modelling coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification processes in a slurry-feed-type entrained-flow gasifier are studied. Novel simulation methods as well as numerical results are presented. We use the vorticity-stream function method to study the characteristics of gas flow and a scalar potential function is introduced to model the mass source terms. The random trajectory model is employed to describe the behaviour of slurry-coal droplets. Very detailed results regarding the impact of the O2/coal ratio on the distribution of velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained. Simulation results show that the methods are feasible and can be used to study a two-phase reacting flow efficiently.

Xiang Jun Liu; Wu Rong Zhang; Tae Jun Park

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility for the period April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multitask contract to develop the necessary technology for the steam bottoming plant of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. A Proof-Of-Concept (POC) test was conducted during the quarter and the results are reported. This POC test was terminated after 88 hours of operation due to the failure of the coal pulverizer main shaft. Preparations for the test and post-test activities are summarized. Modifications made to the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are described and measurements of its performance are reported. The baghouse performance is summarized, together with actions being taken to improve bag cleaning using reverse air. Data on the wet ESP performance is included at two operating conditions, including verification that it met State of Tennessee permit conditions for opacity with all the flow through it. The results of experiments to determine the effect of potassium seed on NO{sub x} emissions and secondary combustion are reported. The status of efforts to quantify the detailed mass balance for all POC testing is summarized. The work to develop a predictive ash deposition model is discussed and results compared with deposition actually encountered during the test. Plans to measure the kinetics of potassium and sulfur on flames like the secondary combustor, are included. Advanced diagnostic work by both UTSI and MSU is reported. Efforts to develop the technology for a high temperature air heater using ceramic tubes are summarized.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Modelling and simulation of coal and petcoke gasification in a Co-current flow reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model is developed for the simulation of the gasification process in a reactor where a carbon slurry is fed together with oxygen and water vapour. The model considers several heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions to estimate flows and composition of the exit gases, including combustion, gasification and hydro-pyrolysis of carbon. Mass and heat-transfer phenomena are described for the particular physical arrangement, including bulk film diffusion processes with variable particle size and heat transfer by radiation from the hot region downstream to the cooler entrance region. Preliminary results are in good agreement with experimental data from a pilot plant, including exit composition and temperatures, and ignition and highest-temperature points. An analysis of the main operational parameters is given, which could be used for the final design of the plant.

Elida M. López; Vicente Garza; Joaquín Acevedo

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The methods of steam coals usage for coke production  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Letter Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV Specimens From the Ringhals Nuclear Reactors Letter Report on Metallurgical Examination of the High Fluence RPV Specimens From the Ringhals Nuclear Reactors Regulations which govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the irradiated condition, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely degraded, with the degree of toughness loss dependent on the radiation sensitivity of the materials. As stated in previous progress reports, the available embrittlement predictive models, e.g. [1], and our present understanding of radiation damage are not fully quantitative, and do not treat all potentially significant variables

89

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Ohio State University Metallurgical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ohio State University Metallurgical Ohio State University Metallurgical Engineering Experiment Station -OH 0-05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION (OH.0-05 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to NRC Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Columbus , Ohio OH.0-05-1 Evaluation Year: 1986 OH.0-05-2 Site Operations: Ohio State ordered 130 grams of uranium from the AEC. This commercial supply order was filled by Fernald. OH.0-05-1 OH.0-05-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - AEC/NRC licensed operation OH.0-05-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium OH.0-05-1 OH.0-05-3 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to NRC

90

Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP Jump to: navigation, search Name Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant (PCMP) Place Moscow, Russian Federation Zip 142103 Sector Solar Product Russian manufacturer of monocrystalline silicon ingots, wafers, cells and quartz crucibles; serves both solar and semiconductor industries. Coordinates 55.75695°, 37.614975° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":55.75695,"lon":37.614975,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

91

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3" 3" "(Thousand Short Tons)" "Coal-Exporting State and Destination ",,"Metallurgical ","Steam ","Total " "Alabama ",,5156,"-",5156 ,"Argentina ",345,"-",345 ,"Belgium ",387,"-",387 ,"Brazil ",1825,"-",1825 ,"Bulgaria ",363,"-",363 ,"Egypt ",477,"-",477 ,"Germany ",167,"-",167 ,"Italy ",87,"-",87 ,"Netherlands ",399,"-",399 ,"Spain ",198,"-",198 ,"Turkey ",551,"-",551 ,"United Kingdom ",359,"-",359 "Kentucky ",,1449,"-",1449 ,"Canada ",566,"-",566

92

NETL: Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

93

Characterization of Metallurgical Chars by Small Angle Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characterization of Metallurgical Chars by Small Angle Neutron Scattering ... Small angle scattering measures the intensity I(q) of scattered neutrons as a function of scattering angle ? from the input beam, or alternatively, as a function of the scattering vector q:? q = |q| = (4?/?) sin(?/2), where ? is the wavelength of the incident wave. ...

I. Snook; I. Yarovsky; H. J. M. Hanley; M. Y. Lin; D. Mainwaring; H. Rogers; P. Zulli

2002-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

94

Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995  

SciTech Connect

During first quarter 1995, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, field measurements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Total organic halogens exceeded its Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criterion during first quarter 1995 as in fourth quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, and manganese, which were not analyzed for during fourth quarter 1994, exceeded the Flag 2 criteria in at least two wells each during first quarter 1995. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting the determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION METALLURGICAL LABORATORY  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION METALLURGICAL LABORATORY BAYSIDE, NEW YORK Work performed by the Health and Safety Research Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 March 1980 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION for the DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites-- Remedial Action Program SYLVANIA-CORNING NUCLEAR CORPORATION METALLURGICAL LABORATORY BAYSIDE, NEW YORK At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), a preliminary survey was performed at the former Sylvania-Corning Nuclear Corporation in Bayside, New York (see Fig. l), on November 29, 1977, to assess the radiological status of those facilities uti 7 Commission (AEC) contract during the 1950s. _ _ ._. __

96

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Technical progress report, 1 September 1979-31 August 1980  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this program is to contribute to certain facets of the development of the MHD/coal power system, and particularly the CDIF of DOE with regard to its flow train. Consideration is given specifically to the electrical power take-off, the diagnostic and instrumentation systems, the combustor and MHD channel technology, and electrode alternatives. Within the constraints of the program, high priorities were assigned to the problems of power take-off and the related characteristics of the MHD channel, and to the establishment of a non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostic system. The next priority was given to the combustor modeling and to a significantly improved analysis of particle combustion. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine of the ten papers included. One paper was previously included in the data base. (WHK)

Bloom, M. H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Purifying metallurgical silicon to solar grade silicon by metal-assisted chemical etching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal impurities have detrimental effects on the performance of Si solar cells. Through metal assisted chemical etching, we fabricate Si nanowires from metallurgical Si while purifying...

Li, Xiaopeng; Sprafke, Alexander N; Schweizer, Stefan L; Wehrspohn, Ralf

99

Modification of sub-bituminous coal by steam treatment: Caking and coking properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Chinese sub-bituminous Shenfu (SF) coal was steam treated under atmospheric pressure and the caking and coking properties of the treated coals were evaluated by caking indexes (GRI) and crucible coking characterizations. The results show that steam treatment can obviously increase the GRI of SF coal. When the steam treated coals were used in the coal blends instead of SF raw coal, the micro-strength index (MSI) and particle coke strength after reaction (PSR) of the coke increased, and particle coke reactivity index (PRI) decreased, which are beneficial for metallurgical coke to increase the gas permeability in blast furnace. The quality of the coke obtained from 8% of 200 °C steam treated SF coal in coal blends gets to that of the coke obtained from the standard coal blends, in which there was no SF coal addition in the coal blends. The removal of oxygen groups, especially hydroxyl group thus favoring the breakage of the coal macromolecules and allowing the treated coal formation of much more amount of hydrocarbons, may be responsible for the modified results. The mechanism of the steam treatment was proposed based on the elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric (TG) and FTIR spectrometer characterizations of the steam treated coal.

Hengfu Shui; Haiping Li; Hongtao Chang; Zhicai Wang; Zhi Gao; Zhiping Lei; Shibiao Ren

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 2nd quarterly report, April 4, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the accomplishments in coal log pipeline research and manufacturing. Flow results are included.

Liu, H.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Office of the Chief Financial Officer Annual Report 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metallurgical Processes Clean Coal Contractual Services AndMetallurgical Processes Clean Coal Contractual Services And

Fernandez, Jeffrey

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Energy conservation and efficiency in Giprokoks designs at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises  

SciTech Connect

Energy conditions at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises are analyzed. Measures to boost energy conservation and energy efficiency are proposed: specifically, the introduction of systems for dry slaking of coke; and steam-gas turbines that employ coke-oven gas or a mixture of gases produced at metallurgical enterprises. Such turbines may be built from Ukrainian components.

M.I. Fal'kov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

ROADMAP TO YOUR GRADUATION Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Curriculum BS MTE Degree Revised Jan. 2013 (2013-2014)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ROADMAP TO YOUR GRADUATION Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Curriculum JUNIOR YEAR SENIOR YEAR Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring and math elec0ves is available in the metallurgical and materials engineering

Carver, Jeffrey C.

105

Petroleum and Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bettinelli and others (A5) presented a method for the determination of arsenic, selenium, and mercury in coals based on a partial solublization of the coal sample in a microwave oven with aqua regia and the subsequent determination of As, Se, and Hg by flow injection hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-HG-ICPMS); comparisons with other techniques are presented. ... Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change were discussed in a review with 8 references by Hoppe (A40). ...

Cliff T. Mansfield; Bhajendra N. Barman; Jane V. Thomas; Anil K. Mehrotra; James M. McCann

1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

106

14 - Economic factors affecting coal preparation: plant design worldwide and case studies illustrating economic impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The economic drivers behind the differences in design of plants treating coal destined for thermal and metallurgical coal markets worldwide are considered. Differences between plant designs in Australia, South Africa and the United States for both coal types will be discussed. Environmental constraints on plant design will be reviewed, in particular the means of dealing with ‘dry rejects disposal’ and water scarcity. Dealing with the ever-deteriorating quality of plant feed material, with the inevitable increase in near density material, will also be considered.

P.J. Bethell

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The experimental program was effectively terminated and reoriented to preparation of reports on previous tests and maintaining the DOE facility. In this report, the results of tube corrosion studies for the samples removed after 500 hours of western coal testing are summarized. Plans for evaluating the tube samples after termination of the tests at 1,047 hours are discussed. The status of development of models to predict ash deposition on conductive heat transfer tubes and their validation with experimental data is presented. Modeling and experiments to induce agglomeration of particulate are also discussed. Significant accomplishments, findings and conclusions include: In summary, corrosion measurements on typical, commercial stainless steels and on low and intermediate chromium steels after 639 hours of LMF5 exposure in the SHTM test sections revealed corrosion that was generally acceptable in magnitude if corrosion kinetics are parabolic, but, except for the higher chromium alloys 253MA and 310, not if kinetics are linear. The production of bilayer scales, and the large amount of scale separation and fragmentation make long term parabolic kinetics unlikely, and result in a high likelihood for breakaway corrosion.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

109

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

110

Valorization of Automotive Shredder Residues in metallurgical furnaces Project REFORBA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and the electric arc furnace (EAF) routes, P1 could be used as substitute for coal or coke, and P2 could replace with raw materials cheaper than coke. As additional potential benefits the amount of CO2 generated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

112

METALLURGICAL EVALUATION OF CAST DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS AND THEIR WELDMENTS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FINAL REPORT FINAL REPORT VOLUME 1 METALLURGICAL EVALUATION OF CAST DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS AND THEIR WELDMENTS SUBMITTED TO U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Award Number - DE-FC36-00 ID13975 OCTOBER 1, 2000 - SEPTEMBER 30, 2005 SONGQING WEN CARL D. LUNDIN GREG BATTEN MATERIALS JOINING GROUP MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE CARL D. LUNDIN PROFESSOR OF METALLURGY MATERIALS JOINING GROUP MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE KNOXVILLE 37996-2200 TELEPHONE (865) 974-5310 FAX (865) 974-0880 lundin@utk.edu This is Volume 1of 5 of the final report for The Department of Energy Grant # DE-FC36-00 ID13975 entitled "Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel Castings." ii FOREWARD

113

Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1995  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1995, samples from seven new AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for a comprehensive list of constituents. Two parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. Lead and nickel appear to exceed final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in AMB-18A. These data were suspect and a rerun of the samples showed levels below flagging criteria. This data will be monitored in 3Q95. Aluminum, iron, manganese, boron, silver and total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in at least one well each during second quarter 1995. This data, as well, will be confirmed by 3Q95 testing. Groundwater flow directions in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters; the flow rate estimate, however, differs because of an error noted in the scales of measurements used for previous estimates. The estimate was 470 ft/year during second quarter 1995. Reliable estimates of flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone could not be determined in previous quarters because data were insufficient. The first estimate from second quarter 1995 shows a 530 ft/year rate. Reliable estimates of flow directions and rates in the Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone and in the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the CBCU could not be calculated because of the low horizontal gradient and the near-linear distribution of the monitoring wells. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and was completed in March of this year. Analytical data from these wells are presented in this report for the first time.

Chase, J.A.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

The Shenhua coal direct liquefaction plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon Technologies (HTI) has been working on a feasibility study for the construction of a Direct Coal Liquefaction Plant in Shenhua coalfield of China. HTI's direct coal liquefaction process, consisting primarily of two backmixed reactor stages plus a fixed-bed inline hydrotreater, operates at a pressure of 17 \\{MPa\\} and reactor temperatures in the range of 400–460°C. A dispersed superfine iron catalyst, GelCat®, is used in the process. Phase I of the study was successfully completed. Two coal sample from a coal mine in Shenhua coalfield were tested on HTI's continuous flow unit (CFU). Results were very encouraging. Though Shenhua coals are high in inert materials, HTI's coal liquefaction process has been able to achieve coal conversion of higher than 91 wt.% (on moisture and ash free, maf, coal) under all test conditions. Under the best conditions tested, distillate product yields from Shenhua coals are between 63–68 wt.% (maf coal). Liquid products are very low in sulfur and nitrogen, thus, very clean. Phase II is now underway. An additional test was conducted on a coal from another coal mine in Shenhua coalfield, which showed similar performance on liquefaction. Preliminary economic assessment is also discussed.

Alfred G. Comolli; Theo L.K. Lee; Gabriel A. Popper; Peizheng Zhou

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).  

SciTech Connect

A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Mechanical and metallurgical properties of MMC friction welds  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical and metallurgical properties of similar and dissimilar welds involving aluminum-based metal matrix composite (MMC) base material were investigated using factorial experimentation. The test materials comprised aluminum-based alloy 6061/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (W6A.10A-T6), aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 and AISI 304 stainless steel. Notch tensile strength increased when high friction pressures were employed during MMC/MMC, MMC/Alloy 6061, MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel and Alloy 6061/Alloy 6061 friction welding. In MMC/Alloy 6061 welds, notch tensile strength also increased when high forging pressures were employed. Applied oxide films on both the MMC and AISI stainless steel substrates had a markedly detrimental effect on dissimilar weld mechanical properties. The optimum notch tensile strength properties were produced when high friction pressure values were applied during dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel welding. High friction pressure had two beneficial effects, i.e., it decreased the thickness of the FeAl{sub 3} intermetallic film and it promoted disruption and dispersal of oxide films at the joint interface. In direct contrast, the presence of thick anodized oxide films on the MMC substrate surface prior to friction welding had no observable influence on MMC/MMC weld mechanical properties.

Li, Z.; Maldonado, C.; North, T.H. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; Altshuller, B. [Alcan R and D Labs., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments† ... Ichikawa et al.(7) measured deposition behavior for ash particles from ashing tests for a series of five coals, using a nominally 1 m tall × 60 mm diameter ash-heating tube that was fitted with a cooled, temperature-controlled particle impact probe oriented at a 30° angle to the atmospheric pressure air flow. ...

Weiguo Ai; John M. Kuhlman

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

119

X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report  

SciTech Connect

X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

124

Catalytic Effects of Main Metals in Coal Ash on Advanced Reburning of Pulverized Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic Effects of Main Metals in Coal Ash on Advanced Reburning of Pulverized Coal ... To further reduce the NOx emission from power plants, an experimental study on the NO reduction during advanced reburning with reburning fuel of raw coal and coals loaded with four kinds of main metals in coal ash (Na, K, Fe, Ca) was performed in a two-staged drop flow reactor (TSDFR). ... By comparing the conversion of five main products during the reactions when using raw coal and coals loaded with different metals as reburning fuel, it is found that some types of metals can improve the NO reduction in reburning via increasing the concentration of CH4 and CO during the reactions. ...

Penghua Qiu; Hui Huang; Jianqiang Zhang; Li Liu; Yuqing Chen

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A. G. Horsler, Gas Counc. (Gt. Brit...England, 1962; Gas J. 312, 19 (1962...be-come overdependent on natural gas and oil to supply...gasifier at elevated pressure with a downward flow...operability on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

127

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program  

SciTech Connect

The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy?s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles? Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

McDonald, D.K.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

128

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

130

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oregon Metallurgical Corp - OR 0-02  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Oregon Metallurgical Corp - OR 0-02 Oregon Metallurgical Corp - OR 0-02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: OREGON METALLURGICAL CORP. ( OR.0-02 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Albany , Oregon OR.0-02-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 OR.0-02-2 OR.0-02-3 Site Operations: Research and development of uranium alloy processes in the 1940s and 1950s. OR.0-02-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - AEC licensed - Potential for contamination remote based on limited quantity of materials handled OR.0-02-1 OR.0-02-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Enriched Uranium, Zirconium OR.0-02-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Also see

133

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

136

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Deashing of coal liquids by sonically assisted filtration  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of coal liquefaction by novel applications of sonic and ultrasonic energy. The specific purpose of this project is to develop and improve means for the economical removal of dispersed solid particles of ash, unreacted coal, and spent catalyst from direct and indirect coal liquefaction resids by using sonic or ultrasonic waves. Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. Direct coal liquefaction processes generate liquid products which contain solids including coal-originated mineral matter, unreacted coal, and spent dispersed catalyst. The removal of these solids from a product stream is one of the most difficult problems in direct coal liquefaction processes. On this report, results are discussed for sonically assisted crossflow filtration of V-1067 resid, diluted with No. 2 fuel oil, and sonically assisted batch filtrations of solids concentrates from continuous cross-flow filtration experiments.

Slomka, B.J.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies  

SciTech Connect

Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov [Ural State Technical University - Ural Polytechnic Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the projects funded did not meet their original goals, the overall objectives of the CPCPC were completed as many new applications for coal-derived feedstocks have been researched. Future research in many of these areas is necessary before implementation into industry.

Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

142

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

143

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

144

Low Rank Coal Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Rank Coal Optimization Low Rank Coal Optimization NETL Office of Research and Development Project Number: FWP-2012.03.03 Task 4 Project Description NETL's in-house research team is using an integrated approach to combine theory, computational modeling, experiment, and industrial input to develop physics-based methods, models, and tools to support the development and deployment of advanced gasification based devices and systems. The activities in this effort include developing and applying computational and modeling tools to simulate complex flows in applications such as transport or entrained flow gasifiers. TRIG Model Development - The primary objective of this work is to develop a hierarchy of models for numerical simulations of TRIG co-feed conditions that span fast running reduced order models (ROM's) to high fidelity multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Each model will have uncertainty quantification associated with its predictions to allow a user to choose a model based on the trade-offs between computational speed and uncertainty in the predictions.

145

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

146

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

148

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

ROADMAP TO YOUR GRADUATION Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Curriculum BS MTE Degree Revised April 2014  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ROADMAP TO YOUR GRADUATION Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Curriculum � BS MTE Degree / 29 Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring 12 hrs 17 hrs 17 hrs 17 hrs 16 hrs 15 hrs 14 hrs engineering department office. 2. MTE students may take any MTE 400-level or higher courses

Carver, Jeffrey C.

150

Chapter 14 - Coal bed methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary Methane adsorbed to the surface of coal is a very old issue with some new commercial ramifications. This explosive gas has made underground coal mines dangerous both from the risk of explosion and the possibility of an oxygen-poor atmosphere that wouldn't support life. The miner's main concern with coal bed methane (CBM) has been how to get rid of it. Techniques to deal with CBM in mines have ranged from the classic canary in a cage to detect an oxygen-poor atmosphere to huge ventilation fans to force the replacement of a methane-rich environment with outside air, to drilling CBM wells in front of the coal face to try to degas the coal prior to exposing the mine to the CBM. All these techniques have met with some amount of success. None of the techniques to prevent CBM from fouling the air in an underground mine has been totally successful. With the CBM's unique method of gas storage, the preponderance of the gas is available only to very low coalface pressures. The coalface pressure is set by a combination of flowing wellhead pressure and the hydrostatic head exerted by standing liquid within the well bore. Effective compression strategies can lower the wellhead pressure to very low values. Effective deliquification techniques can reduce or remove the backpressure caused by accumulated liquid. CBM's economic impact is briefly explained in this chapter.

James F. Lea; Henry V. Nickens; Mike R. Wells

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. ... Coal is a nonrenewable resource; however, the world’s coal reserves amount to twice the combined oil and gas reserves. ... The reasons for the entrained flow gasifier selection include its high suitability to low rank coals (lignites) and the use of entrained flow gasifiers for an IGCC as the industrially preferred choice dictated through experience. ...

Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Coal Gasification in a Transport Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These simulations were used to compare the response of coals gasified to those combusted substoichiometrically, to evaluate the optimum operating conditions and to predict the performance in larger-scale units with less heat loss. ... Entrained-flow gasifiers use high temperatures (1350?1550 °C) and gasify coals in 2?3 s. ... Kinetic studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of steam and CO2 gasification of char and the interactions of these gasifying agents. ...

Lawrence J. Shadle; Esmail R. Monazam; Michael L. Swanson

2001-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

155

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

157

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

158

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

159

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

160

Relationship between the technical parameters of cokes produced from blends of three Polish coals of different coking ability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The demand for metallurgical coke for blast furnaces is forcing the coking industry to look for new sources of coking coals. The physical and chemical parameters of coals used in coking blends determine the quality (reactivity and strength) of the finished cokes. This study examines the technical properties of the cokes produced from various blends of three Polish coals with different coking. These coals were collected from three mines: Zofiówka, Szczyg?owice, and Krupi?ski (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland). The coal charges were coked in the laboratory scale, at temperatures of up to 1000 °C, in an inert atmosphere. The coke reactivity (index CRI) and the coke strength after reaction (CSR) were measured and correlated to the properties of parent coals using statistical analysis. The result of this study shows strong relationships between the concentration of the best coking coal (Zofiówka) in the blend and the CRI and CSR of the resulting coke. The CRI and CSR parameters for cokes obtained from single coals and from their blends show the additive character. This study also confirms the linear relationship between CRI and CSR parameters of the cokes.

A. Koszorek; M. Krzesi?ska; S. Pusz; B. Pilawa; B. Kwieci?ska

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash ... A new technique has been developed to determine the sintering rate of coal ash based on the measurement of the pressure-drop across a pellet of ash. ... The technique developed in this study shows a good repeatability of the rate of sintering and confirms that viscous flow is the dominant mechanism for sintering of coal ash. ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; L. K. Elliott; T. F. Wall; B. Moghtaderi

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

166

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

167

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

168

Determination of Coal Permeability Using Pressure Transient Methods  

SciTech Connect

Coalbed methane is a significant natural resource in the Appalachian region. It is believed that coalbed methane production can be enhanced by injection of carbon dioxide into coalbeds. However, the influence of carbon dioxide injection on coal permeability is not yet well understood. Competitive sorption of carbon dioxide and methane gases onto coal is a known process. Laboratory experiments and limited field experience indicate that coal will swell during sorption of a gas and shrink during desorption of a gas. The swelling and shrinkage may change the permeability of the coal. In this study, the permeability of coal was determined by using carbon dioxide as the flowing fluid. Coal samples with different dimensions were prepared for laboratory permeability tests. Carbon dioxide was injected into the coal and the permeability was determined by using pressure transient methods. The confining pressure was variedto cover a wide range of depths. The permeability was also determined as a function of exposure time of carbon dioxide while the confining stress was kept constant. CT scans were taken before and after the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results show that the porosity and permeability of the coal matrix was very low. The paper presents experimental data and theoretical aspects of the flow of carbon dioxide through a coal sample during pressure transient tests. The suitability of the pressure transient methods for determining permeability of coal during carbon dioxide injection is discussed in the paper.

McLendon, T.R.; Siriwardane, H. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Haljasmaa, I.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Soong, Y.; Irdi, G.A.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

170

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

171

Combustion characteristics of coal fuels in adiabatic diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of coal fuels in adiabatic diesel engines. For this purpose engine testing was carried out by the fumigation of fine coal powder to the intake of an insulated and uncooled single cylinder diesel engine. The engine tests conducted include three types of fuels - Diesel fuel No. 2 (DF-2), Dual fuel (DF-2 + Coal), and Coal fuel. Excellent combustion characteristics of coal fuels were obtained in the present work in an adiabatic engine operating at high temperatures. The ''thermal ignition'' concept uncovered in this investigation led to a hot ''ignition chamber'' which provided ignition of the coal fuel. The high temperature engine with the ''ignition chamber'' permitted engine operation on 100% coal fuel without any external ignition aids or compression ignition. With the addition of a glow plug, the coal fueled engine was successfully cold started. For the coal fueled engine tests, analysis of cylinder pressure data showed rapid heat release rates, shorter combustion duration and very fast burning of coal powder fuel. Preliminary results of the apparent indicated cycle efficiency calculated from the heat release data, indicate that 100% coal powder fueled engine has higher cycle efficiency than DF-2 fueled engine in an adiabatic configuration. The problems encountered during the engine tests include: variation in the engine speed and load due to non-uniform coal flow rate by the coal feed system, contamination of the lubricating oil with fine coal powder, and wear of conventional piston rings. However, these problems can be solved with an improved coal feed system and wear resistant ceramic materials for the piston rings. 33 refs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Woods, M.E.; Valdmanis, E.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Plastic wastes as modifiers of the thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Plastic waste recycling represents a major challenge in environmental protection with different routes now available for dealing with mechanical, chemical, and energy recycling. New concepts in plastic waste recycling have emerged so that now such wastes can be used to replace fossil fuels, either as an energy source or as a secondary raw material. Our objective is to explore the modification of the thermoplastic properties of coal in order to assess the possibility of adding plastic waste to coal for the production of metallurgical coke. Two bituminous coals of different rank and thermoplastic properties were used as a base component of blends with plastic wastes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrilonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). In all cases, the addition of plastic waste led to a reduction in Gieseler maximum fluidity, the extent of the reduction depending on the fluidity of the base coal, and the amount, the molecular structure, and the thermal behavior of the polymer. As a consequence, the amount of volatile matter released by the plastic waste before, during, and after the maximum fluidity of the coal and the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor capacities of the polymer were concluded to be key factors in influencing the extent of the reduction in fluidity and the development of anisotropic carbons. The incorporation of the plastic to the carbon matrix was clearly established in semicokes produced from blends of a high-fluid coal and the plastic tested by SEM examination. 42 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Influence of coal quality factors on seam permeability associated with coalbed methane production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cleats are natural fractures in coal that serve as permeability avenues for darcy flow of gas and water to the well bore during production. Theoretically,… (more)

Wang, Xingjin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Semiconductor systems utilizing materials that form rectifying junctions in both N and P-type doping regions, whether metallurgically or field induced, and methods of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are semiconductor systems, such as integrated circuits utilizing Schotky barrier and/or diffused junction technology, which semiconductor systems incorporate material(s) that form rectifying junctions in both metallurgically and/or field induced N and P-type doping regions, and methods of their use. Disclosed are Schottky barrier based inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems and which can be operated as modulators, N and P-channel MOSFETS and CMOS formed therefrom, and (MOS) gate voltage controlled rectification direction and gate voltage controlled switching devices, and use of such material(s) to block parasitic current flow pathways. Simple demonstrative five mask fabrication procedures for inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems are also presented.

Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

The First Coal Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

177

Coal gasification: Belgian first  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... hope for Europe's coal production came with the announcement this month that the first gasification of coal at depths of nearly 1,000 metres would take place this May in ... of energy.

Jasper Becker

1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

178

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

“From Coal to Coke”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN the Sixth Coal Science Lecture, organized by the British ... Science Lecture, organized by the British Coal Utilization Research Association, and given at the Institution of Civil Engineers on October 16, ...

1957-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

180

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Chemicals from coal  

SciTech Connect

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

183

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants  

SciTech Connect

Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effect of Indian Medium Coking Coal on Coke Quality in Non-recovery Stamp Charged Coke Oven  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The maximum possibility of utilizing the Indian coking coals and inferior grade coking coal for producing metallurgical coke through non-recovery stamp charging technology was investigated. Indian indigenous coals contained low percent of vitrinite ( 15%) compared to imported coking coal. Therefore, the selection of appropriate proportion of different types of coals was a major challenge for coke makers. Coal blend selection criterion based on a single coefficient, named as composite coking potential (CCP), was developed. The use of increased proportion of semi-soft coal (crucible swelling number of 2.5) and high ash (? 15%) indigenous coal in the range of 20%–35% and 20%–65% respectively in the blends resulted in good quality of coke. Plant data of a non-recovery coke oven were used for developing and validating the model. The results showed that the coke strength after reaction (CSR) varied in the range of 63. 7%–67.7% and the M40 value was between 81.8 and 89.3 in both the cases.

H.P. Tiwari; P.K. Banerjee; V.K. Saxena; S.K. Haldar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

NETL: Coal Gasification Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Gasification Systems News Gasifipedia Gasifier Optimization Feed Systems Syngas Processing Systems Analyses Gasification Plant Databases International Activity Program Plan...

188

Coal gasification development intensifies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification development intensifies ... Three almost simultaneous developments in coal gasification, although widely divergent in purpose and geography, rapidly are accelerating the technology's movement into an era of commercial exploitation. ... A plant to be built in the California desert will be the first commercialsize coal gasification power plant in the U.S. In West Germany, synthesis gas from a coal gasification demonstration plant is now being used as a chemical feedstock, preliminary to scaleup of the process to commercial size. ...

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ore components in coal  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C. The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Coal Study Guide for Elementary School  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

193

Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program  

SciTech Connect

In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for three and five years respectively prior to removal and evaluation. The objective is to determine how well each material resists corrosion at different operating temperatures and over different time periods and provide characteristic data. Selection of the test materials, system engineering, fabrication, installation and startup of this system is now completed and data acquisition is in progress. This paper gives an overview of the program and its objectives, explains the system, describes section fabrication, identifies the materials selected, and describes ORNL's experience in fabricating four of the advanced materials.

McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Prices..AEO 2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmissionregimes. Sensitivity to Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Stability of Appalachian coal shipments under policy variation  

SciTech Connect

A quadratic programming transportation model and a nonparametric statistical procedure are used to investigate how Appalachian coal-supply flows vary in response to changes in national coal markets and policies, with emphasis on the relative stability of traditional flows. The results show that the relative stability of coal shipments is preserved under small and moderate random shocks, suggesting that coal-shipment patterns remain relatively stable despite changes in the absolute level. The tendency for traditional routes to continue has occurred because of the region's access to transportation networks and its low fixed mining costs. Environmental restriction could change shipment patterns by terminating coal production in some regions. Some areas of instability may require freight subsidies. Increased taxes or changes in mining capital or generating costs could also alter the pattern. Policies to stabilize freight rates and production costs are indicated. 10 references, 8 tables.

Yang, C.W. (Clarion State Coll., PA); Labys, W.C.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

199

Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

200

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Coal dust explosibility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental mine tests. The parameters measured included minimum explosible concentrations, maximum explosion pressures, maximum rates of pressure rise, minimum oxygen concentrations, and amounts of limestone rock dust required to inert the coals. The effects of coal volatility and particle size were evaluated, and particle size was determined to be at least as important as volatility in determining the explosion hazard. For all coals tested, the finest sizes were the most hazardous. The coal dust explosibility data are compared to those of other hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene dust and methane gas, in an attempt to understand better the basics of coal combustion.

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

file://G:\mydocs\Coal\Distribution\2003\distable2.HTML  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 (Thousand Short Tons) Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alabama 5,156 - 5,156 Argentina 345 - 345 Belgium 387 - 387 Brazil 1,825 - 1,825 Bulgaria 363 - 363 Egypt 477 - 477 Germany 167 - 167 Italy 87 - 87 Netherlands 399 - 399 Spain 198 - 198 Turkey 551 - 551 United Kingdom 359 - 359 Kentucky 1,449 - 1,449 Canada 566 - 566 France 104 - 104 Iceland 53 - 53 Italy 139 - 139 Netherlands 268 - 268 Norway 14 - 14 United Kingdom 304 - 304 Pennsylvania 476 8,251 8,820 Australia - 81 81 Belgium - 188 188 Brazil 85 - 87 Canada 203 6,622 6,893 Costa Rica - 40 40 Denmark - 184 184 Dominican Republic - 19 20 France - 193 193 Germany 89 - 89 Ireland - 148 148 Jamaica - 36 36 Morocco - 172 172 Netherlands 99 248 355 Peru - - 12 Portugal - 321 321 Venezuela - - 2 Virginia 4,786

204

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

Edward Levy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants  

SciTech Connect

The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

206

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Coal Storage and Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal preparation, storage, and transportation are essential to coal use. Preparation plants, located near to the mine, remove some inorganic minerals associated with raw coal. Coal is transported from the mines to the point of consumption, often an electric generating plant, by rail, barge and trucks. Railroads are the predominant form of coal transportation within a country. Global coal trade, movement by large ocean-going vessels, continues to increase. At the end use site, the coal is crushed, ground, and the moisture content reduced to the proper specifications for end use. Coal is stored at various points in the supply chain. Processed coal will weather and oxidize, changing its properties; it can self-ignite, unless precautions are taken. Technology in use today is similar to that used in previous decades. Performance improvements have come from improved software and instruments that deliver real-time data. These improve management of sub-processes in the coal supply chain and reduce costs along the supply chain.

J.M. Ekmann; P.H. Le

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Application of artificial neural network to study the performance of jig for beneficiation of non-coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Non-coking coal is the major resource of energy in India. Apart from its utilization in energy sector, the other major application of this coal is in metallurgical sector. The resource of high quality of non-coking coal is not available as per demand; as a result beneficiation of non-coking coal is now becoming essential. Jigging is one of the economical physical beneficiation processes for Indian high ash non-coking coal. At present scenario in coal washery in India, below 3 mm size is not being processed. Attempt has been taken to beneficiate the fine size non-coking coal fractions generated at different sizes of bed materials, feed rates and water rates using laboratory Denver mineral jig. The performance of jig was evaluated in term of Ep and imperfection value. Furthermore artificial neural network (ANN) model has been developed for determining combustible recovery and ash percent of the concentrate. The ANN architecture is made up of three layers (input – hidden – output). A back propagation algorithm was used for training of the ANN model. It has been observed that the predicted values by ANN model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Lopamudra Panda; A.K. Sahoo; A. Tripathy; S.K. Biswal; A.K. Sahu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Modeling of particle trajectories of coal size and density fractions in a gasifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A computational model of a generic commercial two-stage entrained-flow up-flow coal gasifier has been used in the present work to aid the researchers of the… (more)

Slezak, Andrew A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fixation in slag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coallimestone and coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfurSulfate Organic Ash (%) "Organic Sulfur", in Wheelock, Coal

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Industrial coking of coal batch without bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years, Kuznetsk-coal batch has always included bituminous coal. Depending on the content of such coal, the batch may be characterized as lean ... classification was adopted by specialists of the Eastern

P. V. Shtark; Yu. V. Stepanov; N. K. Popova; D. A. Koshkarov…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

215

WCI Case for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal The role of as an energy source The role of coal as an energy source Key Messages * Energy demand has grown strongly and will continue to increase, particularly in developing countries where energy is needed for economic growth and poverty alleviation. * All energy sources will be needed to satisfy that demand by providing a diverse and balanced supply mix. * Coal is vital for global energy security. It is abundantly available, affordable, reliable and easy and safe to transport. * In an energy hungry world the challenge for coal, as for other fossil fuels, is to further substantially reduce its greenhouse gas and other emissions, while continuing to make a major contribution to economic and social development and energy security. * Coal is part way down a technology pathway that has already delivered major

216

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Enhanced near net-shape ceramic refractory composite high temperature cartridge by VPS metallurgical alloying techniques  

SciTech Connect

High performance cartridges are being developed by vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming to near net-shape for use in high temperature space furnaces. A VPS metallurgical alloying technique utilizing alloying elements (rhenium, nickel, etc.) has been developed that produces robust physical properties without jeopardizing the unique chemical properties of the VPS formed tungsten structure. Thin walled cartridges, 0.069 mm (0.027 in.) thick, are produced in continuous lengths of 58.4 cm (23 in.). A refractory metal (i.e. tungsten) is VPS formed as the cartridge wall structure, with a protective ceramic (i.e., alumina) coating inside and out. The ceramic-refractory-ceramic composite provides environmental protection to the refractory metal structure from both chemical attack inside and oxidation outside. The VPS metallurgical alloying process interjected during the spraying operation greatly reduces porosity of the microstructure while enhancing the ductility of the cartridge. Thin walled cartridges have been shown to hermetically seal demonstrating no through porosity. Microstructures have been characterized and material properties will be presented.

Krotz, P.D.; Liaw, Y.; McKechnie, T.N. [Rocketdyne, Huntsville, AL (United States); Holmes, R.; Zimmerman, F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches are investigated. There is a close relation between the clinkering properties and coke quality.

V. M. Shmal’ko; M. A. Solov’ev

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

223

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

224

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio...

225

Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

226

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Coal extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Sub-divided coal is extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula:

Hammack, R. W.; Sears, J. T.; Stiller, A. H.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

228

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

229

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

230

Clean coal technology applications  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

Bharucha, N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Spitsbergen Tertiary Coal Fossils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... grains and spores to be observed in coal deposits of Tertiary age in west Spitsbergen (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Med. 79, pp. 1-9; 1954; English summary).

1955-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

232

Coal Gasification Systems Solicitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas; FE0023577 Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation; FE0023497 OTM-Enhanced...

233

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Handbook of coal analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

James G. Speight

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

237

Direct determination of organic and inorganic sulfur in coal by controlled oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop an analytical method to directly measure the forms of organic sulfur in coal. The method will provide a route to monitor the effectiveness of coal preparation research directed toward removal of organic sulfur in coal. The approach involves subjecting diluted coal samples simultaneously to an oxygen flow and a linear increase in temperature. Distinctive sulfur dioxide evolution patterns are observed among coals of different rank and between raw and treated coals. Assignments have been made relating each specific sulfur dioxide evolution to the non-aromatic organic, aromatic organic, and inorganic sulfur present in coals and treated coals. Work is progressing on schedule to optimize experimental conditions and to improve the efficiency of the controlled-atmosphere programmed-temperature oxidation (CAPTO) method by developing a multiple sample instrumental system.

LaCount, R.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Direct determination of organic and inorganic sulfur in coal by controlled oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop an analytical method to directly measure the forms of organic sulfur in coal. The method will provide a route to monitor the effectiveness of coal preparation research directed toward removal of organic sulfur in coal. The approach involves subjecting diluted coal samples simultaneously to an oxygen flow and a linear increase in temperature. Distinctive sulfur dioxide evolution patterns are observed among coals of different rank and between raw and treated coals. Assignments have been made relating each specific sulfur dioxide evolution to the non-aromatic organic, aromatic organic, and inorganic sulfur present in coals and treated coals. Work is progressing on schedule to optimize experimental conditions and to improve the efficiency of the controlled-atmosphere programmed-temperature oxidation (CAPTO) method by developing a multiple sample instrumental system.

LaCount, R.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Deashing of coal liquids by sonically assisted filtration  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of coal liquefaction by novel applications of sonic and ultrasonic energy. The specific purpose of this project is to develop and improve means for the economical removal of dispersed solid particles of ash, unreacted coal, and spent catalyst from direct and indirect coal liquefaction resids by using sonic or ultrasonic waves. Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. Direct coal liquefaction processes generate liquid products which contain solids including coal-originated mineral matter, unreacted coal, and spent dispersed catalyst. The removal of these solids from a product stream is one of the most difficult problems in direct coal liquefaction processes. Crossflow filtration is suitable for continuous flow operation and, when coupled with a sonic or ultrasonic field, may constitute a solution to operational problems of solids separation in coal liquefaction. However, for the efficient and trouble-free operation of crossflow filters the problems arising from dealing with highly viscous coal liquefaction resids need to be avoided. Either crossflow filters suitable for work at elevated temperatures at reduced resid viscosity should be used or the coal liquefaction process network should be modified to allow for dilution of resids using a distillate fraction, e.g., naphtha, diesel oil, etc., to reduce the viscosity of resids. As perhaps even a more practical alternative, field-assisted crossflow filtration of the reactor`s effluent stream prior to the distillation step should be considered. Such an approach will circumvent the more difficult separation of fine and ultrafine solids from highly viscous coal liquefaction resids.

Slomka, B.J. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

244

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Clean Coal Today Newsletter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Demonstrations Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today is a quarterly newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Coal. Among other things, Clean Coal Today highlights progress under the Clean Coal Power Initiative, the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the few remaining projects of the original Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Reporting on coal R&D performed at government laboratories, as well as in conjunction with stakeholders, it provides key information on FE's coal-related activities, most of which are directed toward near-zero emissions, ultra-efficient technologies of the future. Subscriptions are free – to have your name placed on the mailing list, contact the Editor at Phoebe.Hamill@hq.doe.gov.

246

Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 3rd Quarterly report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a research program on the transport of coal by formation of coal logs, and subsequent transport in pipelines. Separate projects within this program address questions on the formation of the coal logs, flow in pipelines, including slurry pipelines, interaction with water, wear in pipelines, and questions on economics and legal aspects.

Liu, H.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

248

Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Process Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Retrofit to Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO 2 Capture William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Award #: DE-NT0005289 PI: Liang-Shih Fan Presenter: Samuel Bayham Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting July 11, 2013 Pittsburgh, PA Clean Coal Research Laboratory at The Ohio State University Sub-Pilot Scale Unit 250kW th Pilot Unit (Wilsonville, Alabama) Syngas Chemical Looping Coal-Direct Chemical Looping Cold Flow Model Sub-Pilot Scale Unit HPHT Slurry Bubble Column 120kW th Demonstration Unit Calcium Looping Process CCR Process Sub-Pilot Unit F-T Process

249

Process for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Coal Gasification in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... P. S. Andrews gave a full account of the Federal project for the pressure gasification of non-coking coals for the combined purpose of town's gas ' and the ... of town's gas ' and the production of synthetic liquid fuel. Work on the gasification of brown coal in. Victoria was commenced in 1931 by the technical staff of ...

1955-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

251

Chemicals from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974; J. B. Howard...Petras, in Coal Pro-cessing Technology (American Institute of Chem-ical...with the solidifcation of a fluid bituminous coal as it undergoes...Policy Analyst, Science and Technology Policy Office (Staff to the...

Arthur M. Squires

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

252

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

253

HS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal Coal is the most plentiful fuel in the fossil family. The United States has more coal reserves than any other country in the world. In fact, one-fourth of all known coal in the world is in the United States, with large deposits located in 38 states. The United States has almost as much energ y in coal that can be mined as the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. TYPES OF COAL Coal is a black rock made up of large amounts of carbon. Like all fossil fuels, coal can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. Due to the variety of materials buried over time in the

254

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

255

Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals  

SciTech Connect

The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.

R.P. Killmeyer; P.H. Zandhuis; M.V. Ciocco; W. Weldon; T. West; D. Petrunak

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

257

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report April-June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed to Paulette Young at (202) 426-1150, email

258

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Colorado Total 2,113 - - - 2,113 Colorado Railroad 2,113 - - - 2,113 Illinois Total 336 - - - 336 Illinois River 336 - - - 336 Indiana Total 1,076

259

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed

260

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Coal in China  

SciTech Connect

The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

By Coal Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Florida Total - - 15 - 15 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Total 196 - 15 - 211 Georgia Railroad 189 - 1 - 190 Georgia Truck

263

Explosion bonding of dissimilar materials for fabricating APS front end components: Analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties and UHV applications  

SciTech Connect

The front end beamline section contains photon shutters and fixed masks. These components are made of OFHC copper and GlidCOP AL-15. Stainless steels (304 or 316) are also used for connecting photon shutters and fixed masks to other components that operate in the ultrahigh vacuum system. All these dissimilar materials need to be joined together. However, bonding these dissimilar materials is very difficult because of their different mechanical and thermal properties and incompatible metallurgical properties. Explosion bonding is a bonding method in which the controlled energy of a detonating explosive is used to create a metallurgical bond between two or more similar or dissimilar materials. No intermediate filler metal, for example, a brazing compound or soldering alloy, is needed to promote bonding, and no external heat need be applied. A study of the metallurgical and mechanical properties and YGV applications of GlidCop AL-15, OFHC copper, and 304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints has been done. This report contains five parts: an ultrasonic examination of explosion-bonded joints and a standard setup; mechanical-property and thermal-cycle tests of GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded joints; leak tests of a GlidCop AL-15/304 stainless steel explosion-bonded interfaces for UHV application; metallurgical examination of explosion-bonded interfaces and failure analysis, and discussion and conclusion.

Li, Yuheng; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.

1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

265

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Adsorption Behavior of CO2 in Coal and Coal Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coals of diverse characteristics have been chosen to provide a better understanding on the influence of various coal properties, such as maceral, volatile matter, and ash contents. ... In addition, char samples from two of these coals (a non-coking coal A and a coking coal B) were prepared by pyrolysis at 800 and 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and were tested for CO2 adsorption capacity. ... As stated earlier, virgin coal samples considered for the adsorption measurements include coals A, C, and D, which are of low-, high-, and medium-volatile sub-bituminous rank, respectively. ...

Shanmuganathan Ramasamy; Pavan Pramod Sripada; Md Moniruzzaman Khan; Su Tian; Japan Trivedi; Rajender Gupta

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program December 18, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Uncovering Coal’s Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant

268

Coated graphite articles useful in metallurgical processes and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphite articles including crucibles and molds used in metallurgical processes involving the melting and the handling of molten metals and alloys that are reactive with carbon when in a molten state and at process temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are provided with a multiple-layer coating for inhibiting carbon diffusion from the graphite into the molten metal or alloys. The coating is provided by a first coating increment of a carbide-forming metal on selected surfaces of the graphite, a second coating increment of a carbide forming metal and a refractory metal oxide, and a third coating increment of a refractory metal oxide. The second coating increment provides thermal shock absorbing characteristics to prevent delamination of the coating during temperature cycling. A wash coat of unstabilized zirconia or titanium nitride can be applied onto the third coating increment to facilitate release of melts from the coating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Bird, Eugene L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Solar-Grade Silicon from Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Via Iodine Chemical Vapor Transport Purification: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This conference paper describes the atmospheric-pressure in an ''open'' reactor, SiI2 transfers from a hot (>1100C) Si source to a cooler (>750C) Si substrate and decomposes easily via 2SiI2 Si+ SiI4 with up to 5?m/min deposition rate. SiI4 returns to cyclically transport more Si. When the source is metallurgical-grade Si, impurities can be effectively removed by three mechanisms: (1) differing free energies of formation in forming silicon and impurity iodides; (2) distillation; and (3) differing standard free energies of formation during deposition. Distillation has been previously reported. Here, we focused on mechanisms (1) and (3). We made feedstock, analyzed the impurity levels, grew Czochralski single crystals, and evaluated crystal and photovoltaic properties. Cell efficiencies of 9.5% were obtained. Incorporating distillation (step 2) should increase this to a viable level.

Ciszek, T. F.; Wang, T. H.; Page, M. R.; Bauer, R. E.; Landry, M. D.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM) commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1) how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2) how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS), able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

C.F. Rodrigues; C. Laiginhas; M. Fernandes; M.J. Lemos de Sousa; M.A.P. Dinis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Conditioner for flotation of coal  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovering coal is described which comprises the steps of floating coal in an aqueous frothing medium containing an amount of a condensation product of an alkanolamine and naphthenic acid sufficient to increase the recovery of coal as compared to the recovery of coal in an identical process using none of the condensation product.

Nimerick, K.H.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

272

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Coal Science: Basic Research Opportunities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon is arranged in coal becomes real. What...NMR experiments at high temperatures. This...of characterizing high-boiling coal "liquids" which...reactions. Coal mineral matter. Most U.S. coals...burned is called ash. Techniques are...

Martin L. Gorbaty; Franklin J. Wright; Richard K. Lyon; Robert B. Long; Richard H. Schlosberg; Zeinab Baset; Ronald Liotta; Bernard G. Silbernagel; Dan R. Neskora

1979-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616  

SciTech Connect

Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating facility. Solid concentrate produced is sent for long controlled storage. Complex of the procedures carried out makes it possible to solve problems on treatment of LRW generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing in Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) Mayak and cease its discharge into open water reservoirs. (authors)

Adamovich, D. [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)] [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation); Batorshin, G.; Logunov, M.; Musalnikov, A. [FSUE 'PO Mayak', 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)] [FSUE 'PO Mayak', 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Effect of petroleum coke addition on coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main fuel for power generation is combustion of coal and/or natural gas. Natural gas is expensive but clean and less problematic whereas coal is the reverse of natural gas. Natural gas resources are expected to last until 2020 where else coal has another 200 years expectancy. To replace the natural gas synthetic gas (syngas) can be used as a substitute fuel. Syngas can be produced using coal as fuel. In this study we blend petcoke a cheap solid carboneous fuel as an alternative to coal for the production of syngas using a 30 Kwattheat bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. The equivalent ratio (ER) was set at 2.8 and a gasification temperature was maintained between 680 to 710°C by manipulating between the feed flow rates and fluidizing medium. This condition was chosen as it proved to be the optimum based on the work by the same group. Various blend of coal:petcoke between 0 to 100% was analyzed. It was found that a 20:80 petcoke to coal gives a good correlation with 100% coal gasification.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Structure and thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T. (eds.)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

278

Numerical analysis of the flow field inside an entrained-flow gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The flow field of an entrained-flow gasifier was numerically simulated to describe coal gasification ... inlet velocity, extension in burner length and gasifier geometry. The calculation results showed that the ....

Young Chan Choi; Xiang Yang Li; Tae Jun Park…

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. Th e United States also has more coal reserves than any other single country in the world. In fact, 1/4 of all the known coal in the world is in the United States. Th e United States has more energy in coal that can be mined than the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. Currently, coal is mined in 25 of the 50 states. Coal is used primarily in the United States to generate electricity. In fact, it is burned in power plants to produce nearly half of the electricity we use. A stove uses about half a ton of coal a year. A water heater uses about two tons of coal a year. And a refrigerator, that's another half-ton a year. Even though you

280

Slag-Refractory Interaction in Coal Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has taken an integrated approach to address major technical issues in conversion of coal into clean-burning liquid fuel. The approach includes: 1) modeling of gasifier and slag flow, 2) experimental characterization of slag viscoelastic behavior as a function of temperature for representative slags and refractory-slag interactions, and 3) interplay of the modeling and experimental measurements to identify critical conditions beyond which refractory corrosion tends to increase sharply. Basic heat and mass balances were considered in the gasifier and flow models. Two new refractory spalling models were developed. An experimental design that encompassed the broad range of slag chemistries that were of interest to coal gasification was developed and implemented. Selected gasifier refractories were tested in a simulated gasifier environment in our laboratory to identify refractory degradation mechanisms. Preliminary results of the effort are summarized.

Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Matyas, Josef; Fluegel, Alexander; Cooley, Scott K.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Edmondson, Autumn B.

2007-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Colorado Railroad 575 - - - 575 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 241 - - - 241 Kentucky Railroad 827 - 12 - 839 Kentucky (East) Railroad 76 - - - 76 Kentucky (West) Railroad

282

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Colorado Railroad 514 - - - 514 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 172 - - - 172 Kentucky Railroad 635 - 11 - 647 Kentucky (East) Railroad 45 - - - 45 Kentucky (West)

283

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Colorado Railroad 385 - - - 385 Illinois River 15 - - - 15 Indiana Railroad 1 - - - 1 Indiana River 350 - - - 350 Indiana Total 351 - - - 351 Kentucky Railroad 682 - 2 - 685 Kentucky (East)

284

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2010 June 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/ _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

285

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Colorado Railroad 640 - - - 640 Illinois River 123 - - - 123 Indiana River 312 - - - 312 Kentucky Railroad 622 - 36 - 658 Kentucky (East) Railroad 96 - 36 - 132 Kentucky (West)

286

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Colorado Total 468 - - - 468 Colorado Railroad 468 - - - 468 Illinois Total 90 - 26 - 116 Illinois River 90 - 26 - 116 Indiana Total 181 - - - 181 Indiana River 181 -

287

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2012 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Colorado Total 82 - - - 82 Colorado Railroad 82 - - - 82 Illinois Total 149 - 14 - 163 Illinois Railroad 44 - - - 44 Illinois River 105 - 14 - 119 Indiana Total 99 - - - 99

288

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2008 July 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

289

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2009 September 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

290

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7/01Q) 7/01Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2007 June 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

291

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Georgia Railroad 23 - - - 23 Georgia Truck s - - - s Georgia Total 23 - - - 23 Indiana Railroad - 115 - - 115 Indiana Truck - 71 - - 71 Indiana Total - 186 - - 186 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Tennessee Truck

292

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2008 December 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

293

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2008 September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

294

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8/04Q) 8/04Q) Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2008 March 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

295

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Colorado Railroad 600 - - - 600 Illinois River 203 - 13 - 217 Indiana River 180 - - - 180 Kentucky Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Kentucky (West) Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Utah Railroad 18 - - -

296

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

297

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

298

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,486 155 328 - 1,970 Alabama Railroad 1,020 - 75 - 1,095 Alabama River 417 - - - 417 Alabama Truck 49 155 253 - 458 Colorado Total 195 - - - 195 Colorado Railroad 195 - - - 195 Illinois Total 127 - 18 - 145 Illinois Railroad 20 - - - 20 Illinois River 107 - 18 - 125 Indiana Total

300

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Georgia Total s - s - s Georgia Truck s - s - s Indiana Total - 98 - - 98 Indiana Railroad - 98 - - 98 Kentucky Total - - 12 - 12 Kentucky Truck - - 12 - 12 Ohio Total - 30 - - 30 Ohio

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Colorado Total 621 2 - - 623 Colorado Railroad 621 2 - - 623 Illinois Total 113 - 11 - 123 Illinois River 113 - 11 - 123 Indiana Total 265 - - - 265 Indiana Railroad

302

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Georgia Total s - - - s Georgia Truck s - - - s Indiana Total - 72 - - 72 Indiana Railroad - 72 - - 72 Tennessee Total - - 7 - 7 Tennessee Truck - - 7 - 7 Origin State Total 1,896

303

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

304

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation  

SciTech Connect

Accurate, cost-efficient monitoring instrumentation has long been considered essential to the operation of power plants. Nonetheless, for the monitoring of coal flow, such instrumentation has been sorely lacking and technically difficult to achieve. With more than half of the electrical power in the United States currently supplied by coal, energy generated by this resource is critical to the US economy. The demand for improvement in this area has only increased as a result of the following two situations: First, deregulation has produced a heightened demand for both reduced electrical cost and improved grid connectivity. Second, environmental concerns have simultaneously resulted in a need for both increased efficiency and reduced carbon and NOx emissions. A potential approach to addressing both these needs would be improvement in the area of combustion control. This would result in a better heat rate, reduced unburned carbon in ash, and reduced NOx emissions. However, before feedback control can be implemented, the ability to monitor coal flow to the burners in real-time must be established. While there are several ''commercially available'' products for real-time coal flow measurement, power plant personnel are highly skeptical about the accuracy and longevity of these systems in their current state of development. In fact, following several demonstration projects of in-situ coal flow measurement systems in full scale utility boilers, it became obvious that there were still many unknown influences on these instruments during field applications. Due to the operational environment of the power plant, it has been difficult if not impossible to sort out what parameters could be influencing the various probe technologies. Additionally, it has been recognized for some time that little is known regarding the performance of coal flow splitters, even where rifflers are employed. Often the coal flow distribution from these splitters remains mal-distributed. There have been mixed results in the field using variable orifices in coal pipes. Development of other coal flow control devices has been limited. An underlying difficulty that, to date, has hindered the development of an accurate instrument for coal flow measurements is the fact that coal flow is characterized by irregular temporal and spatial variation. However, despite the inherent complexity of the dynamic system, the system is in fact deterministic. Therefore, in principle, the coal flow can be deduced from the dynamics it exhibits. Nonetheless, the interactions are highly nonlinear, rendering standard signal processing approaches, which rely on techniques such as frequency decomposition, to be of little value. Foster-Miller, Inc. has developed a methodology that relates the complex variation in such systems to the information of interest. This technology will be described in detail in Section 2. A second concern regarding the current measurement systems is installation, which can be labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive. A process that does not require the pulverizer to be taken off line would be highly desirable. Most microwave and electrostatic methods require drilling up to 20 holes in the pipe, all with a high degree of precision so as to produce a proper alignment of the probes. At least one electrostatic method requires a special spool piece to be fitted into each existing coal pipe. Overall, these procedures are both difficult and very expensive. An alternative approach is pursued here, namely the development of an instrument that relies on an acoustic signal captured by way of a commercial accelerometer. The installation of this type of sensor is both simpler and less invasive than other techniques. An accelerometer installed in a pipe wall need not penetrate through the wall, which means that the system may be able to remain on line during the installation. Further, due to the fact that the Dynamical Instruments technology, unlike other systems, does not rely on uniformity of the air or coal profile, the installation location need not be on a long, straight run

R. Demler

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

delivered costs of coal, by year and primary transport mode Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton) Average Delivered Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)...

307

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ...

James Wei

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

John W. Larsen; Peter Hall; Patrick C. Wernett

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

He Huang; Keyu Wang; David M. Bodily; V. J. Hucka

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

311

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with the2001, domestic Chinese coal prices moved from stable levels

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

Bhat, M.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to have indicated economic coal reserves of at least 15tonnes of indicated economic coal reserves. Map 1: Chinaand economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

318

Coal Utilization Science Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Description The Coal Utilization Science (CUS) Program sponsors research and development (R&D) in fundamental science and technology areas that have the potential to result in major improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and environmental performance of advanced power generation systems using coal, the Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The challenge for these systems is to produce power in an efficient and environmentally benign manner while remaining cost effective for power providers as well as consumers. The CUS Program is carried out by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program supports DOE's Strategic Plan to:

319

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology Methodology EIA uses the confidential version of the STB Waybill data, which includes actual revenue for shipments that originate and terminate at specific locations. The STB Waybill data are a sample of all rail shipments. EIA's 2011 report describes the sampling procedure. EIA aggregates the confidential STB data to three different levels: national, coal-producing basin to state, and state to state. EIA applies STB withholding rules to the aggregated data to identify records that must be suppressed to protect business-sensitive data. Also, EIA adds additional location fields to the STB data, identifying the mine from which the coal originates, the power plant that receives the coal, and, in some cases, an intermediate delivery location where coal is terminated by the initial carrier but then

320

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ...

C. Y. Wen; T. Z. Chaung

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

On Coal-Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1860-1862 research-article On Coal-Gas W. R. Bowditch The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. www.jstor.org

1860-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

324

Quarterly coal report  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Survey data. Each plant receiving CAPP or PRB coal in 2007 and 2010 were mapped and their data used to estimate costs for other cells by interpolating values based on inverse...

326

Clean Coal Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

327

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

WCI Case for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with the steam cycle of coal-fired power plants offers the potential to convert 40% of solar energy into electricity. This compares to 13% for large-scale photovoltaic systems,...

329

Coal Supply Region  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implicit Price Deflators for Gross Domestic Product, as published by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. For the composition of coal basins, refer to the definition of...

330

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Relative permeabilities of gas and water for different rank coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characteristics of gas–water two-phase flow through coal seams play crucial roles in water depletion and gas production associated with coalbed methane (CBM) recovery. One of the most important characteristic is the relative permeability of gas and water which is largely dependent on gas/water saturations in coal, varying with coal ranks. For better understanding of the seepage mechanism of the gas–water flow in coal, the relative permeabilities of gas and water in different rank coals selected from south Qinshui Basin have been investigated under various gas/water saturations through water replacement with methane using an unsteady-state method. The results have shown that the ratio of effective methane permeability and absolute permeability is obviously increasing with rank, implying that the gas slippage of high rank coal has more significant effect than the low rank coal. A series of relative permeability curves for selected coals have been obtained. All of these curves show that the selected coals are featured by smaller methane permeabilities and narrow spans of two-phase flow regions and lower relative permeability, and have low methane permeabilities under irreducible water condition as well. The experiments also revealed that the selected coals exhibit high residual water saturation with low relative permeabilities of gas and water. With increasing of the maximal vitrinite reflectance, the irreducible water saturation exhibits a U-shaped tendency whereas the methane permeability under the irreducible water condition generally increases. The irreducible water saturation slightly increases with increasing of vitrinite and weakly decreases as inertinite increases, while the methane permeability under irreducible water condition is negatively related with vitrinite and positively related to inertinite to some extent. The experimental data were further parameterized to correlate the relative permeabilities of methane and water to gas saturation, showing that a correlation of power function can fit the experiments well. As a result, a permeability model incorporated with coal rank and maceral compositions with gas saturation was developed to predict the relative permeabilities of gas (methane) and water in coals.

Jian Shen; Yong Qin; Geoff X. Wang; Xuehai Fu; Chongtao Wei; Bo Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity ... Samples were prepared by ashing coals to completion at 815 °C; then a slag was generated under nitrogen at >1650 °C with the appropriate amount of reagent grade calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as flux added. ... (5)?Watt, J. D.; Fereday, F. The Flow Properties of Slags Formed from the Ashes of British Coals:? Part 1. Viscosity of Homogeneous Liquid Slags in Relation to Slag Composition. ...

G. J. Browning; G. W. Bryant; H. J. Hurst; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

335

Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984  

SciTech Connect

Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

Paranjape, A.S.

1984-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Section 5 - Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal has the longest history of use among the fossil fuels, with use as a fuel dating to 3000 BC in China and Wales. Marco Polo’s “Description of the World” (1298) comments on many novel customs and practices of China, including the use of “stones that burn like logs” (coal). By the thirteenth century the mining of coal was widespread in England in regions such as Durham, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and North and South Wales. By the early seventeenth century nearly half of England’s maritime trade consisted of coal exports. Coal was the fuel that launched the Industrial Revolution in Europe and then the United States. By the late 1890s, the U.S. assumed the lead in world coal production. Britain now ranked second, after having been the world leader since the beginnings of the formal industry in the 1500s. Germany was third, an indication of its growing industrial power relative to continental rival France. Coal’s leading role in energy use peaked in the early twentieth century, after which it was supplanted by oil and natural gas. By the late twentieth century China’s rapid economic expansion, surging demand for electricity, and prodigious coal resources combined to propel it to become the world leader in production. Continuous improvements in coal mining technology have produced lower costs, improved safety, and greater labor productivity. John Buddle introduced the first air pump to ventilate coal mines (1803), followed shortly by the miner’s safety lamps that were developed independently by Sir Humphry Davy, William Clanny, and George Stephenson (1813-1816). Coal mining underwent a rapid transition in the 1880s to mechanical coal cutting in mines in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia. The St. Joseph Lead Company of Missouri (1900) invented the first underground mine roof bolts that became a key safety feature in underground coal mines. The first commercially successful bucket wheel excavator was used at the Luise Mine in Braunkohlemwerke, Germany (1925), followed by the first successful continuous miners in U.S. underground coal mining (1948). The first mechanized U.S. longwall mining system appeared in 1951, and was followed by the self-advancing hydraulic longwall support system that provided greater support for the roof of the mine. LeTourneau Technologies, Inc. of Texas manufactured the largest rubber tired front-end wheel loader in the world, the L-2350, which would play an important role in loading coal in Wyoming’s large surface mines (2005). Coal mining has always been a very hazardous occupation, and has produced some of history’s worst industrial disasters. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, caused the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France (1906). An explosion in a coal mine in Liaoning province in northeastern China killed more than 1,500 Chinese miners (1942), as did other major accidents in Ky?sh?, Japan (1914), Wankie, Rhodesia (1972), Wales (1913), Bihar, India (1965), and West Virginia, U.S. (1907), to name just a few. Legislation such as the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act in the U.S. (1969) improved working conditions in many nations. The Great Smog of London (1952) occurred after an exceptionally cold winter forced homes and factories to burn large quantities of coal. A temperature inversion formed, trapping pollutants above the ground. More than 4,000 people died from respiratory ailments within the following week. The use of coal has been impacted by legislation to control the environmental impacts associated with its mining and combustion. The first known environmental regulation of coal dates to 1306 when King Edward II of England prohibited burning sea coal while Parliament was in session because of its offensive smoke. Sulfur dioxide from coal combustion was tied to acid rain in the 1960s, and carbon dioxide emissions became a concern beginning in the 1980s when climate change emerged as a critical environmental issue.

Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher Morris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Weekly Coal Production by State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Weekly Coal Production Weekly Coal Production Data for week ended: December 14, 2013 | Release date: December 19, 2013 | Next release date: December 30, 2013 For the week ended December 14, 2013: U.S. coal production totaled approximately 18.9 million short tons (mmst) This production estimate is 3.1% higher than last week's estimate and 2.9% lower than the production estimate in the comparable week in 2012 Coal production east of the Mississippi River totaled 8.2 mmst Coal production west of the Mississippi River totaled 10.8 mmst U.S. year-to-date coal production totaled 957.1 mmst, 1.9% lower than the comparable year-to-date coal production in 2012 EIA revises its weekly estimates of state-level coal production using Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) quarterly coal production data.

339

Advances in pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

A combustion system has been developed to operate cost effectively in the difficult regulatory and economic climate of the 1980's. The system is designed to reduce auxiliary fuel oil comsumption by at least 30% while meeting all relevant emissions limits. This is achieved with the fewest components consistent with practical reliable design criteria. The Controlled Flow Split/Flame low NO/sub x/ burner, MBF pulverizer and Two-Stage ignition system are integrated into a mutually supporting system which is applicable to both new steam generators and, on a retrofit basis, to existing units. In the future, a pulverized coal ignition system will be available to eliminate fuel oil use within the boiler.

Vatsky, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report (U). Third and fourth quarters 1996, Vol. I  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1996.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 27B, No. 4 (August), 1996, pp. 617-632. Intermixing Model of Continuous Casting during a Grade Transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 27B, No. 4 (August), 1996, pp. 617-632. Intermixing Model conditions should be chosen to minimize the amount of intermixed steel, and / or a secondary market must

Thomas, Brian G.

343

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Definition: Anthracite coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anthracite coal A hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal; contains 86-97% carbon, and generally has...

345

Optimization of experimental conditions for recovery of coking coal fines by oil agglomeration technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The significance of coking coal in the metallurgical sector as well as the meager coking coal reserves across the globe increase the necessity to recover coking coal fines from the fine coking coal slurries generated from coal preparation and utilization activities. Oil agglomeration studies were carried out by varying the experimental conditions for maximum recovery of coking coal fines i.e., yield of the agglomerates. The various operational parameters studied were oil dosage, agitation speed, agglomeration time and pulp density. By using Taguchi experimental design, oil dosage (20%), agitation speed (1100 rpm), agglomeration time (3 min) and pulp density (4.5%) were identified as the optimized conditions. A confirmation experiment has also been carried out at the optimized conditions. The percentage contribution of each parameter on agglomerate yield was analyzed by adopting analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method as well as multiple linear regression analysis. The order of influence of the parameters on the agglomerate yield is of the following order: pulp density > oil dosage > agitation speed > agglomeration time. A mathematical model was developed to fit the set of experimental conditions with the yield obtained at each test run and also at the optimized conditions. The experimentally obtained yield was compared with the predicted yield of the model and the results indicate a maximum error of 5% between the two. A maximum yield of 90.42% predicted at the optimized conditions appeared to be in close agreement with the experimental yield thus indicating the accuracy of the model in predicting the results.

G.H.V.C. Chary; M.G. Dastidar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Natural radioactivity of Zambian coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

226Ra and232Th specific activities in coal from Maamba Collieries in Zambia have been...?1..., respectively. These values are nearly two and a half times larger than the world average for coal an...

P. Hayumbu; M. B. Zaman; S. S. Munsanje

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Coking properties of coal pitch in coal batch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coking properties of coal pitch depend significantly on its fractional composition, ... : 2: 2. This is typical of coal pitch with a softening temperature of 75– ... Such pitch is the best clinkering additive...

S. G. Gagarin; Yu. I. Neshin

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Effect of laser tempering of high alloy powder metallurgical tool steels after laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of tempering after laser cladding of a high alloyed powder metallurgical tool steel was studied for die repairing purposes. In particular, a high power diode laser with scanning optics was employed for tempering. The laser tempering temperature was proven to be a critical factor in improving the mechanical properties of the coatings. In order to measure and evaluate the effect of different processing parameters (mainly laser power and linear speed) on the achieved temperature, an infrared camera and a two-color pyrometer were used. The tempering effect was mainly evaluated through cross-section microhardness profiles. The microstructure of the coatings was also studied using optical and scanning electron microscope, and the volumetric fraction of retained austenite was determined by X-ray diffraction. Experimental results demonstrated that laser tempering is a useful and appealing technique to improve the hardness of laser deposited coatings of high alloyed tool steels, which is a clear advantage when large parts have to be repaired or reinforced by laser cladding.

Josu Leunda; Virginia García Navas; Carlos Soriano; Carmen Sanz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project was to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois (IL) coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high-sulfur content and high-Btu value of IL coals are Particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary-calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high-sulfur coal is more than offset b the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high-Btu IL coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is--higher not only because of the hither Btu value of the coal but also because IL coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for IL coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. During the contract extension, additional coal testing was completed confirming the fact that coal concentrates can be made from plant waste under a variety of flotation conditions 33 tests were conducted, yielding an average of 13326 Btu with 9.6% ash while recovering 86.0%-Of the energy value.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Lytle, J.M.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.A.; Kohlenberger, L.B.; Brewer, K.K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)]|[DESTEC Energy (United States)]|[Williams Technologies, Inc. (United States)]|[Illinois Coal Association (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

International Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.jpg (1776 bytes) coal.jpg (1776 bytes) CoalÂ’s share of world energy consumption falls slightly in the IEO99 forecast. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia, but it is projected to lose market share to natural gas in some other areas of the world. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1996. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 30

355

Status of Coal Gasification: 1977  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-pressure technology is important to coal gasification for several reasons. When the end product ... of high pressures in all types of coal gasification reduces the pressure drop throughout the equipment,...

F. C. Schora; W. G. Bair

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

357

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide  

SciTech Connect

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

2008 Coal Age buyers guide  

SciTech Connect

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference  

SciTech Connect

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, November 14--16, 1989. Topics discussed included the following: Expanded Horizons for US Coal Technology and Coal Trade; Future Coal-Fired Generation and Capacity Requirements of the Philippines; Taiwan Presentation; Korean Presentation; Hong Kong Future Coal Requirements; Indonesian Presentation; Electric Power System in Thailand; Coal in Malaysia -- A Position Paper; The US and Asia: Pacific Partners in Coal and Coal Technology; US Coal Production and Export; US Clean Coal Technologies; Developments in Coal Transport and Utilization; Alternative/Innovative Transport; Electricity Generation in Asia and the Pacific: Power Sector Demand for Coal, Oil and Natural Gas; Role of Clean Coal Technology in the Energy Future of the World; Global Climate Change: A Fossil Energy Perspective; Speaker: The Role of Coal in Meeting Hawaii's Power Needs; and Workshops on Critical Issues Associated with Coal Usage. Individual topics are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-The similarity of the description of moon dust particles and that of pulverized coal ...coalash ...

D. J. THORNE; J. D. WATT

1969-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

364

Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Report 2012 Annual Coal Report 2012 December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. iii U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Contacts This publication was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). General information about the data in this report can be obtained from:

365

Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 101. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 15. Coal Supply, Disposition and Price Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central Table 27. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South

366

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

367

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

368

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Railroad 105 - 1 - 106 Georgia Truck s - 4 - 4 Georgia Total 105 - 5 - 110 Indiana Railroad - 106 - - 106 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,065 259 321 - 2,644

369

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Georgia Railroad 9 - - - 9 Georgia Truck 7 - 5 - 12 Georgia Total 16 - 5 - 21 Indiana Railroad - 126 - - 126 Tennessee Truck - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,320 353 325 - 2,998 Railroad 848 137 83 - 1,068

370

coal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal coal Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal consumption csp factors geothermal PV renewable energy technologies Water wind withdrawal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies (xlsx, 32.3 KiB)

371

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS STRENGTH THROUGH SCIENCE... A "GREENER, SOONER" PHILOSOPHY Coal, natural gas, and oil fuel about 70 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. As promising as renewable and other alternative fuels are, it will be several decades before they can make significant energy contributions to the Nation's

372

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Georgia Railroad 52 - - - 52 Georgia Truck s - 5 - 5 Georgia Total 52 - 5 - 57 Indiana Railroad - 65 - - 65 Origin State Total 1,855 304 313 - 2,472 Railroad 996 81 89 - 1,165

373

Pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Georgia Total s - 3 - 3 Georgia Truck s - 3 - 3 Ohio Total - 3 - - 3 Ohio River - 3 - - 3 Origin State Total 1,942 163 338 - 2,443 Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 River 741 3 - - 745 Truck 52 160

376

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Georgia Truck s - 2 - 2 Indiana Railroad - 148 - - 148 Ohio Railroad - 25 - - 25 Ohio River - 18 - - 18 Ohio Total - 43 - - 43 Origin State Total 1,760 373 305 - 2,438 Railroad 1,040 191 80 - 1,311 River

377

Coal Gasification Report.indb  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Coal Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies Produced for the Department of Energy (DOE)/ National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Gasification Technologies Council (GTC) September 2004 Coal-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Strategies and Recommendations Final Report Study Performed by:

378

EIA - AEO2010 - Coal projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Projections Coal Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Coal Projections Figure 88. Coal production by region, 1970-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 89. U.S. coal production in six cases, 2008, 2020, and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 90. Average annual minemouth coal prices by region, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 91. Average annual delivered coal prices in four cases, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 92. Change in U.S. coal consumption by end use in two cases, 2008-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Coal production increases at a slower rate than in the past In the AEO2010 Reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation, along with the startup of several CTL plants, leads to growth in coal production averaging 0.2 percent per year from 2008 to 2035. This is significantly less than the 0.9-percent average growth rate for U.S. coal production from 1980 to 2008.

379

Gasification of Coal and Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , said the Gas Council is spending £120,000 this year on research into coal gasification, and the National Coal Board and the Central Electricity Generating Board £680,000 and ... coal utilization. The Gas Council is spending about £230,000 on research into the gasification of oil under a programme intended to contribute also to the improvement of the economics ...

1960-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

380

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported ... RESULTS of a first step taken toward determining the feasibility of the underground gasification of coal were reported recently to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission by Milton H. Fies, manager of coal operations for the Alabama Power Co. ...

1947-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

Subramanian, Venkat

382

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure ... steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined pro...

V. E. Nakoryakov; G. V. Nozdrenko; A. G. Kuzmin

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A Method for Evaluating the Application of Variable Frequency Drives with Coal Mine Ventilation Fans.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The adjustable-pitch setting on an axial-flow fan is the most common method of controlling airflow for primary coal mine ventilation. With this method, the fan… (more)

Murphy, Tyson M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Solvent–Coal–Mineral Interaction during Solvent Extraction of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solvent extraction of Poplar lignite coal was studied with three model solvents (tetralin, quinoline, and 1-naphtol) and one industrial coal liquid derived solvent. ... Thanks to its wide distribution and large reserves, coal is a feasible local substitute feed material for conventional crude oil in many countries. ... Physical dissolution dominates at lower temperature, around 200 °C and lower temperatures for lignites; the role of the solvent is to relax the coal matrix and drag soluble molecules from the coal into the bulk solvent phase. ...

Mariangel Rivolta Hernández; Carolina Figueroa Murcia; Rajender Gupta; Arno de Klerk

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

385

US energy flow, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Trends in energy consumption and assessment of energy sources are discussed. Specific topics discussed include: energy flow charts; comparison of energy use with 1990 and earlier years; supply and demand of fossil fuels (oils, natural gas, coal); electrical supply and demand; and nuclear power.

Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

388

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C&CBTL C&CBTL Coal and Power Systems Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids program effort is focused on technologies to foster the commercial adoption of coal and coal/biomass gasification and the production of affordable liquid fuels and hydrogen with excellent environmental performance. U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits

389

Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8, 2013 8, 2013 Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant resources. The program has forged partnerships between academia and the private sector that have led to advances not only in how we use coal, but

391

Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels  

SciTech Connect

A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO2 was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO2. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H2O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H2O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times and off-gas compositions

Mitchell, Reginald

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Chapter 8 - Coal Seam Degasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chapter discusses various techniques for coal seam degasification. All coal seams are gassy but they differ in their degree of gassiness. Pre-mining and post-mining techniques for underground coal mines are discussed. With good planning, 50–80% of in-situ gas in coal can be removed before mining improving both safety and productivity. Similarly, 50–80% of gas from mined-out areas (gobs) can be removed to minimize ventilation air requirements. Gas transport in underground mines and economics of coal seam degasification are also discussed.

Pramod Thakur

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The Public Subsidies of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I have spent most of my life in western Pennsylvania, in the Appalachian coal belt of the U.S. I have direct experience with the economic, environmental, and social impacts of coal extraction and use. ... Although coal was important in building the economy of western Pennsylvania as well as the economies of other coal regions, its extraction and use left a legacy of damage: thousands of miles of streams severely impacted by acid drainage from abandoned mines; large piles of coal mine refuse; old strip mines that have not been refilled; damaged groundwater resources; and land subsidence from underground mining. ...

David A. Dzombak

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

394

4 - Coal resources and reserves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Coal resources still make up a significant proportion of the world’s energy supplies. Coal resources are estimated to be 860 billion tonnes. These resources are geographically well distributed and current production provides fuel for 29% of the world’s primary energy consumption. The classification of coal resources and reserves has been redefined in recent years, with the standards and codes of practice adopted by the principal coal-producing countries being equated on a global basis. Details of the principal classifications are given, together with their international equivalents. Reporting of resources and reserves plus methods of calculation are also given, together with recent assessments of global coal reserves.

L.P. Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High School Coal Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School...

396

Coal Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - High School...

397

An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three?dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance?blowpipe?tuyere?raceway?coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe?tuyere?raceway?coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition respectively. The comprehensive in?furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed in terms of flow temperature gas composition and coal burning characteristics. In addition underlying mechanisms for the in?furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost?effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in?furnace flow?thermo?chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full?scale blast furnaces.

Y. S. Shen; B. Y. Guo; A. B. Yu; P. Austin; P. Zulli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Pneumatic conveying of coal and coal-limestone mixtures as applied to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. [Effects of moisture, velocity, particle size  

SciTech Connect

Pneumatic conveying experiments with coal and coal-limestone mixtures were performed on a conveying system designed to represent the feed lines in the Tennessee Valley Authority 20 MW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. The experimental conditions were chosen to cover the anticipated combustor operating ranges. The results have led to a fundamental understanding of the operating limits associated with coal surface moisture, air velocity, coal and limestone fines, solids to air ratio, and limestone to coal ratio. Coal surface moisture was found to be the most important parameter affecting handling and transport. Specific upper limits for surface moisture were established. It was demonstrated that addition of dry limestone can reduce the conveying problems associated with wet coal. The air velocities causing saltation and surge flow were determined for a variety of conveying conditions. These velocities were related qualitatively to solids to air ratio, particle size, and surface moisture. Conveying pressure drop was also measured for a variety of conditions. In the absence of saltation, the horizontal, frictional pressure drop was only a function of the solids to air ratio and the air flow conditions. Comparison of the ORNL pressure drop data with the results of other investigators had led to the conclusion that there are two basic modes of flow in dilute-phase conveying; a primarily viscous mode and a primarily inertial mode. A general pressure drop model has been developed for the inertial mode.

Daw, C S; Thomas, J F

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Coke and Coal Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A. Mott at the University of Sheffield, are concerned with problems affecting the hard coke industry, which enjoys facilities for large-scale experimentation through its member firms such as ... of the body organizing this work visited the Kingston and Fulham Laboratories of the British Coal Utilisation Research Association on September 9. Mr. J. G. Bennett, director of ...

1943-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

400

Methane and Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... stored source of the energy supplies of the world ; every twenty years the world burns a volume of coal equivalent to the volume of Snowdon (a cone of base ... hole method being most in favour. This method is being applied in about twelve British pits. The amount of methane drawn off appears to depend on the movement of the ...

ALFRED EGERTON

1952-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Chemicals from Coal Coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemicals from Coal Coking ... Since 2009, she has been at INCAR-CSIC, researching the preparation and characterization of carbon materials (cokes and fibers) and nanomaterials (nanotubes and graphenes) and their catalytic, environmental, and energy applications. ... He then joined the Fundamental Studies Section of the British Coke (later Carbonization) Research Association, eventually becoming Head of Fundamental Studies. ...

Marcos Granda; Clara Blanco; Patricia Alvarez; John W. Patrick; Rosa Menéndez

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

Characterization of the origin and distribution of the minerals and phases in metallurgical cokes  

SciTech Connect

Three industrial metallurgical cokes were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS). The study highlighted the difficulties and implications of identifying the inherent crystalline mineral phases in cokes using XRD such that increasing the ashing temperature led to the formation of anhydrite and destruction of metallic iron: microwave plasma ashing resulted in minimal alteration of the original coke mineralogy apart from the formation of bassanite and possibly jarosite. A preliminary scheme to characterize coke minerals is presented such that, physically, minerals can be classified as fine ({lt}50 {mu}m), coarse (50-100 {mu}m), and agglomerate ({gt}1000 {mu}m); chemically, minerals can be grouped as refractory, semirefractory, and reactive, while on the basis of distribution they can be described as discrete, disseminated, or pore inclusions. Quartz, cristobalite, mullite, and high melting point Al-silicates were found to be the predominant refractory phases while low melting point Al-silicates, e.g., containing high fluxing elements such as K, and Fe were the main semirefractory phases present in all cokes. A variety of iron containing phases including pyrrhotite, troilite, iron oxides, metallic iron, and iron silicates were also invariably present in all cokes while calcium phases were found to occur as sulfide, silicates, and phosphates. In general, iron and calcium phases can be categorized as reactive phases with few exceptions such as oldhamite (CaS). The study highlighted that most of the cokes possess a similar mineralogy, with the main distinction being in their relative abundance, particle size, and nature of distribution in the coke matrix. The study provides a basis to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of minerals on coke reactivity and strength at high temperatures. 41 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Sushil Gupta; Maria Dubikova; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program Evaluation of the First Section Removed in November 2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Reliant Energy’s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles ’ Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

Dennis K. Mcdonald

404

Definition: Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Coal A combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time (typically millions of years). It is the most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later

405

International Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1997. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 33 percent between 1985 and 1997, displaced in considerable measure by

406

International Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal picture of a printer Printer Friendly Version (PDF) Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since the late 1980s, a trend that is expected to continue. Although 1999 world consumption, at 4.7 billion short tons,9 was 15 percent higher than coal use in 1980, it was lower than in any year since 1984 (Figure 51). The International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO2001) reference case projects some growth in coal use between 1999 and 2020, at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, but with considerable variation among regions.

407

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Characteristics of coking coal burnout  

SciTech Connect

An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

Nakamura, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Bailey, J.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Coal mine methane global review  

SciTech Connect

This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A New Hydrogen Bond in Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During our study on hydrogen bond in coal by diffuse reflectance IR, we found that a weak peak at 2514 cm-1 always occurred for some coals. ... Infrared absorption spectra of coals and coal extracts ... The FTIR spectra during the heat-up of eight coals (seven Argonne premium coals and an Australian brown coal), an ion-exchange resin, and a lignin were measured every 20 °C from room temp. ...

Dongtao Li; Wen Li; Baoqing Li

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

411

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\ICR\My%20Documents\Coal\Di  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 (Thousand Short Tons) Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alabama 3,977 - 3,977 Argentina 225 - 225 Belgium 437 - 437 Brazil 1,468 - 1,468 Bulgaria 75 - 75 Egypt 363 - 363 Germany 71 - 71 Italy 61 - 61 Netherlands 219 - 219 Spain 415 - 415 Turkey 362 - 362 United Kingdom 282 - 282 Kentucky 1,404 - 1,404 Canada 433 - 433 Italy 227 - 227 Netherlands 468 - 468 United Kingdom 276 - 276 Pennsylvania 391 10,295 10,867 Belgium - 251 251 Brazil 187 - 189 Canada 50 8,548 8,766 France - 307 307 Germany 153 195 348 Ireland - 383 383 Jamaica - 87 87 Morocco - 134 134 Netherlands - 269 269 Norway - - 5 Peru - - 6 Portugal - 121 121 Utah - 917 917 Japan - 917 917 Virginia 2,787 - 2,787 Belgium 288 - 288 Brazil 792 - 792 Bulgaria 70 - 70 Canada 138 - 138

413

Split and collectorless flotation to medium coking coal fines for multi-product zero waste concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The medium coking coal fines of ? 0.5 mm from Jharia coal field were taken for this investigation. The release analysis of the composite coal reveals that yield is very low at 10.0% ash, about 25% at 14% ash and 50% at 17% ash level. The low yield is caused by the presence of high ash finer fraction. The size-wise ash analysis of ? 0.5 mm coal indicated that ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm fraction contains less ash than ? 0.15 mm fraction. Thus, the composite feed was split into ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm and ? 0.15 mm fractions and subjected to flotation separately. The low ash bearing fraction (? 0.5 + 0.15 mm) was subjected to two stages collectorless flotation to achieve the concentrate with 10% ash. The cleaner concentrate (18.9%) with 10% ash was recovered which has an application in metallurgical industries. The concentrate of 30.2% yield with 12.5% ash could be achieved in one stage collectorless flotation which is suitable for use in coke making as sweetener. As the ? 0.15 mm fraction contains relatively high ash, collector aided flotation using sodium silicate was performed to get a concentrate of 23.6% yield with about 17% ash. The blending of this product with cleaner tail obtained from ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm produces about 35.0% yield with 17% ash and that can be utilized for coke making. The reject from the two fractions can be used for conventional thermal power plant or cement industries using a 23.5% ash after one stage collector aided flotation and the final tailings produced content ash of 61.6% can be used for fluidization combustion bed (FBC). This eventually leads to complete utilization of coal.

Shobhana Dey; K.K. Bhattacharyya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

A Study on Coal Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Blended Coals in Northwestern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the tight supply situation and rising price of coals, the actual coals used in coal-fired power plants of China are usually significantly different from the design coal, which may seriously deteriorate the safety and economy of power plants. ... Accurate prediction of coal characteristics of blended coals from those of individual coals is quite significant to ensure the reliable and economic operation of a blended-coal-fired power plant. ...

Chang’an Wang; Yinhe Liu; Xiaoming Zhang; Defu Che

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

417

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Coal cleaning program for Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

In 1992 the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started sponsoring general projects in the Energy and Environmental Sector to improve health and well-being, to improve the efficiency of the existing fuel and energy base, and to assist in the establishment of a strong private sector. Coal Cleaning Program, covered in this report, is one of the recently completed projects by Burns and Roe, which is a prime USAID contractor in the field of energy and environment for the NIS. The basis for coal cleaning program is that large coal resources exist in northeast Kazakstan and coal represents the major fuel for heat and electricity generation at present and in the foreseeable future. The coal mined at Karaganda and Ekibastuz, the two main coal mining areas of Kazakstan, currently contains up to 55% ash, whereas most boilers in Kazakstan are designed to fire a coal with an ash content no greater than 36%. The objective of the task was to determine optimum, state-of-the-art coal cleaning and mining processes which are applicable to coals in Kazakstan considering ultimate coal quality of 36% ash, environmental quality, safety and favorable economics.

Popovic, N. [Burns and Roe Enterprises, Oradell. NJ (United States); Daley, D.P. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jacobsen, P.S. [Jacobsen (P. Stanley), Littleton, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Mid-South Metallurgical Makes Electrical and Natural Gas System Upgrades to Reduce Energy Use and Achieve Cost Savings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This case study describes how Mid-South Metallurgical implemented several recommendations resulting from a plant-wide energy assessment from DOE's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at Tennessee Technological University. This included installing new furnace insulation, implementing an electrical demand system, installing energy efficient equipment on its natural gas furnace burner tubes, and upgrading its lighting. Through these upgrades, the commercial heat treating business cut its overall energy use by 22%, reduced its peak demand by 21%, and decreased its total energy costs by 18%.

420

Coarse-coal hydrotransport studies using the separate effects test stand: FY 1980-1981  

SciTech Connect

The Separate Effects Test Stand (SETS) was built to evaluate the rotating pipe-wheel stand concept for hydrotransport testing and to obtain hydrotransport data in support of the US Department of Energy's Hydraulic Transport Research Facility (HTRF). The SETS program involved three phases of testing. The first phase was to evaluate the wheel test stand as an adequate mechanism for testing the hydrotransport of coarse-particle coal through pipe. The second phase was to obtain preliminary data on coal head loss (flow pressure drop) during hydrotransport. The third phase was to determine the effects of coal hydrotransport on water quality. Other data obtained during the program included pipe wear and the size degradation of coal particles. The SETS was tested with water only and the resultant head loss data were compared with head loss values recorded for water flow in staight pipe. These tests were run to determine how well the SETS modeled straight pipe flow.

Powers, T.B.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Correlation method for chemical communication of coal  

SciTech Connect

In spite of many experimental studies of the chemical comminution of coal, there have been only a few reported attempts to correlate experimental data and mathematically model the process. This paper presents a strain energy model based on the thermodynamic analysis. The capillary-imbibition number is proposed as an important parameter for characterization of chemicals used in comminution. The authors discuss the development of a phenomenological model for chemical comminution to study the relative effects of the governing process. Sensitivity studies carried out with this model indicated that the mechanism of chemical transfer into bedding planes and comminution of coal is dominantly a capillary-imbibition-induced flow phenomenon and to a lesser extent a diffusion-controlled process. The authors also tested this hypothesis using experimental data. As reported, the maximum comminution rates for the middle Pennsylvania Cherokee C-bituminous coal with NaOH solutions were within the range of 6-8% caustic concentration. Hence, it is concluded that this contradicts the author's earlier work (1988), which reported that capillary-imbibition number (reciprocal of the surface-tension number) decreases with increasing caustic concentration. This conclusion is misleading because the authors simply present a set of data on capillary-imbibition number vs NaOH concentration, and it alone cannot determine the caustic concentration for the maximum comminution rate.

Civan, F.; Knapp, R.M. (School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (US))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

FE Clean Coal News  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585202-586-6503 en NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards http://energy.gov/fe/articles/netl-innovations-recognized-rd-100-awards NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards

424

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

425

NETL: Coal and Power Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems Technologies Coal and Power Systems Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Rotating Images Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Read More! Focus of NETL RD&D RD&D efforts in coal and power systems fall into three categories: Technologies that enable existing coal power plants to cost-effectively meet environmental requirements. NETL and its research partners are developing environmental control technologies for retrofitting existing power plants, with application to new plants as well. Key areas of research include cost-effective control of mercury, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fine particulate emissions; beneficial uses for coal utilization byproducts; and innovations to minimize the impact of

426

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

2009 University Coal Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 University Coal Research Program 2009 University Coal Research Program Description The University Coal Research (UCR) Program provides grants to U.S. colleges and universities to support fundamental research and to develop efficient and environmentally responsible fossil energy technologies. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the program is carried out by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

428

Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

current Coal Distribution Report current Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: November 7, 2012 | Next Release Date: November 2013 | full report Archive Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin Foreign distribution of U.S. coal by major coal-exporting States and destination Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation1 Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation1

429

NETL: Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal and/or coal-biomass mixtures. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal/biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on downstream components, catalyst and reactor optimization, and characterizing the range of products and product quality. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Coal-biomass fuel preparation Development of Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes for Co-Gasification Coal-biomass gasification modeling

430

Transport and Other Effects in Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper summarizes the kinetics of coal char gasification excepted surface reactions (mechanisms). The following subjects controlling coal char gasification are treated: Coal as the raw material ... of particle...

K. J. Hüttinger

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Practical Use of Coal Combustion Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of coal rapid pyrolysis char yield and char reactivity, together with a simple model of pulverized coal combustion, have been used to predict coal combustion efficiency in utility boile...

P. T. Roberts; C. Morley

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Technological value of coal used for coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technological value of coal used for coking is analyzed, with particular attention to clinkering coal, the coke group, and lean additives, as well as G and GZhO coal. A relation is established between the tec...

A. S. Stankevich; V. S. Stankevich

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of natural gas, along with the coal reserve base of 326s Fossil Fuel Reserve Base, 2007 Oil Natural Gas Coal 233ensured reserves”) of coal, oil and natural gas published in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

Ryan, M.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Preliminary Experimental Studies of Waste Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal mining is one of Australia’s most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects ... . To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to ...

S. Su; Y. G. Jin; X. X. Yu; R. Worrall

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Sustainable Coal Use | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sustainable Coal Use Sustainable Coal Use Coal is a vital energy resource, not only for the United States, but also for many developed and developing economies around the world....

440

Production of Oil from Coal in Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... British Commonwealth there are cheaper supplies of coal than in Great Britain, as well as reserves of brown coal and ... of brown coal and lignite. Dr. Parker stated that bombing attacks between May and September 1944 caused a reduction ...

1947-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although lignite composes 16% of China’s coal reserves bys coal reserves are estimated to be 16% lignite by volume.reserves are classified as bituminous coal by volume, versus 29% sub-bituminous and 16% lignite.

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Sequence optimization in longwall coal mining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BHP Billiton’s Illawarra Coal operates several longwall coal extraction systems in the Bulli and Wongawilli coal seams in the Southern Coalfields of the ... . This establishes a basis for comparing the economic m...

L. Rocchi; P. Carter; P. Stone

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Complete Gasification of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... plant designed by C. B. Tully, and operated at Bedford, for the complete gasification of coal. Altogether, since 1919, about two hundred such plants have been erected ...

J. S. G. THOMAS

1923-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

444

Appalachia: the land of coal  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian region of the United States is an area known worldwide for its long history as a source of coal. If any area of the Unted States is to gain from the projected growth of the coal industry, both domestic and international, it would surely be the coal mining areas of this region, including its biggest coal producing states - Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio. An important facet of the region's coal industry is not only the presence of the giant coal companies but also the small, independent operator. These men are owner-operators and every dollar spent for their operations must bring a return. There is no room for error. WORLD COAL editors have recently traveled to areas in Appalachia and visited mines that are run by these independent operators. One such area was Harlan County, Kentucky. Virtually all mining done in Harlan is underground. Shaft mines are uncommon; most operations have access to exposed seams in the hillsides. Most of the small operations in this region use room and pillar mining and productivity is quite good. It is imperative that the transportation infrastructure be improved so that the expected increased movement of coal out of the region be handled efficiently. Potential domestic consumers of coal from Appalachia are numerous. New England, New York, the mid-Atlantic states, and the South are all looking to this nearby region to help reduce their dependence on oil. Other countries also are looking to the area.

Schneiderman, S.J. (ed.)

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Coal Mine Safety Act (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act is the primary legislation pertaining to coal mine safety in Virginia. It contains information on safety rules, safety standards and required certifications for mine workers, prohibited...

446

Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

U. S. monthly coal production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States....

448

The US coal industry 1996  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago a friend and former classmate, Dr. Doug Dahl, put the coal industry into perspective. At that time he worked for Consol, whose parent company was DuPont. I will use his story, but update it with today`s statistics. As can be seen in Figure 1, total US coal production continues to show healthy growth. In 1995 we produced 1,032,000,000 tons, and 1,046,000,000 tons are projected for 1996. Unfortunately as seen in Figure 2, the average price per ton of coal sold is still dropping. The coal industry is experiencing the unusual situation of falling coal prices with increasing coal demand! In 1994 (1995 data not available) the average price for a ton of coal was only $19.41. Multiplying the two numbers, yields the total sales value for our entire industry, $20.1 billion in 1994. That`s roughly half the approximately $40 billion per year sales value for a single chemical company, DuPont, Dr. Dahl`s parent company. As Dr. Dahl pointed out, the coal industry just isn`t that big. As we can see in Figure 3, the yearly trends show that the total value of the US coal production is shrinking. The total value has fallen through the 90`s and follows the average price per ton trend. Even increases in production have generally not been enough to offset the falling prices.

Campbell, J.A.L. [Custom Coals International, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

The Coal Transportation Rate Database  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Transportation Rate Database (CTRDB) adds new data for 2000 and 2001. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Form 580 "interrogatories" are the primary source for...

450

Coal availability and coal recoverability studies: A reevaluation of the United States coal resources  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative program between the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Bureau of Mines (USBM), and geological agencies of the principal coal-bearing States has began to (1) identify and delineate current major land-use/environmental and technologic/geologic restrictions on the availability of coal resources; (2) estimate the amount of remaining coal resources that may be available for development under those constraints; (3) estimate the amount that can be economically extracted and marketed; and (4) identify possible social and economic disruptions that could occur within local and regional economies as coal resources are exhausted. Within major coal-producing regions, selected 7.5-minute quadrangles are chosen to represent variations in geology, topography, and land-use patterns so that results might be extrapolated throughout the entire region. After identifying State and Federal coal mining regulations, USGS and State scientists consult with local coal-industry engineers, geologists, and mine operators to ascertain local mining practices. Coal bed outcrop lines, current and past mined areas, and restrictions to mining are plotted at 1:24,000 scale and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are applied. Coal availability/recoverability studies have expanded into the central and northern Appalachian regions, Illinois basin, and Powder River basin. The first four basins, with 75% of current US coal production, should be completed by 1998. The total program is designed to cover 150 quadrangles from within the 11 major coal regions of the US. These 11 regions represent 97% of current US coal production. Planned project completion is 2001.

Carter, M.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Teeters, D.D. [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

Technological value of coal concentrates for coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Options are outlined for calculating the technological value of coal and coal concentrates in the context of contractual obligations and the quality of the coke produced.

E. N. Stepanov; G. V. Larin; A. E. Stepanova; I. V. Semiokhina

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s 2006 total primary energy consumption, compared to 24Coal Dependence of Primary Energy Consumption, 2007coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP Statistical

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

The recovery of purified coal from solution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A new process is being developed to produce graphite from prime coking coal. Coal is dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), on addition of sodium hydroxide. The… (more)

Botha, Mary Alliles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Thermal-Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a set of predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). We discuss the application of coupled thermal-hydrologic simulation capabilities required for predicting UCG cavity growth, as well as for predicting potential environmental consequences of UCG operations. Simulation of UCG cavity evolution involves coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes in the host coal and adjoining rockmass (cap and bedrock). To represent these processes, the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) code is being customized to address the influence of coal combustion on the heating of the host coal and adjoining rock mass, and the resulting thermal-hydrological response in the host coal/rock. As described in a companion paper (Morris et al. 2009), the ability to model the influence of mechanical processes (spallation and cavity collapse) on UCG cavity evolution is being developed at LLNL with the use of the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) code. A methodology is also being developed (Morris et al. 2009) to interface the results of the NUFT and LDEC codes to simulate the interaction of mechanical and thermal-hydrological behavior in the host coal/rock, which influences UCG cavity growth. Conditions in the UCG cavity and combustion zone are strongly influenced by water influx, which is controlled by permeability of the host coal/rock and the difference between hydrostatic and cavity pressure. In this paper, we focus on thermal-hydrological processes, examining the relationship between combustion-driven heat generation, convective and conductive heat flow, and water influx, and examine how the thermal and hydrologic properties of the host coal/rock influence those relationships. Specifically, we conducted a parameter sensitivity analysis of the influence of thermal and hydrological properties of the host coal, caprock, and bedrock on cavity temperature and steam production.

Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y; Morris, J P; Burton, E A

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

456

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The modifications to the SRT-RCFR facility described in the June report were completed. As a result of these changes, the furnace hot zone was increased in length from 7 cm to 15.5 cm. The injector region of the furnace, providing entrainment and sheath flows, was unchanged, while the flow path from the exit of the furnace to the sample collection section was shortened by approximately 10 cm. The modified facility was used to resume testing of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal at 10 atm. The first goal was to confirm that the facility now provides true secondary pyrolysis test conditions. That is, the tar product should be completely converted to soot even in the absence of oxygen in the gas stream. We have now performed four tests with pure argon carrier gas, and have consistently observed voluminous soot product with little or no evidence of tar. Thus, this objective was met. The clogging problems for Pittsburgh No. 8 coal under secondary pyrolysis test conditions may preclude achieving this data point. In that case, we will make measurements under oxidizing conditions, which are expected to eliminate the clogging, and to gradually reduce the oxygen content to the point where product yields can reliably be extrapolated to the zero oxygen case.

Chris Guenther

2002-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

457

An Integrated Approach to Coal Gasifier Testing, Modeling, and Process Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is performing multidisciplinary research to provide the experimental data and the engineering models needed to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. Our experimental program includes prediction of slag viscosity using empirical viscosity models encompassing US coals, characterization of selected slag-refractory interaction including transport of slag/refractory components at the slag-refractory interface, and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the operating temperature limits for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also being developed to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. Combining the slag flow, refractory degradation, and gasifier models will provide a powerful tool to predict the coal and oxidant feed rates and control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. A research scale gasifier has also been constructed at PNNL to provide syngas for coal conversion and carbon sequestration research, and also valuable datasets on operating conditions for validating the modeling results.

Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Matyas, Josef; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Korolev, Vladimir N.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Central Appalachia: Coal industry profile  

SciTech Connect

Central Appalachia, the most complex and diverse coal-producing region in the United States, is also the principal source of very low sulfur coal in the East. This report provides detailed profiles of companies and facilities responsible for about 90% of the area's production, conveying a unique view of the aggregate industry as well as its many parts.

McMahan, R.L.; Kendall, L.K. (Resource Data International, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Commercialization of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallurgical coal flows" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

2009 coal preparation buyer's guide  

SciTech Connect

The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

NONE

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Consensus Coal Production Forecast for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rate Forecasts 19 5. EIA Forecast: Regional Coal Production 22 6. Wood Mackenzie Forecast: W.V. Steam to data currently published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), coal production in the state in this report calls for state production to decline by 11.3 percent in 2009 to 140.2 million tons. During

Mohaghegh, Shahab

464

The end of cheap coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... World energy policy is gripped by a fallacy — the idea that coal is destined to stay cheap for decades to come. This assumption supports investment in ... destined to stay cheap for decades to come. This assumption supports investment in 'clean-coal' technology and trumps serious efforts to increase energy conservation and develop alternative energy sources. ...

Richard Heinberg, David Fridley

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

465

Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Optimization of multigravity separation for recovery of ultrafine coal  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced gravity separation appears to be one of the most promising methods for processing all types of < 200-{mu}m coal feeds and tailings. Systems based on this technology are reviewed, and the results of investigations based on C900 Multi-Gravity Separator tests conducted to assess the treatment of < 200-{mu}m, extremely difficult-to-wash coal settling pond tailings are presented. Multi-Gravity Separator processing tests of ultra-fine tailings with a high clay particle size content (22.6% < 10 {mu}m and 60.1 % < 40 {mu}m) and a 69.56% ash content show that this material can be effectively treated after desliming (< 10 {mu}m) of clay-size particles to produce a coal with a 20.6% ash at a separator combustible material recovery of 69.3 %. Desliming is shown to be critical in reducing coal ash content and combustible material recovery. Similar improvements are anticipated in the recovery and separation processes for other enhanced gravity separation systems from the desliming of feeds. Although not a conventional form of treating Multi-Gravity Separator data, the existence of well-defined polynomial relationships based on the product of drum shake amplitude and shake frequency relative to product coal recovery, product ash content and yields at varying wash water flows is demonstrated. Low-amplitude and intermediate-to high-frequency bed agitation are shown to produce optimum ash reduction results.

Menendez, M.; Gent, M.; Torano, J.; Diego, I. [University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

The Phase Inversion-based Coal-CO? Slurry (PHICCOS) feeding system : design, coupled multiscale analysis, and technoeconomic assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The continuous conveying of a solid feedstock like pulverized coal into a pressurized environment is a challenging task required in multiple industrial processes. Plants based on pressurized, entrained-flow gasifiers (EFG) ...

Botero, Cristina, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

coal supply | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal supply coal supply Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 15, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses gigawatts. The data is broken down into production, net imports, consumption by sector and price. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal coal supply disposition. prices EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Coal Supply, Disposition, and Prices- Reference Case (xls, 91.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

469

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

December 2013 December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2012 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. iii U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2012 Overview of Annual Coal Distribution Tables, 2012 Introduction The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state,

470

Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Patterns of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Appalachian former coal miners  

SciTech Connect

To aid in diagnostic chest film interpretation of coal workers' pneumoconiosis, a composite profile of common radiologic patterns was developed in 98 Appalachian former coal miners who were diagnosed as having coal miner's pneumoconiosis and who applied for black lung benefits. The mean age was 61 years, with a lifetime coal mine dust exposure of 18.7 years. Results showed that chest radiographs of coal workers' simple pneumoconiosis contained small irregular linear opacities more frequently (47%) than small rounded opacities. Sparse profusion of all small opacities was the rule. Small opacities involved two out of six lung zones simultaneously 39% of the time while other combinations occurred less frequently. Lower zones were involved more frequently than upper ones. Thickened pleura occurred in 18% of radiographs. Other frequent radiographic abnormalities were parenchymal calcifications (19%), marked emphysema (12%), and inactive tuberculosis (12%). Calcification of the aortic knob, a degenerative process reflecting age, occurred in 9%. Only one instance of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (progressive massive fibrosis) was encountered (0.7%). Many of the descriptive features of coal workers' pneumoconiosis noted in the literature were not observed in this study. Only one instance of complicated pneumoconiosis was encountered.43 references.

Young, R.C. Jr.; Rachal, R.E.; Carr, P.G.; Press, H.C. (College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143 Arkansas 13 - 13 Colorado 32,427 894 33,321 Illinois 33,997 285 34,283 Indiana 36,714 - 36,714 Kansas 176 - 176 Kentucky Total 131,546 2,821 134,367 East 107,000 2,707 109,706 West 24,547 114 24,660 Louisiana 3,746 - 3,746 Maryland 4,671 319 4,990 Mississippi 475 - 475 Missouri 366 - 366 Montana 38,459 485 38,944 New Mexico 28,949 - 28,949 North Dakota 30,449 - 30,449 Ohio 25,463 12 25,475 Oklahoma 1,710 - 1,710 Pennsylvania Total 64,392 6,005 70,397 Anthracite 2,852 205 3,057 Bituminous 61,540 5,800 67,340 Tennessee 3,346 28 3,374 Texas 45,019 31 45,050 Utah 24,761 2,144 26,905 Virginia 25,685 7,071 32,756 Washington 4,623 - 4,623 West Virginia Total 144,584

474

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by Method of Transportation Electricity Generation Coke Plants Industrial Plants (Except Coke) Residential and Commercial Total Alabama 7,212 375 6,032 3 13,622 Railroad 2,613 170 4,607 - 7,390 River 3,867 - - - 3,867 Truck 732 205 1,424 3 2,365 Illinois 1,458 - - * 1,458 Railroad 167 - - - 167 River 1,291 - - - 1,291 Truck - - - * * Kentucky Total 2,277 - 262 - 2,539 Railroad 1,928 - 165 - 2,093 River 349 - 83 - 432 Truck - - 14 - 14 Eastern 843 - 262 - 1,105 Railroad 843 - 165 - 1,008 River - - 83 - 83 Truck - - 14 - 14 Western 1,435 - - - 1,435 Railroad 1,086 - - - 1,086 River 349 - - - 349 Pennsylvania Total 242 - 62 - 304 Great Lakes - - 60 - 60 Railroad - - * - * River 242 - -

475

Superfund explanation of significant difference for the Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex, Smelterville, Shoshone County, ID, April 18, 1998  

SciTech Connect

During the remedial design phase of cleanup, both EPA and DEQ identified revisions appropriate for the remedy identified in the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Record of Decision (ROD). These revisions are necessary for several reasons. They will ensure that the remedy is cost-effective, maximizes the benefit to the environment, and is responsive to community concerns.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

477

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Coal-bed methane production in eastern Kansas: Its potential and restraints  

SciTech Connect

In 1921 and again in 1988, workers demonstrated that the high volatile A and B coals of the Pennsylvanian Cherokee Group can be produced economically from vertically drilled holes, and that some of these coals have a gas content as high as 200 ft{sup 3}/ton. Detailed subsurface mapping on a county-by-county basis using geophysical logs shows the Weir coal seam to be the thickest (up to 6 ft thick) and to exist in numerous amoeba-shaped pockets covering several thousand acres. Lateral pinch-out into deltaic sands offers a conventional gas source. New attention to geophysical logging shows most coals have a negative SP response, high resistivities, and densities of 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. Highly permeable coals cause lost circulation during drilling and thief zones during cementing, and they are the source of abundant unwanted salt water. Low-permeability coals can be recognized by their high fracture gradients, which are difficult to explain but are documented to exceed 2.2. Current successful completions use both limited-entry, small-volume nitrogen stimulations or an open hole below production casing. Subsurface coals are at normal Mid-Continent pressures and may be free of water. Initially, some wells flow naturally without pumping. Saltwater disposal is often helped by the need for water in nearby waterflood projects and the easy availability of state-approved saltwater disposal wells in Mississippi and Arbuckle carbonates. Recent attempts to recomplete coal zones in slim-hole completions are having mixed results. The major restraints to coal-bed methane production are restricted to low permeability of the coals and engineering problems, not to the availability or gas content of the coals.